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Sample records for class i-mismatched donor

  1. Low-dose Total Body Irradiation and Fludarabine Conditioning for HLA-Class I Mismatched Donor Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunological Recovery in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Multi-Center Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakamae, Hirohisa; Storer, Barry E.; Storb, Rainer; Storek, Jan; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Pulsipher, Michael; Petersen, Finn B.; Wade, James C.; Maris, Michael B.; Bruno, Benedetto; Panse, Jens; Petersdorf, Effie; Woolfrey, Ann; Maloney, David G.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    HLA-mismatched grafts are a viable alternative source for patients without HLA-matched donors receiving ablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), though their use in reduced intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT has been not well established. Here we extended HCT to recipients of HLA-class I mismatched grafts to test whether nonmyeloablative conditioning can establish stable donor engraftment. Fifty-nine patients were conditioned with fludarabine 90 mg/m2 and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) followed by immunosuppression with cyclosporine 5.0 mg/kg twice and mycophenolate mofetil 15 mg/kg three times daily for transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood cells from related (n=5) or unrelated donors (n=54) with one antigen ± one allele HLA-class I mismatch or two HLA-class I allele mismatches. Sustained donor engraftment was observed in 95% of evaluable patients. The incidences of grades II to IV acute and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were 69% and 41%, respectively. The cumulative probability of non-relapse mortality was 47% at 2 years. Two-year overall and progression-free survivals were 29% and 28%, respectively. Nonmyeloablative conditioning with fludarabine and low-dose TBI followed by HCT using HLA-class I mismatched donors leads to successful engraftment and long-term survival; however, the high incidence of acute GVHD and NRM needs to be addressed by alternate GVHD prophylaxis regimens. PMID:19900571

  2. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  3. Donor MHC class II antigen is essential for induction of transplantation tolerance by bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Umemura, A; Monaco, A P; Maki, T

    2000-05-01

    Posttransplant infusion of donor bone marrow cells (BMC) induces tolerance to allografts in adult mice, dogs, nonhuman primates, and probably humans. Here we used a mouse skin allograft model and an allogeneic radiation chimera model to examine the role of MHC Ags in tolerance induction. Infusion of MHC class II Ag-deficient (CIID) BMC failed to prolong C57BL/6 (B6) skin grafts in ALS- and rapamycin-treated B10.A mice, whereas wild-type B6 or MHC class I Ag-deficient BMC induced prolongation. Removal of class II Ag-bearing cells from donor BMC markedly reduced the tolerogenic effect compared with untreated BMC, although graft survival was significantly longer in mice given depleted BMC than that in control mice given no BMC. Infusion of CIID BMC into irradiated syngeneic B6 or allogeneic B10.A mice produced normal lymphoid cell reconstitution including CD4+ T cells except for the absence of class II Ag-positive cells. However, irradiated B10.A mice reconstituted with CIID BMC rejected all B6 and a majority of CIID skin grafts despite continued maintenance of high degree chimerism. B10.A mice reconstituted with B6 BMC maintained chimerism and accepted both B6 and CIID skin grafts. Thus, expression of MHC class II Ag on BMC is essential for allograft tolerance induction and peripheral chimerism with cells deficient in class II Ag does not guarantee allograft acceptance. PMID:10779744

  4. Alternative donor SCT for the treatment of MHC class II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Small, T N; Qasim, W; Friedrich, W; Chiesa, R; Bleesing, J J; Scurlock, A; Veys, P; Sparber-Sauer, M

    2013-02-01

    MHC Class II deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by absent HLA Class II expression resulting in CD4 lymphopenia, lack of Ag-specific responses and recurrent infection. Without successful allogeneic SCT, most children succumb to infection within the first decade of life. To date, alternative donor transplants for this disorder have been inferior to SCT for other forms of combined immunodeficiency disease due to an increased incidence of graft rejection, GVHD and death from infections generally acquired before haematopoietic cell transplantation. This study details the transplant outcome of 16 affected children consecutively transplanted at four centers since 1990, 8 of whom required mechanical ventilation pretransplant. Stem cells were derived from an HLA-mismatched family member (n=10), an HLA-matched unrelated adult donor (n=4), or an unrelated cord blood donor (n=2). Graft failure occurred in five children, all of whom underwent a second SCT. Six patients developed acute GVHD although no patient developed chronic GVHD after primary transplantation. CD4 T-cell reconstitution remained below the normal range for age, suggesting defective thymopoiesis after allo-SCT. Nonetheless, 69% of children survive without GVHD at a median follow-up of 5.7 years, indicating improved outcomes compared with previous studies. PMID:23000650

