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Sample records for class i-mismatched donor

  1. HLAMatchmaker-based strategy to identify acceptable HLA class I mismatches for highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Rene J; Witvliet, Marian; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; de Fijter, Hans; Claas, Frans H J

    2004-01-01

    HLAMatchmaker determines HLA compatibility at the level of polymorphic amino acid triplets in antibody-accessible sequence positions. Recent studies have shown that among HLA-DR-matched kidney transplants, the HLA-A,B antigen mismatches which are compatible at the triplet level have almost identical graft survival rates as the zero-HLA-A,B antigen mismatches. This finding provides the basis of a new strategy to identify HLA-mismatched organs that have similar success rates as the zero-HLA-antigen mismatches. This report describes how in conjunction with the Acceptable Mismatch program in Eurotransplant, HLAMatchmaker can expand the pool of potential donors for highly sensitized patients, for whom it is very difficult to find a compatible transplant. Sera from 35 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates with an average PRA of 96% were screened by lymphocytotoxicity with HLA-typed panels that included cells that were selectively mismatched for one or two HLA antigens for each patient. Acceptable and unacceptable HLA-A,B antigen mismatches were determined from the serum reactivity with the cell panel. HLAMatchmaker analysis was applied to identify additional HLA class I antigens that were matched at the triplet level. For each patient, we calculated the probability of finding a donor (PFD) in the different match categories from HLA gene frequencies in the kidney donor population. The median PFD for a zero-antigen mismatch was 0.025%. Matching at the triplet level increased the median PFD to 0.037% ( P = 0.008). The median PFD was 0.058% for a 0-1-triplet mismatch and 0.226% for a 0-2-triplet mismatch. Serum screening identified acceptable antigen mismatches for 28 of 35 highly sensitized patients, and the median PFD increased to 0.307% for a zero/acceptable antigen mismatch. The application of HLAMatchmaker permitted for 33 patients (or 92%) the identification of additional antigens that were acceptable at the triplet level, and the median PFD for a zero

  2. A new class of NO-donor H3-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Marini, Elisabetta; Rolando, Barbara; Sorba, Giovanni; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of compounds obtained by joining, through appropriate spacers, NO-donor furoxan and nitrooxy moieties to the imidazole ring, as well as their structurally related analogues devoid of NO-donating properties are described. All the products were studied for their capacity to interact with H3-receptors present on the guinea-pig ileum and with H2-receptors present on guinea-pig right atrium. The whole series of products displayed reversible H3-antagonistic activity. No activity on H2-receptors was observed when the products were tested at 10 microM concentration. Many of the products were also able to induce partial relaxation when added to the bath after electrical contraction of the guinea-pig ileum during the study of their H3-antagonism. This phenomenon seems to be dependent on various factors; for some compounds it proved to be dependent on NO-mediated sGC activation, for other products it could be due to their weak M3-antagonism. The investigation of the lipophilic-hydrophilic balance of all the products indicates, for many of them, an ideal value to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  3. HLA class I donor-specific triplet antibodies detected after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Varnavidou-Nicolaidou, A; Doxiadis, I I N; Iniotaki-Theodoraki, A; Patargias, T; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C; Kyriakides, G K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IgG, non-donor-specific anti-HLA class I antibodies (HLAabI) detected after renal transplantation recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets expressed on the foreign graft. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effect of these antibodies as well as other posttransplant HLAabI on graft outcome. Posttransplant sera from 264 renal recipients were tested for the presence of IgG HLAabI and HLA class II-specific alloantibodies (HLAabII) by ELISA. The HLAMatchmaker computer algorithm was used to define the HLA class I non-donor-specific antibodies, which seem to recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets. Donor-specific triplet antibodies (DSTRab) were detected in 16 of 22 (72.7%) recipients based on at least one HLA-A or -B mismatched antigen with the donor. DSTRab were found either without (n = 7) or with (n = 9) HLA donor-specific antibodies (HLA-DSA). The presence of DSTRab alone in the periphery was associated with acute rejection, whereas the presence of both DSTRab and HLA-DSA was associated with chronic rejection and graft failure.

  4. Development of a new class of potential antiatherosclerosis agents: NO-donor antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Cena, Clara; Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Chegaev, Kostantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Di Stilo, Antonella; Aragno, Manuela; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2004-12-20

    A new class of NO-donor phenol derivatives is described. The products were obtained by joining appropriate phenols with either nitrooxy or 3-phenylsulfonylfuroxan-4-yloxy moieties. All the compounds proved to inhibit the ferrous salt/ascorbate induced lipidic peroxidation of membrane lipids of rat hepatocytes. They were also capable of dilating rat aorta strips precontracted with phenylephrine.

  5. NO-donor phenols: a new class of products endowed with antioxidant and vasodilator properties.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Giorgis, Marta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2006-05-18

    The synthesis and study of the antioxidant and vasodilator properties of a new class of phenols able to release nitric oxide are described. The products were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and selected nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donors as reference models. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid products were assessed by detecting the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) produced in the ferrous salt/ascorbate-induced autoxidation of lipids present in microsomial membranes of rat hepatocytes. The vasodilator activity was assessed on rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine. Some of the products (13, 35, 37, 60-62, 64) behave principally as vasodilators and others as antioxidants (24, 32, 72), and the two properties are relatively balanced in 19, 41, and 68. Further in vivo studies should clarify whether some of these products may become preclinical candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease underpinned by atheroma.

  6. HLA class I sensitization in islet transplant recipients: report from the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Naziruddin, Bashoo; Wease, Steve; Stablein, Donald; Barton, Franca B; Berney, Thierry; Rickels, Michael R; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients severely affected with type 1 diabetes. This report from CITR presents pre- and posttransplant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I sensitization rates in islet-alone transplantation. Data came from 303 recipients transplanted with islet-alone between January 1999 and December 2008. HLA class I sensitization was determined by the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) from prior to islet infusion and at 6 months, and yearly posttransplant was correlated to measures of islet graft failure. The cumulative number of mismatched HLA alleles increased with each additional islet infusion from a median of 3 for one infusion to 9 for three infusions. Pretransplant PRA was not predictive of islet graft failure. However, development of PRA >20% posttransplant was associated with 3.6-fold (p < 0.001) increased hazard ratio for graft failure. Patients with complete graft loss who had discontinued immunosuppression had significantly higher rate of PRA ≥ 20% compared to those with functioning grafts who remained on immunosuppression. Exposure to repeat HLA class I mismatch at second or third islet infusions resulted in less frequent development of de novo HLA class I antibodies when compared to increased class I mismatch. The development of HLA class I antibodies while on immunosuppression is associated with subsequent islet graft failure. The risk of sensitization may be reduced by minimizing the number of islet donors used per recipient, and in the absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies, repeating HLA class I mismatches with subsequent islet infusions.

  7. HLA Class I Sensitization in Islet Transplant Recipients – Report from the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry

    PubMed Central

    Naziruddin, Bashoo; Wease, Steve; Stablein, Donald; Barton, Franca B.; Berney, Thierry; Rickels, Michael R.; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients severely affected with type 1 diabetes. This report from CITR presents pre- and post-transplant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I sensitization rates in islet alone transplantation. Data came from 303 recipients transplanted with islet alone between January 1999 and December 2008. HLA class I sensitization was determined by the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) from prior to islet infusion and at 6 months, and yearly post-transplant was correlated to measures of islet graft failure. The cumulative number of mismatched HLA alleles increased with each additional islet infusion from a median of 3 for one infusion to 9 for three infusions. Pre-transplant PRA was not predictive of islet graft failure. However, development of PRA ≥20% post-transplant was associated with 3.6 fold (p=.001) increased hazard ratio for graft failure. Patients with complete graft loss who had discontinued immunosuppression had significantly higher rate of PRA ≥ 20% compared to those with functioning grafts who remained on immunosuppression. Exposure to repeat HLA class I mismatch at second or third islet infusions resulted in less frequent development of de novo HLA class I antibodies when compared to increased class I mismatch. The development of HLA class I antibodies while on immunosuppression is associated with subsequent islet graft failure. The risk of sensitization may be reduced by minimizing the number of islet donors used per recipient, and in the absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies, repeating HLA class I mismatches with subsequent islet infusions. PMID:22080832

  8. Identification of 2127 new HLA class I alleles in potential stem cell donors from Germany, the United States and Poland.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Giani, A S; Cereb, N; Sauter, J; Silva-González, R; Pingel, J; Schmidt, A H; Ehninger, G; Yang, S Y

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2127 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles found in registered stem cell donors. These alleles represent 28.9% of the currently known class I alleles. Comparing new allele sequences to homologous sequences, we found 68.1% nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, 28.9% silent mutations and 3.0% nonsense mutations. Many substitutions occurred at positions that have not been known to be polymorphic before. A large number of HLA alleles and nucleotide variations underline the extreme diversity of the HLA system. Strikingly, 156 new alleles were found not only multiple times, but also in carriers of various parentage, suggesting that some new alleles are not necessarily rare. Moreover, new alleles were found especially often in minority donors. This emphasizes the benefits of specifically recruiting such groups of individuals.

  9. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs.

  10. MHC Class I Expression by Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cells Is Required to Prevent NK Cell Attack in Allogeneic, but Not Syngeneic Recipient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Yuichi; Li, Hao-Wei; Takahashi, Kazuko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Sykes, Megan; Fujisaki, Joji

    2015-01-01

    NK cells resist engraftment of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells lacking major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules, suggesting a critical role for donor MHC class I molecules in preventing NK cell attack against donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and their derivatives. However, using high-resolution in vivo imaging, we demonstrated here that syngeneic MHC class I knockout (KO) donor HSPCs persist with the same survival frequencies as wild-type donor HSPCs. In contrast, syngeneic MHC class I KO differentiated hematopoietic cells and allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs were rejected in a manner that was significantly inhibited by NK cell depletion. In vivo time-lapse imaging demonstrated that mice receiving allogeneic MHC class I KO HSPCs showed a significant increase in NK cell motility and proliferation as well as frequencies of NK cell contact with and killing of HSPCs as compared to mice receiving wild-type HSPCs. The data indicate that donor MHC class I molecules are required to prevent NK cell-mediated rejection of syngeneic differentiated cells and allogeneic HSPCs, but not of syngeneic HSPCs. PMID:26544200

  11. Defective MHC class II expression in an MHC class II deficiency patient is caused by a novel deletion of a splice donor site in the MHC class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Peijnenburg, A; Van den Berg, R; Van Eggermond, M J; Sanal, O; Vossen, J M; Lennon, A M; Alcaïde-Loridan, C; Van den Elsen, P J

    2000-01-01

    MHC class II deficiency patients are mutated for transcription factors that regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. Four complementation groups (A-D) are defined and the gene defective in group A has been shown to encode the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). Here, we report the molecular characterization of a new MHC class II deficiency patient, ATU. Cell fusion experiments indicated that ATU belongs to complementation group A. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed that the CIITA mRNA lacked 84 nucleotides. This deletion was the result of the absence of a splice donor site in the CIITA gene of ATU. As a result of this novel homozygous genomic deletion, ATU CIITA failed to transactivate MHC class II genes. Furthermore, this truncated CIITA of ATU did not display a dominant negative effect on CIITA-mediated transactivation of various isotypic MHC class II promoters.

  12. Three hundred and seventy-two novel HLA class II alleles identified in potential hematopoietic stem cell donors from Germany, the United States, and Poland.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Cereb, N; Giani, A S; Ruppel, J; Maraszek, A; Pingel, J; Sauter, J; Schmidt, A H; Yang, S Y

    2014-11-01

    We have characterized 372 novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles identified in newly registered stem cell donors, this includes 281 HLA-DRB1 alleles, 89 HLA-DQB1 alleles and 2 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Most novel alleles were single nucleotide variants when compared to their respective most homologous alleles. In 66.4% of all novel alleles non-synonymous nucleotide variations were identified, in 30.4% synonymous substitutions and in 3.2% nonsense mutations. Ninty-three (25.0%) novel alleles were found in several individuals; most often these were novel HLA-DRB1 alleles. Lastly, we underline the importance of recruiting ethnic minority donors in countries such as Germany and the United States, as novel alleles were frequently found among these groups.

  13. Antibodies to HLA-E may account for the non-donor-specific anti-HLA class-Ia antibodies in renal and liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mepur H; Pham, Tho; Ozawa, Miyuki; Terasaki, Paul I

    2012-01-01

    The non-donor-specific anti-HLA-Ia antibodies correlate significantly with lower graft survival in organ transplant patients. Based on our earlier findings that anti-HLA-E murine monoclonal antibodies (MEM-E/02 and 3D12) reacted with different HLA-Ia alleles and the peptides shared by HLA-E and HLA class, Ia alleles inhibited the HLA-Ia reactivity of the anti-HLA-E antibodies in normal non-alloimmunized males, the possibility of that anti-HLA-E IgG may account for the non-donor-specific anti-HLA-Ia antibodies in the allograft recipients was examined by multiplex-Luminex®-immunoassay. About 73% of renal and 53% of liver transplant patients' sera with high level of anti-HLA-E IgG showed reactivity to different non-donor HLA-Ia alleles. About 50% renal and 52% liver allograft recipients' sera with low level of anti-HLA-E IgG had no reactivity to any HLA-Ia alleles; however, the IgG isolated from the same sera with protein-G columns showed the presence of anti-HLA-E IgG with HLA-Ia reactivity. Furthermore, both recombinant HLA-E and the IgG-free serum containing soluble HLA-E (sHLA-E) inhibited HLA-Ia reactivity of anti-HLA-E murine monoclonal IgG significantly. The data suggest that the HLA-Ia reactivity of the anti-HLA-E antibody accounts for the non-donor-specific anti-HLA-Ia antibodies. It is proposed that the sHLA-E heavy chain, shed in circulation after organ transplantation, may expose cryptic epitopes of HLA-E to elicit anti-HLA-E IgG antibodies, which may cross react with HLA-Ia alleles due to the peptide sequences shared between them. This study provides a new explanation for the presence of non-donor-specific antibodies for non-existing HLA-Ia alleles, frequently observed and correlated with survival in organ transplant recipients.

  14. HLA class I (A, B) and II (DR, DQ) gene and haplotype frequencies in blood donors from Wales.

    PubMed

    Darke, C; Guttridge, M G; Thompson, J; McNamara, S; Street, J; Thomas, M

    1998-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HLA-A, B, DR and DQ phenotype, gene and haplotype frequencies (HF) in the normal population are of importance in, for example, disease susceptibility studies, platelet transfusion support and transplantation. HLA population genetics studies have been performed on numerous groups, however, no major studies have been carried out on the population of Wales. As part of the validation process for our routine HLA-A and B typing by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) we examined 1,798 normal, unrelated Caucasoid blood donors living in Wales and recruited onto the Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry (WBMDR). Typing was performed by serology (HLA-A, B) and PCR-SSP at low resolution (HLA-A, B, DR, DQ) resulting in a particularly rigorous level of HLA specificity assignment. Four discrepancies were found between the HLA-A and B serological and PCR-SSP specificity assignments: (1) two instances of HLA-A2 by serology were undetected by PCR-SSP and were a new HLA-A2 allele - A*0224; (2) one example of HLA-B*15 by PCR-SSP failed to react by serology, and remained undetectable by serology in subsequent samples, and (3) one example of HLA-B45 by serology was identified as HLA-B*5002 by PCR-SSP. Hardy-Weinberg and homozygosity analysis showed that the goodness-of-fit was excellent (p > 0.05), for both phenotype distribution and the number of homozygotes identified, for all four loci. The phenotype and gene frequencies for the 18 HLA-A, 34 -B, 15 -DR and 8 -DQ specificities identified and two- and three-locus HF, linkage disequilibrium and related values for HLA-A/B, B/DR, DR/DQ and HLA-A/B/DR and B/DR/DQ were essentially typical of a northern European population. HLA-A2, B44, DR4 and DQ2 were the highest frequency phenotypes and HLA-A2403, A34, A74, B42, B75, B2708, B48, B67 and B703 occurred once only. There were no examples of: A36, A43, A69, A80, B46, B54, B59, B73, B76, B77, B7801, B8101 or DR18 specificities. DR17, DQ2 and A1, B8, DR17 were the

  15. National Marrow Donor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    Recipient Pair HLA typing project to characterize class I and class II alleles of donor/recipient paired samples from NMDP’s Repository was initiated...24 • Initiated investigation of the first class II non-ARS mismatch (DRB1*140101/1454) where both alleles have been seen in the same genotype... MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex B-LCLs B-Lymphocytic Cell Lines MICA MHC Class I-Like Molecule, Chain A BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and

  16. Flt3L-mobilized dendritic cells bearing H2-Kbm1 apoptotic cells do not induce cross-tolerance to CD8+ T cells across a class I MHC mismatched barrier.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Cote-Sierra, Javier; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    Tolerization of allogeneic CD8(+) T cells is still a pending issue in the field of transplantation research to achieve long-term survival. To test whether dendritic cells (DC) bearing allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I mismatched apoptotic cells could induce cross-tolerance to alloreactive CD8(+) T cells, the following experimental strategy was devised. Rag2/γ(c) KO B6 mice were treated with Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-transduced B16 melanoma cells to drive a rapid expansion and mobilization of DC in vivo. Of all DC populations expanded, splenic CD11c(+) CD103(+) CD8α(+) DC were selectively involved in the process of antigen clearance of X-ray irradiated apoptotic thymocytes in vivo. Considering that CD11c(+) CD103(+) CD8α(+) DC selectively take up apoptotic cells and that they are highly specialized in cross-presenting antigen to CD8(+) T cells, we investigated whether B6 mice adoptively transferred with Flt3L-derived DC loaded with donor-derived apoptotic thymocytes could induce tolerance to bm1 skin allografts. Our findings on host anti-donor alloresponse, as revealed by skin allograft survival and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays, indicated that the administration of syngeneic DC presenting K(bm1) donor-derived allopeptides through the indirect pathway of antigen presentation was not sufficient to induce cross-tolerance to alloreactive CD8(+) T cells responding to bm1 alloantigens in a murine model of skin allograft transplantation across an MHC class I mismatched barrier.

  17. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  18. Recurrent disruption of the Imu splice donor site in t(14;18) positive lymphomas: a potential molecular basis for aberrant downstream class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Ruminy, Philippe; Jardin, Fabrice; Penther, Dominique; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Parmentier, Françoise; Buchonnet, Gérard; Bertrand, Philippe; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian

    2007-08-01

    t(14;18) positive lymphomas are mature germinal center B-cell neoplasms. In agreement with this cellular origin, most have somatically mutated immunoglobulin variable genes and the IGH@ locus has almost always been reorganized by class switch recombination (CSR). However, contrasting with normal B-cells, a majority of cases still express an IgM while the constant genes are normally rearranged only on the non-productive allele. Concurrently, aberrant intra-allelic junctions involving downstream switch regions, with a lack of engagement of the switch mu (Smu), often accumulate on the functional alleles, suggesting some recurrent CSR perturbation during the onset of the disease. To clarify these surprising observations, we addressed the accessibility of the Smu to the CSR machinery in a large series of patients by characterizing the mutations that are expected to accumulate at this place upon CSR activation. Our data indicate that the Smu is mutated in a large majority of cases, often on both alleles, indicating that these cells usually reach a differentiation stage where CSR is activated and where this region remains accessible. Interestingly, we also identified a significant cluster of mutations at the splicing donor site of the first exon of the Smu germline transcripts, on the functional allele. This location suggests a possible relation with CSR perturbations in lymphoma and the clustering points to a probable mechanism of selection. In conclusion, our data suggest that an acquired mutation at the splicing donor site of the Smu transcripts may participate in the selection of lymphoma cells and play a significant role during the onset of the disease.

  19. A new class of transition metal pincer ligand: tantalum complexes that feature a [CCC] X3-donor array derived from a terphenyl ligand.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Aaron; Parkin, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    A new class of [CCC] X(3)-donor pincer ligand for transition metals has been constructed via cyclometalation of a 2,6-di-p-tolylphenyl ([Ar(Tol(2))]) derivative. Specifically, addition of PMe(3) to [Ar(Tol(2))]TaMe(3)Cl induces elimination of methane and formation of the pincer complex, [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl (Tol' = C(6)H(3)Me), which may also be obtained by treatment of Ta(PMe(3))(2)Me(3)Cl(2) with [Ar(Tol(2))]Li. Solutions of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl undergo ligand redistribution with the formation of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Me(2)and [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2), which may also be synthesized by the reactions of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)MeCl with MeMgBr and ZnCl(2), respectively. Reduction of [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2) with KC(8) in benzene gives the benzene complex [κ(3)-Ar(Tol'(2))]Ta(PMe(3))(2)(η(6)-C(6)H(6)) that is better described as a 1,4-cyclohexadienediyl derivative. Deuterium labeling employing Ta(PMe(3))(2)(CD(3))(3)Cl(2) demonstrates that the pincer ligand is created by a pair of Ar-H/Ta-Me sigma-bond metathesis transformations, rather than by a mechanism that involves α-H abstraction by a tantalum methyl ligand.

  20. MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A (MICA) Donor-Recipient Mismatches and MICA-129 Polymorphism in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantations Has No Impact on Outcomes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome: A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Study.

    PubMed

    Askar, Medhat; Sobecks, Ronald; Wang, Tao; Haagenson, Mike; Majhail, Navneet; Madbouly, Abeer; Thomas, Dawn; Zhang, Aiwen; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Hsu, Katharine; Verneris, Michael; Lee, Stephanie J; Spellman, Stephen R; Fernández-Viña, Marcelo

    2017-03-01

    Single-center studies have previously reported associations of MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A (MICA) polymorphisms and donor-recipient MICA mismatching with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we investigated the association of MICA polymorphism (MICA-129, MM versus MV versus VV) and MICA mismatches after HCT with 10/10 HLA-matched (n = 552) or 9/10 (n = 161) unrelated donors. Included were adult patients with a first unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1999 and 2011. Our results showed that neither MICA mismatch nor MICA-129 polymorphism were associated with any transplantation outcome (P < .01), with the exception of a higher relapse in recipients of MICA-mismatched HLA 10/10 donors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; P = .003). There was a suggestion of association between MICA mismatches and a higher risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV (HR, 1.4; P = .013) There were no significant interactions between MICA mismatches and HLA matching (9/10 versus 10/10). In conclusion, the findings in this cohort did not confirm prior studies reporting that MICA polymorphism and MICA mismatches were associated with HCT outcomes.

  1. [3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidines containing furoxan moieties: a new class of H3-antagonists endowed with NO-donor properties.

    PubMed

    Bertinaria, Massimo; Stilo, Antonella Di; Tosco, Paolo; Sorba, Giovanni; Poli, Enzo; Pozzoli, Cristina; Coruzzi, Gabriella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2003-04-03

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of products obtained by coupling the H(3)-antagonist SKF 91486 through appropriate spacers with the NO-donor 3-phenylfuroxan-4-yloxy and 3-benzenesulfonylfuroxan-4-yloxy moieties, as well as with the corresponding furazan substructures, devoid of NO-donating properties, are reported. All the products were tested for their H(3)-antagonistic and H(2)-agonistic properties on electrically-stimulated guinea-pig ileum segments and guinea-pig papillary muscle, respectively. The whole series of compounds displayed good H(3)-antagonist behaviour and feeble partial H(2)-agonist activity. Among furoxan derivatives, the benzenesulfonyl hybrid 28, a good NO-donor, triggered a dual NO-dependent muscle relaxation and H(3)-antagonistic effect on guinea-pig intestine.

  2. Bone Marrow Transplantation Results in Human Donor Blood Cells Acquiring and Displaying Mouse Recipient Class I MHC and CD45 Antigens on Their Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Nobuko; Wong, Christine J.; Gertsenstein, Marina; Casper, Robert F.; Nagy, Andras; Rogers, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mouse models of human disease are invaluable for determining the differentiation ability and functional capacity of stem cells. The best example is bone marrow transplants for studies of hematopoietic stem cells. For organ studies, the interpretation of the data can be difficult as transdifferentiation, cell fusion or surface antigen transfer (trogocytosis) can be misinterpreted as differentiation. These events have not been investigated in hematopoietic stem cell transplant models. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we investigated fusion and trogocytosis involving blood cells during bone marrow transplantation using a xenograft model. We report that using a standard SCID repopulating assay almost 100% of the human donor cells appear as hybrid blood cells containing both mouse and human surface antigens. Conclusion/Significance Hybrid cells are not the result of cell-cell fusion events but appear to be due to efficient surface antigen transfer, a process referred to as trogocytosis. Antigen transfer appears to be non-random and includes all donor cells regardless of sub-type. We also demonstrate that irradiation preconditioning enhances the frequency of hybrid cells and that trogocytosis is evident in non-blood cells in chimera mice. PMID:20046883

  3. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  4. De novo Developed Antibodies to Donor Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens Leads to Dysregulation of microRNAs and induction of MHC Class II

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongping; Nayak, Deepak K.; Benshoff, Nicholas; Hachem, Ramsey; Gelman, Andrew E.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2015-01-01

    Immune responses to HLA and development of anti-donor HLA (DSA) have been shown to play a role in chronic rejection following transplantation. We hypothesized that Abs to MHC changes microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to chronic lung allograft rejection. Microarray analysis was performed in a murine model of anti-MHC induced obliterative airway disease (OAD), a correlate of obliterative bronchiolitis. A unique profile of dysregulated miRNAs was detected in OAD mice on day 7 and 15 after Ab administration compared to control. Sixty-seven miRNAs were increased and 42 miRNAs were decreased in OAD mice on day 7. In addition, 15 miRNAs were over expressed and 16 miRNAs were under expressed in OAD mice on day 15. The expression of miR-16 and miR-195 were significantly decreased in lungs of OAD mice by qPCR and in situ hybridization with increases of H-2 Aa and H-2 Dma mRNA levels. Significant reduction of miR-16 and miR-195 levels were also noted in lung transplant (LTx) patients with DSA compared to LTx without DSA. Bioinformatic TargetScan and Reporter Assays identified the binding of miR-16 and miR-195 to the 3’UTR of Regulatory Factor X 5. qPCR and immunohistochemistry indicated post-transcriptional increases of Regulatory Factor X 5 mRNA and protein expression not only in OAD mice and but also in LTxR with DSA which was associated with increased expression of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DRA mRNA. Therefore, our results demonstrated that miRNAs induced by alloimmunity may play important roles in chronic rejection after LTx. PMID:25941328

  5. JS-K, a glutathione/glutathione S-transferase-activated nitric oxide donor of the diazeniumdiolate class with potent antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Shami, Paul J; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wang, Lai Y; Bonifant, Challice L; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Singh, Shivendra V; Gu, Yijun; Fox, Stephen D; Buzard, Gregory S; Citro, Michael L; Waterhouse, David J; Davies, Keith M; Ji, Xinhua; Keefer, Larry K

    2003-04-01

    We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits growth and induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells, with the HL-60 human myeloid leukemia line being particularly sensitive to NO-mediated cytolysis. With the goal of identifying a prodrug that can target NO to the leukemia cells without inducing NO-mediated systemic hypotension, we have screened a series of O(2)-aryl diazeniumdiolates designed to be stable at physiological pH but to release NO upon reaction with glutathione. O(2)-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K) proved to be the most active antiproliferative agent among those tested in HL-60 cells, with an IC(50) of 0.2-0.5 microM. After 5 days of exposure to 0.5 micro M JS-K, HL-60 cells had differentiated and acquired some of the phenotypic features of normal monocytes. One- to 2-day treatment with JS-K at concentrations of 0.5-1 microM resulted in apoptosis induction in a concentration- and caspase-dependent manner. JS-K also inhibited the growth of solid tumor cell lines but to a lesser extent than HL-60 cells. JS-K was administered i.v. to nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient mice at doses of up to 4 micromol/kg without inducing significant hypotension. The growth of s.c. implanted HL-60 cells was reduced by approximately 50% when the mice received i.v. injections three times/week with 4 micromol/kg boluses of JS-K. Histological examination of tumor explants from JS-K-treated animals revealed extensive necrosis. Similar results were seen with s.c. human prostate cancer (PPC-1) xenografts. Our data indicate that JS-K is a promising lead compound for the possible development of a novel class of antineoplastic agents.

  6. Impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies against HLA class I on kidney graft outcomes: Comparative analysis of exclusively anti-Cw vs anti-A and/or -B antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sofia; Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Carmo, Rute; Sampaio, Susana; Costa, Marta; Campos, Andreia; Pedroso, Sofia; Almeida, Manuela; Martins, La Salete; Henriques, Castro; Cabrita, António

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the clinical impact of preformed antiHLA-Cw vs antiHLA-A and/or -B donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in kidney transplantation. METHODS Retrospective study, comparing 12 patients transplanted with DSA exclusively antiHLA-Cw with 23 patients with preformed DSA antiHLA-A and/or B. RESULTS One year after transplantation there were no differences in terms of acute rejection between the two groups (3 and 6 cases, respectively in the DSA-Cw and the DSA-A-B groups; P = 1). At one year, eGFR was not significantly different between groups (median 59 mL/min in DSA-Cw group, compared to median 51 mL/min in DSA-A-B group, P = 0.192). Moreover, kidney graft survival was similar between groups at 5-years (100% in DSA-Cw group vs 91% in DSA-A-B group, P = 0.528). The sole independent predictor of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) incidence was DSA strength (HR = 1.07 per 1000 increase in MFI, P = 0.034). AMR was associated with shortened graft survival at 5-years, with 75% and 100% grafts surviving in patients with or without AMR, respectively (Log-rank P = 0.005). CONCLUSION Our data indicate that DSA-Cw are associated with an identical risk of AMR and impact on graft function in comparison with “classical” class I DSA. PMID:28058219

  7. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  8. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen-Anne

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  9. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  10. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  11. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  12. [Motivations of oocytes donors].

    PubMed

    Cauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte donation is a complex situation that requires the applicant couple to deal with the presence of the donor in the history of the child conception. Accepting the eggs is not the same thing than accepting the donor. Her place in the child's life depends on how his parents will accept her phantasmal reality beyond her real person. Paying attention to the story told by the donors on their motivations may help parents internalize this conception to three. We show from two clinical observations, that the generosity of donors is connected to personal issues that do not relate to unborn child or its parents. If there are two mothers in oocyte donation, they are not really in competition because there are also two children: the child conceived through donation is that of the project of the couple, the child to which the donor thinks, is and will remain in phantasmal domain, i.e. linked to the personal history of the donor. We also show that the psychological interview fully responds to the donor expectations when it seeks to highlight her motives.