  5. HLA Class I Sensitization in Islet Transplant Recipients – Report from the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry

    PubMed Central

    Naziruddin, Bashoo; Wease, Steve; Stablein, Donald; Barton, Franca B.; Berney, Thierry; Rickels, Michael R.; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment option for patients severely affected with type 1 diabetes. This report from CITR presents pre- and post-transplant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I sensitization rates in islet alone transplantation. Data came from 303 recipients transplanted with islet alone between January 1999 and December 2008. HLA class I sensitization was determined by the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) from prior to islet infusion and at 6 months, and yearly post-transplant was correlated to measures of islet graft failure. The cumulative number of mismatched HLA alleles increased with each additional islet infusion from a median of 3 for one infusion to 9 for three infusions. Pre-transplant PRA was not predictive of islet graft failure. However, development of PRA ≥20% post-transplant was associated with 3.6 fold (p=.001) increased hazard ratio for graft failure. Patients with complete graft loss who had discontinued immunosuppression had significantly higher rate of PRA ≥ 20% compared to those with functioning grafts who remained on immunosuppression. Exposure to repeat HLA class I mismatch at second or third islet infusions resulted in less frequent development of de novo HLA class I antibodies when compared to increased class I mismatch. The development of HLA class I antibodies while on immunosuppression is associated with subsequent islet graft failure. The risk of sensitization may be reduced by minimizing the number of islet donors used per recipient, and in the absence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies, repeating HLA class I mismatches with subsequent islet infusions. PMID:22080832

  6. Monitoring of kidney and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation rejection by release of donor-specific, soluble HLA class I.

    PubMed

    DeVito-Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Sollinger, H W; Knechtle, S J; Burlingham, W J

    1994-07-01

    Using an HLA-A2-specific ELISA we monitored daily pretransplantation and posttransplantation sera from five kidney and eight simultaneous pancreas-kidney HLA-A2-negative recipients of HLA-A2-positive transplants during hospitalization. We found that, unlike liver transplants, neither kidney nor simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants continuously secreted donor HLA proteins. However, three of four rejection episodes in kidney recipients and seven of seven rejection episodes in simultaneous pancreas-kidney recipients were accompanied by elevated serum levels of donor sHLA-A2 (> 5 ng/ml). In only one kidney patient was there a release of donor antigen without evidence of rejection, but in the simultaneous pancreas-kidney group most patients had at least one time point of detectable sHLA-A2 without strong evidence of kidney rejection. While total sHLA levels were also elevated during rejection, the rise in donor-specific sHLA was more dramatic when compared to pretransplantation background levels. We hypothesized that the release of donor sHLA class I proteins by transplanted organs might be a systemic indication of rejection in both pancreas and kidney allografts. The detection of donor sHLA in recipient sera could be an important noninvasive monitor of rejection, especially in the pancreas, which is currently difficult to monitor as a single-organ transplant. PMID:7960963

  7. Identification of 2127 new HLA class I alleles in potential stem cell donors from Germany, the United States and Poland.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Giani, A S; Cereb, N; Sauter, J; Silva-González, R; Pingel, J; Schmidt, A H; Ehninger, G; Yang, S Y

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2127 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles found in registered stem cell donors. These alleles represent 28.9% of the currently known class I alleles. Comparing new allele sequences to homologous sequences, we found 68.1% nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, 28.9% silent mutations and 3.0% nonsense mutations. Many substitutions occurred at positions that have not been known to be polymorphic before. A large number of HLA alleles and nucleotide variations underline the extreme diversity of the HLA system. Strikingly, 156 new alleles were found not only multiple times, but also in carriers of various parentage, suggesting that some new alleles are not necessarily rare. Moreover, new alleles were found especially often in minority donors. This emphasizes the benefits of specifically recruiting such groups of individuals.