  13. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... instructions before and after surgery. • Have a compatible blood type. • Have an emotional tie with the recipient. • Not ... test is to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant ...

  15. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  16. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  17. Class Schedules Need Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  18. Complications of donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    A decreasing blood donor pool in the presence of increasing blood transfusion demands has resulted in the need to maximally utilize each blood donor. This has led to a trend in the increasing use of automated blood collections. While apheresis donation shares many reactions and injuries with whole blood donation, because of the differences, unique complications also exist. Overall, evidence in the literature suggests that the frequency of reactions to apheresis donation is less than that seen in whole blood donation, though the risk of reactions requiring hospitalization is substantially greater. The most common apheresis-specific reaction is hypocalcemia due to citrate anticoagulation, which, while usually mild, has the potential for severely injuring the donor. Other reactions to apheresis donation are uncommon (e.g., hypotension) or rare (e.g., air embolism). More worrisome, and in need of additional study, are the long-term effects of apheresis donation. Recent evidence suggests that repeated apheresis platelet donations may adversely effect thrombopoiesis as well as bone mineralization. Granulocyte donation has also been implicated in unexpected long-term consequences.

  19. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  20. [Psychosomatic selection of living liver donors].

    PubMed

    Erim, Y; Senf, W

    2001-01-01

    In the Essen University Clinic for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, between January and December 2000, 54 potential liver donors and 12 kidney donors were examined. All the kidney donors were found to be suitable; 7 potential liver donors were rejected on psychosomatic grounds. Reasons for the rejection were addiction (1 donor), suspected financial dependency of the donor on the recipient (1 donor) and, in the case of one donor not related to the recipient, the apparent lack of a special emotional attachment. During the actual evaluation interview, 4 potential donors reversed their original decision. Such a psychosomatic evaluation is a great help for donors in clarifying their motives and their decision.

  1. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  2. [Clinical evaluation of living donor].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Maria Piera; Comai, G; La Manna, G; Liviano D'Arcangelo, G; Monti, M; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S

    2009-01-01

    When possible, living donor transplantation represents the best therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Studying the donor allows a complete and thorough clinical, laboratory and instrumental assessment that guarantees good organ function whilst protecting the health of the donor. The main parameters considered within this framework are age, renal function, nephrological complications, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc.), malignancies, and infection. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the sociopsychological aspects of the donation, particularly related to the donor, the recipient, and the entire family situation.

  3. Donor cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arguelles, Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    Minimal residual disease refers to the tumour cells that are still present in a given patient after completion of a therapeutic scheme. The demonstration and quantification of residual neoplastic cells has a crucial impact in clinical decision making, for it might prompt continuation of treatment, while the absence of such cells might serve as evidence to withdraw therapy. Therefore, both sensitivity and specificity of the methods used to unravel residual neoplastic cells must be highly reliable and robust. Flow cytometry has been widely used for this purpose, and its clinical performance depends mainly on the criteria of interpretation, rather than in the technique by itself; molecular biology techniques have proved to be highly sensitive and specific but unfortunately they cannot be used in all patients or in all types of leukemia. Finally, the development of donor cell leukemia in transplanted patients, might mimic residual disease and add more confusion to an already controversial issue. These topics are discussed in this paper.

  4. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2015-05-01

    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early damage to the remaining kidney, we evaluated urine biomarkers after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We measured albumin and alpha-1-microglobulin (α-1-MGB) in urine samples collected during and after open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. Additionally, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured in urine samples collected during and after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and colectomy. The same biomarkers were studied in patients randomly assigned to standard or low IAP during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We observed a peak in urinary albumin excretion during all procedures. Urine α-1-MGB rose in the postoperative period with a peak on the third postoperative day after donor nephrectomy. Urine α-1-MGB did not increase after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. After laparoscopic nephrectomy, we observed slight increases in urine KIM-1 during surgery and in urine NGAL at day 2-3 after the procedure. After laparoscopic colectomy, both KIM-1 and NGAL were increased in the postoperative period. There were no differences between the high- and low-pressure procedure. Elevated urinary α-1-MGB suggests kidney damage after donor nephrectomy, occurring irrespective of IAP during the laparoscopic procedure.

  5. Reevaluating the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mike

    2010-04-01

    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but further, the ethical principles which themselves justify the dead donor rule are better served by abandoning that rule and instead allowing individuals who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage to become organ donors, even though they are not yet dead and even though the removal of their organs would be the proximal cause of death.

  6. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  7. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  8. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  9. How to motivate whole blood donors to become plasma donors.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Germain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  10. Searching for an unrelated haemopoietic stem cell donor--a United Kingdom perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, J; Cleaver, S; Little, A M; Madrigal, A

    1999-01-01

    The worldwide search for unrelated stem cell donors (now over 6 million) is one of the great success stories of international cooperation in the medical field. The initial search report from Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide estimates the chance of finding a suitably matched donor for a given patient. Registries whose donors are HLA-A, -B and -DR typed present the optimal prerequisite to identify a suitable donor for most patients. High-resolution matching HLA class I and class II alleles of the donor and recipient improves clinical outcome after unrelated donor transplantation. The clinical results of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation are continually improving reflecting improvements in HLA matching, GvHD prophylaxis and transplantation in a favourable phase of disease. However, matching each HLA allele may or may not be critical for successful stem cell transplantation. Some degree of HLA mismatch ("permissible" mismatches) may be tolerated, especially in children. Cord blood banks provide a supplementary source of unrelated stem cell donors, in particular to patients from ethnic minority groups.

  11. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  12. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  13. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  14. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  15. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  16. Screening of blood donors for IgA deficiency: a study of the donor population of south-west England.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P D; Tandy, N P; Anstee, D J

    1977-01-01

    Altogether 29 745 English blood donors were screened for IgA deficiency by double diffusion analysis; 57 had apparent absence of IgA, a frequency of 1:522. Further examination by the more sensitive haemagglutination inhibition assay revealed 34 samples having no detectable IgA, a frequency of 1:875. All donors negative by double diffusion analysis were tested for the presence of antibodies to IgA. Six class specific anti IgA antibodies and four anti IgA antibodies of limited specificity were detected. Three of these had the specificity anti alpha2 and one anti A2m(2). The 34 IgA deficient donors detected provide a source of IgA deficient blood for transfusion to patients with anti IgA antibodies. PMID:304071

  17. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2004-12-01

    The current availability of lung donors is far exceeded by the number of potential transplant recipients who are waiting for an organ. This disparity results in significant morbidity and mortality for those on the waiting list. Although it is desirable to increase overall consent rates for organ donation, doing so requires an intervention to affect societal response. In contrast, increased procurement of organs from marginal donors and improved donor management may be realized through increased study and practice changes within the transplant community. Transplantation of organs from marginal or extended-criteria donors may result in some increase in complications or mortality, but this possibility must be weighed against the morbidity and risk of death risk faced by individuals on the waiting list. The effects of this trade-off are currently being studied in kidney transplantation, and perhaps in the near future lung transplantation may benefit from a similar analysis. Until that time, the limited data regarding criteria for donor acceptability must be incorporated into practice to maximize the overall benefits of lung transplantation.

  18. Dengue antibodies in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. Obtective The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Methods Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgGTM). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Results Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. Conclusions The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed. PMID:23049418

  19. CD47 is required for suppression of allograft rejection by donor-specific transfusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Xiaojian; Wang, Yuantao; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2010-04-01

    CD47 is a ligand of the inhibitory receptor, signal regulatory protein (SIRP)alpha, and its interaction with SIRPalpha on macrophages prevents phagocytosis of autologous hematopoietic cells. CD47-SIRPalpha signaling also regulates dendritic cell (DC) endocytosis, activation, and maturation. In this study, we show that CD47 expression on donor cells plays an important role in suppression of allograft rejection by donor-specific transfusion (DST). DST was performed by i.v. injection of splenocytes from C57BL/6 donors into MHC class I-disparate bm1 mice 7 d prior to donor skin grafting. Administration of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 donor splenocytes markedly prolonged donor skin survival in bm1 mouse recipients. In contrast, bm1 mice receiving DST from CD47 knockout (KO) donors showed no inhibition or even acceleration of donor skin graft rejection compared with non-DST control (naive) bm1 mice. T cells from bm1 mice receiving CD47 KO, but not WT, DST exhibited strong anti-donor responses. The ability of DST to suppress alloresponses was positively correlated with the density of CD47 molecules on donor cells, as CD47(+/-) DST was able to prolonged donor skin survival, but to a significantly less extent than WT DST. Furthermore, DCs from CD47 KO, but not WT, DST recipients showed rapid activation and contributed to donor skin rejection. These results show for the first time that CD47 on donor cells is required to repress recipient DC activation and suppress allograft rejection after DST, and suggest CD47 as a potential target for facilitating the induction of transplant tolerance.

  20. CLASS for Class.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    1993-09-01

    Faculty and students from the School of Meteorology at the University of Oklahoma and staff members from the Atmospheric Technology Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) participated in a special course given during the last two weeks of May 1992. The purpose of the course was to give students the opportunity to use the NCAR mobile CLASS (Cross-Chain LORAN Atmospheric Sounding System) in the field and to interpret data they collected themselves in the context of material learned earlier in a lecture setting. Soundings were obtained in parts of Texas and Oklahoma in the environment of multicell storms, in supercells, in a gust front, and on the cold side of a cold front.

  1. The use of neoplastic donors to increase the donor pool.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, P; Pretagostini, R; Stabile, D; Peritore, D; Oliveti, A; Gabbrielli, F; Cenci, S; Ricci, A; Vespasiano, F; Grigioni, W F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the experience of the Centre-Sud Transplant Organization (OCST) area using cadaveric donor with neoplastic diseases to evaluate the possibility of transmission to recipients. From January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010, the neoplastic risk has been reported to be 5.4% (377/4654 referred donors). In 2003, the number of donors with a tumor and their mean age were respectively: 60 (10.3%) and 59.6 ± 19.9; 2004: 33 (5.2%) and 61.4 ± 15.9; 2005: 32 (6%) and 62.8 ± 15.5; 2006: 46 (7%) and 60.7 ± 19.1; 2007: 51 (7%) and 58.9 ± 16; in 2008: 58 (7%) and 59.7 ± 19.6; 2009: 47 (7%) and 57 ± 26; 2010: 49 (7%) and 64 ± 16. The organ most affected by tumor has been the central nervous system (18%). The tumor was diagnosed before in 325 (86%) cases, versus during organ retrieval in 48 (12.7%) donor operations but before, which four cases (1%) occured after transplantation. According to the histological types and grades, 28 evaluated donors (8.2%) were suitable for transplantation. The histological types were: thyroid carcinoma (n = 3); prostate carcinoma (n = 8), renal clear cell carcinoma (n = 7), oncocytoma (n = 1), meningiomas (n = 2), dermofibrosarcoma (n = 1); verrucous carcinoma of the vulva (n = 1), colon adenocarcinoma (n = 1), grade II astrocytoma (n = 1), adrenal gland tumor (n = 1), gastric GIST (n = 1), oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Forty-five organs were retrieved (22 livers, 19 kidneys, 3 hearts, and 1 pancreas) and transplanted into 44 recipients with 1 liver-kidney combined transplantation. Four recipients died due to causes not related to the tumor. No donor-transmitted tumor was detected among the recipients. Donation is absolutely not indicated in cases of tumors with high metastatic potential and high grades. Performing an accurate evaluation of the donor, taking into account the histological grade, currently can allow, organ retrieval and transplantation with an acceptable risk.

  2. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  3. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  4. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test…

  5. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    PubMed

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  6. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  7. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  8. Blood Donors on Medication – an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian D.K.; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Wichmann, Michael G.; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. Material and Methods To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. Results For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of tmax + 5 t1/2 were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of tmax + 24 t1/2 is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. Conclusion Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  9. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2012-11-01

    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  11. [Serum ferritin in donors with regular plateletpheresis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.

  12. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  13. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  14. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors.

    PubMed

    Dafalla, Ameer M; McCloskey, D J; Alemam, Almutaz A; Ibrahim, Amel A; Babikir, Adil M; Gasmelseed, Nagla; El Imam, Mohamed; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Magzoub, Mubarak M

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs) in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28), A30 (0.12), A3 (0.09), A24 (0.09), A1 (0.09), and A68 (0.06) were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092), B41 (0.081), B39 (0.078), B57 (0.060), B35 (0.068), B 50 (0.053) and B 52 (0.051) were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444) and DR15 (0.160) showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs) in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498), while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185) and (0.238), respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna) were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  15. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: recipient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamale, Tukaram E; Hase, Niwrutti K; Iqbal, Anwar M

    2012-11-01

    Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson's chi square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027) was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335) and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275) was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014). Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002). LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  16. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  17. [Clinical selection of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    For 20 years, the organization set up to insure the blood transfusion safety has never stopped strengthening. It is based on clinical and epidemiological selection of the blood donation candidates, biologic selection of blood donations and different physico-chemical techniques for pathogens reduction or inactivation in blood products. In France, this organization is optimized by the assertion of the voluntary and non-remunerated character of blood donation registered in the law of January 4th, 1993. The blood donors selection is structured in three successive stages. The first stage is the pre-donation information. The second stage begins with reading and filling out an info-questionnaire which prepare for an interview with a physician. This interview is specially directed to prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and the prevention of adverse reactions after a 400 to 600 mL collection of whole blood or components. Finally, the third stage is the delivery of a post-donation information which invites the donor to contact the "établissement français du sang" (EFS) in case of a new event arisen after the donation or in case of reviewing of its own answers during the medical interview.

  18. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  19. [Assessment and selection of kidney living donors].

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Pereira Palomo, Porfirio

    2010-01-01

    Donor protection should always be taken account during the selection and assessment of a living donor. On these terms, the evaluation of a potential donor must include these issues: 1) The donor act is altruistic, consciousness and out of coercion; 2) Life expectancy and quality of life of the recipient will improve after the living donor kidney transplantation; 3) The donor has normal renal function and the potential risk of developing nephropathy in the long term follow up is scarce (familiar nephropathies and other processes that may increase the potential risk for renal disease in the future, like severe hypertension, diabetes, etc must be ruled out). The glomerular filtrate should meet criteria for the normal function corresponding to age furthermore the absence of proteinuria and urine smear is normal; 4) The screening in the donor should contemplate those clinical situations or diseases non related to the kidney function but might elevate the surgical and/or anesthesia risk besides disease transmission to the recipient (as neoplasia or infections); 5) The surgical act is possible without technical difficulties and always performed after a negative result of the crossmatch between donor and recipient. The living donor evaluation process will follow a different schedule based on each particular case and the center facilities. Any case, the mentioned process is divided in two parts: The first one contains an initial screening (using non invasive and low cost tests) that allows discarding contraindications for donation (in both donor and recipient). In a second phase the assessment of the donor varies with donor characteristics. However, a test for renal function is mandatory besides imaging techniques (like angioTC), screening for transmissible diseases and a detailed evaluation for psychosocial aspects preferably made by professional. Moreover Spanish policy on living donation requires a report with information about the consent for donation developed by an

  20. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission.

  1. Novel guidelines for organ donor cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hassanain, Mazen

    2014-05-20

    Donor transmitted malignancy is a real disastrous risk when dealing with expanded criteria donors. As donor age is increasing, guidelines for cancer screening of the elderly brain dead organ donors must be evidence-based but systematic review of such is sparse. Based on a review of published literature and our 20 years' experience, we propose a new series of guidelines concerning screening for the four most common malignancies: breast colon, lung and prostate cancer. Prospective testing of the efficacy of such protocol will then follow.

  2. Nitrogen related shallow thermal donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, N.; Jones, R.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this letter, the authors investigate the electrical properties of nitrogen related shallow thermal donor (STD) candidates and their concentrations under different doping conditions by means of density functional theory. Experimentally, the existence of STDs containing one nitrogen atom and both even and odd numbers of oxygen atoms has been proposed. However, so far first principles studies have not presented a candidate for the latter. Here, they show that the NO defect possesses a shallow donor level. Adding one or two more oxygen atoms results in the donor level to become shallower. The fraction of shallow nitrogen related donors to N dimers increases in material with low concentration of nitrogen.

  3. Prevalence of HLA antibodies in remotely transfused or alloexposed volunteer blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Kakaiya, Ram M.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Wright, David J.; Steele, Whitney R.; Kleinman, Steven H.; Busch, Michael P.; Norris, Philip J.; Hillyer, Christopher D.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Rios, Jorge A.; Carey, Patricia; Glynn, Simone A.

    2010-01-01

    Background HLA antibody testing of previously transfused or pregnant donors may help reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). However, the prevalence of HLA antibodies in transfused donors has not been well characterized. Methods Transfusion and pregnancy history was obtained from consenting donors. HLA Class I & II antibody testing was performed by multi-antigen bead Luminex platform. Cut off values for class I & II antibodies used normalized background ratio of 10.8 and 6.9 respectively. Linear probability models were used to evaluate potential associations between HLA alloimmunization and donor characteristics. Results 7,920 donors (2,086 males and 5,834 females) were tested. HLA antibody prevalence did not significantly differ between 895 transfused (1.7%) and 1138 non-transfused males (1.0%), [odds ratio (OR) 1.75; 95% CI 0.80, 3.82]. Prevalence in 45 transfused nulliparous females (4.4%, 95% CI 0.1%, 11.8%) was not statistically different from the 1.6% prevalence in 1732 non-transfused nulliparous females (odds ratio 2.94, 95% CI 0.68, 12.74). Transfused parous females had higher prevalence than non-transfused counterparts (p=0.004), odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.07, 1.80). In a linear probability model, the estimated additive risk of transfusion-induced alloimmunization was only 0.8% (95% CI -0.2%, 1.8%), (p=0.10). Donor transfusion history showed that 58% of transfusions occurred >10 years previously. Conclusion Transfused volunteer blood donors do not appear to have a significantly higher prevalence of HLA antibodies than their non-transfused counterparts. Thus, in an effort to reduce TRALI risk, ascertaining past history of transfusion and testing these donors for HLA antibodies is not necessary. PMID:20070615

  4. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Materials and methods Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. Results The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Discussion Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments. PMID:26674814

  5. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J; Price, David

    2008-09-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this regard. Although so-called conditional donation, donation to (or perhaps withheld from) a specific class, has been outlawed as a product of guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Health issued in the wake of the controversial incident occurring in the North of England in 1998, its intended application to 'directed' donation is less certain.Directed and conditional donations challenge the traditional construct of altruistic donation and impartial (equitable) allocation in a very immediate and striking fashion. They implicitly raise important questions as to whether the body or parts of the body are capable of being owned, and by whom. This paper attempts to explore the notion of donor ownership of body parts and its implications for both directed and conditional donation.

  6. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Antonia J; Price, David

    2010-01-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this regard. Although so-called conditional donation, donation to (or perhaps withheld from) a specific class, has been outlawed as a product of guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Health issued in the wake of the controversial incident occurring in the North of England in 1998, its intended application to ‘directed’ donation is less certain. Directed and conditional donations challenge the traditional construct of altruistic donation and impartial (equitable) allocation in a very immediate and striking fashion. They implicitly raise important questions as to whether the body or parts of the body are capable of being owned, and by whom. This paper attempts to explore the notion of donor ownership of body parts and its implications for both directed and conditional donation. PMID:20890462

  7. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  8. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  9. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  10. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization.

    PubMed

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients.

  11. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  12. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  13. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  14. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  15. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  16. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  17. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  18. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  19. Non Heart-Beating Donors in England

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar

    2008-01-01

    When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

  20. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  1. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship.

  2. Project CLASS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Susan L.; And Others

    Project CLASS (Competency-Based Live-Ability Skills) uses a series of 60 modules to teach life survival skills to adults with low-level reading ability--especially Adult Basic Education/English as a Second Language students. Two versions of the modules have been developed: one for use with teacher-directed instruction and another for independent…

  3. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-24

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state.

  4. Preformed donor HLA-DP-specific antibodies mediate acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jolly, E C; Key, T; Rasheed, H; Morgan, H; Butler, A; Pritchard, N; Taylor, C J; Clatworthy, M R

    2012-10-01

    Donor-specific HLA alloantibodies may cause acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and significantly compromise allograft survival. The clinical relevance of antibodies directed against some HLA class II antigens, particularly HLA-DP, is less clear with conflicting reports on their pathogenicity. We report two patients with high levels of pretransplant donor-specific HLA-DP antibodies who subsequently developed recurrent acute AMR and graft failure. In both cases, there were no other donor-specific HLA alloantibodies, suggesting that the HLA-DP-specific antibodies may be directly pathogenic.

  5. Using body donor demographics to assist the implementation of donation programs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Andrea Oxley; de Campos, Deivis; Farina, Marco Aurélio; Pacini, Gabriel Sartori; Girotto, Marina Cornelli; Hilbig, Arlete

    2017-03-06

    The use of human material in anatomy education depends upon the generosity of body donors. However, little is known regarding the demographics of body donors in Brazil, where voluntary body donation is a relatively rare phenomenon. Hence, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the demographic profile of applicants to the Body Donation Program (BDP) at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre in Brazil, as well as to assess whether the observed characteristics of body donors are unique to that sample, or if they merely reflect the characteristics of the regional population. Information derived from the specific forms filled out by donors between January 2008 and June 2016 at the time of registration were collected. Data from 416 forms were analyzed. Based on this study, the typical applicant in Brazil is typically a white female (67.4%), over 60 years of age (60.3%), unmarried or single (70.6%), affiliated with a religious group (89.1%), of middle class background (40.4%), who has completed high school and/or holds a university degree (93.8%). The motivation of donors was, in most cases, an altruistic gesture, represented by the desire to help society and science. Elucidating these demographic characteristics of potential donors may help identify the target public to which information regarding body donation campaigns could be directed. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  7. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  8. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-05-28

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT.

  9. Phonon induced spin relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Yuling; Buch, Holger; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Simmons, Michelle; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2014-03-01

    The phonon induced relaxation times (T1) of electron spins bound to single phosphorous (P) donors and P donor clusters in silicon is computed using the atomistic tight-binding method. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian is directly computed from the strain dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian, and the relaxation time is computed from Fermi's Golden Rule using the donor states and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian. The self-consistent Hartree method is used to compute the multi-electron wavefunctions in donor clusters. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction, and captures both valley repopulation and single valley g-factor shifts in a unified framework. The single donor relaxation rate varies proportionally to B5, and is of the order of seconds at B =2T, both in good agreement with experimental single donor data (A. Morello et. al., Nature 467, 687 (2010)). T1 calculations in donor clusters show variations for different electron numbers and donor numbers and locations. The computed T1 in a 4P:5e donor cluster match well with a scanning tunneling microscope patterned P donor cluster (H. Buch et. al., Nature Communications 4, 2017 (2013)).

  10. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  11. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  12. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT. PMID:27819035

  13. Organic electron donors as powerful single-electron reducing agents in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Julie; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice

    2014-01-07

    One-electron reduction is commonly used in organic chemistry for the formation of radicals by the stepwise transfer of one or two electrons from a donor to an organic substrate. Besides metallic reagents, single-electron reducers based on neutral organic molecules have emerged as an attractive novel source of reducing electrons. The past 20 years have seen the blossoming of a particular class of organic reducing agents, the electron-rich olefins, and their application in organic synthesis. This Review gives an overview of the different types of organic donors and their specific characteristics in organic transformations.

  14. The effect of donor characteristics on survival after unrelated donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Craig; Spellman, Stephen R.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Hassebroek, Anna; Anasetti, Claudio; Antin, Joseph H.; Champlin, Richard E.; Confer, Dennis L.; DiPersio, John F.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Hartzman, Robert J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Karanes, Chatchada; Maiers, Martin; Mueller, Carlheinz R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Setterholm, Michelle; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Yu, Neng

    2016-01-01

    There are >24 million registered adult donors, and the numbers of unrelated donor transplantations are increasing. The optimal strategy for prioritizing among comparably HLA-matched potential donors has not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current analyses was to study the association between donor characteristics (age, sex, parity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, HLA match, and blood group ABO match) and survival after transplantation for hematologic malignancy. The association of donor characteristics with transplantation outcomes was examined using either logistic or Cox regression models, adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics associated with outcomes in 2 independent datasets: 1988 to 2006 (N = 6349; training cohort) and 2007 to 2011 (N = 4690; validation cohort). All donor-recipient pairs had allele-level HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, which is the current standard for selecting donors. Adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics, survival was better after transplantation of grafts from young donors (aged 18-32 years) who were HLA matched to recipients (P < .001). These findings were validated for transplantations that occurred between 2007 and 2011. For every 10-year increment in donor age, there is a 5.5% increase in the hazard ratio for overall mortality. Increasing HLA disparity was also associated with worsening survival. Donor age and donor-recipient HLA match are important when selecting adult unrelated donors. Other donor characteristics such as sex, parity, and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not associated with survival. The effect of ABO matching on survival is modest and must be studied further before definitive recommendations can be offered. PMID:26527675

  15. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  16. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  17. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well.

  18. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... views 10:58 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 61, ...

  20. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  1. Donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant recipients from a single donor.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P; Douglas, Laurie L; Stratta, Robert J; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W; Pettenati, Mark J; Iskandar, Samy S; Grier, David D; Kaczmorski, Scott A; Doares, William H; Gautreaux, Michael D; Freedman, Barry I; Powell, Bayard L

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  2. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  3. The development of organic super electron donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengze; Farwaha, Hardeep; Murphy, John A

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, a host of exceptionally strong organic electron donors has been designed and prepared; their redox potentials are more negative than any previous neutral organic donors and extend beyond E(1/2) = -1 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Their ability to reduce a wide range of organic functional groups has been demonstrated and this article provides an overview of the main advances in the area and the guiding principles for the design of these reagents.

  4. Donor identification 'kills gamete donation'? A response.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    Two Australian government inquiries have recently called for the release of information to donor-conceived people about their gamete donors. A national inquiry, recommended 'as a matter of priority' that uniform legislation to be passed nationwide. A state-based inquiry argued that all donor-conceived people should have access to information and called for the enactment of retrospective legislation that would override donor anonymity. This paper responds to an opinion piece published in Human Reproduction in October 2012 by Professor Pennings in which he criticized such recommendations and questioned the motives of people that advocate for information release. I answer the arguments of Pennings, and argue that all parties affected by donor conception should be considered, and a compromise reached. The contact veto system is one such compromise. I discuss the education and support services recommended by the Victorian government and question Pennings' assertions that legislation enabling information release will lead to a decrease in gamete donation. Finally, I rebut Pennings' assertion that there is a 'hidden agenda' behind the call for information release. There is no such agenda in my work. If there is from others, then it is their discriminatory views that need to be addressed, not the move toward openness and honesty or the call for information by donor-conceived people.

  5. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation between spouses.

    PubMed

    Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N

    1992-01-01

    From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.

  6. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  7. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  8. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  9. The national marrow donor program 20 years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; King, Roberta J; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Bolan, Charles D; Agura, Edward; Hartzman, Robert J; Kernan, Nancy A

    2008-09-01

    In the 20 years since the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) facilitated the first unrelated donor transplant, the organization has grown to include almost 7 million donors, and has facilitated over 30,000 transplants on 6 continents. This remarkable accomplishment has been facilitated by the efforts of over 600 employees, and an extensive international network including 171 transplant centers, 73 donor centers, 24 cord blood banks, 97 bone marrow collection centers, 91 apheresis centers, 26 HLA typing laboratories, and 26 Cooperative Registries. In this article, we review the history of the NMDP, and cite the major trends in patient demographics, graft sources, and conditioning regimens over the last 20 years.

  10. An analysis of the lack of donor pancreas utilization from younger adult organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Wainright, Jennifer L; Sleeman, Elizabeth; McBride, Maureen A; Baker, Tim; Samana, Ciara; Stock, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Donor pancreas utilization rates for whole organ transplant have remained low and have decreased over time. To identify the reasons for nonuse of pancreas from donors who meet common baseline acceptance criteria, we examined Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2005 to 2007 and identified a subgroup of 1763 "potential pancreas donors" defined by age (19-40 years), body mass index (<30 kg/m), successful liver donation, and negative viral serology testing, which were not used. We characterize this cohort of potential donors including reasons for refusal, factors that may contribute to pancreas acceptance and function, and potential explanations for the lack of growth in pancreas organ utilization.

  11. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor.

  12. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  13. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  14. Crystal growth of new charge-transfer salts based on π-conjugated donor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morherr, Antonia; Witt, Sebastian; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Bäcker, Jan-Peter; Schönhense, Gerd; Bolte, Michael; Krellner, Cornelius

    2016-09-01

    New charge transfer crystals of π-conjugated, aromatic molecules (phenanthrene and picene) as donors were obtained by physical vapor transport. The melting behavior, optimization of crystal growth and the crystal structure are reported for charge transfer salts with (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ-Fx, x=0, 2, 4), which was used as acceptor material. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Growth conditions for different vapor pressures in closed ampules were applied and the effect of these starting conditions for crystal size and quality is reported. The process of charge transfer was investigated by geometrical analysis of the crystal structure and by infrared spectroscopy on single crystals. With these three different acceptor strengths and the two sets of donor materials, it is possible to investigate the distribution of the charge transfer systematically. This helps to understand the charge transfer process in this class of materials with π-conjugated donor molecules.