  8. Toward eliminating HLA class I expression to generate universal cells from allogeneic donors

    PubMed Central

    Torikai, Hiroki; Reik, Andreas; Soldner, Frank; Warren, Edus H.; Yuen, Carrie; Zhou, Yuanyue; Crossland, Denise L.; Huls, Helen; Littman, Nicholas; Zhang, Ziying; Tykodi, Scott S.; Kebriaei, Partow; Lee, Dean A.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Rebar, Edward J.; Holmes, Michael C.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Champlin, Richard E.; Gregory, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term engraftment of allogeneic cells necessitates eluding immune-mediated rejection, which is currently achieved by matching for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression, immunosuppression, and/or delivery of donor-derived cells to sanctuary sites. Genetic engineering provides an alternative approach to avoid clearance of cells that are recognized as “non-self” by the recipient. To this end, we developed designer zinc finger nucleases and employed a “hit-and-run” approach to genetic editing for selective elimination of HLA expression. Electro-transfer of mRNA species coding for these engineered nucleases completely disrupted expression of HLA-A on human T cells, including CD19-specific T cells. The HLA-Aneg T-cell pools can be enriched and evade lysis by HLA-restricted cytotoxic T-cell clones. Recognition by natural killer cells of cells that had lost HLA expression was circumvented by enforced expression of nonclassical HLA molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases can eliminate HLA-A expression from embryonic stem cells, which broadens the applicability of this strategy beyond infusing HLA-disparate immune cells. These findings establish that clinically appealing cell types derived from donors with disparate HLA expression can be genetically edited to evade an immune response and provide a foundation whereby cells from a single donor can be administered to multiple recipients. PMID:23741009

  9. Preformed class II donor-specific antibodies are associated with an increased risk of early rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Kaneku, Hugo; Jennings, Linda W; Bañuelos, Nubia; Susskind, Brian M; Terasaki, Paul I; Klintmalm, Göran B

    2013-09-01

    Preformed donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) are considered a contraindication to the transplantation of most solid organs other than the liver. Conflicting data currently exist on the importance of preformed DSAs in rejection and patient survival after liver transplantation (LT). To evaluate preformed DSAs in LT, we retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected samples from all adult recipients of primary LT without another organ from January 1, 2000 to May 31, 2009 with a pre-LT sample available (95.8% of the patients). Fourteen percent of the patients had preformed class I and/or II DSAs with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥ 5000. Preformed class I DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 remained persistent in only 5% of patients and were not associated with rejection. Preformed class II DSAs with an MFI of 5000 to 10,000 remained persistent in 23% of patients, and this rate increased to 33% for patients whose MFI was ≥10,000 (P < 0.001). Preformed class II DSAs in multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling were associated with an increased risk of early rejection [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58; p = 0.004]. In addition, multivariate modeling showed that in comparison with no DSAs (MFI < 1000), preformed class I and/or II DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 were independently correlated with the risk of death (HR = 1.51; p = 0.02).

  10. Donor-specific HLA class I and CREG antibodies in complement-dependent cytotoxicity-negative renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonggoo; Yang, Chul Woo; Moon, In-Sung; Kim, Myungshin; Lim, Jihyang; Park, Yeon-Joon; Han, Kyungja; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2010-01-01

    Development of a solid-phase, single antigen panel reactive antibody test (SA-PRA) permits the analysis of antibody specificities. This study determined the impact of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) against class I HLA private antigens (DS-HLA) or HLA-A and -B cross-reactive group (DS-CREG) in kidney transplantation. Pre- and post-transplant sera of 133 renal allograft patients who had negative pretransplant complement-dependent cytotoxicity were tested for HLA class I antibody specificities by SA-PRA. Clinical relevance of the flow cytometric crossmatch test (FCXM) for the detection of class I DS-HLA or DS-CREG was analyzed. The sensitivity of FCXM to detect SA-PRA-defined class I DSA was 50% (5/10) and the specificity was 98.4% (121/123). Of 133 renal allograft recipients, including 26 patients with biopsy-proven acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), pretransplant DS-HLA or DS-CREG were detected in 10 patients. Pretransplant DSA were associated with AMR (p = 0.012) and a low calculated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.036). In the analysis of post-transplant sera, the presence of either type of HLA antibodies and the de novo development of DSA were correlated with AMR (p <0.001). This study demonstrates that detection of DSA, including DS-HLA and DS-CREG, using the SA-PRA assay is useful to identify the renal allograft recipients with poor transplant outcome.

  11. Common genomic HLA haplotypes contributing to successful donor search in unrelated hematopoietic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pedron, B; Duval, M; Elbou, O M; Moskwa, M; Jambou, M; Vilmer, E; Sterkers, G

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the most frequent HLA haplotypes in order to optimize donor searches in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Pediatric patients from the north of France who underwent initial HLA typing for donor search in our center were included. Patients and family members were broadly typed for HLA class I and II. Patients were further DNA typed at the sequence level for HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles. In 200 of 207 patients HLA haplotypes were assigned by the mode of inheritance. The most common haplotypes were defined based on frequencies over 0.75%. Searches for unrelated donors were completed for 86 patients lacking a family donor. Matching criteria were either the optimal level of 10 alleles or a one-HLA class I mismatch as a second choice. Rates of successful search reach 85% for patients (n=20) who express at least one common five-allele (HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/DQB1) haplotype, but also 77% for more patients (n=53) who express at least one of the 20 most frequent three-allele (HLA-A/B/Cw) haplotypes. Success rates are clearly less (39%) in patients lacking these haplotypes. The use of these data to delineate search strategies is discussed.

  12. Synthesis and Photovoltaic Properties of a New Class of Donor-Acceptor Alternating Copolymers Containing Pechmann-Dye Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Jo, Won Ho

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, various low bandgap copolymers that exhibit over 5% power conversion efficiency have been developed. However, the synthesis of most low-bandgap polymers is complicated with relatively long synthetic routes and low yield. In this work, a new series of novel alternating copolymers composed of thiophene and Pechmann-dye derivatives were synthesized and used as an electron donor material of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. Two Pechmann-dye derivatives, 5,5'-bis-(3-octyl-thiophen-2-yl)-[3,3']bifuranylidene-2,2'-dione and 3,7-bis-(3-octyl-thiophen-2-yl)-pyrano[4,3-c]pyran-1,5-dione which have high molar absorption coefficient, strong electron-deficient core, and planar structure, were easily synthesized via simple three steps with high yield. The use of the Pechmann-dye derivatives as a building block for copolymers results in promising optical, electrochemical, and photophysical properties. Morphology, charge transport, and photovoltaic characteristics of the new copolymers will be discussed.

  13. Key gp120 Glycans Pose Roadblocks to the Rapid Development of VRC01-Class Antibodies in an HIV-1-Infected Chinese Donor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Leopold; Ju, Bin; Chen, Yajing; He, Linling; Ren, Li; Liu, Jiandong; Hong, Kunxue; Su, Bin; Wang, Zheng; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ji, Xiaolin; Hua, Yuanzi; Chen, Yanli; Deller, Marc C; Hao, Yanling; Feng, Yi; Garces, Fernando; Wilson, Richard; Dai, Kaifan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Mascola, John R; Ward, Andrew B; Wyatt, Richard T; Li, Yuxing; Wilson, Ian A; Zhu, Jiang; Shao, Yiming

    2016-04-19

    VRC01-class antibodies neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains by targeting the conserved CD4-binding site. Despite extensive investigations, crucial events in the early stage of VRC01 development remain elusive. We demonstrated how VRC01-class antibodies emerged in a Chinese donor by antigen-specific single B cell sorting, structural and functional studies, and longitudinal antibody and virus repertoire analyses. A monoclonal antibody DRVIA7 with modest neutralizing breadth was isolated that displayed a subset of VRC01 signatures. X-ray and EM structures revealed a VRC01-like angle of approach, but less favorable interactions between the DRVIA7 light-chain CDR1 and the N terminus with N276 and V5 glycans of gp120. Although the DRVIA7 lineage was unable to acquire broad neutralization, longitudinal analysis revealed a repertoire-encoded VRC01 light-chain CDR3 signature and VRC01-like neutralizing heavy-chain precursors that rapidly matured within 2 years. Thus, light chain accommodation of the glycan shield should be taken into account in vaccine design targeting this conserved site of vulnerability.