  15. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan

    2014-11-06

    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  16. Deceased donor organ procurement injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Tim E; Neidlinger, Nikole A; Mujtaba, Muhammad A; Eidbo, Elling E; Cauwels, Roxane L; Hannan, Elizabeth M; Miller, Jennifer R; Paramesh, Anil S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence of surgical injury during deceased donor organ procurements. METHODS: Organ damage was classified into three tiers, from 1-3, with the latter rendering the organ non-transplantable. For 12 consecutive months starting in January of 2014, 36 of 58 organ procurement organization’s (OPO)’s prospectively submitted quality data regarding organ damage (as reported by the transplanting surgeon and confirmed by the OPO medical director) seen on the procured organ. RESULTS: These 36 OPOs recovered 5401 of the nations’s 8504 deceased donors for calendar year 2014. A total of 19043 organs procured were prospectively analyzed. Of this total, 59 organs sustained damage making them non-transplantable (0 intestines; 4 pancreata; 5 lungs; 6 livers; 43 kidneys). The class 3 damage was spread over 22 (of 36) reporting OPO’s. CONCLUSION: While damage to the procured organ is rare with organ loss being approximately 0.3% of procured organs, loss of potential transplantable organs does occur during procurement. PMID:27358788

  17. Superior Survival Using Living Donors and Donor-Recipient Matching Using a Novel Living Donor Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; French, Benjamin; Abt, Peter L; Olthoff, Kim; Shaked, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The deceased-donor organ supply in the U.S. has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand for liver transplantation. We examined national OPTN/UNOS data from 2002–2012 to assess whether LDLT has surpassed deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) as a superior method of transplantation, and used donor and recipient characteristics to develop a risk score to optimize donor and recipient selection for LDLT. From 2002–2012, there were 2,103 LDLTs and 46,674 DDLTs that met the inclusion criteria. The unadjusted 3-year graft survival for DDLTs was 75.5% (95% CI: 75.1–76.0%) compared with 78.9% (95% CI: 76.9–80.8%; p<0.001) for LDLTs that were performed at experienced centers (>15 LDLTs), with substantial improvement in LDLT graft survival over time. In multivariable models, LDLT recipients transplanted at experienced centers with either autoimmune hepatitis or cholestatic liver disease had significantly lower risks of graft failure (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.84 and HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.92, respectively). An LDLT risk score that included both donor and recipient variables facilitated stratification of LDLT recipients into high, intermediate, and low-risk groups, with predicted 3-year graft survival ranging from >87% in the lowest risk group to <74% in the highest risk group. Current post-transplant outcomes for LDLT are equivalent, if not superior to DDLT when performed at experienced centers. An LDLT risk score can be used to optimize LDLT outcomes and provides objective selection criteria for donor selection in LDLT. PMID:25042283

  18. Effect of donor variables on yield in single donor plateletpheresis by continuous flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rajendra; Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Khetan, Dheeraj; Sinha, Pratul

    2006-04-01

    The quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient. Various donor factors such as pre-donation platelet count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. We studied the influence of pre-donation donor clinical and laboratory factors such as gender, age, weight of the donor, platelet count and Hb on the platelet yield. A total of 94 plateletpheresis procedures performed on continuous flow cell separator (CS3000, Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL, USA) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.8+/-0.73x10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between pre-donation platelet count and yield (r=0.50, p<0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r=-0.10, p>0.005). Similarly, no correlation was observed between gender (r=0.05), age (r=0.11) and weight (r=0.18) of the donor with yield. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by pre-donation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. Identification of such factors may help in selecting donors to obtain higher platelet yields and consequently better clinical outcome.

  19. Transmission of donor illness by stem cell transplantation: should screening be different in older donors?

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Gentilini, C; Hegenbart, U; Lange, T; Moosmann, P; Pönisch, W; Al-Ali, H; Raida, M; Ljungman, P; Tyndall, A; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Lazarus, H M; Gratwohl, A

    2004-10-01

    With increasing donor age, the potential of transmitting diseases from donor to recipient reaches new dimensions. Potentially transmittable diseases from donors include infections, congenital disorders, and acquired illnesses like autoimmune diseases or malignancies of hematological or nonhematological origin. While established nonmalignant or malignant diseases might be easy to discover, early-stage hematological diseases like CML, light-chain multiple myelomas, aleukemic leukemias, occult myelodysplastic syndromes and other malignant and nonmalignant diseases might not be detectable by routine screening but only by invasive, new and/or expensive diagnostic tests. In the following article, we propose recommendations for donor work-up, taking into consideration the age of the donors. In contrast to blood transfusions, stem cells from donors with abnormal findings might still be acceptable for HCT, when no other options are available and life expectancy is limited. This issue is discussed in detail in relation to the available donor and stem cell source. Finally, the recommendations presented here aim at harmonized worldwide work-up for donors to insure high standard quality.

  20. Access to information about donors by donor-conceived individuals: a human rights analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While assisted reproductive treatment using donated gametes is widespread, and in many places, widely accepted, it has historically been shrouded in secrecy. Over time, however, there has been an increasing call from donor-conceived people, recipient parents and some donors to end the secrecy, and to release identifying information about donors to donor-conceived people. "Rights-based" arguments have at times been used to justify this call. This article examines whether a human rights framework supports the release of information and how such a framework might be applied when there are competing rights. It argues that the current balancing approach used to resolve such issues weighs in favour of release. Legal action has the potential to be legitimate and justifiable. A measure such as a contact veto system, which would serve to prevent unwanted contact with the person lodging the veto (either the donor or the donor-conceived person), would ensure proportionality. In this way, both donor-conceived people's rights to private life, identity and family, and donors' rights to privacy may be recognised and balanced.

  1. Psychosocial data of potential living donors before living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Bronner, Ekkehard; Steinmüller, Thomas; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    In view of the scarcity of organ resources for transplantation, donation by living donors is assuming greater significance now that the technical-surgical problems involved have been solved. In the period between December 1999 and December 2000, 47 potential living liver donors were evaluated and a total of 27 hepatic lobes were transplanted at the Virchow-Klinikum of the Charité Hospital in Berlin. The close personal relationships between recipients and donors gives reason to anticipate high levels of psychosocial pressure during the pre-operative evaluation process; this process consists in part in looking into donor motivation, ambivalence and anxiety. The pre-operative psychometric evaluation of 40 potential living donors indicated that most of the potential donors see themselves as 'super-healthy' and tend to adapt to social expectations, while on the other hand those seven potential living donors not accepted for psychosocial reasons were marked by heightened values for anxious depression and pessimism. The results indicate in most cases a great willingness to donate and on the other hand a high level of obvious psychological pressure for a low number of potential donors. For the latter, both the clinical evaluation interview and the psychometric diagnostics used revealed clear-cut feelings of anxiety and ambivalence towards transplantation.

  2. Donor-substituted phosphanes - surprisingly weak Lewis donors for phosphenium cation stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ewan R; Borys, Andryj M; Pearce, Kyle

    2016-10-18

    Paradoxically, N- and O-donor substituted tri-arylphosphanes are shown to be weaker donors than PPh3 when binding the soft Lewis acid moiety [PPh2](+). This arises from internal solvation and rehybridisation at phosphorus, precluding chelation and increasing steric demand, in direct contrast to coordination modes observed for metal complexes.

  3. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening.

  4. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  5. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  6. Impact of Donor Source on the Outcome of Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Yasser Elsayed; Nagib, Ayman M; Lotfy, Omar E; Alsayed, Ahmed Maher; Donia, Ahmed F; Refaie, Ayman F; Akl, Ahmed I; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Abuelmagd, Mohammed M; Shaeashaa, Hussein A; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation is the ideal method for management of end-stage renal disease. The use of living donors for renal transplantation was critical for early development in the field and preceded the use of cadaveric donors. Most donors are related genetically to the recipients, like a parent, a child, or a sibling of the recipient, but there are an increasing percentage of cases where donors are genetically unrelated like spouses, friends, or altruistic individuals. Donor shortages constitute the major barrier for kidney transplantation, and much effort has been made to increase the supply of living donors. The impact of donor source on the outcome of renal transplantation is not adequately studied in our country. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of donor source on the outcome of live donor kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods From March 1976 to December 2013, the number of patients that underwent living renal transplantation sharing at least one HLA haplotype with their donors was 2,485. We divided these patients into two groups: (1) 2,075 kidney transplant recipients (1,554 or 74.9% male and 521 or 25.1% female) for whom the donors were living related, (2) 410 kidney transplant recipients (297 or 72.4% male and 113 or 27.6% female) for whom the donors were living unrelated. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy, consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and prednisolone. We compared acute rejection and complication rates, as well as long-term graft and patient survival of both groups. Demographic characteristics were compared using the chi-square test. Graft survival and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The percentages of patients with acute vascular rejection were significantly higher in the unrelated group, while percentages of patients with no rejection were significantly higher in the related group, but there were no significant

  7. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Nyame, Yaw A.; Babbar, Paurush; Aboumohamed, Ahmed A.; Mori, Ryan L.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Modlin, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature. PMID:28216945

  8. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Arpesella, Giorgio; Gherardi, Sonia; Bombardini, Tonino; Picano, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death) underwent a transesophageal (TE) Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol) to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia). The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV). Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT) echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For the first time stress

  9. Antibody titers in Group O platelet donors

    PubMed Central

    Tendulkar, Anita Amar; Jain, Puneet Ashok; Velaye, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of hemolysis due to transfusion of ABO plasma-incompatible platelets (PLTs) is challenging. There has been no consensus for critical antibody titers in the transfusion community. This study was conducted to understand the trends of anti-A and anti-B antibody titer levels in O group donors and to identify any specific patterns of distribution in relation to age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1635 Group O PLT donors were randomly selected for this prospective study. Serial 2-fold doubling dilutions were prepared for each sample to calculate the titer of anti-A and anti-B in a standard 96 well micro-plate. Tube technique was used for comparison with the microplate method for 100 samples. RESULTS: Out of 1635 donors, 1430 (87.46%) were males and 205 (12.54%) were females. The median titer for anti-A and anti-B was 128 with range from 4 to 2048. Spearman's correlation coefficient for microplate versus tube technique was estimated to be 0.803 (P < 0.01, two-tailed). 57.12% and 51.19% of all donors had titers ≥128 for anti-A and anti-B, respectively. The geometric mean of anti-A and anti-B was 155.7 and 137.28, respectively. The titers were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in female donors. An inverse relation between titer levels and age was seen. CONCLUSION: Microplate can be used to perform titers in resource-constrained settings. Screening for critical titers in O group donors is essential as they are more implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions. In the absence of a global consensus on this topic, institutes may need to formulate their own guidelines on handling ABO plasma-incompatible PLT transfusions. PMID:28316436

  10. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 < 0.8%). Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a

  11. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  12. Donor-related issues in hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K

    2011-11-01

    The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed.

  13. Detection of 549 new HLA alleles in potential stem cell donors from the United States, Poland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Cereb, N; Giani, A S; Ruppel, J; Maraszek, A; Pingel, J; Sauter, J; Schmidt, A H; Yang, S Y

    2016-01-01

    We characterized 549 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles found in newly registered stem cell donors as a result of high-throughput HLA typing. New alleles include 101 HLA-A, 132 HLA-B, 105 HLA-C, 2 HLA-DRB1, 89 HLA-DQB1 and 120 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Mainly, new alleles comprised single nucleotide variations when compared with homologous sequences. We identified nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in 70.7% of all new alleles, synonymous variations in 26.4% and nonsense substitutions in 2.9% (null alleles). Some new alleles (55, 10.0%) were found multiple times, HLA-DPB1 alleles being the most frequent among these. Furthermore, as several new alleles were identified in individuals from ethnic minority groups, the relevance of recruiting donors belonging to such groups and the importance of ethnicity data collection in donor centers and registries is highlighted.

  14. [IgA-IgG-IgM serum levels in blood donors. Examination of some variables].

    PubMed

    Ghessi, A; Azzario, F; Marinig, C; Mancini, L; Polese, T C; Pozzessere, V

    1976-07-31

    IgA, IgG and IgM serum levels in 603 normal blood donors (510 males and 93 females) have been calculated by the method of single radial immunodiffusion. In every immunoglobulin class the normal values and other important statistical parameters have been determined. Several statistical examinations have been executed to test the influence of some factors as sex, weight, age and number of blood donations on IgA, IgG and IgM serum levels.

  15. Influence of preformed donor-specific antibodies and C4d on early liver allograft function.

    PubMed

    Perera, M T; Silva, M A; Murphy, N; Briggs, D; Mirza, D F; Neil, D A H

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION. The impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is incompletely understood in liver transplantation. The incidence and impact of preformed DSA on early post liver transplant were assessed and these were correlated with compliment fragment C4d on allograft biopsy. METHODS. Pretransplant serum from 41 consecutive liver transplant recipients (brain dead donors; DBD = 27 and cardiac death donors; DCD = 14) were tested for class-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and compared against donor HLA types. Liver biopsies were taken during cold storage (t-1) and post-reperfusion (t0) stained with C4d and graded for preservation-reperfusion injury (PRI). RESULTS. Of the 41 recipients, 8 (20%) had anti-HLA class I/II antibodies pretransplant, 3 (7%) were confirmed preformed DSA; classes I and II (n=1) and class I only (n=2). No biopsies showed definite evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. Graft biopsies in overall showed only mild PRI with ischemic hepatocyte C4d pattern similar in both positive and negative DSA patients. One DSA-positive (33%) compared with four DSA-negative patients (10%) had significant early graft dysfunction; severe PRI causing graft loss from primary nonfunction was seen only in DSA-negative group. Allograft biopsy of preformed DSA-positive patient demonstrated only minimal PRI; however, no identifiable cause could be attributed to graft dysfunction other than preformed DSA. CONCLUSION. Preformed DSA are present in 5-10% liver transplant recipients. There is no association between anti-HLA DSA and PRI and C4d, but preformed DSA may cause early morbidity. Larger studies on the impact of DSA with optimization of C4d techniques are required.

  16. Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Beletskiy, Evgeny V.; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2012-11-14

    Enzymes and their mimics use hydrogen bonds to catalyze chemical transformations. Small molecule transition state analogs of oxyanion holes are characterized by gas phase IR and photoelectron spectroscopy and their binding constants in acetonitrile. As a result, a new class of hydrogen bond catalysts is proposed (OH donors that can contribute three hydrogen bonds to a single functional group) and demonstrated in a Friedel-Crafts reaction.

  17. Overture: The grid classes

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W.

    1997-01-01

    Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

  18. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation.

  19. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  20. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  1. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome.

  2. Reactions Between Chalcogen Donors and Dihalogens/Interalogens: Typology of Products and Their Characterization by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, M. Carla; Devillanova, Francesco A.; Garau, Alessandra; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Mancini, Annalisa; Verani, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    The chemical bond and structural features for the most important classes of solid products obtained by reacting chalcogen donors with dihalogens and interhalogens are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the information the FT-Raman spectroscopy can confidently give about each structural motif considered in the absence of X-ray structural analyses. PMID:17497008

  3. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  4. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  5. Enzymatic Production of Universal Donor Erythrocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    strong activities of extracellular glycosidases that convert blood type A or B erythrocytes to universal donor blood type O erythrocytes; 2) to purify the... blood type B-degrading enzyme produced by a fecal strain of Ruminococcus AB; 3) to determine whether human type B red cells could be safety converted

  6. A Mobilization Guide for Blood Donor Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    PLATELETS ISOLATED FROM UNITS OF WHOLE BLOOD OR FROM DONORS BY APHERESIS PROCEDURES; FROZEN WITH 6% DMSO AND STORED AT -80 C; AND WASHED WITH SODIUM...8 Meal Pass .............................................. 8 Record of Donation ..................................... 9 UNIT PROCESSING...19 Cryoprecipitate ...................................... 20 Frozen Platelet Concentrates ........................ 20 Frozen Red Cells

  7. GFR Evaluation in Living Kidney Donor Candidates.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A

    2017-04-01

    Evaluation of GFR, required in the evaluation of living kidney donor candidates, is now receiving increasing emphasis because recent data demonstrate increased risk of kidney disease after donation, including a small increase in the risk of kidney failure. The international guideline development group, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, recently published a comprehensive set of recommendations for living donor evaluation, with three recommendations regarding GFR. (1) Donor candidacy is evaluated in light of long-term risk, in which GFR is one of many factors. ESRD is considered a central outcome, and a method for estimating long-term risk of ESRD in donor candidates is described. (2) Two GFR thresholds are used for decision-making: a high threshold (≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to accept and a low threshold (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to decline, with 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) as an intermediate range in which the decision to accept or decline is made on the basis of factors in addition to GFR. (3) GFR is evaluated using several methods available at the transplant center, including estimating equations and clearance measurements. We review the rationale for the guideline recommendations, principles of GFR measurement and estimation, and our suggestions for implementation.

  8. Selection against genetic defects in semen donors.

    PubMed

    Smith, P E

    1984-08-01

    Artificial insemination donor selection requires predicting which men are likely to beget the healthiest offspring. Methods are developed for calculating the "offspring excess recurrence risk", delta R, for an anomaly in the offspring of an afflicted father. Mainly from published family survey and population data delta R is computed for 38 disorders. From a small survey a value for the with-treatment "affliction burden", Bt, is assigned to each anomaly. For each disorder the "offspring excess burden expectation" is delta RBt. Defects such as cataract, hereditary Parkinson disease, psoriasis, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and schizophrenia have such a high delta RBt that they are individually sufficient cause for rejecting a donor candidate. A candidate may be rejected because of a combination of lesser defects with sigma delta RBt exceeding an acceptable limit. A limit should also be placed on Bt, because the affliction burden for Tay-Sachs disease or cystic fibrosis is intolerable, however infrequent. Most of the important hereditary defects are late onset, and for the older donor the opportunity to select more directly against late-onset disorders offsets the added risk of newly-arising gene mutations. The most careful donor selection cannot completely eliminate the risk of a child inheriting some disorder, but selection can reduce the average total burden by as much as 17%.

  9. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  10. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  11. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, P

    1990-11-01

    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  12. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  13. The donor star winds in High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2014-10-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) are essential astrophysical laboratories. These objects represent an advanced stage in the evolution of massive binary systems, after the initially more massive star has already collapsed in a supernova explosion, but its remnant, a neutron star or black hole, remains gravitationally bound. The stellar wind from the OB-type donor is partially accreted onto its compact companion powering its relatively high X-ray luminosity. Since HMXBs accrete from the stellar wind, parameters such as the donor's mass-loss rate, the velocity of the wind, and its clumpiness are of fundamental importance.This proposal takes advantage of the unique capabilities of HST/STIS for UV spectroscopy. We focus on the most populous in the Galaxy class of those HMXBs where the stellar wind of the OB donor is directly accreted onto a neutron star. Recently, a new sub-class of HMXBs - "supergiant fast X-ray transients" - was discovered. It has been proposed that these enigmatic objects can be explained by the specific properties of their donor-star winds. The only way to validate or disprove this hypothesis is by a studying the wind diagnostics lines in the UV spectra of donor stars. The observations proposed here will, for the first time, provide the UV spectra of this important new type of accreting binaries. Our state-of-the art non-LTE expanding stellar atmospheres and 3-D stellar wind simulations allow thorough exploitation of the STIS spectra. As a result we will obtain the wind parameters for a representative sample of six Galactic HMXBs, thus heightening our knowledge thereof considerably.

  14. Panchromatic donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

    2014-06-11

    We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs.

  15. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Director, Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...: James Bowman, MD, Medical Director at Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health... circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has not focused on specific research issues. Since the inception...

  16. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  17. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  18. Donor-based single electron pumps with tunable donor binding energy.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, G P; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A

    2012-02-08

    We report on single electron pumping via a tunable number of individual donors. We use a device that essentially consists of a silicon nanowire with local arsenic implantation between a set of fine gates. A temperature-dependent characterization of the pumped current allows us to extract the ionization energy of a single arsenic donor. We observe the ionization energy to be tunable by the gate electric field over a large range of energies.

  19. Hyperammonemia in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient recipients following living donor liver transplantation from heterozygous carrier donors.

    PubMed

    Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Uchida, Hajime; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Mali, Vidyadhar; Fukuda, Akinari; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-02-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a urea cycle disorder of X-linked inheritance, affecting the detoxification of excess nitrogen and leading to hyperammonemia (hyper-NH3 ). Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been applied for the treatment of OTCD. This case series retrospectively reviewed two OTCD patients who experienced hyper-NH3 following LDLT. The first case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 2 years of age. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) enzyme activity was 62% for the donor and 15% for the recipient. The patient suffered from recurrence of hyper-NH3 within 2 months following LDLT. The second case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 3 years of age. OTC enzyme activity was 42.6% for the donor and 9.7% for the recipient. The patient suffered hyper-NH3 for 12 days starting on the date of surgery. Both of the patients transiently required continuous veno-venous hemodialysis; however, they are currently doing well without intensive medical treatment. The use of asymptomatic OTCD heterozygous donors in LDLT has been accepted with careful examination. However, an OTCD heterozygous carrier donor should be avoided if there is another donor candidate, due to the potentially fatal condition of hyper-NH3 following LDLT.

  20. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.

  1. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  2. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  3. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  4. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  5. National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Creating ... Donor Program (NMDP) and its Be The Match Registry are nonprofit organizations dedicated to creating an opportunity ...

  6. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  7. Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk-sharing, or buying donor milk over the internet," Abrams said. Unpasteurized donor milk could expose babies ... Please don't buy [breast milk] over the internet," Trembath said. "Do it the safe way, through ...

  8. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  9. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  10. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  11. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  12. Computer algorithms in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, David

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a "donor search process" by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  13. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  14. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  15. Allospecific rejection of MHC class I-deficient bone marrow by CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Haspot, Fabienne; Li, Hao Wei; Lucas, Carrie L.; Fehr, Thomas; Beyaz, Semir; Sykes, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance of long-term immunosuppression is a desired goal in organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism offers a promising approach to tolerance induction, and we have aimed to develop low-toxicity, non-immunodepleting approaches to achieve this outcome. In a mouse model achieving fully MHC-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow engraftment with minimal conditioning (3 Gy total body irradiation followed by anti-CD154 and T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow cells), CD4 T cells in the recipient are required to promote tolerance of pre-existing alloreactive recipient CD8 T cells and thereby permit chimerism induction. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of CD4 T cells and NK cells reject MHC class-I deficient and class I/class II-deficient marrow in a CD8 T cell-dependent manner. This rejection is specific for donor alloantigens, since recipient hematopoiesis is not affected by donor marrow rejection and MHC class-I deficient bone marrow that is syngeneic to the recipient is not rejected. Recipient CD8 T cells are activated and develop cytotoxicity against MHC class I-deficient donor cells in association with rejection. These data implicate a novel CD8 T cell-dependent bone marrow rejection pathway, wherein recipient CD8 T cells indirectly activated by donor alloantigens promote direct killing, in a TCR-independent manner, of class I-deficient donor cells. PMID:24304495

  16. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation.

  17. Temporal Changes in Deceased Kidney Donor Characteristics in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samuel; Campbell, Scott B.; Clayton, Phillip A.; Mudge, David W.; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Johnson, David W.; Francis, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for deceased donor kidneys has exceeded supply in Australia over the past 2 decades. With a desire to use as many donor organs as possible, the health characteristics of accepted donors may have changed over time. Methods All deceased kidney donors actually transplanted in Australia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively analyzed, using data from the Australian and New Zealand Organ Donor Registry. Results Of 4172 deceased donors, 57% were men. Mean donor age increased from 37.2 ± 16.8 years to 46.1 ± 17.7 years over time, and donor numbers increased from 162 in 1994 to 334 in 2013. As the primary cause of death, motor vehicle accidents decreased from 27% to 12%, whereas cerebral pathology persisted at 50%. There was an increase in the proportion of donors with hypertension (12% to 24%), diabetes (2% to 7%), and an increase in mean body mass index (24.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2 to 27.5 ± 6.3 kg/m2) between 1994 and 2013. These changes were reflected by an increase in the median kidney donor risk index from 1.08 (interquartile range, 0.85-1.25) to 1.32 (interquartile range, 0.95-1.53). The proportion of medically higher risk donors increased over time. Conclusions Because deceased kidney donor numbers have increased, the range of donor quality has broadened, with an increase in both the proportion and number of high-risk donors, as well as a decline in donor quality. These data highlight the need for kidney allocation algorithms to evolve to ensure appropriate allocation of deceased donor kidneys. PMID:27826605

  18. Living donor liver transplantation using grafts with hepatic cysts.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seisuke; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Shigeta, Takanobu; Uchida, Hajime; Hamano, Ikumi; Karaki, Chiaki; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kasahara, Mureo

    2012-12-01

    Cystic lesions in the liver are often found through the evaluation of liver donors. Multiple cysts are worrisome, and donor candidates with multiple cysts may be unacceptable as liver donors, especially when their recipients have fibrocystic disease (FCD), which is an inherited disorder. This study reviewed 183 cases of living donor liver transplantation. We collected clinical and radiological data associated with donors with cystic lesions and with donors without cystic lesions, and we evaluated the outcomes of these donors and their recipients. As part of the preoperative radiological assessment of grafts, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed to evaluate the biliary anatomy of donor candidates with multiple cysts. Thirty-four donors (18.6%) had 1 or more cystic lesions in the liver, and 6 of these donors had multiple cysts (ie, >10). Donors with multiple cysts were older and heavier, and there was a significant relationship between these donors and recipients whose original disease was FCD. During the follow-up (median = 3.1 years), all donors with cystic lesions were found to be doing well without any major postoperative complications. Fifteen recipients who received grafts with cystic lesions (12 left-sided lobes and 3 right-sided lobes) had no complications related to the cystic lesions. In conclusion, donors with cystic lesions may be acceptable as liver donors, although our data are limited mostly to left-sided lobe donation with a short follow-up period. MRC should be preoperatively performed to rule out any biliary anomalies, especially in donor candidates whose recipients have FCD.

  19. Teachers in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  20. [Kidney donation by living donors. Surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Baier, P K; Pisarski, P; Wimmenauer, S; Kirste, G

    1999-01-01

    The living donation of kidneys is gaining importance as a possible way to give a transplant to patients with terminal renal insufficiency. However we do not yet have experience with all the possibilities arising from this method. In particular, there is caution caused by the risks of the donor operation. In this context, the method is discussed according to the literature and our own experience of 89 living kidney donations. In our own practice with living donations, we have a success rate with 96% after 4 years and 82% after 16 years. We observed complications including wound infections (10.7%), haemorrhage, hernia and neurological complications (each 2.7%). When performed by specialists, the donor operation is safe and is a responsible alternative to the transplantation of cadaver kidneys, which opens up new possibilities in these times of organ shortage.

  1. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  2. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  3. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  5. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  6. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  7. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  8. Donors to Higher Education. A Statistical Profile of Individual Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balz, Frank

    Patterns of individual giving to higher education in 1984 are reported, along with the characteristics of donors. The study sample consisted of 66 private and 33 public colleges and universities. Information is presented on: the size of the gift; the income level of donors, by household adjusted gross income; level of giving of donors by whether…

  9. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor.

    PubMed

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R

    2010-12-01

    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  10. Noneligible Donors as a Strategy to Decrease the Organ Shortage.

    PubMed

    Croome, K P; Lee, D D; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-12-15

    Organ procurement organization (OPO) performance is generally evaluated by the number of organ procurement procedures divided by the number of eligible deaths (donation after brain death [DBD] donors aged <70 years), whereas the number of noneligible deaths (including donation after cardiac death donors and DBD donors aged >70 years) is not tracked. The present study aimed to investigate the variability in the proportion of noneligible liver donors by the 58 donor service areas (DSAs). Patients undergoing liver transplant (LT) between 2011 and 2015 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file. LTs from noneligible and eligible donors were compared. The proportion of noneligible liver donors by DSA varied significantly, ranging from 0% to 19.6% of total liver grafts used. In transplant programs, the proportion of noneligible liver donors used ranged from 0% to 35.3%. On linear regression there was no correlation between match Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for programs in a given DSA and proportion of noneligible donors used from the corresponding DSA (p = 0.14). Noneligible donors remain an underutilized resource in many OPOs. Policy changes to begin tracking noneligible donors and learning from OPOs that have high noneligible donor usage are potential strategies to increase awareness and pursuit of these organs.

  11. Paucity of HLA-identical unrelated donors for African-Americans with hematologic malignancies: the need for new donor options.

    PubMed

    Dew, Alexander; Collins, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen

    2008-08-01

    Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From February 2002 to May 2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only 3. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least 1, and often multiple, appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. To allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haploidentical transplant, or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated.

  12. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN.

  13. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort.

    PubMed

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  14. Mechnical tuning of ionized donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Kuenzl, Markus; Itoh, Kohei M.; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-03-01

    Ionized donors in silicon have been shown to have extraordinarily long coherence times, exceeding tens of minutes even at room temperature, which, combined with the very advanced state of silicon technology, makes them attractive candidates for the realization of solid state qubits. The corresponding near perfect isolation from their environment, however, renders the individual addressing and coupling of such qubits a major challenge on the way towards a spin quantum computer based on ionized donors. We show that the application of strain to the silicon host crystal leads to shifts of the nuclear spin resonance frequencies of 75As+ due to the nuclear quadrupole interaction with crystal fields. This shift can be larger than the resonance linewidth already for modest strains, as we demonstrate by electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance (ED ENDOR) measurements on arsenic donors in strained silicon. We discuss how quadrupole interactions could allow for the individual addressing of ionized nuclear spins by mechanical tuning of their resonance frequency and, possibly, permit the elastic coupling of nuclear spin qubits to a mechanical resonator.

  15. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology.

  16. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated October 2013. The draft guidance document provides establishments that make donor eligibility......

  17. The donor, the father, and the imaginary constitution of the family: parents' constructions in the case of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Grace, Victoria M; Daniels, Ken R; Gillett, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Current international policy trends in the field of medically assisted conception are moving towards increased openness of information regarding the nature of conception where donated gametes are involved. In the case of donor insemination this means that the donor is no longer anonymous, offspring have the right to access information about the donor's identity, and parents are encouraged to tell children the nature of their donor-assisted conception. Until recently, however, the practice of donor insemination has tended to create the conditions for ignoring, or erasing, the existence of the donor as the provider of the gametes. Changing policy creates numerous challenges to this erasure, and to traditional conceptualisations of the father. This research is based on analysis of the narratives of a group of 41 New Zealand couples who conceived children with the assistance of donor insemination 15-18 years prior. This article focuses on their talk about the donor. The parents' negation of the donor supports the normative formation of 'family', and is in turn supported by an instrumental and de-personalising discourse in relation to the donor. A tension is created within the parents' talk whereby donors are negated and yet simultaneously appear as persons. We explore this discursive construction, suggesting that a new framework for thinking about donated gametes and the role of the donor is influencing parents' narrations and understandings of family. We discuss these influences and examine their implications, particularly with respect to a separation of the bio-genetic from the social-environmental.