  14. Key gp120 Glycans Pose Roadblocks to the Rapid Development of VRC01-Class Antibodies in an HIV-1-Infected Chinese Donor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Leopold; Ju, Bin; Chen, Yajing; He, Linling; Ren, Li; Liu, Jiandong; Hong, Kunxue; Su, Bin; Wang, Zheng; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ji, Xiaolin; Hua, Yuanzi; Chen, Yanli; Deller, Marc C; Hao, Yanling; Feng, Yi; Garces, Fernando; Wilson, Richard; Dai, Kaifan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Mascola, John R; Ward, Andrew B; Wyatt, Richard T; Li, Yuxing; Wilson, Ian A; Zhu, Jiang; Shao, Yiming

    2016-04-19

    VRC01-class antibodies neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains by targeting the conserved CD4-binding site. Despite extensive investigations, crucial events in the early stage of VRC01 development remain elusive. We demonstrated how VRC01-class antibodies emerged in a Chinese donor by antigen-specific single B cell sorting, structural and functional studies, and longitudinal antibody and virus repertoire analyses. A monoclonal antibody DRVIA7 with modest neutralizing breadth was isolated that displayed a subset of VRC01 signatures. X-ray and EM structures revealed a VRC01-like angle of approach, but less favorable interactions between the DRVIA7 light-chain CDR1 and the N terminus with N276 and V5 glycans of gp120. Although the DRVIA7 lineage was unable to acquire broad neutralization, longitudinal analysis revealed a repertoire-encoded VRC01 light-chain CDR3 signature and VRC01-like neutralizing heavy-chain precursors that rapidly matured within 2 years. Thus, light chain accommodation of the glycan shield should be taken into account in vaccine design targeting this conserved site of vulnerability. PMID:27067056

  15. Donor Properties of a New Class of Guanidinate Ligands Possessing Ketimine Backbones: A Comparative Study Using Iron.

    PubMed

    Maity, Arnab K; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro J; Fortier, Skye

    2015-10-19

    Addition of 1 equiv of LiN═C(t)Bu2 or LiN═Ad (Ad = 2-adamantyl) to the aryl carbodiimide C(NDipp)2 (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) readily generates the lithium ketimine-guanidinates Li(THF)2[(X)C(NDipp)2] (X = N═C(t)Bu2 (1-(t)Bu), N═Ad (1-Ad)) in excellent yields. These new ligands can be readily metalated with iron to give the N,N'-bidentate chelates [{(X)C(NDipp)2}FeBr]2 (X = N═C(t)Bu2 (5-(t)Bu), N═Ad (5-Ad)), in which the ketimines behave as noncoordinating backbone substituents. In an effort to understand the potential electronic contributions of the ketimine group to the ligand architecture, a thorough structural and electronic study was conducted comparing the features and properties of 5-(t)Bu and 5-Ad to their guanidinate and amidinate analogues [{(X)C(NDipp)2}FeBr]2 (X = (i)Pr2N (6), (t)Bu (7)). Solid-state structural analyses indicate little electronic contribution from the N-ketimine nitrogen atom, while solution-phase electronic absorption spectra of 5-(t)Bu and 5-Ad are qualitatively similar to the amidinate complex 7. Yet, electrochemical measurements do show the donor properties of the ketimine-guanidinate in 5-(t)Bu to be intermediate between its guanidinate and amidinate counterparts in 6 and 7. Preliminary reactivity studies also show that the reduction chemistry of 5-(t)Bu diverges significantly from that of 6 and 7. Treatment of 5-(t)Bu with excess magnesium or 1 equiv of KC8 leads to the formation of the Fe(I)-Fe(I) complex [{μ-((t)Bu2C═N)C(NDipp)2}2Fe2] (11), which possesses an exceedingly short Fe═Fe bond (2.1516(5) Å), while neither 6 nor 7 forms dinuclear complexes upon reduction. This result demonstrates that ketimine-guanidinates do not simply behave as amidinate variants but can contribute to distinctive metal chemistry of their own. PMID:26419613

  16. The influence of class II HLA type on the lymphoproliferative response of normal donors to a bcr-abl fusion peptide.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, A R; Christmas, S E; Clark, R E

    1996-09-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by a t(9;22) chromosomal translocation resulting in the expression of a novel bcr-abl fusion protein. The region spanning the fusion point is novel to the immune system and hence represents a potential leukemia-specific antigen. The ability of a 21-mer b3a2 fusion peptide to induce an in vitro lymphoproliferative response in a panel of 54 normal donors has been tested. This gave a mean stimulation index of 2.73 (95% CI 2.42-3.05) and 50/54 (93%) of donors gave responses that were greater than those with bcr or abl control peptides. The mean stimulation index relative to that of the control peptides was 1.80 (95% CI 1.63-1.97; p < 0.001). Responses were optimal at concentrations ranging from 0.3-150 micrograms/mL and in most cases peaked at 9 days. There was no clear relationship between level of responsiveness to the b3a2 fusion peptide and the presence of any single HLA-A, -B, -DR, or -DQ allele. HIA-DRB1*0404 was the only allele that was not associated with responsiveness. It is therefore likely that the b3a2 fusion peptide can be presented to T cells during a primary immune response in the context of several different class II HLA allelic products, albeit at low efficiency. The implications for specific active immunotherapy of CML patients are discussed.

  17. Searching for new NO-donor aspirin-like molecules: a new class of nitrooxy-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Coruzzi, Gabriella; Guaita, Elena; Morini, Giuseppina; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Biondi, Stefano; Ongini, Ennio

    2008-03-27

    A new class of products in which the phenol group of salicylic acid is linked to alkanoyl moieties bearing nitrooxy functions has been synthesized and studied for their polyvalent actions. The products were stable in acid and neutral media, while they were hydrolyzed in human serum. Their half-lives were dependent upon the structure of alkanoyl moieties. The products showed anti-inflammatory activities similar to aspirin when tested in the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in the rat. Interestingly, unlike aspirin, they showed reduced or no gastrotoxicity in a lesion model in rats at equimolar doses. A number of them were able to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen in human platelet-rich plasma. All of the products were capable of relaxing rat aortic strips precontracted with phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner. Selected members of this new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might represent possible safer alternatives to aspirin in different clinical settings.

  18. Clonal deletion induced by either radioresistant thymic host cells or lymphohemopoietic donor cells at different stages of class I-restricted T cell ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products and self-antigens expressed in the thymus determine the repertoire of mature alpha/beta T cells. While positive selection of self-MHC-restricted T cells is directed by MHC molecules expressed by thymic epithelial cells, negative selection depends to a large extent on self-antigens presented by lymphohemopoietic cells. However, radioresistant components of the thymus also influence negative selection, but it remains controversial whether this is accomplished by clonal deletion, clonal anergy, or other mechanisms. In this study, T cell development in mice expressing a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) plus H-2Db was analyzed in the presence or absence of the viral antigen. A novel approach to analyze the thymic tissue requirements for negative selection was possible by comparing thymocyte selection in H-2Db versus H-2Dbm13 mice, since the latter allowed positive selection but not LCMV-specific deletion of transgenic TCR-expressing thymocytes. In irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressing the restriction element for negative selection (H-2Db) on host tissue, we show that radioresistant recipient cells in the thymus deleted developing T cells at an early stage of differentiation. In contrast, chimeras expressing H-2Db on lymphohemopoietic donor cells showed clonal deletion at a later stage during ontogeny. PMID:1533241

  19. De novo-developed antibodies to donor MHC antigens lead to dysregulation of microRNAs and induction of MHC class II.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongping; Nayak, Deepak K; Benshoff, Nicholas; Hachem, Ramsey; Gelman, Andrew E; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2015-06-15

    Immune responses to HLA and development of anti-donor HLA (DSA) were shown to play a role in chronic rejection following transplantation. We hypothesized that Abs to MHC change microRNAs (miRNAs), leading to chronic lung allograft rejection. Microarray analysis was performed in a murine model of anti-MHC-induced obliterative airway disease (OAD), a correlate of obliterative bronchiolitis. A unique profile of dysregulated miRNAs was detected in OAD mice on days 7 and 15 after Ab administration compared with control. Sixty-seven miRNAs were increased and 42 miRNAs were decreased in OAD mice on day 7. In addition, 15 miRNAs were overexpressed and 16 miRNAs were underexpressed in OAD mice on day 15. The expression of miR-16 and miR-195 was significantly decreased in lungs of OAD mice, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, with increases in H-2 Aa and H-2 Dma mRNA levels. Significant reductions in miR-16 and miR-195 levels were also noted in lung transplant (LTx) patients with DSA compared with LTx patients without DSA. Bioinformatic TargetScan and reporter assays identified the binding of miR-16 and miR-195 to the 3'-untranslated region of regulatory factor X 5. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry indicated posttranscriptional increases in regulatory factor X 5 mRNA and protein expression in OAD mice, as well as in LTx recipients with DSA, which was associated with increased expression of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DRA mRNA. Therefore, our results demonstrated that miRNAs induced by alloimmunity may play important roles in chronic rejection after LTx. PMID:25941328

  20. Becoming a Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Organ and Gender. > U.S. Waiting List Candidate Data HOW TO BECOME A DONOR The most important thing to do is to sign up as an organ and tissue donor in your state's donor registry. To cover all bases, it's also helpful to: Designate your decision on ...