  18. [Five years of Fiom KID-DNA Databank: experiences in matching sperm donors and donor-conceived offspring].

    PubMed

    Postema, D; Maas, A J B M

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of the Dutch Human Fertilisation (Donor Information) Act (in Dutch: Wet Donorgegevens Kunstmatige Bevruchting) in 2004, approximately 40,000 donor-conceived offspring were born in the Netherlands. The majority is conceived by means of artificial insemination with anonymous donor sperm (in Dutch: kunstmatige inseminatie met anoniem donorzaad - KID). This means that they have little or no access to information about their genetic origins. Through the Fiom KID-DNA Databank, established in 2010 in association with the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, it is possible for these donor-conceived offspring and donors to search for one another. DNA profiles are used to match donor-conceived offspring, donors and half-siblings. It is expected that the number of donor-related searches will increase. The experiences with matching and counselling of donor-conceived offspring and donors presented in this paper will help donor-conceived offspring and donors who start a search in the future. Moreover, they provide guidance for forming a meaningful relationship between those involved.

  19. Donor kidney adapts to body dimensions of recipient: no influence of donor gender on renal function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tent, H; Lely, A T; Toering, T J; San Giorgi, M R M; Rook, M; Lems, S P M; Hepkema, B G; Hofker, H S; Ploeg, R J; Homan van der Heide, J J; Navis, G J

    2011-10-01

    Female kidneys and kidneys from small donors have been suggested to perform worse after kidney transplantation. Here, we evaluate the impact of gender and body dimensions on posttransplantation GFR in living donor transplantation. Two hundred and ninety-three donor-recipient pairs, who were transplanted at our center were evaluated. All pairs had detailed renal function measurement ((125) I-iothalamate and (131) I-hippuran) 4 months predonation in the donor and 2.5 months posttransplantation in donor and recipient. For 88 pairs, 5 years of recipient follow-up was available. Delta GFR was calculated as (recipient GFR-donor single kidney GFR). Recipients of both male and female kidneys had similar renal function at early and long term after transplantation. Male recipients had higher ERPF, ΔGFR and ΔERPF at both time points. Kidneys of donors smaller than their recipient had higher ΔGFR and ΔERPF than kidneys of larger donors at both time points (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, ΔGFR was predicted by donor/recipient BSA-ratio together with transplantation related factors (R(2) 0.19), irrespective of donor and recipient gender. In conclusion, in living donor transplantation, female kidneys perform as well as male donor kidneys. Kidneys adapt to the recipient's body size and demands, independent of gender, without detrimental effects in renal function and outcome up to mid-long term.

  20. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  1. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  2. Disclosure of donor conception, age of disclosure and the well-being of donor offspring.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2017-03-15

    The matter of disclosure of donor conception to donor offspring is a very contentious issue. A frequently mentioned argument is that disclosure is in the best interest of the child. The objectives of this paper are 2-fold: first, to find out whether there are any measureable, stable differences in the psychological well-being of donor offspring who are informed of the mode of their conception compared to those who are not, and second, to find out what is being done with the evidence. We found that there exists no empirical evidence of differences in psychological well-being of donor offspring in disclosing or nondisclosing families. Regarding the age of disclosure, the findings are inconclusive. Some studies indicate no difference and some show slight positive effects of early disclosure. We also found that authors tend to ignore their own findings when formulating recommendations and that the recommendations are based on implicit moral premises. We conclude that disclosure, and directive counseling towards disclosure, cannot be justified by the welfare of the donor offspring.

  3. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  4. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  5. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  6. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value <0.005; FDR <10%), but by 4 months there were no differences. Transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  7. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K

    2004-01-23

    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  8. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  9. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  10. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and.... The draft guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  12. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  13. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis of bithiophene based donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and their optoelectronic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathula, Chinna; Buruga, Kezia; Lee, Sang Kyu; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M.; Kang, Youngjong

    2017-07-01

    In this article we present the synthesis of two novel bithiophene based symmetrical π conjugated oligomers with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structures by microwave assisted PdCl2(dppf) catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. These molecules contain electron rich bithiophene as a donor, dithienothiadiazole[3,4-c]pyridine and phthalic anhydride units as acceptors. The shorter reaction time, excellent yields and easy product isolation are the advantages of this method. The photophysical prerequisites for electronic application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability, and compatible energy levels were determined for synthesized oligomers. Optical band gap for the oligomers is found to be 1.72-1.90 eV. The results demonstrated the novel oligomers to be promising candidates in organic optoelectronic applications.

  15. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis.

    PubMed

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2015-11-11

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  16. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2015-01-01

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions. PMID:26569229

  17. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  18. Cancer of the colon in an egg donor: policy repercussions for donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the tragic case of a young woman who died of cancer of the colon after successfully donating eggs to her younger sister. Although there is no direct link between her operation and the subsequent development of bowel carcinoma, this case imparts a feeling of unease when seen in conjunction with other cases reported during the last few years. It is a reminder that little is known of the long-term consequences of some aspects of assisted conception. Women undergoing ovarian stimulation for themselves or a matched recipient have the right to be advised, in an agreed format, that there is some concern about unproven potential risks from the stimulatory drugs. The safety of egg donors must assume priority over all other considerations, including lack of donors or any moral position. The recent decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to withdraw any form of payment or recompense to egg donors does not seem to us to be based on a balance of scientific advances, patient needs and the ethics of gamete supply. They state that the intention to withdraw payments was implicit in the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act. However the Act was based on the Warnock report made 6 years earlier. Even in 1990 ovum donation was uncommon and fertility drugs had not yet caused any unease. The Act provided the HFEA with discretionary powers to issue directions so that the future policies would be consistent with any emerging new medical evidence. It is imperative that the HFEA provide convincing evidence on how the current policy of payment to donors harms society, donors or recipients, and how in the UK the new policy will improve medical practice in assisted conception. Successful pilot studies must precede the implementation of any new policy. Failure to do this could cause irreversible harm to the practice of assisted conception using donor gametes, which will ultimately be against the basic aims of the 1990 HFE Act.

  19. Lymphocyte Changes in Normal Apheresis Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    SE -1 R I TY* -tL 1’Ct 4, T- T -J𔃾, A -ý r - H I- A IN 1* P 1, -c A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RA) INkr ,, fi;N ;5 E~R UdR2 GOVT ACCESO NO~ 3 ;PE,’>o...donors’ immune status. Furthermore, it is not known if there are cumulative effects resulting from multiple apheresis procedures. Of further concern is... multiple sclerosis, severe atopic eczema, infiammatory bowel disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, excessive numbers of T8+ suppressor

  20. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood.

  1. Is the Kidney Donor Risk Index a step forward in the assessment of deceased donor kidney quality?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison P K; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The allocation of deceased donor kidneys has become more complex because of the increasing spectrum of donors and recipients age and comorbidities. Several scoring systems have been proposed to evaluate the donor quality of deceased donor kidneys, based on clinical, pathological or combined parameters to predict the risk of renal allograft failure. Nonetheless, besides the dichotomous extended criteria donor (ECD) score, none of the others have been used in clinical practice because of numerous reasons, ranging from lack of robust validation to the technical challenges associated with the evaluation of donor biopsies. Recently, the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and Profile Index (KDPI) were introduced in the USA as a refined version of the ECD score. This scoring system is based on 10 donor factors, therefore providing a finely granulated evaluation of donor quality without the need of a kidney biopsy.Here, we review the advantages and drawbacks of the main scoring systems, and we describe the components of the KDRI and KDPI. It is an easily accessible online tool, based solely on donor factors readily available at the moment of the donor offer. Importantly, the KDPI has also been made part of the 'longevity matching' allocation in the USA, where the best kidneys are allocated to the recipients with the longest predicted post-transplant survival. The KDRI should provide us with a robust qualitative evaluation of deceased donor quality, and therefore will probably play a role in deceased donor kidney allocation policies across Europe in the near future. Hopefully, the KDRI and the KDPI should help transplant programmes to better allocate the scarce resource of deceased donor kidneys.

  2. Management to optimize organ procurement in brain dead donors.

    PubMed

    Mascia, L; Mastromauro, I; Viberti, S; Vincenzi, M; Zanello, M

    2009-03-01

    The demand for donor organs continues to exceed the number of organs available for transplantation. Many reasons may account for this discrepancy, such as the lack of consent, the absence of an experienced coordinator team able to solve logistical problems, the use of strict donor criteria, and suboptimal, unstandardized critical care management of potential organ donors. This has resulted in efforts to improve the medical care delivered to potential organ donors, so as to reduce organ shortages, improve organ procurement, and promote graft survival. The physiological changes that follow brain death entail a high incidence of complications jeopardizing potentially transplantable organs. Adverse events include cardiovascular changes, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, and disruption of internal homeostasis. Brain death also upregulates the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent findings support the hypothesis that a preclinical lung injury characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response is present in potential donors and may predispose recipients to an adverse clinical prognosis following lung transplantation. In clinical practice, hypotension, diabetes insipidus, relative hypothermia, and natremia are more common than disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, acute lung injury, and metabolic acidosis. Strategies for the management of organ donors exist and consist of the normalization of donor physiology. Management has been complicated by the recent use of ''marginal'' donors and donors of advanced age or with ''extended'' criteria. Current guidelines suggest that the priority of critical care management for potential organ donors should be shifted from a ''cerebral protective'' strategy to a multimodal strategy aimed to preserve peripheral organ function.

  3. Highly n -doped silicon: Deactivating defects of donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D. Christoph; Fichtner, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    We report insight into the deactivation mechanisms of group V donors in heavily doped silicon. Based on our ab initio calculations, we suggest a three step model for the donor deactivation. In highly n -type Si grown at low temperatures, in the absence of excess native point defects, the intrinsic limit to ne seems to rise in part by means of donor deactivating distortions of the silicon lattice in the proximity of two or more donor atoms that share close sites. Also, donor dimers play an important part in the deactivation at high doping concentrations. While the dimers constitute a stable or metastable inactive donor configuration, the lattice distortions lower the donor levels gradually below the impurity band in degenerate silicon. On the other hand, we find that, in general, none of the earlier proposed deactivating donor pair defects is stable at any position of the Fermi level. The lattice distortions may be viewed as a precursor to Frenkel pair generation and donor-vacancy clustering process (step 2) that account for deactivation at elevated temperature and longer annealing times. Ultimately, and most prominently in the case of the large Sb atoms, precipitation of the donor atoms may set in as the last step of the deactivation process chain.

  4. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (<6 years). We analysed all paediatric liver transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (<1, ≥1 to <6, ≥6 to <16, ≥16 to <45, ≥45 years). Overall, 413 paediatric liver transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  5. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  6. Iron Replacement Therapy in the Routine Management of Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara J.; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M.; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer; Hopkins, Julie A.; Leitman, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors frequently results in deferrals for low hemoglobin, yet blood centers remain reluctant to dispense iron replacement therapy to donors. Study Design and Methods During a 39-month period, 1236 blood donors deferred for hemoglobin <12.5 g/dL and 400 non-deferred control donors underwent health history screening and laboratory testing (CBC, iron studies). Iron depletion and deficiency were defined as ferritin of 9–19 mcg/L and <9 mcg/L in females and 18–29 mcg/L and <18 mcg/L in males. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given a 60-pack of ferrous sulfate 325 mg tablets, and instructed to take one tablet daily. Another 60-pack was dispensed at all subsequent visits. Results In the low hemoglobin group, 30% and 23% of females and 8% and 53% of males had iron depletion or deficiency, respectively, compared with 29% and 10% of females and 18% and 21% of males in the control group. Iron depleted/deficient donors taking iron showed normalization of iron-related laboratory parameters, even as they continued to donate. Compliance with oral iron was 68%. Adverse gastrointestinal effects occurred in 21% of donors. The study identified 13 donors with serious medical conditions, including eight with GI bleeding. No donors had malignancies or hemochromatosis. Conclusion Iron depletion or deficiency was found in 53% of female and 61% of male low hemoglobin donors, and in 39% of female and male control donors. Routine administration of iron replacement therapy is safe, effective, and prevents the development of iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors. PMID:22211316

  7. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  8. Deceased donor kidney transplantation from donors with acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Mekeel, K L; Moss, A A; Mulligan, D C; Chakkera, H A; Hamawi, K; Mazur, M J; Heilman, R L; Reddy, K S

    2009-07-01

    With the current shortage of solid organs for transplant, the transplant community continues to look for ways to increase the number of organ donors, including extending the criteria for donation. In rhabdomyolysis, the byproducts of skeletal muscle breakdown leak into the circulation resulting in acute renal failure in up to 30% of patients. In nonbrain dead patients, this condition is reversible and most patients recover full renal function. Seven potential donors had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure as evidenced by the presence of urine hemoglobin, plasma creatinine kinase levels of greater than five times the normal and elevated creatinine. One donor required dialysis. At our institution, 10 kidneys were transplanted from the seven donors. Two grafts had immediate function, five grafts experienced slow graft function and three grafts had delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis. At a mean of 8.7 months posttransplant (2.4-25.2 months), all patients have good graft function, are off dialysis and have a mean creatinine of 1.3 (0.7-1.8). In conclusion, our experience suggests that rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should not be a contraindication for donation, although recipients may experience slow or delayed graft function.

  9. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  10. Comparison between psychosocial long-term outcomes of recipients and donors after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noma, Shun'ichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Uehara, Minako; Uemoto, Shinji; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial states of recipients and donors several years after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to find out the pre-transplant predictors of desirable post-transplant psychosocial states. The recipients and donors of adult-to-adult LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, from November 2001 through July 2003 were interviewed and examined by means of questionnaires about anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL), and the participants were evaluated by the same test batteries sent by mail three to five yr after LDLT. Twenty-seven pairs of recipients and donors, 13 recipients, and three donors participated in this study. The recipients and the donors had a decline in social QOL. The main predictor of psychosocial states of the recipients was the length of wait for LDLT, and the predictors of the donors were family or support system availability and recipients' depressive states at LDLT. The donors who were spouses of the recipients had better QOL than other donors. It might be better to perform LDLT as soon as possible once LDLT has been judged to be necessary, and the relative who is on close terms with the recipient should be selected as donor.

  11. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  12. Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after bone-graft transplantation. Impact on a subsequent renal transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, G; Baraldi, O; Fantinati, C; Panicali, L; Veronesi, M; Cappuccilli, M L; Corsini, S; Zanelli, P; Bassi, A; Buscaroli, A; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S

    2009-05-01

    Immunological evaluation by panel-reactive antibody (PRA) and determination of anti-HLA specificity are important phases in the evaluation of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. The main causes of immunization are previous solid organ transplantation, hemotransfusion, and pregnancy. It is also possible that immunogenicity can be triggered by vascularized tissue grafts. Immune induction by cryopreserved bone prostheses is not yet understood. A 19-year-old patient with osteosarcoma had undergone resection of the left proximal tibia with reconstruction using human bone in 1997. The donor HLA typing was as follows: A3, A29 (19); B44 (12), Bw4; DR13 (6), DR7, DR52, DR53. The patient was subsequently enrolled onto the waiting list for cadaveric donor kidney transplantation due to chronic kidney failure caused by cisplatin toxicity. Pretransplantation immunological screening using the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) technique revealed a PRA of 63%. IgG antibody specificities were detected against class I and class II donor antigens, specifically anti-A3, B44, DR7 antibodies, using flow cytometry (Tepnel Luminex). Further immunological studies using single HLA specificity analysis (LSA Class I degrees -II degrees , Tepnel-Luminex) showed direct antibodies against all donor antigen specificities. This case showed immune induction after the implantation of bone prosthesis in a kidney transplant candidate, underlining the importance of the availability of HLA typing data of donors of a human prosthesis.

  13. Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n = 268; the C group), upper midline incision (n = 147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n = 14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P < 0.001), the female ratio was higher (P < 0.001), and the body mass index (BMI) was lower (P = 0.017) in the M and T groups versus the C group. The operation time (P < 0.001) and the hospital stay duration (P = 0.010) were lowest in the M group. The postoperative complications did not differ by the type of incision and also did not show any significant effect in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.867). In the assessment of questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction matched by age (±5 years), sex, graft, height, weight, and BMI, a more satisfactory cosmetic result and more self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision.

  14. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.

    2016-11-21

    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  15. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-08

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  16. New technologies for infectious screening of organ donors.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J A

    2011-01-01

    Viral, bacterial, parasitic, prion, and fungal infections, although uncommon, have been transmitted via organ and tissue allografts. Improved screening techniques for infectious diseases in organ donors have helped to reduce disease transmission. Reports of clusters of donor-derived infections illustrate the need to improve the screening of tissue and organ donors. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. These assays are frequently unsuitable in the screening of deceased organ donors. Nucleic acid testing may reduce the risk of disease transmission by detecting early-stage infection, including those from human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the "window" period before antibody seroconversion can be documented. Screening of organ donors for potential pathogens cannot completely exclude the risk of disease transmission. The process of donor screening must continue to evolve with advances in diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases.

  17. Donor-associated malignancy in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cai-Bin; Gerber, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer cells with donor genotype have been identified in allogeneic transplant patients; however, the donor contribution to the recipient’s epithelial malignancy remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, Verneuil et al. provide the first evidence for donor contribution to the malignant epithelium of skin squamous cell carcinoma in a kidney transplant recipient. This case report may have important implications for cancer research and clinical care of long-surviving kidney transplant patients. PMID:23979157

  18. A new class of furoxan derivatives as NO donors: mechanism of action and biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ferioli, R; Folco, G C; Ferretti, C; Gasco, A M; Medana, C; Fruttero, R; Civelli, M; Gasco, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The mechanism of action and biological activity of a series of R-substituted and di-R-substituted phenylfuroxans is reported. 2. Maximal potency as vasodilators on rabbit aortic rings, precontracted with noradrenaline (1 microM), was shown by phenyl-cyano isomers and by the 3,4-dicyanofuroxan, characterized by a potency ratio 3-10 fold higher than glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). This effect was reduced upon coincubation with methylene blue or oxyhaemoglobin (10 microM). 3. The furoxan derivatives showing maximal potency as vasodilators were also able to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values in the sub-micromolar range. 4. The furoxan derivatives were able to stimulate partially purified, rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase; among the most active compounds, the 3-R-substituted isomers displayed a higher level of stimulatory effect than the 4-R analogues. 5. Solutions (0.1 mM) of all the tested furoxans, prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, (diluting 10 mM DMSO stock solutions) did not release nitric oxide (NO) spontaneously; however in presence of 5 mM L-cysteine, a significant NO-releasing capacity was observed, which correlated significantly with their stimulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. PMID:7773542

  19. [Volunteer blood donors--relation between gender and motivation].

    PubMed

    Andjelić, D

    1991-01-01

    The study included 1,825 persons, aged from 18 to 65 years. A representative sample was formed of 1,325 persons who donated blood for the first time, and of 500 persons who donated blood five or more times till the moment of investigation. Among blood donors in the Republic of Serbia, regardless the number of blood donations, the percentage of female donors is significantly lower compared to the percentage of male blood donors. The first time donor population consisted of 22.26% of female and 77.74% of male blood donors. The multiple blood donor population was composed of 15.8% of female and 84.2% of male blood donors. Motives for blood donation were studied in 500 persons who donated blood five or more times. The following motives were recorded: a) altruism in 85% of multiple donors; b) the other motives (habit, superiority and/or inferiority complex, self-punishment and benefit) were recorded in 8% of them; c) in 7% of donors the primary motive for blood donation could not be determined.

  20. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  1. Emotional support to apheresis donors: effect and implication.

    PubMed

    Pagliariccio, Antonella; Vavic, Nataša; Bulajić, Milica; Marinozzi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that well-being and satisfaction are unavoidably interlinked requirements that predispose donors to become regular. Detecting in advance even the mildest symptoms of discomfort during first donation, that may simply be the result of an unknown experience, is useful in preventing more disturbing symptoms (mens sana in corpore sano). Being able to recognize any form of uneasiness, even when not immediately apparent, creates in donors the awareness that staff is professionally skilled and really interested in their safety and comfort. This reinforces the staff/donor relationship and gives donors the chance to keep their calm and to learn how to manage disturbing emotions. Emotional support given to first-time platelet familiar donors during donation prevented or mitigated the onset of vaso-vagal symptoms and also freed positive emotions that reinforced the desire to donate. As a result, 62% of these donors, informed about the shortage of voluntary platelet donors, spontaneously gave their address contact to be called also for non-familiar recipients. The application of the psychological approach in Italy increased the rate of donor return to 97% and its partial application in Serbia was useful in converting familiar donors into voluntary ones.

  2. Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool.

  3. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context.

  4. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  5. Strategies for evaluation of suitable donors: Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Venettoni, Sante; Emilio, Sergio Curtoni; Scalamogna, Mario; Grossi, Paolo; Gianelli, Andrea; Grigioni, Walter; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Rossi, Massimo; Gabbrielli, Francesco; Rizzato, Lucia; Costa, Alessandro Nanni

    2004-01-01

    Italy was lacking standardised procedures for donor safety evaluation. We developed practice guidelines, while a panel of experts coordinated by the National Transplant Centre, is available 24 hours a day to support decisions in difficult cases. The guidelines identify five levels of risk and give recommendations for the utilization of donors with HBV and HCV infections as well as for malignancies with negligible or very low risk of transmission. In conclusion we aim to standardize the process of donor evaluation across Italy, to increase the pool of utilised donors and to reduce the risk of communicable disease transmission.

  6. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

    2009-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  7. Reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation from an alternative unrelated donor for myelodysplastic syndrome of first-donor origin.

    PubMed

    Komeno, Yukiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kandabashi, Koji; Kawazu, Masahito; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-03-01

    A male patient had a relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2 years after BMT from a female matched unrelated donor. Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and short-tandem repeat chimerism analysis proved a relapse of donor origin. He underwent reduced-intensity BMT after a conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan, since he had impaired renal, liver, and pulmonary functions. Chimerism analysis on day 28 after the second BMT showed mixed chimerism of the first and the second donors, which later turned to full second-donor chimerism on day 60. He developed grade II acute GVHD of the skin and cytomegalovirus reactivation, but both were improved with methylprednisolone and ganciclovir, respectively. He remains in complete remission 6 months after the second BMT. Reduced-intensity second BMT from an alternative donor appeared to be a tolerable treatment option for donor-derived leukemia/MDS after the first conventional transplantation.

  8. Class Management Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.

    1989-01-01

    Effective class management in elementary physical education makes instructional time more efficient. Class management skills can be enhanced by concentrating on attention management, behavior management, and organizational techniques. Techniques for improving skills in these three areas are outlined. (IAH)

  9. Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Megson, I L

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

  10. Donors' attitudes towards body donation for dissection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R; Hurwitz, B

    1995-07-29

    We report a survey in the UK of potential whole-body donors for dissection. 218 people (age range 19-97 years) answered a postal questionnaire, giving information about themselves, their reasons for donation, attitudes towards the dead body, funeral preferences and medical giving and receiving. In addition to altruism, motives included the wish to avoid funeral ceremonies, to avoid waste, and in a few cases, to evade the expense of a funeral. 44% understood that their bodies would be used as teaching material, 42% for experiments. Whilst 69% believed in one or more supernatural phenomena, only 39% said they were religious. 69% requested cremation after dissection; 2% wanted to be buried. The notion of money incentives to promote donation was overwhelmingly rejected.

  11. Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB): isoniazid-resistant TB transmitted from a lung transplant donor with inadequately treated latent infection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T O; Darley, D R; Goeman, E E; Shaw, K; Marriott, D J; Glanville, A R

    2016-10-01

    Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly recognized complication of solid organ transplantation. We report a case of isoniazid-resistant pulmonary TB in a lung transplant recipient. The patient acquired the infection from the lung donor who was previously empirically treated with isoniazid for latent TB. The case highlights the caveat that, while adequate treatment of latent TB with isoniazid is presumed, meticulous screening of donors is required.

  12. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  13. Organ Procurement in Forensic Deaths: Specific Features of Nonheart-Beating Donors.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Gosset, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The need for organs has increased in the recent years, and this shortage will only worsen. In addition to the organs procured from brain-dead donors, a procedure for non-heart-beating donors was therefore developed. When deaths involve legal proceedings, the medical examiner makes the decision of whether or not to remove organs. To assist medical examiner in their decision-making, a number of forensic scientific societies aimed to develop recommendations, and legal adjustments were adopted. Nevertheless, these do present certain limits in special cases of procurement: Maastricht class I and II non-heart-beating donors. The peculiarity of this procedure stems from the urgency of the process. Compliance with temporal criteria would require that the deceased subject be removed from the crime scene even before the arrival of the authorities. This is extremely problematic legally and technically because forensic teams must collect evidence at crime scenes. Developments will have to be made to further minimize the restrictions on donations in forensic deaths.

  14. Molecular Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Strategies for High-Capacitance Organic Dielectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Heitzer, Henry M; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-06-10

    Donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems occupy a rich history in molecular electronics and photonics. A key property of DBA materials is their typically large and tunable (hyper)polarizabilities. While traditionally, classical descriptions such as the Clausius-Mossotti formalism have been used to relate molecular polarizabilities to bulk dielectric response, recent work has shown that these classical equations are inadequate for numerous materials classes. Creating high-dielectric organic materials is critically important for utilizing unconventional semiconductors in electronic circuitry. Employing a plane-wave density functional theory formalism, we investigate the dielectric response of highly polarizable DBA molecule-based thin films. Such films are found to have large dielectric response arising from cooperative effects between donor and acceptor units when mediated by a conjugated bridge. Moreover, the dielectric response can be systematically tuned by altering the building block donor, acceptor, or bridge structures and is found to be nonlinearly dependent on electric field strength. The computed dielectric constants are largely independent of the density functional employed, and qualitative trends are readily evident. Remarkably large computed dielectric constants >15.0 and capacitances >6.0 μF/cm(2) are achieved for squaraine monolayers, significantly higher than in traditional organic dielectrics. Such calculations should provide a guide for designing high-capacitance organic dielectrics that should greatly enhance transistor performance.

  15. The role of nitric oxide donors in schizophrenia: Basic studies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-11-05

    Schizophrenia is a complex and chronic mental health disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. While the current antipsychotic medications have profoundly impacted the treatment of schizophrenia over the past 50 years, the newer atypical antipsychotics have not fulfilled initial expectations, and enormous challenges remain in long-term treatment of this debilitating disease. In particular, improved treatment of the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia which greatly impact overall morbidity is required. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the brain. The implication of NO in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is documented. Specifically, underproduction of NO is linked to this pathology. This, in turn, indicates that enhancement of nitrergic activity might be beneficial in this disease. Therefore, novel molecules aiming to increase NO production such as NO donors might constitute potential candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here I intended to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of this psychiatric disorder. Present analysis suggests that NO donors might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the potential neurotoxicity and the narrow therapeutic window of NO donors would add a note of caution in this context.

  16. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support

  17. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  18. Education and Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2000-01-01

    The working class is nearly invisible in multicultural education literature. Examines the possibilities of a more careful foregrounding of the complexities of social class in shaping life chances, focusing on the educational experiences of working class students and discussing the poor in order to promote understanding of the potential of teacher…

  19. Utilization of elderly donors in living related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Manga Sahin, G; Turkmen, A; Sever, M S

    2006-03-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. However, its application is limited due to inadequate organ supply, mainly because many dialysis patients do not have suitable living donors. The increasing discrepancy between organ supply and demand has forced many transplant centers to consider using organs procured from marginal donors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether utilization of kidneys from living related elderly donors is safe for the recipients in the long term. We analyzed the clinical results of 296 consecutive recipients of living related renal transplants, among whom 44 recipients received kidneys from donors over 60 years of age. By the end of 12 months, the mean serum creatinine level of the recipients who were transplanted from the older donors was higher (1.55 +/- 0.45 mg/dL) than that from other donors (1.21 +/- 0.3 mg/dL), but the difference was not significant (P = .08). In the long term (60 months), the graft function was similar (1.88 +/- 0.55 vs 1.52 +/- 0.38) for both groups. The similarity in outcomes of ideal versus older donors as shown less in the present series has encouraged us to utilize elderly living donors. We concluded that transplantations performed from the elderly donors yielded similar results to those of conventional donors. The long waiting list for transplantation, the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, should encourage us to be more flexible about donor selection.

  20. Solvent as electron donor: Donor/acceptor electronic coupling is a dynamical variable

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Kennedy, D.; Cave, R.J.

    2000-04-06

    The authors combine analysis of measurements by femtosecond optical spectroscopy, computer simulations, and the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) theory in the study of electron-transfer reactions and electron donor-acceptor interactions. The study focus is on ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions from aromatic amine solvent donors to excited-state acceptors. The experimental results from femtosecond dynamical measurements fall into three categories: six coumarin acceptors reductively quenched by N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), eight electron-donating amine solvents reductively quenching coumarin 152 (7-(dimethylamino)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin), and reductive quenching dynamics of two coumarins by DMA as a function of dilution in the nonreactive solvents toluene and chlorobenzene. Applying a combination of molecular dynamics trajectories, semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations (of the relevant adiabatic electronic states), and GMH theory to the C152/DMA photoreaction, the authors calculate the electron donor/acceptor interaction parameter H{sub DA} at various time frames, H{sub DA} is strongly modulated by both inner-sphere and outer-sphere nuclear dynamics, leading us to conclude that H{sub DA} must be considered as a dynamical variable.

  1. Utilization of kidneys with similar kidney donor risk index values from standard versus expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Woodside, K J; Merion, R M; Leichtman, A B; de los Santos, R; Arrington, C J; Rao, P S; Sung, R S

    2012-08-01

    With the shortage of standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys, efficient expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney utilization has become more vital. We investigated the effects of the ECD label on kidney recovery, utilization and outcomes. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from November 2002 to May 2010, we determined recovery and transplant rates, and modeled discard risk, for kidneys within a range of kidney donor risk index (KDRI) 1.4-2.1 that included both SCD and ECD kidneys. To further compare similar quality kidneys, these kidneys were again divided into three KDRI intervals. Overall, ECD kidneys had higher recovery rates, but lower transplant rates. However, within each KDRI interval, SCD and ECD kidneys were transplanted at similar rates. Overall, there was increased risk for discard for biopsied kidneys. SCD kidneys in the lower two KDRI intervals had the highest risk of discard if biopsied. Pumped kidneys had a lower risk of discard, which was modulated by KDRI for SCD kidneys but not ECD kidneys. Although overall ECD graft survival was worse than SCD, there were no differences within individual KDRI intervals. Thus, ECD designation adversely affects neither utilization nor outcomes beyond that predicted by KDRI.