  1. Living donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S C; Flowers, J L; Dunkin, B; Sklar, G N; Cho, E

    1999-03-01

    The need for more organs for kidney transplantation is increasing. Cadaver sources for these organs are stable, therefore living donation must increase if the need is to be met. Less perfect kidneys are now being transplanted. The pool of potential donors is being expanded. The process of kidney donation is being made easier in an effort to increase the number of donors. The donor work-up is being streamlined. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been introduced, and appears to be promising as a technique of lessening donor pain and suffering, while maintaining excellent graft results.

  2. Expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sandy; Lai, Jennifer C

    2014-08-01

    The greatest challenge facing liver transplantation today is the shortage of donor livers. Demand far exceeds supply, and this deficit has driven expansion of what is considered an acceptable organ. The evolving standard has not come without costs, however, as each new frontier of expanded donor quality (i.e., advancing donor age, donation after cardiac death, and split liver) may have traded wait-list for post-transplant morbidity and mortality. This article delineates the nature and severity of risk associated with specific deceased donor liver characteristics and recommends strategies to maximally mitigate these risks. PMID:25017080

  3. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  4. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  5. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  6. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  7. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2006-10-01

    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  8. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:16754618

  9. Distinctive Characteristics of Educational Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell N., III.

    2008-01-01

    Examining the charitable behavior of 56,663 US households, this paper evaluates the distinctive characteristics of educational donors as compared with donors to noneducational charitable organizations and with nondonors. In general, educational donors had significantly greater income, wealth, and education than other donors. Educational donors…

  10. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making.

  11. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  12. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  13. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  14. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  15. Characterization of human milk donors.

    PubMed

    Osbaldiston, Richard; Mingle, Leigh A

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of this research was to create a detailed characterization of human milk donors, including descriptive information about demographics and lifestyle, involvement with the milk bank, reasons for donating, problems encountered while breastfeeding and pumping milk, barriers to donating milk, affective experiences, and personal values. Data were collected via telephone interview of 87 donors and 19 nondonor controls. Few relationships were found between the descriptive information and amount of milk donated. Donors reported fewer problems pumping milk than nondonors. Strategies for recruiting new donors and strategies for increasing donation amounts are presented.

  16. Organ Donor FAQ's: Who Can Be a Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... citizens have been organ donors. Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can both donate and receive organs in the ... the 12,375 organ donors were non-resident aliens. In this same year, 259 (1%) of the ...

  17. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  18. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty.

  19. [Altruism and the donor].

    PubMed

    Langlois, A

    1991-08-01

    On December 20, 1988, the government of France passed a law to protect people who voluntarily participate in biomedical research. This article makes extensive reference to a major study, titled From Biology to Ethics, by Jean Bernard, a well-respected authority in the field of bioethics. The author looks at models proposed by Bernard, as examples for health volunteers, in particular, the blood donor and the self-experimenter. To set the tone of the article, she recalls the concept of altruism, as first proposed by Auguste Comte, then makes a linkage between his philosophy and Bernard's point of view. By trial and error, in their discussions, various ethics committees and the French State Council have agreed upon what constitutes fair compensation under the law. Unlike their Canadian counterparts, medical researchers in France have free access to volunteers who are not in perfect health--e.g., the elderly, people suffering from kidney deficiency, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.--but these "experimental subjects" receive no monetary compensation. Thus, healthy and less-than-healthy volunteers do not receive equal treatment under the law. This inequity, added to the fear of what amounts to a tax on the human body and the difficulty of ensuring just compensation, is giving rise to a great deal of uncertainty. PMID:1878857

  20. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  1. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  2. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  3. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... for blood transfusions side effects associated with allergic reactions to the anesthesia death The best source of information about risks and expected donor outcomes is your transplant team. In addition, it’s important to take an active role in ...