  2. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  4. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  5. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  7. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  10. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  11. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  12. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  13. Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

  14. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  15. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  16. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Assessing elements of informed consent among living donors

    PubMed Central

    Valapour, M; Kahn, JP; Bailey, R; Matas, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Living organ donors – 50% of solid organ donors in the United States – represent a unique population who accept medical risk for the benefit of another. One of the main justifications for this practice has been respect for donor autonomy, as realized through informed consent. In this retrospective study of living donors, we investigate 2 key criteria of informed consent: (1) depth of understanding and (2) degree of voluntariness. In our survey of 262 living kidney donors 2 to 40 months post donation, we found that more than 90% understood the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes, the screening process, and the short-term medical risks of donation. In contrast, only 69% understood the psychological risks of donation; 52% the long-term medical risks of donation; and 32%, the financial risks of donation. Understanding the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes was the only factor that would affect donors' decision to donate again. 40% of donors reported feeling some pressure to donate. Donors who are related to the recipient were more likely to report feeling pressure to donate. We conclude that more studies of informed consent are needed to identify factors that may compromise the validity of informed consent. PMID:21158924

  18. Settlement Ends Dispute between Princeton and Donors' Heirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn; Gose, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Princeton University has settled a long-running dispute with the heirs of a major donor by agreeing to pay $50-million to the heirs' foundation and approximately the same amount for their legal fees. The case has been closely watched as a test of how strictly institutions must adhere to donors' wishes. The settlement…

  19. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  20. Optical Control of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Gullans, M. J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the goup-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon Λ-transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective Λ-transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons. PMID:28127227

  1. The History and Challenges of Blood Donor Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun

    2017-04-01

    Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods

  2. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Donation after circulatory death: burying the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Smith, Maxwell J; Lazar, Neil M

    2011-08-01

    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR is not an acceptable strategy to protect donors from harm in DCD protocols. We propose a threefold alternative to justify organ procurement practices: (1) ensuring that donors are sufficiently protected from harm; (2) ensuring that they are respected through informed consent; and (3) ensuring that society is fully informed of the inherently debatable nature of any criterion to declare death.

  4. Surgical aspects of donor hand recovery for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Rodrigo N; Moreno, Rodrigo; Duggal, Anil; Breidenbach, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share our institution's experience in optimizing the suitability of composite donor tissue for use in hand transplantation. The centerpiece of this process includes procurement techniques, preservation and timing issues, and anatomical matching. Recovery of the donor hand must proceed in an efficient, organized, and expedient manner. Proper timing of the donor operation not only ensures the quality of donor tissue and outcome for the hand recipient, but also allows surgeons recovering other organs to obtain high quality tissue for those recipients. Timing remains a critical factor in preserving tissue after removal from the donor. We will also consider the factors of temperature and preservation solution during transport.

  5. Separate, dedicated care teams for living organ donors.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Brenda; Gordon, Debra

    2003-06-01

    Living donation is an increasingly common option offered to patients in most transplant programs. Staff involved in the education, assessment, and care of this patient group is faced with increasingly complicated assessments both medically and psychologically. Supporting arguments for dedicated care teams for living organ donors include the large number of transplantations performed using living donors, the continued need to promote living organ donation, and the growing complexity of both medical and psychological factors in donor assessments. In addition, there is a need to implement the standards proposed by the 2000 Consensus Group, as well as to develop a body of evidence-based research related both to short- and long-term issues for this patient group. The ethical issues related to simultaneous involvement with both donors and recipients, and a need to ensure confidentiality are additional supporting arguments for the need to provide separate care providers for donors and recipients.

  6. The Unexamined Donor: For Better Planning and Greater Returns, Segment the Annual Fund by Giving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardillo, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for conducting an annual fund at colleges and universities stress the importance of aggregate donor behavior and donor value, rather than solicitation technique, in driving strategic planning and goal-setting. Suggests fund raisers track three measures of donor participation: donor retention, lapsed donor reactivation, and new donor…

  7. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  9. Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise?

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Ray, Deepanjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding. Aim A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients. Materials and Methods Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted. Results Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater. Conclusion Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers. PMID:26266124

  10. The Significance of Evalution of Haematocrit in Plateletpheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Pratap Eknath; Nagane, Nitin Sopan; Dhonde, Sushma Prakash; Belwalkar, Gajanan J.; Mane, Vaibhav Pandurang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The collection of platelets by apheresis is considered as a very great progress in transfusion medicine. In present era, many automated cell separation are available each model has tried to improve productivity, quality of plateletpheresis. Further various studies have been done to correlate the quality of platelet concentrates. Also, various biochemical studies have been done on plateletpheresis donors. However, safety issue with regards to post procedure levels of biochemical parameters decreased in donors undergoing plateletpheresis have been only minimally explored. Objectives: Investigating Haematological and Biochemical parameters (Hematocrit value and Serum Calcium levels) pre and post in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods: Sixty two healthy first time voluntary plateletpheresis donors at Apheresis unit in blood bank Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College & Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hematocrit value of plateletpheresis donors were analysed and based on mean value 43.2% considering this as standard in the present study. We categorized plateletpheresis donors in two groups (A) these having value less than 43.2% (n = 36) and Group (B) having haematocrit more than 43.3% (n = 26). Volume of ACD required for donors from both group were noted. Result: We observed mean of ACD infused in group A plateletpheresis donors was 347.7 ml ± 35.75 SD while group ‘B’ donors required mean volume ACD to be infused was 379.6 ml ± 46.24 S.D. was statistically significant (p <0.005). Conclusion: Plateletpheresis induces marked metabolic effects, with sustained changes in serum calcium and haematocrit after ACD infusion, the results show, before procedure (Plateletpheresis) one must consider the haematocrit value along with serum calcium levels in Plateletpheresis donor to avoid severe symptoms of hypocalcaemia. PMID:26023547

  11. Corneal Donor Tissue Preparation for Endothelial Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Maria A.; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes1,2. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection3-6. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually1 resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference

  12. Influence of the HLA characteristics of Italian patients on donor search outcome in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Testi, M; Andreani, M; Locatelli, F; Arcese, W; Troiano, M; Battarra, M; Gaziev, J; Lucarelli, G

    2014-08-01

    The information regarding the probability of finding a matched unrelated donor (MUD) within a relatively short time is crucial for the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in patients with malignancies. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 315 Italian patients who started a search for a MUD, in order to assess the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes in this population of patients and to evaluate the probability of finding a donor. Comparing two groups of patients based on whether or not a 10/10 HLA-matched donor was available, we found that patients who had a fully-matched MUD possessed at least one frequent haplotype more often than the others (45.6% vs 14.3%; P = 0.000003). In addition, analysis of data pertaining to the HLA class I alleles distribution showed that, in the first group of patients, less common alleles were under-represented (20.2% vs 40.0%; P = 0.006). Therefore, the presence of less frequent alleles represents a negative factor for the search for a potential compatible donor being successful, whereas the presence of one frequent haplotype represents a positive predictive factor. Antigenic differences between patient and donor observed at C and DQB1 loci, were mostly represented by particular B/C or DRB1/DQB1 allelic associations. Thus, having a particular B or DRB1 allele, linked to multiple C or DQB1 alleles, respectively, might be considered to be associated with a lower probability of a successful search. Taken together, these data may help determine in advance the probability of finding a suitable unrelated donor for an Italian patient.

  13. α-1-Antitrypsin (AAT)-modified donor cells suppress GVHD but enhance the GVL effect: a role for mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, A Mario; Karoopongse, Ekapun; Lesnikova, Marina; Margineantu, Daciana; Welte, Tobias; Dinarello, Charles A; Hockenbery, David; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Deeg, H Joachim

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative in many patients. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), triggered by alloreactive donor cells, has remained a major complication. Here, we show an inverse correlation between plasma α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in human donors and the development of acute GVHD in the recipients (n = 111; P = .0006). In murine models, treatment of transplant donors with human AAT resulted in an increase in interleukin-10 messenger RNA and CD8(+)CD11c(+)CD205(+) major histocompatibility complex class II(+) dendritic cells (DCs), and the prevention or attenuation of acute GVHD in the recipients. Ablation of DCs (in AAT-treated CD11c-DTR donors) decreased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells to one-third and abrogated the anti-GVHD effect. The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect of donor cells (against A20 tumor cells) was maintained or even enhanced with AAT treatment of the donor, mediated by an expanded population of NK1.1(+), CD49B(+), CD122(+), CD335(+) NKG2D-expressing natural killer (NK) cells. Blockade of NKG2D significantly suppressed the GVL effect. Metabolic analysis showed a high glycolysis-high oxidative phosphorylation profile for NK1.1(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells, and CD11c(+) DCs but not for effector T cells, suggesting a cell type-specific effect of AAT. Thus, via altered metabolism, AAT exerts effective GVHD protection while enhancing GVL effects.

  14. Do We Need Full Donor Chimerism? How Alloreactive Cell Therapies without Substantial Engraftment Might Treat Hematologic Cancers.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Elizabeth F; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Shaffer, Brian; Delisle, Jean-Sebastien; Hu, Kai-Xun; Sung, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    "Alloreactive cell therapy without substantial engraftment"; (ACT-WiSE) refers to adoptive transfer of natural ("non-engineered") human leukocyte antigen-mismatched lymphocytes to mediate anti-neoplastic alloreactivity in recipients without employing pharmacologic immunosuppression. By definition, ACT-WiSE entails subsequent rejection of most, if not all, donor cells. Macrochimerism is transient and microchimerism may be either short-lived or persistent. This strategy harnesses the anticancer potency of alloreactivity without incurring significant risk of graft-versus-host disease. "Microtransplantation" refers to a form of ACT-WiSE where the donor cell product contains hematopoietic progenitor cells. Microtransplantation therefore accelerates hematopoietic recovery and its immunomodulatory effects may differ from other forms of ACT-WiSE. Recent studies suggest that various forms of ACT-WiSE, including microtransplantation, may improve chemosensitivity in patients with myeloid malignancies, resulting in higher complete remission rates and increased survival. Microtransplantation has also demonstrated promising pilot results in relapsed or refractory Non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. ACT-WiSE and microtransplantation may establish a new class of allogeneic cell therapy of particular relevance to persons not considered candidates for traditional allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). Open questions include the optimal timing and cell dose of ACT-WiSE, which donor factors contribute to efficacy, and whether these remissions are durable after eradication of donor cells. We extrapolate from lessons learned in the course of traditional and haploidentical AHCT to propose ways of optimizing ACT-WiSE. We divide these into donor-related strategies (including rational donor selection and boosting NK-cell and T-cell alloreactivity) and patient- related strategies (that may favor development of autologous NK-cell and T-cell mediated anticancer cytotoxicity in the

  15. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  16. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: Analysis of Enrollment Data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics which predispose to this condition are poorly defined. Methods 2425 red cell donors, either first time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual/pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by ferritin < 12 ng/mL and iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by log (sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07. Results 15.0% of donors had AIS, 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4% and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1% and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS/IDE (ORs from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS/IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a non-smoker, previous pregnancy and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS/IDE, as was race/ethnicity. Conclusion A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, gender/menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS/IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. PMID:20804527

  17. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  18. Donor-reactive CD8 Memory T Cells Infiltrate Cardiac Allografts Within 24 Hours Post-Transplant in Naïve Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, A.D.; Nozaki, T.; Rabant, M.; Valujskikh, A.; Fairchild, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal immune responses stimulated by pathogenic and environmental antigens generate memory T cells that react with donor antigens and no currently used immunosuppressive drug completely inhibits memory T cell function. While donor-reactive memory T cells clearly compromise graft outcomes, mechanisms utilized by memory T cells to promote rejection are largely unknown. In the current study we investigated how early endogenous memory cells infiltrate and express effector function in cardiac allografts. Endogenous CD8 memory T cells in non-sensitized recipients distinguish syngeneic vs. allogeneic cardiac allografts within 24 hours of reperfusion. CD8-dependent production of IFN-γ and CXCL9/Mig was observed 24–72 hours post-transplant in allografts but not isografts. CXCL9 was produced by donor cells in response to IFN-γ made by recipient CD8 T cells reactive to donor class I MHC molecules. Activated CD8 T cells were detected in allografts at least three days before donor-specific effector T cells producing IFN-γ were detected in the recipient spleen. Early inflammation mediated by donor-reactive CD8 memory T cells greatly enhanced primed effector T cell infiltration into allografts. These results suggest that strategies for optimal inhibition of alloimmunity should include neutralization of infiltrating CD8 memory T cells within a very narrow window after transplantation. PMID:18557725

  19. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors.

  20. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Lourençon, Adriana de Fátima; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Ferreira, Oranice; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2011-01-01

    Background To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. Objectives This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. Methods The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. Results Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. Conclusions The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates. PMID:23049294

  1. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system.

  2. Donor cancer transmission in kidney transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, D; Craig, J C; Chapman, J R; Dominguez-Gil, B; Tong, A; Wong, G

    2013-10-01

    Transplantation of any biological material from a donor to a host will carry some inherent risk of disease transmission. Our aims were to summarize the totality of the published evidence about donor cancer transmission among kidney transplant recipients and to determine the cancer-specific survival of these patients. We systematically reviewed all case reports, case series and registry studies that described the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with donor cancer transmission published to December 2012. A total of 69 studies with 104 donor-transmitted cancer cases were identified. The most common transmitted cancer types were renal cancer (n = 20, 19%), followed by melanoma (n = 18, 17%), lymphoma (n = 15, 14%) and lung cancer (n = 9, 9%). Patients with melanoma and lung cancers had the worst prognosis, with less than 50% of recipients surviving after 24 months from transplantation. Recipients with transmitted renal cancers had the best outcomes, with over 70% of recipients surviving for at least 24 months after transplantation. Overall, the risk of donor transmission of cancer appears low, but there is a high likelihood of reporting bias. Our findings support the current recommendations for rejecting organs from donors with a history of melanoma and lung cancer, but suggest that the use of donor kidneys with a history of small, incidental renal cell cancer may be reasonable.

  3. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  4. Improvements in kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, E R Pieter; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; Habets, Margot A W; Brandsma, D Steven; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the growing waiting list for kidney transplantation, we explored the limits of kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death by liberally accepting marginal donor kidneys for transplantation. As the percentage of primary non-function (PNF) increased, we evaluated our transplantation program and implemented changes to reduce the high percentage of PNF in 2005, followed by a second evaluation over the period 2006-2009. Recipients of a kidney from a donor after cardiac death between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed, with PNF as outcome measure. During the period 2002-2005, the percentage of PNF increased and crossed the upper control limits of 12% which was considered as unacceptably high. After implementation of changes, this percentage was reduced to 5%, without changing the number of kidney transplantations from donors after cardiac death. Continuous monitoring of the quality of care is essential as the boundaries of organ donation and transplantation are sought. Meticulous donor, preservation, and recipient management make extension of the donor potential possible, with good results for the individual recipient. Liberal use of kidneys from donors after cardiac death may contribute to a reduction in the waiting list for kidney transplantation and dialysis associated mortality.

  5. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  6. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  7. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation.

  8. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  9. Universality classes of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    We give several criteria of complexity and define different universality classes. According to our classification, at the lowest class of complexity are random graph, Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models. At the next level is Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass, connected with neuron-network models. On a higher level are critical theories, spin glass phase of Random Energy Model, percolation, self organized criticality (SOC). The top level class involves HOT design, error threshold in optimal coding, language, and, maybe, financial market. Alive systems are also related with the last class.

  10. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  11. Perioperative Bacterial Infections in Deceased Donor and Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Gomathy, Narasimhan; Rajashekhar, Perumalla; Venugopal, Kota; Olithselvan, Arikichenin; Vivekanandan, Shanmugam; Naresh, Shanmugam; Sujatha, Chandrasekaran; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background Deceased donor (DDLT) and living donor (LDLT) liver transplant (LT) is in vogue in several centers in India. Most centers are resorting to LDLT as a preferred surgery due to shortage of deceased donor liver. The risk of infection and its effect on survival in both groups of recipients from the Indian subcontinent are not known. The study was conducted to compare the bacterial infection rates among LDLT and DDLT recipients and their impact on survival at a tertiary referral center. Methods Retrospective data on 67 LT recipients were reviewed. Data on pre-, per-, and postoperative bacterial infection rates and the common isolates were obtained. Results Thirty-five patients had LDLT and 32 had DDLT. The prevalence of pre-operative bacterial infection and the isolates was similar in both groups. The perioperative bacterial infection rates were significantly higher in DDLT recipients (P < 0.01) (relative risk: 1.44 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.9). In both LDLT and DDLT, the common source was urinary tract followed by bloodstream infection. The common bacterial isolates in either transplant were Klebsiella followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria. Six patients (four LDLT; two DDLT) were treated for tuberculosis. Among the risk factors, cold ischemic time, and duration of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly higher for DDLT (p < 0.01). The death rates were not significantly different in the two groups. However, the odds for death were significantly high at 26.8 (p < 0.05) for postoperative bacterial infection and 1.8 (p < 0.001) for past alcohol. Conclusion Liver transplant recipients are at high-risk for bacterial infection irrespective of type of transplant, more so in DDLT. PMID:25755404

  12. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  13. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  14. Donor Funding for Newborn Survival: An Analysis of Donor-Reported Data, 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Catherine; Lawn, Joy E.; Ranganathan, Meghna; Mills, Anne; Hanson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of global under-five deaths and is decreasing more slowly than maternal or child mortality. Donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), but no analysis to date has disaggregated aid for newborns. We evaluated if and how aid flows for newborn care can be tracked, examined changes in the last decade, and considered methodological implications for tracking funding for specific population groups or diseases. Methods and Findings We critically reviewed and categorised previous analyses of aid to specific populations, diseases, or types of activities. We then developed and refined key terms related to newborn survival in seven languages and searched titles and descriptions of donor disbursement records in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System database, 2002–2010. We compared results with the Countdown to 2015 database of aid for MNCH (2003–2008) and the search strategy used by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Prior to 2005, key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records but their frequency increased markedly thereafter. Only two mentions were found of “stillbirth” and only nine references were found to “fetus” in any spelling variant or language. The total value of non-research disbursements mentioning any newborn search terms rose from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010 (constant 2010 US$). The value of non-research projects exclusively benefitting newborns fluctuated somewhat but remained low, at US$5.7 million in 2010. The United States and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively. Conclusions Donor attention to newborn survival has increased since 2002, but it appears unlikely that donor aid is commensurate with the 3.0 million newborn deaths and 2.7 million

  15. The role of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor haplotypes on the outcome of unrelated donor haematopoietic SCT for thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Littera, R; Orrù, N; Vacca, A; Bertaina, A; Caocci, G; Mulargia, M; Giardini, C; Piras, E; Mastronuzzi, A; Vinti, L; Orrù, S; Locatelli, F; Carcassi, C; La Nasa, G

    2010-11-01

    Recent insight into the pathophysiology of acute GVHD after allogeneic haematopoietic SCT has led to a growing interest in the role of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell cytotoxicity is mainly regulated by the interaction of activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) with their respective ligands. To investigate the impact of KIRs and their ligands on haematopoietic SCT outcome, we performed a retrospective study of 78 transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients (median age 10 years, range 1-29 years) transplanted from an unrelated donor selected using high-resolution molecular typing for both class I and II loci after a myeloablative conditioning regimen. GVHD prophylaxis consisted of CsA, short-term MTX and anti-thymocyte globulin in all patients. We found that patients transplanted from donors homozygous for KIR haplotype A had a greater risk of developing grade II-IV acute GVHD compared with those transplanted from a donor carrying at least one B haplotype (hazard ratio=4.5, 99% confidence interval=1.2-17.1, P=0.003). Our study suggests that KIR genotyping of donor and recipient pairs could contribute to the identification of patients at high risk for developing severe complications of haematopoietic SCT and thus may help with the choice of intensity of GVHD prophylaxis.

  16. Separation of donor and recipient bacteria by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zsigray, R M; Fulk, G E; Lawton, W D

    1970-08-01

    When donor and recipient strains of Escherichia coli were added to columns containing Cellex-P (a cation-exchange cellulose), more than 80% of the female cells passed through the column but only 11% or less of the male cells were eluted. However, when donor strains were blended before their addition to the column, the majority of these cells were eluted. These results indicated that the filamentous appendages termed F pili (which are removed by blending) were the structures responsible for the adherence of donor cells to the cellulose.

  17. Intramolecular charge transfer in donor-acceptor molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Slama-Schwok, A.; Blanchard-Desce, M.; Lehn, J.M. )

    1990-05-17

    The photophysical properties of donor-acceptor molecules, push-pull polyenes and carotenoids, have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compounds bear various acceptor and donor groups, linked together by chains of different length and structure. The position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima and their variation in solvents of increasing polarity are in agreement with long-distance intramolecular charge-transfer processes, the linker acting as a molecular wire. The effects of the linker length and structure and of the nature of acceptor and donor are presented.

  18. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  19. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, P A; Shanmugam, J; Hariprasad, D

    1983-01-01

    Of 8085 volunteer donors attending the blood bank at SCTIMST screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, 103 (1.27%) were HBsAg positive. The personal data of donors showed a higher rate of HBsAg among men than women and in the age group of 21 to 30 years than in the other age groups. A significantly higher rate was noted among donors belonging to the lower socioeconomic group (p less than 0.05).

  20. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo

    2003-08-14

    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  1. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-10-21

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences.

  2. A New Approximate Chimera Donor Cell Search Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop chimera-based full potential methodology which is compatible with overflow (Euler/Navier-Stokes) chimera flow solver and to develop a fast donor cell search algorithm that is compatible with the chimera full potential approach. Results of this work included presenting a new donor cell search algorithm suitable for use with a chimera-based full potential solver. This algorithm was found to be extremely fast and simple producing donor cells as fast as 60,000 per second.

  3. Donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Luca; Sarina, Barbara; Bramanti, Stefania; Perseghin, Paolo; Mariotti, Jacopo; Morabito, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is considered the cornerstone in the treatment of several malignant and not malignant hematological diseases. However, relapse of hematological disease after allo-SCT is considered the most challenging point in the field. The risk can be reduced through optimal patients, donor and disease selection before allo-SCT, but harnessing donor immune system is an appealing way to treat or avoid disease relapse. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a simple and effective therapy after allo-SCT. In this paper, the efficacy of DLI will be analyzed in different hematological diseases, focusing also on their therapeutic or pre-emptive use.

  4. Value for Money in Donor HIV Funding.

    PubMed

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Ryan, Gery W; Liu, Jenny; Palar, Kartika

    2012-01-01

    Countries with the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are heavily reliant on donor funding from such sources as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for their HIV programs. In recent years, commitments from these organizations have flattened while demand for HIV/AIDS care continues to rise. To meet the continued need for more HIV services in developing countries, existing resources need to be better leveraged, i.e., to provide improved value for the money. This article examines options for improving value for money in HIV funding by using a case study that focuses on the two largest funders, PEPFAR and the Global Fund, with funding for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as its leading example. The authors' assessment of available input and output data suggests that current spending allocations across direct and indirect services are not based on increasing value for money. The authors recommend that expenditure data for PEPFAR be made available to the public in a transparent fashion on an annual basis in a usable format and that the Global Fund make its data accessible for each program funded. They find that program output indicators to track indirect services are incomplete and need to be further developed. The trade-off between providing current services and providing future ones needs to be stated clearly, and funding decisions made accordingly. Finally, given projections that funding for HIV will likely not increase, particularly for low-income countries facing the highest HIV burden, an explicit emphasis on improving value for money by finding ways to better leverage existing monies is imperative.

  5. Examination of serum class I antigen in liver-transplanted rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sumimoto, R; Shinomiya, T

    1991-01-01

    We examined the appearance of donor (DA) type class I antigen in the serum of rats that had received isogeneic (DA----DA) or allogeneic (DA----PVG, DA----BN, DA----LEW) liver transplants with or without cyclosporin A treatment, using two-site enzyme immunoassay. We also tested the serum titre of class I antigen in the normal DA rats with either 70% hepatectomy or cyclosporin A treatment, in order to clarify the relationship between the fluctuation in the serum titre of class I antigen in the recipient and the outcome of the transplanted liver graft. The suppression of liver graft rejection by cyclosporin A treatment significantly lowered the serum level of donor liver-derived class I antigen as compared with that of the recipient without cyclosporin A for a certain period. However, there was almost no correlation between the intensity of rejection of the liver graft and the serum level type class I among these allogeneic rejection and non-rejection liver transplantation combinations. The amount of donor-type class I antigen in the recipient's serum is dependent on whether the grafted liver is severely damaged following partial hepatectomy, whether the liver has associated biliary complications or ischaemic damage, or whether the liver has had absolute residual parenchymal cell volume or function following liver rejection. Our results suggest that the appearance of donor type class I antigen following liver transplantation is dependent on many factors, and therefore the titre of serum class 1 antigen may not always be a decisive indicator of liver graft rejection. PMID:2070555

  6. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  7. The Big Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2011-01-01

    Bigger classes are the reality for more and more teachers across the country. In the 2010-11 school year, 57 percent of districts increased their class sizes, and 65 percent anticipate doing so in 2011-12, according to a December 2010 survey by the American Association of School Administrators. So how do teachers cope? Experts and veteran teachers…

  8. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  9. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  10. Noun Classes in Tikar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley-Thorne, Carol

    An analysis of noun classes in Tikar, a Benue-Congo language spoken in west central Cameroon, looks at patterns in the noun class system, concord system (possessives, demonstratives, demonstrative adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, third-person pronouns, relative pronouns, copula, adjectivals, and numerals) with an eye to determining whether…

  11. Bayesian Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven; Gelman, Andrew; De Knop, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical classes models are models for "N"-way "N"-mode data that represent the association among the "N" modes and simultaneously yield, for each mode, a hierarchical classification of its elements. In this paper we present a stochastic extension of the hierarchical classes model for two-way two-mode binary data. In line with the original…

  12. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  13. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  14. The Question of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only we--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" don't value education, why "those parents" don't…

  15. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  16. Donor Safety in Adult-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience of 356 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Haipeng; Yang, Jiayin; Yan, Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Background As an important means to tackle the worldwide shortage of liver grafts, adult-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-ALDLT) is the most massive operation a healthy person could undergo, so donor safety is of prime importance. However, most previous research focused on recipients, while complications in donors have not been fully described or investigated. Material/Methods To investigate donor safety in terms of postoperative complications, the clinical data of 356 A-ALDLT donors in our center from January 2002 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into a pre-2008 group (before January 2008) and a post-2008 group (after January 2008). Donor safety was evaluated with regard to the type, frequency, and severity of postoperative complications. Results There were no donor deaths in our center during this period. The overall complication rate was 23.0% (82/356). The proportion of Clavien I, II, III, and IV complications was 51.2% (42/82), 25.6% (21/82), 22.0% (18/82), and 1.2% (1/82), respectively. In all the donors, the incidence of Clavien I, II, III, and IV complications was 11.8% (42/356), 5.9% (21/356), 5.1% (18/356), and 0.3% (1/356), respectively. The overall complication rate in the post-2008 group was significantly lower than that in the pre-2008 group (18.1% (41/227) vs. 32.6% (42/129), P<0.01). Biliary complications were the most common, with an incidence of 8.4% (30/356). Conclusions The risk to A-ALDLT donors is controllable and acceptable with improvement in preoperative assessment and liver surgery. PMID:27178367

  17. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  18. De novo identification of VRC01 class HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies by next-generation sequencing of B-cell transcripts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Soto, Cinque; Zhou, Tongqing; Casazza, Joseph P; Mullikin, James C; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2013-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing of antibody transcripts provides a wealth of data, but the ability to identify function-specific antibodies solely on the basis of sequence has remained elusive. We previously characterized the VRC01 class of antibodies, which target the CD4-binding site on gp120, appear in multiple donors, and broadly neutralize HIV-1. Antibodies of this class have developmental commonalities, but typically share only ∼50% amino acid sequence identity among different donors. Here we apply next-generation sequencing to identify VRC01 class antibodies in a new donor, C38, directly from B cell transcript sequences. We first tested a lineage rank approach, but this was unsuccessful, likely because VRC01 class antibody sequences were not highly prevalent in this donor. We next identified VRC01 class heavy chains through a phylogenetic analysis that included thousands of sequences from C38 and a few known VRC01 class sequences from other donors. This "cross-donor analysis" yielded heavy chains with little sequence homology to previously identified VRC01 class heavy chains. Nonetheless, when reconstituted with the light chain from VRC01, half of the heavy chain chimeric antibodies showed substantial neutralization potency and breadth. We then identified VRC01 class light chains through a five-amino-acid sequence motif necessary for VRC01 light chain recognition. From over a million light chain sequences, we identified 13 candidate VRC01 class members. Pairing of these light chains with the phylogenetically identified C38 heavy chains yielded functional antibodies that effectively neutralized HIV-1. Bioinformatics analysis can thus directly identify functional HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies of the VRC01 class from a sequenced antibody repertoire.

  19. Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, jianfeng; Boatner, Lynn A; Selim, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature thermo-luminescence (TL) was applied to measurements of the ionization energy of donors in ZnO. Three hydrogen-related donors were characterized with ionization energies of 36, 47 and 55 meV - values that are in complete agreement with previous reports. The donor types can be switched by relevant thermal treatments. These measurements also revealed the presence of two distinct sources for the green luminescence in ZnO. This work indicates that TL can be used to measure the donor energies in luminescent semiconductors. This approach can be particularly useful for thin-film investigations when the results of Hall-effect measurements are obscured by contributions from conductive interfaces or substrates.

  20. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  1. Errors and Omissions: Donor Compensation Policies and Richard Titmuss.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Joshua; Farrugia, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Many global and national systems of regulation of blood donors and donor compensation rely for intellectual support on Richard Titmuss's views, represented in The Gift Relationship. Based on selective interpretation of data from the 1960s, Titmuss engineered an ethical view pertaining to donors and, in so doing, created not only ongoing stereotypes, but created a cause for followers to perpetuate misunderstandings about the nature of such donations. In many cases, donors are, in fact compensated, but regulatory systems persevere in using definitional fig leaves in order to perpetuate an ongoing political goal of diminishing private sector participation in health care. However, in more recent works, including new views of critical sociology and evolutionary psychology, the Titmuss worldview has been turned upside-down. Evidence readily available today proves the safety of compensated donation and the lives saved by encouraging policies for both compensated and non-compensated donation.

  2. Donor conception, secrecy and the search for information.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-06-01

    Donor conception has historically been shrouded in secrecy. Such secrecy has been underpinned by social views and legal issues concemrning the adults involved in the process--the donor, the recipient parent(s), and, at times, the doctor. However, there is increasing recognition of the need to focus upon donor-conceived people's interests and rights to have identifying and non-identifying information about their donors. This editorial examines issues raised in relation to information release, while also introducing some of the arguments presented by other authors in this Special Issue of the JLM. It also considers recent Australian federal and State government inquiries that have favoured information release and the former Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority's service model to support people in the process of information access and release. While there has been a clear shift to favouring openness and honesty, legislative action is still required to ensure the balancing and realisation of people's interests.

  3. Ideal donors, imperfect results in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alexis A

    2013-08-08

    In this issue of Blood, Chou et al report findings from an observational study of alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) receiving blood transfusions from ethnically matched donors.

  4. Tackling the organ donor shortage effectively: optimism or realism?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Kelda; Farid, Shahid; Ahmad, Niaz

    2010-03-01

    There continues to be a growing disparity between the demand for and supply of organs for transplantation. This article reviews the status of current strategies in the UK to tackle the organ donor shortage.

  5. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    PubMed

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  6. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in the following tabulations are designated as clear...

  7. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in the following tabulations are designated as clear...

  8. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in the following tabulations are designated as clear...

  9. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in the following tabulations are designated as clear...

  10. National Marrow Donor Program. HLA Typing for Bone Marrow Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-30

    event. 3. Immunogenetic Studies: Increase understanding of the immunologic factors important in HSC transplantation. 4. Clinical Research... Immunology , and Transplantation DaSH Data Standards Hackathon DC Donor Center National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-13-1-0039 HLA Typing for Bone...Management Strategy ImmPort Immunology Database and Analysis Portal IND Investigational New Drug IND Improvised Nuclear Device IPR Immunobiology Project

  11. Criteria for initiation and evaluation of minority donor programs and application to the example of donors of Turkish descent in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A H; Solloch, U V; Baier, D; Yazici, B; Ozcan, M; Stahr, A; Schumacher, S; Ehninger, G; Rutt, C

    2009-10-01

    Minority donor programs aim to improve access to unrelated hematopoietic SCT for specific ethnic groups through directed donor recruitment. We have developed criteria for initiation and evaluation of such programs and applied them to the situation of donors of Turkish descent in Germany, as well as a program by DKMS German Bone Marrow Center that targets this group. Criteria for program initiation include the number of accessible minority donors, potential impact on the chances of finding matching donors, and general access to unrelated transplantation for patients of the targeted group. Success criteria comprise number and availability of recruited donors, the effect of these donors on the HLA phenotype distribution of a donor file, and the number of donations resulting from the program. More than 40 000 donors of Turkish descent have been recruited within the analyzed program to date. Recruited minority donors show more favorable demographic characteristics but lower availability rates than do German donors. Although HLA haplotype distributions of Turkish and German donors differ considerably, patients with common Turkish HLA phenotypes should benefit from the German donor pool even without a specific minority program. The analysis of donations from minority donors, however, shows specific benefits for patients with rare HLA phenotypes.

  12. Role of cardiovascular imaging in selection of donor hearts

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To perform a systematic review of literature on use of cardiovascular imaging in assessment of donor hearts. METHODS: A systematic search of current literature from January 1965 to August 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to investigate the different imaging modalities used to assess donor hearts. RESULTS: Recent literature still estimates only a 32% utilization of available donor hearts in the United States. Most common imaging modality used is transthoracic echocardiography. Use of advanced imaging modalities such as 3D echocardiography, cardiac computer tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance to evaluate donor hearts is not reported in literature. This review attempts to highlight the relevant imaging modalities that can be used to assess cardiac function in a time-efficient manner. The algorithm suggested in this review would hopefully pave the way to standardized protocols that can be adopted by organ procuring organizations to increase the donor pool. CONCLUSION: Use of advanced imaging techniques for a thorough assessment of organs will likely increase the donor pool. PMID:26722663

  13. Profile of effective donors from organ and tissue procurement services

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Simey de Lima Lopes; Ferraz Neto, Jose Ben-Hur de Escobar; Sardinha, Luiz Antonio da Costa; Araujo, Sebastião; Zambelli, Helder Jose Lessa; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Athayde, Maria Valeria de Omena; Montone, Eliete Bombarda Bachega; Panunto, Marcia Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the profile of effective organ and tissue donors and to understand which organs and tissues were donated for transplantation. Methods This was a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study that analyzed clinical data from 305 donors between January 2006 to December 2010. The data were then analyzed using descriptive analyses, generating frequency tables, measures of position (mean, minimum and maximum) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation) for data that was social and clinical in nature. Results There was an overall predominance of white (72%) and male (55%) individuals between the ages of 41 and 60 years (44%). The primary cause of brain death was cerebrovascular accident (55%). In the patient history, 31% of the patients were classified as overweight, 27% as hypertensive and only 4.3% as having diabetes mellitus. Vasoactive drugs were used in 92.7% of the donors, and the main drug of choice was noradrenaline (81.6%). Hyperglycemia and hypernatremia were diagnosed in 78% and 71% of the donors, respectively. Conclusion Significant hemodynamic changes were found, and the results indicate that the use of vasoactive drugs was the main strategy used to control these changes. Furthermore, most donors presented with hyperglycemia and hypernatremia, which were frequently reported in association with brain death. The persistent nature of these findings suggests that the organ donors were inadequately maintained. PMID:24770685

  14. Embryo production by ovum pick up from live donors.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Crotti, G; Notari, C; Turini, P; Duchi, R; Lazzari, G

    2001-04-01

    Embryo production by in vitro techniques has increased steadily over the years. For cattle where this technology is more advanced and is applied more, the number of in vitro produced embryos transferred to final recipients was over 30,000 in 1998. An increasing proportion of in vitro produced embryos are coming from oocytes collected from live donors by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (ovum pick up, OPU). This procedure allows the repeated production of embryos from live donors of particular value and is a serious alternative to superovulation. Ovum pick up is a very flexible technique. It can be performed twice a week for many weeks without side effects on the donor's reproductive career. The donor can be in almost any physiological status and still be suitable for oocyte recovery. A scanner with a sectorial or convex probe and a vacuum pump are required. Collection is performed with minimal stress to the donor. An average of 8 to 10 oocytes are collected per OPU with an average production of 2 transferable embryos. The laboratory production of embryos from such oocytes does not differ from that of oocytes harvested at slaughter as the results after transfer to final recipients. For other species such as buffalo and horses OPU has been attempted similarly to cattle and data will be presented and reviewed. For small ruminants, laparotomy or laparoscopy seems the only reliable route so far to collect oocytes from live donors.

  15. Kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Ekser, Burcin; Giuffrida, Giuseppe; Caglià, Pietro; Gula, Riccardo; Ardita, Vincenzo; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led to most transplant centers developing protocols that allow safe utilization from donors with special clinical situations which previously were regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis C infection may represent a safe resource to expand the donor pool. When allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C may result in an excellent short-term outcome and a significant reduction of time on the waiting list. Special care must be dedicated to the pre-transplant evaluation of potential candidates, particularly with regard to liver functionality and evidence of liver histological damage, such as cirrhosis, that could be a contraindication to transplantation. Pre-transplant antiviral therapy could be useful to reduce the viral load and to improve the long-term results, which may be affected by the progression of liver disease in the recipients. An accurate selection of both donor and recipient is mandatory to achieve a satisfactory long-term outcome. PMID:24659873

  16. Kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Ekser, Burcin; Giuffrida, Giuseppe; Caglià, Pietro; Gula, Riccardo; Ardita, Vincenzo; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2014-03-21

    The increasing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led to most transplant centers developing protocols that allow safe utilization from donors with special clinical situations which previously were regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis C infection may represent a safe resource to expand the donor pool. When allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C may result in an excellent short-term outcome and a significant reduction of time on the waiting list. Special care must be dedicated to the pre-transplant evaluation of potential candidates, particularly with regard to liver functionality and evidence of liver histological damage, such as cirrhosis, that could be a contraindication to transplantation. Pre-transplant antiviral therapy could be useful to reduce the viral load and to improve the long-term results, which may be affected by the progression of liver disease in the recipients. An accurate selection of both donor and recipient is mandatory to achieve a satisfactory long-term outcome.

  17. The selection of donors in multicomponent collection management.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Pietro; Garozzo, Giovanni; Bennardello, Franco

    2004-02-01

    The use of cell separators in multicomponent collection (MCC) makes it possible to use donors effectively by personalising the donation on the basis of their haemotological and physical profiles and thereby standardising the product. We have applied the selection parameters currently used in our collection centre to 6687 donors using a common software programme for all: 57.6% were eligible for the various forms of MCC, although our parameters are even stricter than those required by law. Between 01 September 2001 and 28 February 2002, 345 MCC (9% of all the donations made) were performed and assessed: 111 donations of double red cell units, 153 donations of red cells and plasma, 62 donations of plasma and platelets, 19 donations of double platelet units: only slight, adverse reactions were encountered in 6% of the procedures. 68 double red cell unit donors and 65 red cell and plasma donors were then reassessed 6 months after MCC: the parameters assessed (hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total protein) were the same as the pre-donation data. All the units collected complied with legal requirements. With the use of parameters based on donor hematological and physical characteristics we can move from the concept of tailored transfusions to the concept of tailored donations thereby ensuring donor safety and meeting patient needs.

  18. An unusual donor site, a lifesaver in extensive burns.

    PubMed

    Desai, M H; Herndon, D N; Rutan, R L; Parker, J

    1988-01-01

    The availability of donor sites is a limiting factor in autologous skin grafting and, therefore, the survival of patients with large total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Of 19 males admitted to our facilities with burns greater than 80% TBSA, eight had the scrotum spared injury. The remaining 11 patients served as a control population to study the efficacy of scrotal donor harvests. The scrotal skin was expanded using the Pitkin syringe and harvested at a depth of 5/1000 to 8/1000 in, with a mean yield of 73 +/- 8 sq cm. Expanded 4:1, this tissue covered an area of 280 +/- 33 sq cm. The scrotum was harvested 2 +/- 0.4 times, compared to 4 +/- 1 harvests of the other donor group. There were no statistical differences in the number of surgical procedures or the length of hospitalization between the two groups. The scrotal donor sites healed within the same length of time as other donor sites and were harvestable as frequently. Due to the natural expandability of scrotal skin, a large surface area of usable donor site is available and their harvest may be lifesaving in male patients with large TBSA burns.

  19. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  20. Gamete Donor Consent and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on whether the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos remaining after infertility treatment morally require the informed consent of third-party gamete donors who contributed to the creation of the embryos. The principal guidelines for oversight and funding of hESC research in the United States make minimal or no demands for consent from gamete donors. In this article, I consider the arguments supporting and opposing gamete donor consent for hESC research and embryo research more broadly. I argue that it is not morally permissible to use leftover embryos in research without the informed consent of gamete donors, and that we should place restrictions on the use of existing hESC lines that may have been derived without informed consent. While the standard argument for this position relies on an appeal to gamete donors' interest in controlling what happens with their genetic material, I identify shortcomings with the standard approach and seek instead to locate the deeper moral foundations for gamete donor consent in rights to bodily integrity.

  1. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition - to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue.

  2. Political commitment for vulnerable populations during donor transition

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Alan; Bennett, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment. Limited commitment, which is frequently expressed as the persecution of vulnerable groups, poses a risk to individuals as well as to the effectiveness and sustainability of health programmes. We argue that, for reasons linked to human rights, the social contract and the cost–effectiveness of health promotion, prevention and treatment programmes, it is critical that governments sustain health services for vulnerable populations during and after donor transition. Although civil society organizations could help by engaging with government stakeholders, pushing to change social norms and supporting mechanisms that demand accountability, they may be constrained by economic, political and social factors. Vulnerable populations need to be actively involved in the planning and implementation of donor transition – to ensure that their voice and needs are taken into account and to establish a platform that improves visibility and accountability. As transitions spread across all aspects of global health, transparent conversations about the building and sustainment of political commitment for health services for vulnerable populations become a critical human rights issue. PMID:28250512

  3. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors: further observations.

    PubMed

    Szmuness, W; Hirsch, R L; Prince, A M; Levine, R W; Harley, E J; Ikram, H

    1975-02-01

    A survey of 128,000 volunteer blood donors from the Greater New York metropolitan area revealed that first-time male donors were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) 2.5 times more frequently than were first-time female donors; Negroes and Mongols were positive four to 20 times more frequently than Caucasians. The ratio of ad to ay seemed to be higher in non-Caucasian antigen carriers than in Caucasian carriers. Among both Caucasians and non-Caucasians the rate of positivity declined after the age of 50. An excess prevalence of HBsAg was observed in donors with the lowest level of education and in those with the highest level. HBsAg was detectable nine times less frequently among repeat donors than among first-time donors (0.2 vs.1.90 per 1,000). Detection of HBsAg was unrelated to ABO-Rh blood groups. Several mechanisms for these wide variations of antigen detection are possible.

  4. Increasing the recipient benefit/donor risk ratio by lowering the graft size requirement for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chok, Kenneth S H; Sharr, William W; Dai, Wing Chiu; Fung, James Y Y; Chan, Kwok Yin; Balsarkar, Dharmesh J; Lo, Chung Mau

    2012-09-01

    In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), a right liver graft is larger than a left liver graft and hence leads to better recipient survival. However, in comparison with donor left hepatectomy, donor right hepatectomy carries a higher donor risk. We estimated the expansion of the applicability of left liver living donor liver transplantation (LLDLT) by lowering the graft weight (GW)/standard liver volume (SLV) ratio in increments of 5%. Consecutive LDLT cases were included in this study. The results of computed tomography volumetry provided the graft volume measurements, and the GW was derived from the graft volume with the conversion factor of 1.19 mL/g. We tried to estimate how many more times LLDLT would have been feasible if the GW/SLV requirement had been lowered to 40%, 35%, 30%, or 25%. In all, 361 consecutive donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Right liver living donor liver transplantation (RLDLT) accounted for 95% of the LDLT cases. Most recipients were male (74.2%), and most donors were female (60.4%). The median GW/SLV ratio was 46% (47% for RLDLT and 37% for LLDLT, P < 0.001). Two of the 218 female donors donated the left liver, and 12 of the 93 female recipients received a left liver. In 147 of the 173 cases (85%) when the donor was female and the recipient was male, the GW/SLV ratio did not reach 30%. LLDLT could have been performed more often than 5% of the time if a lower GW/SLV requirement had been adopted. With GW/SLV ratios ≥ 40%, ≥ 35%, ≥ 30%, and ≥ 25%, the proportion of LLDLT cases would have risen from 5% to 5.8%, 12.5%, 29.1%, and 62.3%, respectively. LLDLT could have been performed approximately twice as often with every 5% reduction of the GW/SLV requirement. In conclusion, lowering the graft size requirement could improve the applicability of LLDLT and hence reduce donor risk.

  5. Working with previously anonymous gamete donors and donor-conceived adults: recent practice experiences of running the DNA-based voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Gunter, Christine; Tidy, Christine; Atherton, Freda

    2013-03-01

    This article describes recent practice experiences with donor conceived adults, donors, non-donor-conceived adult children of donors using the voluntary DNA-based register, UK DonorLink. It highlights additional complexities faced when using DNA rather than paper records for searching, in particular from the risk of false positives, low chances of success and potential inclusion of biological parents' DNA. Professionals' experiences in supporting those being "linked" suggest challenges as well as rewards. Registration carries the potential to be therapeutic for donor-conceived adults and donors and to enhance their political awareness regardless of links being made. Registrants value both peer and professional support, providing the latter can respond flexibly and be delivered by staff experienced in intermediary work. Given that the majority of those affected by donor conception internationally come from anonymous donation systems, these findings are highly pertinent and argue the need for political and moral debate about such service provision.

  6. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  7. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  8. Interfacial composition of the oxide-donor interface: Probing morphology and charge injection/extraction in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantz, Jeremy L.

    The role of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and the organic donor material interface in small molecule planar heterojunction (PHJ) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells (OPV) was investigated and are presented as three projects: 1) the influence of the electrode surface composition and energetics on small molecule organic solar cell performance: Polar vs. non-polar donors on indium tin oxide (ITO) contacts, 2) the study of the oxide donor contact electrical properties utilizing metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor (MIS-C) devices to probe the dark current contributions of a single interface in organic solar cells, 3) the role of the hole transport layer type and morphology in small molecule BHJ solar cells: correlating trap state density with OPV performance and d) using fluorinated subphthalocyanines as multifunctional materials in OPVs. Organic semiconductor material properties are varied and the role of each class of material functions differently when incorporated into an organic photovoltaic. Polar donor materials such as indium (III) phthalocyanine chloride (ClInPc) adopt different molecular configurations on high work function ITO electrodes as opposed to low work function electrodes which sets itself apart from non-polar electron donating materials. We find that not only does molecular orientation effect the optical properties of these thin films, but the charge transfer properties that occur at the oxide/donor interface influence the overall device performance in OPVs and can be probed using MIS-C devices and high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. We also investigate how the morphology of the hole selective interlayer in BHJ OPVs influences the resulting trap state density and OPV performance.

  9. The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor acetylenes - A detailed investigation of structure-property relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Graham, Eva; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Cheng, L.-T.; Perry, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of donor-acceptor acetylene compounds was synthesized in which systematic changes in both the conjugation length and the donor-acceptor strength were made. The effect of these structural changes on the spectroscopic and electronic properties of the molecules and, ultimately, on the measured second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (beta) was investigated. It was found that increases in the donor-acceptor strength resulted in increases in the magnitude of beta. For this class of molecules, the increase is dominated by the energy of the intramolecular charge-transfer transition, while factors such as the ground to excited-state dipole moment change and the transition-moment integral are much less important. Increasing the conjugation length from one to two acetylene linkers did not result in an increase in the value of beta; however, beta increased sharply in going from two acetylenes to three. This increase is attributed to the superposition of several nearly isoenergetic excited states.

  10. Donor complications following laparoscopic compared to hand-assisted living donor nephrectomy: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Halgrimson, Whitney R; Campsen, Jeffrey; Mandell, M Susan; Kelly, Mara A; Kam, Igal; Zimmerman, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES TO LAPAROSCOPIC DONOR NEPHRECTOMY: standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). In this study we report the operative statistics and donor complications associated with LDN and HALDN from large-center peer-reviewed publications. Methods. We conducted PubMed and Ovid searches to identify LDN and HALDN outcome studies that were published after 2004. Results. There were 37 peer-reviewed studies, each with more than 150 patients. Cumulatively, over 9000 patients were included in this study. LDN donors experienced a higher rate of intraoperative complications than HALDN donors (5.2% versus. 2.0%, P < .001). Investigators did not report a significant difference in the rate of major postoperative complications between the two groups (LDN 0.5% versus HALDN 0.7%, P = .111). However, conversion to open procedures from vascular injury was reported more frequently in LDN procedures (0.8% versus 0.4%, P = .047). Conclusion. At present there is no evidence to support the use of one laparoscopic approach in preference to the other. There are trends in the data suggesting that intraoperative injuries are more common in LDN while minor postoperative complications are more common in HALDN.

  11. Classes of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Class Objective Assessment A No objective evidence of cardiovascular disease. No symptoms and no limitation in ordinary physical activity. B Objective evidence of minimal cardiovascular disease. Mild symptoms and slight limitation during ordinary activity. ...

  12. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  13. Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.; Dillon, James; Mullins, Robert F.; Russell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Birgit; Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Biskup, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Time and spectrally resolved measurements of autofluorescence have the potential to monitor metabolism at the cellular level. Fluorophores that emit with the same fluorescence intensity can be discriminated from each other by decay time of fluorescence intensity after pulsed excitation. We performed time-resolved autofluorescence measurements on fundus samples from a donor with significant extramacular drusen. Methods. Tissue sections from two human donors were prepared and imaged with a laser scanning microscope. The sample was excited with a titanium-sapphire laser, which was tuned to 860 nm, and frequency doubled by a BBO crystal to 430 nm. The repetition rate was 76 MHz and the pulse width was 170 femtoseconds (fs). The time-resolved autofluorescence was recorded simultaneously in 16 spectral channels (445–605 nm) and bi-exponentially fitted. Results. RPE can be discriminated clearly from Bruch's membrane, drusen, and choroidal connective tissue by fluorescence lifetime. In RPE, bright fluorescence of lipofuscin could be detected with a maximum at 510 nm and extending beyond 600 nm. The lifetime was 385 ps. Different types of drusen were found. Most of them did not contain lipofuscin and exhibited a weak fluorescence, with a maximum at 470 nm. The lifetime was 1785 picoseconds (ps). Also, brightly emitting lesions, presumably representing basal laminar deposits, with fluorescence lifetimes longer than those recorded in RPE could be detected. Conclusions. The demonstrated differentiation of fluorescent structures by their fluorescence decay time is important for interpretation of in vivo measurements by the new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) ophthalmoscopy on healthy subjects as well as on patients. PMID:22511622

  14. Study of iron stores in regular plateletpheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Page, E A; Coppock, J E; Harrison, J F

    2010-02-01

    Plateletpheresis donors will lose up to 100 mL of blood at each donation, leading to concern that they may become iron deficient, particularly if donating at the maximum allowed frequency under National Blood Service policy of every 2 weeks. The serum ferritin levels of 508 regular plateletpheresis donors and 101 non-donors were measured to indicate the level of their iron stores. About 33.9% (156/460) of platelet donors had depleted iron stores compared with 3.1% (3/97) non-donors. Results for male and post-menopausal female donors were similar with 36.2% (131/362) of males and 37.7% (20/53) of post-menopausal females showing iron depletion. There was clear correlation with donation frequency in males with 63.9% (46/72) of males donating at 2 weekly intervals found to be iron depleted. The percentage of iron depleted male subjects decreased as donation intervals increased. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not demonstrated, although no donor who had given fewer than 14 blood and/or platelet donations was found to be iron depleted. In males there was a clear correlation between iron depletion and frequency of donation. There appeared to be no correlation with lifetime number of platelet donations. As a result of this study, we have advised that volunteers should not donate platelets more than 15 times per year, so that red cell loss is no more than the equivalent of three whole blood donations (1500 mL).

  15. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  16. Clinical outcome of pancreas transplantation from marginal donors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Kawamoto, K; Hama, N; Wada, H; Kobayashi, S; Eguchi, H; Tanemura, M; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, absolute shortage of donors still continues even after the law allowing organ transplantation from deceased donors came into force in 1997. With the passage of the waiting period after registration for pancreas transplantation (PTx), both deaths and serious cases of diabetic complications necessitating withdrawal of the registration have undoubtedly increased. Therefore, so-called "marginal donor" (MD) has been considered as a potential solution for shortage of donors in Japan. The aim of the present study is to evaluate feasibility of MD in terms of post-PTx outcomes using data from Japan Organ Transplantation Network. A total of 148 PTx were performed from deceased donors in Japan from 2000 to 2012. MD was defined as follows: (1) >45 years old; (2) hemodynamically unstable at harvest using a high-dose dopamine or more than 2 vasopressors; or (3) non-heart-beating status. Postoperative outcomes after PTx were compared between the MD group and the non-MD group. Among the 148 PTx donors, 108 donors (73.0%) satisfied the criteria of MD. Early graft loss of pancreas graft during 3 months post-transplant was observed in 15 patients (10.1%), and the marginality (MD vs non-MD) was not significantly correlated with the early loss of pancreas graft. The overall patient survival of the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 94.7%, 94.7%, 94.7%) was not significantly different from that of the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 95.0%, 95.0%, 95.0%). Pancreas graft survival in the MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 80.9%, 73.2%, 66.0%) seemed to be slightly lower than that in the non-MD group (1, 3, 5 years: 92.5%, 85.2%, 77.4%), but no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups. These results suggest the feasibility of the use of MD for PTx.

  17. TRALI risk reduction: donor and component management strategies.

    PubMed

    Eder, Anne F; Benjamin, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 transfusions and may cause considerably more morbidity and mortality that is not recognized in clinical practice. Based on the current understanding of the etiology of TRALI, blood centers have implemented or are evaluating various donor and component management strategies in an effort to mitigate the risk of TRALI. Many cases of TRALI are likely caused by antibodies to leukocyte antigens (HLA or HNA) in blood components. Approximately 10 to 20% of female blood donors with a history of pregnancy and 1 to 5% of male blood donors harbor these antibodies. Alternatively, TRALI may be mediated by other bioactive lipids or substances that accumulate during storage and cause a reaction when transfused to susceptible patients. The complex interplay among various donor-, component-, and patient-related factors underlying TRALI guarantees that effective prevention will not be a single or simple intervention but rather will require a multifaceted approach. Perhaps, the most important risk reduction strategy is the effort to ensure appropriate use of blood products and eliminate unnecessary transfusions. Blood collection agencies, however, have more proximate control over donor selection and component management than transfusion practice. AABB has provided some guidance on deferring donors implicated in TRALI and minimizing the preparation of high plasma volume components from donors who have anti-leukocyte antibodies or are at increased risk of leukocyte alloimmunization. Blood centers have taken various approaches to mitigate the risk of TRALI, and the possible benefit and the inherent limitations of the current strategies will be reviewed.

  18. Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Macech, Michał; Alsharabi, Amro; Romanowski, Łukasz; Grochowiecki, Tadeusz; Lewandowska, Dorota; Kaliciński, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Pączek, Leszek; Nazarewski, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The advantages of a minimally invasive nephrectomy are a faster recovery and better quality of life for the donors. Until recently, the majority of donor nephrectomies in Poland were done by open surgery. Aim To present a single centre experience in hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). Material and methods The first videoscopic left donor nephrectomy in Poland was performed in our department in 2003 using a hand-assisted retroperitoneal approach. From 2011, we changed the method to a transperitoneal approach and started to harvest also right kidneys. Since then, it has become the method of choice for donor nephrectomy and has been performed in 59 cases. Preoperatively, kidneys were assessed by scintigraphy and by angio-computed tomography. We harvested 32 left and 27 right kidneys. There were double renal arteries in 2 cases and triple renal arteries in 1 case. The warm ischaemia time (WIT) was 80–420 s (average 176.13 s); operative time was 85–210 min (average 140 min). Results All procedures were uncomplicated, and all donors were discharged after 2–8 days with normal creatinine levels. The average follow-up period lasted 23 months (1–51 months). Out of all of the cases, 1 case had two minor complications, while all others were uneventful. None of the donors were lost to follow-up. All of the kidneys were transplanted. There were 2 cases of delayed graft function (DGF) and 2 cases of ureter necrosis. One of those kidneys was lost in the third postoperative week. Conclusions Our limited experience shows that HALDN is a safe method and should be used routinely instead of open surgery. PMID:28194249

  19. Blood donor well-being: a primary responsibility of blood collection agencies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Current FDA regulations and AABB standards do not adequately protect the well-being of blood donors. Several practices have adverse consequences for donors, including: elevated incidence of donation related reactions and injuries, iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women, and inadequate counseling of donors to obtain medical follow-up for health risks identified during pre-donation health screening. These practices can be improved without impacting negatively on the national blood supply. In addition to revising current blood collection operations, blood centers should explore the feasibility of establishing expanded donor health screening programs and determining their effectiveness in improving donor health, donor recruitment, and donor retention.

  20. Psycho-social, ethical and legal arguments for and against the retrospective release of information about donors to donor-conceived individuals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2011-12-01

    In the February 2011 report on its inquiry into the past and present practices of donor conception in Australia, the Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee called for the introduction of legislation to regulate donor conception in all jurisdictions that do not have it in place "as a matter of priority". It further called for the establishment, "as a matter of priority", of a national register of donors to enable donor-conceived individuals to access identifying information about their donor. The Senate Committee left open the question as to whether the legislation and central register should have retrospective effect. This article focuses upon that question. It shows that arguments concerning the privacy, confidentiality and anonymity of some donors who may wish to remain anonymous are outweighed by the manifest injustice faced by donor-conceived individuals who are denied access to such information, as well as their families and donors who wish to exchange this information,

  1. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ‘e’ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also

  2. Impact of the Crystallite Orientation Distribution on Exciton Transport in Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ayzner, Alexander L; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony; DeLongchamp, Dean; Nardes, Alexandre; Benight, Stephanie; Kopidakis, Nikos; Toney, Michael F; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-30

    Conjugated polymers are widely used materials in organic photovoltaic devices. Owing to their extended electronic wave functions, they often form semicrystalline thin films. In this work, we aim to understand whether distribution of crystallographic orientations affects exciton diffusion using a low-band-gap polymer backbone motif that is representative of the donor/acceptor copolymer class. Using the fact that the polymer side chain can tune the dominant crystallographic orientation in the thin film, we have measured the quenching of polymer photoluminescence, and thus the extent of exciton dissociation, as a function of crystal orientation with respect to a quenching substrate. We find that the crystallite orientation distribution has little effect on the average exciton diffusion length. We suggest several possibilities for the lack of correlation between crystallographic texture and exciton transport in semicrystalline conjugated polymer films.

  3. Donors in Ge as qubits —Establishing physical attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena, A.; Saraiva, A. L.; Menezes, Marcos G.; Koiller, Belita

    2016-10-01

    Quantum electronic devices at the single-impurity level demand the understanding of the physical attributes of dopants with an unprecedented accuracy. Germanium-based technologies have been developed recently, creating the necessity to adapt the latest theoretical tools to the unique electronic structure of this material. We investigate basic properties of donors in Ge which are not known experimentally, but are indispensable for qubit implementations. Our approach provides a description of the wave function at multiscale, associating microscopic information from density functional theory and envelope functions from state-of-the-art multivalley effective mass calculations, including a central-cell correction designed to reproduce the energetics of all group-V donor species (P, As, Sb and Bi). With this formalism, we predict the binding energies of negatively ionized donors (D- state). Furthermore, we investigate the signatures of buried donors to be expected from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The naive assumption that attributes of donor electrons in other semiconductors may be extrapolated to Ge is shown to fail, similarly to earlier attempts to recreate in Si qubits designed for GaAs. Our results suggest that the mature techniques available for qubit realizations may be adapted to germanium to some extent, but the peculiarities of the Ge band structure will demand new ideas for fabrication and control.

  4. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  5. Singlet-triplet donor-quantum-dot qubit in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Electron spins bound to phosphorus (P) donors in silicon (Si) are promising qubits due to their high fidelities, but donor-donor coupling is challenging. We propose an alternative two-electron singlet-triplet quantum-dot (QD) and donor (D) hybrid qubit. A QD is formed at a MOS 28-Si interface and is tunnel-coupled to implanted P. The proposed two-axis system is defined by the exchange and contact hyperfine interactions. We demonstrate that a few electron QD can be formed and tuned to interact with a donor. We investigate the spin filling of the QD-D system through charge-sensed (CS) magnetospectroscopy and identify spin-up loading consistent with a singlet-triplet splitting of ~100 μeV near a QD-D anti-crossing. We also demonstrate an enhanced CS readout contrast and time window due to the restricted relaxation path of the D through the QD. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    PubMed

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor.

  7. Alternative donor transplants for severe aplastic anemia: current experience.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sica, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Patients with acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA), who lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor (SIB), have two therapeutic options: immunosuppressive therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA), or a transplant from an alternative donor. In these patients, the current guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) call for a course of ATG + CsA first and transplantation in case of no response. The alternative donor source can be an unrelated donor (UD), a cord blood (CB) unit, or a family mismatched member, in most instances genetically HLA haplo-mismatched (HAPLO). In the present review, we will discuss recent results of transplants from matched UD and SIB donors, with significantly improved outcome, especially with UD in the past decade. We will also be looking at CB transplants, and the problems of limited stem cell dose. Finally HAPLO grafts have been explored in patients lacking or having rejected an unrelated or CB graft: early results seem encouraging, though the procedure should still be considered experimental.

  8. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  9. Donor dependent, interferon-γ induced HLA-DR expression on human neutrophils in vivo

    PubMed Central

    REINISCH, W; LICHTENBERGER, C; STEGER, G; TILLINGER, W; SCHEINER, O; GANGL, A; MAURER, D; WILLHEIM, M

    2003-01-01

    Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immune responses. Stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to express HLA-DR, neutrophils acquire accessory cell functions for superantigen-mediated T cell activation. In vitro HLA-DR induction on neutrophils varies in a functionally relevant way as levels of MHC class II expression and magnitude of neutrophil induced T cell responses are correlated functions. The aim of this study was to assess whether IFN-γ induces HLA-DR on human neutrophils in a donor dependent fashion in vivo and to define regulatory events operative in MHC class II expression of neutrophils. In vivo administration of rhIFN-γ in 55 patients with renal cell carcinoma resulted in a varying increase of HLA-DR on neutrophils. By setting a cut-off for response at>10% HLA-DR positive neutrophils, HLA-DR responders (51%) were as frequent as nonresponders (49%). In vivo kinetic studies revealed a peak expression of HLA-DR on neutrophils 48 h after rhIFN-γ application, while nonresponders remained HLA-DR negative over a 72-h period. In vitro IFN-γ stimulated neutrophils recapitulated the response profiles observed in vivo. No differences in IFN-γ dependent CD64 and invariant chain expression, and IFN-γ serum levels were observed among the response subgroups. HLA-DR mRNA was detected in neutrophils from rhIFN-γ treated responders and nonresponders, HLA-DR protein solely in lysates of responder neutrophils. IFN-γ stimulated HLA-DR expression on neutrophils is subject to donor dependent variations in vivo, which result from rather post-transcriptional than transcriptional regulation. Due to their abundance in inflammatory reactions heterogeneous HLA-DR expression by neutrophils could determine the outcome of superantigen-driven diseases. PMID:12930377

  10. Donor age matters in T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients: Faster immune reconstitution using younger donors.

    PubMed

    González-Vicent, Marta; Molina, Blanca; Deltoro, Natalia; Sevilla, Julián; Vicario, José Luis; Castillo, Ana; Ramirez, Manuel; Díaz, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    T-cell depleted (TCD) haploidentical transplantation is increasingly used in paediatric patients with haematological malignancies and donor selection is a challenge. We conclude that a simple criterion such as donor age should be also considered in depleted haploidentical setting because faster immune reconstitution is achieved using younger donors decreasing non-relapse related mortality.

  11. Donor chimera model for tolerance induction in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, F; Peppelenbosch, M; Dashty, M

    2013-05-01

    Tolerance induction is the basis of a successful transplantation with the goal being the re-establishment of homeostasis after transplantation. Non-autograft transplantation disrupts this maintenance drastically which would be avoided by administration of a novel procedure. At present, the blood group antigens and the genotypes of the donor and recipient are cross-matched before transplantation combined with a drug regimen that confers general immunosuppression. But the 'specific' unresponsiveness of the recipient to the donor organ, implied by 'tolerance', is not achieved in this process. This article introduces the 'donor chimera model' via the concept of the 'closed transplantation loop' approach for tolerance induction which seeks to limit the use of immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation.

  12. The risks and benefits of human donor breast milk.

    PubMed

    Brent, Nancy

    2013-05-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Review the advantages and disadvantages of donor-banked milk over informal milk sharing.2.List disadvantages of proprietary infant formula for use as supplementation.3.Determine the primary ethical concerns when electing to use donor human milk versus propriety infant formula for supplementation. The benefits of breast-feeding, as well as the risks of some artificial formula, are well known. This growing recognition of the advantages of breast-feeding is reflected in the increased incidence of breast-feeding in recent years. However, one of the most common reasons for premature weaning is low milk supply, perceived or real, followed by nipple or breast pain. Given the increased awareness of the superiority of breast milk, however, more parents are turning to human donor milk to supplement their babies after they have been weaned.

  13. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, K.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2011-03-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  14. [Chagas disease screening in the blood donor population].

    PubMed

    Assal, A; Pelletier, B; David, B; Tiberghien, P

    2009-12-01

    In May 2007, the French Blood Service (Etablissement français du sang, EFS) introduced systematic screening of at-risk blood donors for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. This concerned donors originating from an endemic area, donors with mothers originating from such an area and individuals who had lived in or travelled to endemic areas, whatever the length of their stay. Five samples out of 163,740 were positive, all from individuals originating from an endemic area. One thousand three hundred seventy-four blood donations were considered as equivocal because they had discordant results on the two Elisa tests used in screening. The authors discuss difficulties presented by routine screening of travellers and residents as well as the advantages and drawbacks of the strategy used. They present arguments in favour of its simplification.

  15. Transplant tourism and donor-derived parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Kotton, C N

    2011-01-01

    Transplant tourism, travel with the intent of receiving or donating a transplanted organ, has grown immensely in the past decade but is not without risks. Solid organ donors are potential carriers of infection and rates of infection are high in transplant recipients. Returning transplant recipients should be screened for blood-borne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and other endemic pathogens (malaria, tuberculosis, Chagas disease, and so on). Efforts should be made to optimize posttransplantation prophylaxis against infection. Although donor-derived parasitic infections are rare, rates of morbidity and mortality are high. Increases in world travel and migration will likely contribute to increases in donor-derived parasitic infection. Appropriate epidemiological screening and diagnostic testing, including blood smears, serology, and stool assays, may help reduce the risk of such transmission.

  16. Denitrification of groundwater with methane as sole hydrogen donor.

    PubMed

    Eisentraeger, A; Klag, P; Vansbotter, B; Heymann, E; Dott, W

    2001-06-01

    It was examined, whether methane can be used as hydrogen donor for an in situ denitrification of groundwater. It is demonstrated, that groundwater can serve as liquid medium and that the denitrification can occur at 10 degrees C. Efforts to enrich methanotrophic bacteria under anoxic conditions have not been successful. No methane oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen. For this reason, the denitrification with methane must be performed in a two-stage process with aerobic methanotrophic bacteria producing metabolites, that are used as hydrogen donor by non-methanotrophic bacteria in anoxic areas. This kind of indirect denitrification was proved by quantifying nitrogen and nitrous oxide in enrichment cultures that were not stirred or shaken. Large numbers of non-methanotrophic bacteria being able to denitrify with methanol, acetate or proteins as sole hydrogen donor were enriched besides the methanotrophic bacteria under these conditions.

  17. Cyclic olefins as new hydrogen donor compounds for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, M.W.; Curtis, C.W. )

    1990-01-01

    A new set of hydrogen donor compounds, cyclic olefins (CLO), has been evaluated to determine their effectiveness as hydrogen donors to coal. These cyclic olefins are hydroaromatic species which do not contain aromatic rings. The efficacy of these donors has been compared to conventional hydroaromatics. The CLO's under study are 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene, also known as isotetralin, and 1,4,5,8,9,10-hexahydroanthracene. In this paper, the thermal and catalytic reactivity of the CLO's under nitrogen and hydrogen at coal liquefaction temperature is discussed. Results for the reactions of the CLO's and their conventional hydroaromatic analogues, e.g. tetralin, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, and octahydroanthracene, with Western Kentucky No. 9 coal are discussed.

  18. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  19. Evaluation of Aquacel Ag for Autogenous Skin Donor Sites.

    PubMed

    Haith, Linwood R; Stair-Buchmann, Megan E; Ackerman, Bruce H; Herder, Diane; Reigart, Cynthia L; Stoering, Marla; Guilday, Robert E; Patton, Mary Lou; Ross, Kerry M

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing objective of burn research is to evaluate wound dressings and develop new treatments to expedite wound healing. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Aquacel Ag as a dressing for autogenous skin donor sites compared with Xeroform. We hypothesized that donor sites treated with Aquacel Ag would heal faster. Patients were considered for enrollment if they required skin grafting with two donor sites >100 cm at least 2 inches apart. Dressings were observed daily starting on post-op day #2 until discharge and then weekly in the outpatient burn clinic. Assessments evaluated pain, infection, and reapplication. Photographs were taken on post-op day #2, upon "90% re-epithelialization," and at post-op day #30-45. Scar assessments and blinded photographic reviews were completed to assess cosmetic healing. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. Re-epithelialization occurred faster with Xeroform (15.2 days vs. 17.6 days). Daily pain scores were higher with Xeroform (6.72 vs. 5.68) and Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often (1.72 times vs. 0.10 times). Three patients developed donor site infections with Aquacel Ag. Scar scores between the donor sites were not statistically significant. The blinded photo review concluded that Xeroform had a better cosmetic outcome (24 vs. 10%). Although patients complained of more pain with Xeroform, it demonstrated shorter healing times and better cosmetic outcomes. Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often and represented the only three donor site infections.

  20. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  1. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  2. SOME CLINICALLY IMPORTANT ERYTHROCYTE BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS IN DONORS.

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, I; Gorgoshadze, T; Donskov, S; Akhvlediani, L; Nagervadze, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of erythrocyte blood group antigens was evaluated among 656 donors; samples were provided by the diagnostic laboratory "Medina" Ltd Health Centre of Batumi. Lab analysis of the sample was conducted by the immunogenetics laboratory at Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University. The frequency of the ABO allele system in donors was as follows: r (0.70), q (0.23), p (0.07). The distribution of Rhesus (Rh) factor in the donor population was as follows: Rh(-) was found among 16.3±1.43% of investigated donors; the Rh(+) phenotype was found in 83.7±1.43% of donors. Additionally, the CcDee phenotype frequency was 29.9±1.78%; CCD-ee was 17.2±1.47%; ccddee was 14.9±1.38%; and CcD-Ee was 13.9±1.34%; ccD-Ee phenotype was 11.1±1.22%; ccD-ee was 5.5±0.88%; same phenotype indicators -2.1±0.55 were observed for CcD-EE and ccD-EE; CCD-Ee was 1.4±0.45%, CCD-EE was 0.4±0.26%; and finally, the frequency of Ccddee phenotype amounts was 1.1±0.40%, ccddEe and CCddee phenotypes were both 0.2±0.17%. The analysis of the Kell system allele revealed a low frequency for the p allele at 0.05, whereas the frequency of the q allele was 0.95. This large epidemiologic analysis of donor blood provides valuable information for hematological and transfusion centers to inform the preparation of blood components for transfusion.

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  4. Design and synthesis of polymeric hydrogen sulfide donors.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J

    2014-07-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that has several important biological functions in the human body. Because of the difficulties of handling H2S gas, small organic compounds that release H2S under physiological conditions have been developed. The observed bioactivities of these H2S donors have generally been directly correlated with their H2S release properties. However, apart from H2S release, these H2S donors also exert biological effects by direct interaction with intracellular components within the cytoplasm after passive diffusion across cellular membranes. Here we report polymeric H2S donors based on ADT-OH which would alter cellular trafficking of ADT-OH to minimize the unfavorable interactions with intracellular components. We designed and synthesized a poly(ethylene glycol)-ADT (PEG-ADT) conjugate having ADT linked via an ether bond. Whereas ADT-OH significantly reduced cell viability in murine macrophages, the PEG-ADT conjugate did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The PEG-ADT conjugate released H2S in murine macrophages but not in the presence of serum proteins. The PEG-ADT conjugate was taken up by the cell through the endocytic pathway and stayed inside endolysosomes, which is different from the small amphiphilic donor ADT-OH that can directly enter the cytoplasm. Furthermore, PEG-ADT was capable of potentiating LPS-induced inflammation. This polymeric H2S donor approach may help to better understand the H2S bioactivities of the H2S donor ADT-OH.

  5. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (<180 days), medium (181–270 days), or long (>270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; P<0.001) and more diversions to adults (31% versus 27%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a lower kidney to candidate ratio remained associated with longer waiting time (hazard ratio, 0.56 for areas with <2:1 versus reference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; P<0.01). Large geographic variation in waiting time for pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity. PMID:24436470

  6. Esmeraldas-Class Corvettes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-25

    RD-A128 976 ESMERALDAS -CLASS CORYETTES(U) NRYAL INTELLIGENCE / SUPPORT CENTER*NASHINGTON DC TRANSLATION DIY A BRAUZZI 25 APR 83 NISC-TRRNS-7854...INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER .. ( TRANSLATION DIVISION NISC-62 4301 Suitland Road " * Washington, D.C. S-.’ TRANSLATION TITLE: ESMERALDAS -CLASS...CORVETTES AUTHOR: A. BRAUZZI iV TRANSLATEDBY: 9093ii0 am UTmJ y--4 o.L NISC TRANSLATION NO. 7054 DATE 25 APRIL 1983 UNCLASSIFIED 83 06 06 134 00 ESMERALDAS

  7. The role of "indirect" recognition in initiating rejection of skin grafts from major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, H; Lee, R; Shea, S; Markowitz, J S; Grusby, M J; Glimcher, L H

    1993-01-01

    In vitro studies have revealed several pathways by which T cells can respond to alloantigens, including CD4+ direct responses to allogeneic class II antigens, CD8+ direct responses to allogeneic class I antigens, and CD4+ "indirect" responses to peptides of alloantigens presented in association with responder class II molecules. In vivo studies of skin graft rejection, however, have so far provided clear evidence for the contribution of only the two direct pathways and not for indirect recognition. We have used major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice as donors to test the role of indirect recognition in rejection of skin grafts. Class II-deficient skin was always rejected without delay by normal recipients. Removal of recipient CD8+ cells (to leave the animals dependent on CD4+ function) or depletion of recipient CD4+ cells revealed that CD4+ cells were usually involved and sometimes absolutely required in this rapid rejection. Since the donor grafts lacked class II antigens, the CD4+ cells must have recognized donor antigens presented in association with recipient class II molecules. These results therefore indicate that indirect recognition can initiate rapid skin graft rejection. PMID:8475083

  8. Fluorinated arene, imide and unsaturated pyrrolidinone based donor acceptor conjugated polymers: Synthesis, structure-property and device studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Arawwawala Don Thilanga

    After the discovery of doped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor materials are widely studied as high impending active components in consumer electronics. They have received substantial consideration due to their potential for structural tailoring, low cost, large area and mechanically flexible alternatives to common inorganic semiconductors. To acquire maximum use of these materials, it is essential to get a strong idea about their chemical and physical nature. Material chemist has an enormous role to play in this novel area, including development of efficient synthetic methodologies and control the molecular self-assembly and (opto)-electronic properties. The body of this thesis mainly focuses on the substituent effects: how different substituents affect the (opto)-electronic properties of the donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers. The main priority goes to understand, how different alkyl substituent effect to the polymer solubility, crystallinity, thermal properties (e.g.: glass transition temperature) and morphological order. Three classes of D-A systems were extensively studied in this work. The second chapter mainly focuses on the synthesis and structure-property study of fluorinated arene (TFB) base polymers. Here we used commercially available 1,4-dibromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB) as the acceptor material and prepare several polymers using 3,3'-dialkyl(3,3'-R2T2) or 3,3'-dialkoxy bithiophene (3,3'-RO2T2) units as electron donors. A detail study was done using 3,3'-bithiophene donor units incorporating branched alkoxy-functionalities by systematic variation of branching position and chain length. The study allowed disentangling the branching effects on (i) aggregation tendency, intermolecular arrangement, (iii) solid state optical energy gaps, and (iv) electronic properties in an overall consistent picture, which might guide future polymer synthesis towards optimized materials for opto-electronic applications. The third chapter mainly focused on

  9. Laboratory and genetic assessment of iron deficiency in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Joseph E

    2015-03-01

    More than 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the United States. Between 200 and 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss. This article highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation.

  10. Delayed Graft Function 5 Months After Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Tim; Pries, Alexandra; Kapischke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Delayed kidney graft function Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Living donor kidney transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Delayed graft function is a clinical term to describe the failure of the transplanted kidney to function immediately after transplantation. Case Report: A 59-year-old woman suffered from a rare case of delayed graft function lasting 148 days after unrelated living donor kidney transplantation. Until now, 15 years after transplantation, organ function is still good, with serum creatinine levels about 1.4 to 2.0 mg/dl. Conclusions: Even after prolonged graft dysfunction, good graft function can be achieved. PMID:26915643

  11. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  12. Strongly localized donor level in oxygen doped gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, C.; Suski, T.; Ager, J.W. III; Fischer, S.; Meyer, B.K.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.

    1996-08-01

    A classification in terms of localization of donor defects in GaN is performed by Raman spectroscopy under large hydrostatic pressure. We observe a significant decrease of free carrier concentration in highly O doped GaN epitaxial films at 22 GPa, indicating the presence of a strongly localized donor defect at large pressure. Monitoring the phonon plasmon coupled mode, we find similarities with results on highly n-type bulk crystals. We refine the model of localized defects in GaN and transfer it to the AlGaN system.

  13. Stark Tuning of Donor Electron Spins of Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Forrest R.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Sabouret, Guillaume; Bokor, Jeff; Schenkel, Thomas; Lyon, Stephen A.

    2006-03-23

    We report Stark shift measurements for {sup 121}Sb donor electron spins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitated metal gates on top of a Sb-implanted {sup 28}Si epi-layer are used to apply electric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and a decrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails at X-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected to dominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect is also resolved presumably arising from strain.

  14. Stark tuning of donor electron spins in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, F.R.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Sabouret, G.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-03-12

    We report Stark shift measurements for 121Sb donor electronspins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitatedmetal gates on top of a Sb-implanted 28Si epi-layer are used to applyelectric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of thehyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and adecrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails atX-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected todominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect isalso resolved presumably arising from strain.

  15. Optical hyperpolarization of nitrogen donor spins in bulk diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loretz, M.; Takahashi, H.; Segawa, T. F.; Boss, J. M.; Degen, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    We report hyperpolarization of the electronic spins associated with substitutional nitrogen defects in bulk diamond crystals. Hyperpolarization is achieved by optical pumping of nitrogen vacancy centers followed by rapid cross relaxation at the energy level matching condition in a 51 mT bias field. The maximum observed donor spin polarization is 0.9 % , corresponding to an enhancement of 25 compared to the thermal Boltzmann polarization. A further accumulation of polarization is impeded by an anomalous optical saturation effect that we attribute to charge state conversion processes. Hyperpolarized nitrogen donors may form a useful resource for increasing the efficiency of diamond-based dynamic nuclear polarization devices.

  16. DoMINO: Donor milk for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of mother’s own milk is the optimal way to feed infants, including very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g). Importantly for VLBW infants, who are at elevated risk of neurologic sequelae, mother’s own milk has been shown to enhance neurocognitive development. Unfortunately, the majority of mothers of VLBW infants are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk and thus supplementation with formula or donor milk is necessary. Given the association between mother’s own milk and neurodevelopment, it is important to ascertain whether provision of human donor milk as a supplement may yield superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to formula. Our primary hypothesis is that VLBW infants fed pasteurized donor milk compared to preterm formula as a supplement to mother’s own milk for 90 days or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first, will have an improved cognitive outcome as measured at 18 months corrected age on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed. Secondary hypotheses are that the use of pasteurized donor milk will: (1) reduce a composite of death and serious morbidity; (2) support growth; and (3) improve language and motor development. Exploratory research questions include: Will use of pasteurized donor milk: (1) influence feeding tolerance and nutrient intake (2) have an acceptable cost effectiveness from a comprehensive societal perspective? Methods/Design DoMINO is a multi-centre, intent-to-treat, double blinded, randomized control trial. VLBW infants (n = 363) were randomized within four days of birth to either (1) pasteurized donor milk or (2) preterm formula whenever mother’s own milk was unavailable. Study recruitment began in October 2010 and was completed in December 2012. The 90 day feeding intervention is complete and long-term follow-up is underway. Discussion Preterm birth and its complications are a leading cause long-term morbidity among Canadian children. Strategies to mitigate this

  17. A DONOR COMPLEX WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN IN PURE GERMANIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, B.; Haller, E.E.; Falicov, L.M.

    1980-02-01

    A shallow donor complex observed by several authors in ultrapure germanium grown in a hydrogen atmosphere is attributed to an oxygen-hydrogen system. Photoconductivity data under stress are presented. An abrupt transition in the spectra at a well-defined stress (2.1 x 10{sup 8} dyn cm{sup -2}) is found. It is explained by a theory which involves dynamic tunneling of the hydrogen in the vicinity of an oxygen center. The comparison with other complex donors and acceptors supports the model.

  18. Electron Donor Potential of Eastern North Dakota Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Klapperich, R. J.; Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    We have a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 9 sites in North Dakota and Minnesota. The site in the Elk Valley aquifer in northeastern North Dakota has the highest denitrification rates and the greatest concentration of electron donors (organic carbon ~0.4%, pyrite as S ~0.4%, and ferrous iron ~0.3%) in the sediments. In contrast, denitrification rates at our other ISM sites are lower (or even below detection), as are the electron donor concentrations in the sediments. Knowing that the sediments at all of our ISM sites were placed as outwash during the last Wisconsinan glaciation (~12ka), we wonder what caused the variation in electron donor supplies in our aquifers. It has been suggested that variations is the electron donor concentrations in the various Late Cretaceous shale strata exposed during glaciation may help explain the variation in electron donor concentrations in overlying aquifers formed nearby. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of electron donors available in these bedrock units. Bedrock samples (n = 39) from 20 sites in eastern North Dakota were obtained by drilling during the summer of 2006 in conjunction with the North Dakota State Water Commission. Samples were frozen before analysis for bulk mineralogical content by X-ray diffraction, organic carbon, pyrite as inorganic S, and ferrous iron contents. It was hypothesized that the Pierre Shale would have the highest donor concentration, but it appears that other formations, such as the Carlile and Greenhorn contain higher concentrations of electron donors. Organic carbon concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 1.0%) are relatively low while concentrations in the Carlile (3.5% - 6.5%) and Greenhorn (~8.5%) are significantly higher. Pyrite as inorganic S concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 0.2%), Carlile (0.3% - 0.5%), and Greenhorn (~0.5%) are similarly distributed. In the future, it may be possible to create a qualitative index

  19. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L

    2013-01-01

    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  20. Donor-acceptor chemistry in the main group.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Eric

    2014-06-21

    This Perspective article summarizes recent progress from our laboratory in the isolation of reactive main group species using a general donor-acceptor protocol. A highlight of this program is the use of carbon-based donors in combination with suitable Lewis acidic acceptors to yield stable complexes of parent Group 14 element hydrides (e.g. GeH2 and H2SiGeH2). It is anticipated that this strategy could be extended to include new synthetic targets from throughout the Periodic Table with possible applications in bottom-up materials synthesis and main group element catalysis envisioned.

  1. Donor-derived mycosis fungoides following reduced intensity haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a matched unrelated donor

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Francesca A M; Amel Kashipaz, Mohammad Rasoul; Scarisbrick, Julia; Malladi, Ram

    2017-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman with a history of dasatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia, clonal evolution and monosomy 7 underwent reduced intensity conditioned in vivo T-cell-depleted allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor. Following the transplantation, she developed recurrent cutaneous graft versus host disease (GvHD), which required treatment with systemic immunosuppression and electrocorporeal photophoresis. Concurrently, she developed a lichenoid rash with granulomatous features suggestive of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Additional treatment with hydroxychloroquine was initially successful, but 2 months later, she developed erythroderma with palpable lymphadenopathy. Repeated histological analysis established a diagnosis of folliculotropic mycosis fungoides stage IVA2, and the malignant clone was confirmed to be of donor origin. A positive response to brentuximab has been shown. This is the first reported case of primary mycosis fungoides after matched unrelated donor HSCT, and in a patient still undergoing treatment for GvHD. PMID:28073814

  2. Novel R-roscovitine NO-donor hybrid compounds as potential pro-resolution of inflammation agents

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Gabriele; Bertinaria, Massimo; Rolando, Barbara; Fruttero, Roberta; Lucas, Christopher D.; Dorward, David A.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Megson, Ian L.; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of multiple human inflammatory diseases. Novel pharmacological strategies which drive neutrophils to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) have been shown to facilitate the resolution of inflammation. Both the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) R-roscovitine and nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to enhance apoptosis of neutrophils and possess pro-resolution of inflammation properties. In order to search for new multi-target pro-resolution derivatives, here we describe the design, synthesis and investigation of the biological potential of a small series of hybrid compounds obtained by conjugating R-roscovitine with two different NO-donor moieties (compounds 2, 9a, 9c). The synthesized compounds were tested as potential pro-resolution agents, with their ability to promote human neutrophil apoptosis evaluated. Both compound 9a and 9c showed an increased pro-apoptotic activity when compared with either R-roscovitine or structurally related compounds devoid of the ability to release NO (des-NO analogues). Inhibition of either NO-synthase or soluble guanylate cyclase did not affect the induction of apoptosis by the R-roscovitine derivatives, similar to that reported for other classes of NO-donors. In contrast the NO scavenger PTIO prevented the enhanced apoptosis seen with compound 9a over R-roscovitine. These data show that novel compounds such as CDKi–NO-donor hybrids may have additive pro-resolution of inflammation effects. PMID:23394865

  3. Communication, "Class," and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffres, Leo W.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationships among communication, social class, and ethnic heritage. Eleven of thirteen ethnic groups in a Midwestern metropolitan area who had been studied in 1976 were surveyed again in late 1980 and early 1981. Groups surveyed were Irish, Greek, Czech, Italian, Lebanese, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Polish,…

  4. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  5. Shrinking Your Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Olson, Jo Clay; Davis, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Toys in the classroom was the result of a National Science Foundation grant that brought two engineering graduate students to a middle school math class. The graduate students and teachers collaborated in an effort to enhance students' mathematical learning. An engineering context was theorized as a way to further develop students' understanding…

  6. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  7. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  8. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  9. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  10. Class, Cultism, and Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter; Farahmandpur, Ramin

    2001-01-01

    Globalization has hurt both developed and developing countries. Capitalism's relations of exploitation can hurt people of color in disabling ways. Discusses the relationships among race, gender, ethnic, and class identities in order to articulate a political framework that moves toward transnational ethnic alliances, abolishing the role of capital…

  11. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  12. The CLASS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    The CLASS project is a series of investigations and projects designed by the National Wildlife Federation as supplementary materials for existing junior high school environmental curricula. This notebook contains nine different sections: an introduction, six content areas, a series of case studies, and a resource bibliography. The six content…

  13. EPA Web Training Classes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  14. DNA-based HLA typing of nonhematopoietic tissue used to select the marrow transplant donor for successful treatment of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, D F; Kwittken, P; Cizman, B; Argyris, E; Kearns, J; Yang, S Y; Zmijewski, C; Bunin, N; Douglas, S D; Monos, D

    1994-01-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TAGVHD) is a rare and usually fatal complication of blood transfusion which can arise when immunocompetent lymphocytes from the donor of a cellular blood product are transfused into a severely immunocompromised recipient. We describe the case of an 8-month-old male with a severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome who developed TAGVHD after receiving an unirradiated transfusion. Serologic HLA typing of the parents, the patient, and the blood donor demonstrated the foreign origin of circulating lymphocytes, confirming the diagnosis of TAGVHD. The manifestations of TAGVHD did not respond to medical immunosuppressive therapy, and bone marrow transplantation was planned to treat the underlying immunodeficiency as well as the TAGVHD. By using DNA-based class I and class II HLA typing, the child's HLA type was determined from nonhematopoietic tissues. This information proved critical in selecting the bone marrow donor. The child received immunosuppression, myeloablation, and a T-depleted, maternal bone marrow graft mismatched at one HLA class II allele. Trilineage hematopoietic engraftment occurred within 3 weeks, and the child remains clinically stable with no evidence of TAGVHD more than 2 years after the transplant. This case illustrates that TAGVHD can be successfully treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and that DNA-based HLA typing can play a unique role in the diagnosis and management of TAGVHD. PMID:8556506

  15. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  16. Techniques Class: September 12, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, William; Corsetti, Patricia L.; Endleman, Orna; Julian, Sarah; Lindemann, Evie; Spinelli, Laura

    2002-01-01

    On September 12, 2001, the Techniques in Art Therapy class in the art therapy program at Albertus Magnus College met at its normal Wednesday evening time. This article describes the class session through the words and images of several class members who found the class useful in their own process of beginning to deal with the attacks and their…

  17. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  18. Donor and recipient sex in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: what really matters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haesook T.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Woolfrey, Ann E.; St. Martin, Andrew; Chen, Junfang; Saber, Wael; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Armand, Philippe; Eapen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether and how recipient-donor sex affects transplantation outcomes of 11,797 patients transplanted between 2008 and 2010. Thirty-seven percent were male recipients with male donors, 21% male recipients with female donors, 25% female recipients with male donors, and 17% female recipients with female donors. In multivariable analyses, male recipients had inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared to females regardless of donor sex, with an 11% relative increase in the hazard of death (P<0.0001) and a 10% relative increase in the hazard of death or relapse (P<0.0001). The detrimental effect of male recipients varied by donor sex. For male recipients with male donors, there was a 12% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of relapse compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0036) and male recipients with female donors (P=0.0037). For male recipients with female donors, there was a 19% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of non-relapse mortality compared with male recipients with male donors (P<0.0001) and a 22% relative increase compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0003). In addition, male recipients with female donors showed a 21% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P<0.0001) compared with female recipients with male donors. Donor sex had no effect on outcomes for female recipients. Transplantation of grafts from male and female donors was associated with inferior overall survival and progression-free survival in male recipients with differing patterns of failure. Recipient sex is an important prognostic factor independent of donor sex. PMID:27354023

  19. Effect of laser irradiation of donor blood on erythrocyte shape.

    PubMed

    Baibekov, I M; Ibragimov, A F; Baibekov, A I

    2012-04-01

    Changes in erythrocyte shape in donor blood during storage and after irradiation with He-Ne laser and infrared laser were studied by scanning electron microscopy, thick drop express-method, and morphometry. It was found that laser irradiation delayed the appearance of erythrocytes of pathological shapes (echinocytes, stomatocytes, etc.) in the blood; He-Ne laser produced a more pronounced effect.

  20. Urolithiasis in renal transplant donors and recipients: An update.

    PubMed

    Harraz, Ahmed M; Kamal, Ahmed I; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2016-12-01

    Urolithiasis in the context of renal transplant is a quite rare event that requires keeping a higher index of suspicion and vigilance. Donors with incidentally discovered asymptomatic renal stones "donor gifted lithiasis" are potentially considered for donation should they are not recurrent stone formers and in the absence of active biochemical disorders. Stone clearance from the donors can be done before donation using shock wave lithotripsy and/or flexible ureteroscopy. Ex vivo ureteroscopy at time of transplant is equally feasible and safe. A variety of anatomical, metabolic and surgical factors contribute to de novo lithiasis after transplantation. Diagnosis is challenging as the transplanted kidney is denervated and the presentation is consequently, atypical. Endourological armamentarium is readily present within the hands of the urologists for adequately addressing the stones and including shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy. Whilst all endourological techniques have proven feasibility and safety, they are surgically demanding and requiring high-volume expertise to be adequately performed. The longterm outcome in terms of stone recurrence or the effect on graft survival is favorable. Finally, formidable counselling as well as postoperative monitoring for both donors and recipients is crucial to minimize urolithiasis-related morbidity.

  1. Improving Organ Donor Registration Using Kiosks in Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salim, Ali; Berry, Cherisse; Ley, Eric J.; Schulman, Danielle; Anderson, Jacqueline; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the USA, organ donor shortage is especially pronounced among minority ethnic populations such as Hispanics, who are 60% less likely to donate compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Recent evidence suggests that US Hispanics may consent to organ donation via a registry within a doctor's office. The objective of this study was to investigate…

  2. Accelerating Quinoline Biodegradation and Oxidation with Endogenous Electron Donors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qi; Yang, Lihui; Li, Rongjie; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-10-06

    Quinoline, a recalcitrant heterocyclic compound, is biodegraded by a series of reactions that begin with mono-oxygenations, which require an intracellular electron donor. Photolysis of quinoline can generate readily biodegradable products, such as oxalate, whose bio-oxidation can generate endogenous electron donors that ought to accelerate quinoline biodegradation and, ultimately, mineralization. To test this hypothesis, we compared three protocols for the biodegradation of quinoline: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis of 1 h (P1h+B) or 2 h (P2h+B), and biodegradation by adding oxalate commensurate to the amount generated from photolysis of 1 h (O1+B) or 2 h (O2+B). The experimental results show that P1h+B and P2h+B accelerated quinoline biodegradation by 19% and 50%, respectively, compared to B. Protocols O1+B and O2+B also gave 19% and 50% increases, respectively. During quinoline biodegradation, its first intermediate, 2-hydroxyquinoline, accumulated gradually in parallel to quinoline loss but declined once quinoline was depleted. Mono-oxygenation of 2-hydroxyquinoline competed with mono-oxygenation of quinoline, but the inhibition was relieved when extra electrons donors were added from oxalate, whether formed by UV photolysis or added exogenously. Rapid oxalate oxidation stimulated both mono-oxygenations, which accelerated the overall quinoline oxidation that provided the bulk of the electron donor.

  3. Donor Behavior and Voluntary Support for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.; Ramey, Garey

    Voluntary support of higher education in America is investigated through regression analysis of institutional characteristics at two points in time. The assumption of donor rationality together with explicit consideration of interorganizational relationships offers a coherent framework for the analysis of voluntary support by the major…

  4. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  5. How to Work Effectively with a Donor's Adviser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Roger

    1979-01-01

    When a potential donor considers a major gift to a college or university, it is natural to turn first to a lawyer, accountant, or other adviser. This adviser becomes a key person, and the development officer's relationship to that adviser is important. The role of the development officer is discussed. (MLW)

  6. The dead donor rule: can it withstand critical scrutiny?

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-06-01

    Transplantation of vital organs has been premised ethically and legally on "the dead donor rule" (DDR)-the requirement that donors are determined to be dead before these organs are procured. Nevertheless, scholars have argued cogently that donors of vital organs, including those diagnosed as "brain dead" and those declared dead according to cardiopulmonary criteria, are not in fact dead at the time that vital organs are being procured. In this article, we challenge the normative rationale for the DDR by rejecting the underlying premise that it is necessarily wrong for physicians to cause the death of patients and the claim that abandoning this rule would exploit vulnerable patients. We contend that it is ethical to procure vital organs from living patients sustained on life support prior to treatment withdrawal, provided that there is valid consent for both withdrawing treatment and organ donation. However, the conservatism of medical ethics and practical concerns make it doubtful that the DDR will be abandoned in the near future. This leaves the current practice of organ transplantation based on the "moral fiction" that donors are dead when vital organs are procured.

  7. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  8. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  9. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  10. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  11. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  12. The ethical debate on donor insemination in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Juhong; Dessein, Bart; Pennings, Guido

    2010-06-01

    This article gives an overview of the ethical thinking about donor insemination among Chinese ethicists. We analysed the ethical arguments dedicated to the use of donor spermatozoa published in the important bioethics journals of China of the last 15 years. On the one hand, the general Confucian values strongly favour the genetic link as it fits with the traditional importance attached to the continuation of the family line. Therefore, artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial in China because the involvement of a third party (the donor) severs the genetic link between the husband and his family. On the other hand, procreation is regarded as an important aspect of Confucian filial piety and it is a basic right of every human being to enjoy a family life. AID should be thought of as a means to help infertile couples to overcome infertility. Nowadays, Chinese bioethicists are trying to reinterpret Confucianism in order to adapt it to modernity. One such reinterpretation focuses on the affectionate rather than the genetic tie between parents and child. As the application is still new in China, more discussion and open debate on ethical aspects is needed.

  13. Brain death and care of the organ donor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Brain death has specific implications for organ donation with the potential for saving several lives. Awareness on maintenance of the brain dead has increased over the last decade with the progress in the field of transplant. The diagnosis of brain death is clinical and can be confirmed by apnea testing. Ancillary tests can be considered when the apnea test cannot be completed or is inconclusive. Reflexes of spinal origin may be present and should not be confused against the diagnosis of brain death. Adequate care for the donor targeting hemodynamic indices and lung protective ventilator strategies can improve graft quality for donation. Hormone supplementation using thyroxine, antidiuretic hormone, corticosteroid and insulin has shown to improve outcomes following transplant. India still ranks low compared to the rest of the world in deceased donation. The formation of organ sharing networks supported by state governments has shown a substantial increase in the numbers of deceased donors primarily by creating awareness and ensuring protocols in caring for the donor. This review describes the steps in the establishment of brain death and the management of the organ donor. Material for the review was collected through a Medline search, and the search terms included were brain death and organ donation. PMID:27275040

  14. Social media and organ donor registration: the Facebook effect.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Massie, A B; Alexander, C E; Stewart, B; Montgomery, R A; Benavides, N R; Fleming, G D; Segev, D L

    2013-08-01

    Despite countless media campaigns, organ donation rates in the United States have remained static while need has risen dramatically. New efforts to increase organ donation through public education are necessary to address the waiting list of over 100,000 patients. On May 1, 2012, the online social network, Facebook, altered its platform to allow members to specify "Organ Donor" as part of their profile. Upon such choice, members were offered a link to their state registry to complete an official designation, and their "friends" in the network were made aware of the new status as a donor. Educational links regarding donation were offered to those considering the new organ donor status. On the first day of the Facebook organ donor initiative, there were 13 054 new online registrations, representing a 21.1-fold increase over the baseline average of 616 registrations. This first-day effect ranged from 6.9× (Michigan) to 108.9× (Georgia). Registration rates remained elevated in the following 12 days. During the same time period, no increase was seen in registrations from the DMV. Novel applications of social media may prove effective in increasing organ donation rates and likewise might be utilized in other refractory public health problems in which communication and education are essential.

  15. Colleges Leverage Large Endowments to Benefit Some Donors and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    College endowments have beaten the market so consistently in recent years, it is not surprising that individuals would like to take advantage of that institutional wisdom to invest their own money. Increasingly, many are. A small but growing number of universities are trying to entice donors to invest their trusts alongside college endowments,…

  16. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-03-17

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade.

  17. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-injected narcotics. (c) Additional qualifications of donor; viral hepatitis. No individual shall be used as a source of Whole Blood if he has— (1) A history of viral hepatitis after the 11th birthday; (2) A history of close contact within 12 months of donation with an individual having viral hepatitis; (3)...

  18. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-injected narcotics. (c) Additional qualifications of donor; viral hepatitis. No individual shall be used as a source of Whole Blood if he has— (1) A history of viral hepatitis after the 11th birthday; (2) A history of close contact within 12 months of donation with an individual having viral hepatitis; (3)...

  19. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-injected narcotics. (c) Additional qualifications of donor; viral hepatitis. No individual shall be used as a source of Whole Blood if he has— (1) A history of viral hepatitis after the 11th birthday; (2) A history of close contact within 12 months of donation with an individual having viral hepatitis; (3)...

  20. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-injected narcotics. (c) Additional qualifications of donor; viral hepatitis. No individual shall be used as a source of Whole Blood if he has— (1) A history of viral hepatitis after the 11th birthday; (2) A history of close contact within 12 months of donation with an individual having viral hepatitis; (3)...

  1. Laboratory and Genetic Assessment of Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Over 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the US. Between 200 to 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This amount represents approximately 25% of the average iron stores in men and almost 75% of the iron stores in women. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion, especially in frequent blood donors (e. g., more than 2 times per year). In large epidemiologic studies, donation frequency, female gender, and younger age (reflecting menstrual status), are particularly associated with iron depletion. Currently, a minimum capillary hemoglobin of 12.5 gm/dl is the sole requirement for donor qualification in the US as far as iron levels are concerned, yet it is known that hemoglobin level is a poor surrogate for low iron. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss, including changes in acceptable hemoglobin level, donation interval, donation frequency, testing of iron status, and iron supplementation. This chapter highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation. PMID:25676373

  2. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-injected narcotics. (c) Additional qualifications of donor; viral hepatitis. No individual shall be used as a source of Whole Blood if he has— (1) A history of viral hepatitis after the 11th birthday; (2) A history of close contact within 12 months of donation with an individual having viral hepatitis; (3)...

  3. Role of H2S Donors in Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zheng-Wei; Deng, Lih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors including organosulfur compounds (OSC), inorganic sulfide salts, and synthetic compounds are useful tools in studies to elucidate the effects of H2S in cancer biology. Studies using such donors have shown the ability of H2S to suppress tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, with some of them suggesting the selectivity of its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. In addition to promoting cancer cell death, H2S donors were also found to inhibit cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The underlying mechanisms for the anticancer activities of H2S involve (1) cell signaling pathways, such as MAPK and STAT; (2) cell cycle regulation; (3) microRNAs regulation; and (4) cancer metabolism and pH regulation. Altogether, compiling evidences have demonstrated the great potential of using H2S donors as anticancer agents. Nevertheless, the application and development of H2S for therapy are still facing challenges as identification of molecular targets of H2S awaits further investigation.

  4. Electron donor preference of a reductive dechlorinating consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, M.M.; Majcher, E.; Jones, E.; Driedger, G.; Dworatzek, S.; Graves, D.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland sediment-derived microbial consortium was developed by the USGS and propagated in vitro to large quantities by SiREM Laboratory for use in bioaugmentation applications. The consortium had the capacity to completely dechlorinate 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, cis- and trans-1,2-dichoroethylene, 1.1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. A suite of electron donors with characteristics useful for bioaugmentation applications was tested. The electron donors included lactate (the donor used during WBC-2 development), ethanol, chitin (Chitorem???), hydrogen releasing compound (HRC???), emulsified vegetable oil (Newman Zone???), and hydrogen gas. Ethanol, lactate, and chitin were particularly effective with respect to stimulating, supporting, and sustaining reductive dechlorination of the broad suite of chemicals that WBC-2 biodegraded. Chitorem??? was the most effective "slow release" electron donor tested. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  5. Renal allograft tuberculosis with infected lymphocele transmitted from the donor.

    PubMed

    Al-Nesf, Maryam Ali; Al-Ani, Omar Isam; Al-Ani, Ahmed Abdul-Rahman; Rashed, Awad Hamed

    2014-03-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) from a donor through renal transplantation is a rare incident. We are reporting a 53-year-old Qatari woman diagnosed with renal allograft TB infection. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fluid from the lymphocele and demonstration of caseating granuloma in graft biopsy with acid-fast bacilli seen on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The diagnosis was made quite early post-transplantation. The presence of the granuloma, which is unusual with patients on intensive immunosuppressant medications, suggests that transmission of the infection occurred from the donor rather than from the activation of latent infection. In reviewing the literature, we found ten case reports of TB in transplanted kidney with transmission of TB infection from the donor. The presence of TB in lymphocele in association with the infected transplant by TB, to the best of our knowledge, was reported only once in the literature. Our case had unfavorable outcome and ended by renal allograft nephrectomy and hemodialysis. We are presenting this case of TB infection of renal allograft and lymphocele diagnosed early post-transplantation transmitted from the donor and pertinent review from the literature.

  6. Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

  7. Techniques that acquire donor profiling information from fingermarks - A review.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Annemieke; van Beek, Fleur T; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2016-03-01

    Fingermarks are among the most important types of evidence that can be encountered at the scene of a crime since the unique ridge pattern of a fingerprint can be used for individualization. But fingermarks contain more than the characteristic pattern of ridges and furrows, they are composed of a wide variety of different components that originate from endogenous and exogenous sources. The chemical composition can be used to obtain additional information from the donor of the fingermark, which in turn can be used to create a donor profile. Donor profiling can serve at least two purposes i) to enhance the evidential value of fingermarks and ii) to provide valuable tactical information during the crime scene investigation. Retrieving this additional information is not limited to fingermarks that have been used for individualization, but can also be applied on partial and/or distorted fingermarks. In this review we have summarized the types of information that can be obtained from fingermarks. Additionally, an overview is given of the techniques that are available addressing their unique characteristics and limitations. We expect that in the nearby future, donor profiling from contact traces, including fingermarks will be possible.

  8. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-02-13

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000-2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30-39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries.

  9. Identifying appropriate recipients for CDC infectious risk donor kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chow, E K H; Massie, A B; Muzaale, A D; Singer, A L; Kucirka, L M; Montgomery, R A; Lehmann, H P; Segev, D L

    2013-05-01

    Over 10% of deceased donors in 2011 met PHS/CDC criteria for infectious risk donor (IRD), and discard rates are significantly higher for kidneys from these donors. We hypothesized that patient phenotypes exist for whom the survival benefit outweighs the infectious risk associated with IRDs. A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was developed and validated, based on SRTR data and meta-analyses of window period risks among persons with IRD behaviors. The Markov model allows patients to see, for their phenotype, their estimated survival after accepting versus declining an IRD offer, graphed over a 5-year horizon. Estimated 5-year survival differences associated with accepting IRDs ranged from -6.4% to +67.3% for a variety of patient phenotypes. Factors most predictive of the survival difference with IRD transplantation were age, PRA, previous transplant, and the expected time until the next non-IRD deceased donor offer. This study suggests that survival benefit derived from IRD kidneys varies widely by patient phenotype. Furthermore, within the inherent limitations of model-based prediction, this study demonstrates that it is possible to identify those predicted to benefit from IRD kidneys, and illustrates how estimated survival curves based on a clinical decision can be presented to better inform patient and provider decision-making.

  10. [Kidney donors and kidney transplantation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Conrad, S; Schönberger, B; Huland, H; Budde, K; Neumayer, H-H; Loening, S A

    2004-08-01

    The likelihood of terminal renal insufficiency escalates with age, increasing the risk of dying as a patient requiring dialysis. In 1999, Eurotransplant initiated the Eurotransplant Senior Programm (ESP), in which the kidneys of old donors (>64 years) are allocated to recipients 64 years and older. Allocation does not take HLA-matching into account and is performed regionally only according to blood-group-compatibility to keep the storage time short. As a consequence of the short ischemic time, and thus reduced non-immunological damage to the anyways susceptible old kidney, graft-function and graft-survival in the ESP are very good. The results of the initial 5 years of this program show that it successfully utilizes more kidneys from old donors and that more old recipients are being transplanted, with a satisfactory graft-function. Increased donor- and/or recipient age require a thorough evaluation to exclude malignant and other diseases. Furthermore, short term controls on the waiting list and following kidney transplantation are prerequisites for successful transplantation in the aged recipient. If this is guaranteed, kidney transplantation in the old recipient-even with old donor organs-is a good alternative to the morbidity of a prolonged dialysis. Nevertheless, the role of HLA-matching should be reconsidered to reduce rejections.

  11. Donor Derived Second Hematologic Malignancies after Cord Blood Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ballen, Karen K; Cutler, Corey; Yeap, Beow Y; McAfee, Steven L; Dey, Bimalangshu R; Attar, Eyal C; Chen, Yi-Bin; Haspel, Richard L; Liney, Deborah; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent; Alyea, Edwin P; Soiffer, Robert J; Spitzer, Thomas R; Antin, Joseph H

    2010-01-01

    Double umbilical cord blood transplantation with a reduced intensity regimen is an effective strategy for adult patients without matched donors. However, the risk of second cancers is not yet established. Ninety-eight adults with hematologic malignancies received a double umbilical cord blood transplant. Seventy patients received the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day × 6 days, melphalan 100 mg/m2/day × 1 day, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/day × 4 days, and 28 patients received an ablative total body radiation containing conditioning regimen. Sixty-three patients received sirolimus-based graft versus host disease prophylaxis and 35 patients received non-sirolimus based graft versus host disease prophylaxis. Median age was 48 (range 19-67) years. Eighteen patients developed a second malignancy at a median of 134 days after transplant. Sixteen patients had lymphoma and two patients had myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorder. Sixteen of these second cancers (both MDS/MPD and fourteen of the lymphomas) were donor derived; the origin of the others was not determined. GVHD prophylaxis, HLA matching, primary disease, age, total nucleated cell dose, and CD34+ cell dose were not associated with a higher rate of second malignancy. Second myeloid malignancies of donor origin occur after double umbilical cord blood transplantation, suggesting that a search for donor origin should be performed in all patients with suspected relapse. PMID:20178854

  12. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy in Complete Situs Inversus

    PubMed Central

    Gahagan, John V.; Whealon, Matthew D.; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by transposition of organs. We report a case of renal transplantation using a kidney from a living complete situs inversus donor. The recipient was a 59-year-old female with end-stage renal disease because of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The donor was the 56-year-old sister of the recipient with complete situs inversus. CT angiogram of the abdomen and pelvis showed complete situs inversus and an otherwise normal appearance of the bilateral kidneys with patent bilateral single renal arteries and longer renal vein in the right kidney. The patient was taken to the operating room for a hand-assisted laparoscopic right donor nephrectomy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home in good condition on postoperative day 1. The recipient experienced no episodes of acute rejection or infection, with serum creatinine levels of 0.8–1.2 mg/dL. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in a patient with complete situs inversus remains a technically feasible operation and the presence of situs inversus should not preclude consideration for living kidney donation. PMID:27579434

  13. Reduced-intensity transplantation for lymphomas using haploidentical related donors vs HLA-matched unrelated donors

    PubMed Central

    Kanate, Abraham S.; Mussetti, Alberto; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Ahn, Kwang W.; DiGilio, Alyssa; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Chhabra, Saurabh; Fenske, Timothy S.; Freytes, Cesar; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Rezvani, Andrew; Riches, Marcie; Saad, Ayman; Slavin, Shimon; Smith, Sonali M.; Sureda, Anna; Yared, Jean; Ciurea, Stefan; Armand, Philippe; Salit, Rachel; Bolaños-Meade, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 917 adult lymphoma patients who received haploidentical (n = 185) or HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD) transplantation either with (n = 241) or without antithymocyte globulin (ATG; n = 491) following reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Haploidentical recipients received posttransplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, whereas URD recipients received calcineurin inhibitor-based prophylaxis. Median follow-up of survivors was 3 years. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD on univariate analysis was 8%, 12%, and 17% in the haploidentical, URD without ATG, and URD with ATG groups, respectively (P = .44). Corresponding 1-year rates of chronic GVHD on univariate analysis were 13%, 51%, and 33%, respectively (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, grade III-IV acute GVHD was higher in URD without ATG (P = .001), as well as URD with ATG (P = .01), relative to haploidentical transplants. Similarly, relative to haploidentical transplants, risk of chronic GVHD was higher in URD without ATG and URD with ATG (P < .0001). Cumulative incidence of relapse/progression at 3 years was 36%, 28%, and 36% in the haploidentical, URD without ATG, and URD with ATG groups, respectively (P = .07). Corresponding 3-year overall survival (OS) was 60%, 62%, and 50% in the 3 groups, respectively, with multivariate analysis showing no survival difference between URD without ATG (P = .21) or URD with ATG (P = .16), relative to haploidentical transplants. Multivariate analysis showed no difference between the 3 groups in terms of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, and progression-free survival (PFS). These data suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide does not compromise early survival outcomes compared with matched URD transplantation, and is associated with significantly reduced risk of chronic GVHD. PMID:26670632

  14. Physicians' preferences and perceptions regarding donor selection in allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Korea when a matched domestic donor is not available

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Kyung; Shin, Sangjin; Lee, Ja Youn

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of alternative donor options exist for patients who fail to find domestic HLA-matched donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We assessed physicians' perspectives on allo-HSCT donor selection when a matched domestic donor is not available. Methods We administered a questionnaire survey to 55 hematologists (response rate: 28%) who attended the annual spring conference of the Korean Society of Haematology in 2015. The questionnaire contained four clinical allo-HSCT scenarios and the respondents were asked to choose the most preferred donor among the given options. Results In all four scenarios, the hematologists preferred a matched international donor over partially mismatched unrelated domestic or haplo-matched family donors. The numbers of hematologists who chose a matched international donor (HLA 8/8) in cases of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and aplastic anemia were 37 (67.3%), 41 (74.6%), 33 (60.0%), and 36 (65.5%), respectively. The important factors that affected donor selection included “expecting better clinical outcomes (40.5%)” and “lower risk of side effects (23.4%).” The majority of participants (80%) responded that allo-HSCT guidelines for donor selection customized for the Korean setting are necessary. Conclusion Although hematologists still prefer perfectly matched foreign donors when a fully matched domestic allo-HSCT donor is not available, we confirmed that there was variation in their responses. For evidence-based clinical practice, it is necessary to provide further comparative clinical evidence on allo-HSCT from haplo-matched family donors and fully matched unrelated international donors.

  15. Comparison of renal function after donor and radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gazel, Eymen; Biçer, Sait; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Yığman, Metin; Taştemur, Sedat; Çamtosun, Ahmet; Ceylan, Cavit; Ateş, Can

    2015-04-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is directly proportionate to nephron reserves. In this respect, it is known that the patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal tumor are under high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the long term. In this study, it was aimed to compare post-operative renal functions of patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal malignancy and who underwent donor nephrectomy as renal donors, to observe whether renal failure process develops or not, and to determine the factors that affect post-operative renal functions. 70 patients who underwent donor nephrectomy as renal donors and 130 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal tumor were studied. When we divided the groups as those with a GFR of below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and those with a GFR of above 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), we observed that GFR values of patients who underwent radical nephrectomy had a significantly stronger tendency to stay below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) compared to patients who underwent donor nephrectomy (p < 0.001). When we divided the groups as those with a GFR of below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and those with a GFR of above 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), we observed that there were no patients in donor nephrectomy group whose GFR values dropped below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and there was not a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.099). If possible, nephron sparing methods should be preferred for patients to undergo nephrectomy because of the tumor without ignoring oncologic results and it should be remembered that patient's age and pre-operative renal functions may affect post-operative results in donor selection.

  16. Artificial corneas versus donor corneas for repeat corneal transplants

    PubMed Central

    Akpek, Esen K; Alkharashi, Majed; Hwang, Frank S; Ng, Sueko M; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who have failed one or more full thickness penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) may be offered repeat corneal surgery using an artificial or donor cornea. An artificial or prosthetic cornea is known as a keratoprosthesis. Both donor and artificial corneal transplantations involve removal of the diseased and opaque recipient cornea (or the previously failed cornea) and replacement with another donor or prosthetic cornea. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of artificial versus donor corneas in individuals who have had one or more failed donor corneal transplantations. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 November 2013. Selection criteria Two review authors independently assessed reports from the electronic searches to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). We resolved discrepancies by discussion or consultation with a third review author. Data collection and analysis For discussion purposes, we assessed findings from observational cohort studies and non-comparative case series. No data synthesis was performed. Main results We did not identify any RCTs or CCTs comparing artificial corneas with donor corneas for repeat corneal transplantations. Authors

  17. Fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium dyes induced by two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Hu, Dawei; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2007-06-01

    We report the fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium toluene- p-sulfonates having donor- π-acceptor (D- π-A) structure under two-photon excitation at 1064 nm. The experimental results show that both the two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence lifetime and the two-photon pumped (TPP) energy upconversion efficiency were increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor in the molecule. It is also indicated that an overlong alkyl group tends to result in a weakened molecular conjugation, leading to a decreased two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section. By choosing the donor, we can obtain a longest fluorescence lifetime of 837 ps, a highest energy upconversion efficiency of ˜6.1%, and a maximum TPA cross-section of 8.74×10 -48 cm 4 s/photon in these dyes.

  18. Two-photon excitation properties of a class of novel organic dye chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Xu, Xinguang; Zhao, Xian; Hu, Dawei; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2006-04-01

    We present the two-photon excited (TPE) upconverted fluorescence and lasing efficiencies of a class of new pyridinium chloride having donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) structure. Based on the excitation upon 40 ps laser pulses at 1064 nm, the experimental results showed that: the red-shift of TPE fluorescence emission peaks and the TPE fluorescence lifetime were gradually increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor. To a certain extent, the enhanced donor would increase the two-photon pumped (TPP) upconversion lasing efficiencies, but the overlong alkyl chains would result in decreased lasing efficiencies. We could obtain TPE fluorescence lifetime of 754 ps, TPP upconversion lasing efficiency of ∼8.4%, and TPA cross-section of 6.14 × 10-49cm4s/photon in these compounds.

  19. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 21: genetic screening of gamete donors: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W; De Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P; Diedrich, K; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U; Tüttelmann, F; Provoost, V

    2014-07-01

    This Task Force document explores the ethical issues involved in the debate about the scope of genetic screening of gamete donors. Calls for expanded donor screening arise against the background of both occasional findings of serious but rare genetic conditions in donors or donor offspring that were not detected through present screening procedures and the advent of new genomic technologies promising affordable testing of donors for a wide range of conditions. Ethical principles require that all stakeholders' interests are taken into account, including those of candidate donors. The message of the profession should be that avoiding all risks is impossible and that testing should remain proportional.

  20. Epidemiology of Chikungunya Virus Outbreaks in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 2014: An Observational Study in Volunteer Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Gallian, Pierre; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Richard, Pascale; Maire, Françoise; Flusin, Olivier; Djoudi, Rachid; Chiaroni, Jacques; Charrel, Remi; Tiberghien, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. Methods/Principal findings Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. The incidence curves faithfully correlated with those of suspected clinical cases in the general population of Guadeloupe (abrupt epidemic peak), but not in Martinique (flatter epidemic growth). No significant relationship was identified between CHIKV RNA detection and age-classes or blood groups. Prospective (Feb-2014 to Jan-2015; n = 9,506) and retrospective (Aug-2013 to Feb-2014; n = 6,559) seroepidemiological surveys in blood donors identified a final seroprevalence of 48·1% in Guadeloupe and 41·9% in Martinique. Retrospective survey also suggested the absence or limited "silent" CHIKV circulation before the outbreak. Parameters associated with increased seroprevalence were: Gender (M>F), KEL-1, [RH+1/KEL-1], [A/RH+1] and [A/RH+1/KEL-1] blood groups in Martiniquan donors. A simulation model based on observed incidence and actual seroprevalence values predicted 2·5 and 2·3 days of asymptomatic viraemia in Martiniquan and Guadeloupian blood donors respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study, implemented promptly with relatively limited logistical requirements during CHIKV emergence in the Caribbean, provided unique information regarding retrospective and prospective epidemiology, infection risk factors and natural history of the disease. In the stressful context of emerging infectious disease outbreaks, blood donor-based studies can serve as robust and cost-effective first-line tools for public health surveys. PMID