  4. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  5. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  6. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  7. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  8. The use of nitric oxide donors in pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Feelisch, M

    1998-07-01

    A growing appreciation of the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in numerous bioregulatory pathways has not only opened up new therapeutic avenues for organic nitrates and other NO donors but also led to an increased use of such compounds in pharmacological studies. By definition, all NO donors produce NO-related activity when applied to biological systems and are thus principally suited to either mimic an endogenous NO-related response or substitute for an endogenous NO deficiency. However, the pathways leading to enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic formation of NO differ greatly among individual compound classes, as do their chemical reactivities and kinetics of NO release. Moreover, since the reaction of NO with oxygen is a function of its concentration, the same absolute amounts of NO generated over different periods of time may lead to substantially different rates of NOx formation and, consequently, to varying extents of side reactions, such as nitration and/or nitrosation of biomolecules. Matters are further complicated by compound-specific formation of by-products, which may arise during decomposition or metabolism, sometimes in amounts far exceeding those of NO. The term "NO donor" implies that the compound releases the active mediator, NO. Ultimately, this may be true for many different chemical classes of compound, since the principal NO-related species generated may be converted to NO, if not directly released as such. However, in a biological system, the redox form of nitrogen monoxide (NO+, NO. or NO-) that is actually released makes a substantial difference to the NO donor's reactivity towards other biomolecules, the profile of by-products, and the bioresponse. Such considerations are likely to account for much of the discrepancy in experimental results obtained using the same cell or tissue preparation but different NO mimetics. Thus, compound selection is not a trivial issue and the investigator should be aware of the key properties and differences

  9. Who is the best alternative allotransplant donor?

    PubMed Central

    Gale, RP; Eapen, M

    2015-01-01

    Assuming that most physicians will chose an HLA-identical sibling as the best allotransplant donor, the question arises who is the best alternative donor when an HLA-identical sibling is unavailable? The most commonly used alternative donors are HLA-identical or -mismatched unrelated donors, HLA-matched or -mismatched umbilical cord blood donor or a related, HLA-haplotype-matched related donors. Each alternative donor option has advantages and disadvantages. We discuss selected aspects of these issues based on data from randomized clinical trials and observational databases. However, because there are limited data to address specific clinical settings, quantification of expert opinion is sometimes needed. PMID:26039206

  10. Deep donor model for the persistent photoconductivity effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, H.P.; Drummond, T.J.

    1986-03-10

    It is proposed that a persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect is universally produced by deep donors. The general requirements of a class of models which explains the PPC effect in semiconductors are discussed. In particular, donor dopants such as Si and Te in Ga/sub 1-x/Al/sub x/As with xapprox.0.3 are conjectured to be deep and responsible for the PPC effect attributed to DX centers consisting of donor-vacancy pairs. It is shown that the Si donor has properties which explain the known data attributed to the DX center; these data include (1) the slow capture rate at low temperatures, (2) the thermally activated capture rate at high temperatures, and (3) the shape of the photoexcitation cross section. However, in contrast with the DX-center model, the deep donor model does not require a high trapped vacancy concentration ((V)approx.10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/) to explain the PPC effect in highly doped semiconductors.

  11. Donor substrate regulation of transketolase.

    PubMed

    Esakova, Olga A; Meshalkina, Ludmilla E; Golbik, Ralph; Hübner, Gerhard; Kochetov, German A

    2004-11-01

    The influence of substrates on the interaction of apotransketolase with thiamin diphosphate was investigated in the presence of magnesium ions. It was shown that the donor substrates, but not the acceptor substrates, enhance the affinity of the coenzyme either to only one active center of transketolase or to both active centers, but to different degrees in each, resulting in a negative cooperativity for coenzyme binding. In the absence of donor substrate, negative cooperativity is not observed. The donor substrate did not affect the interaction of the apoenzyme with the inactive coenzyme analogue, N3'-pyridyl-thiamin diphosphate. The influence of the donor substrate on the coenzyme-apotransketolase interaction was predicted as a result of formation of the transketolase reaction intermediate 2-(alpha,beta-dihydroxyethyl)-thiamin diphosphate, which exhibited a higher affinity to the enzyme than thiamin diphosphate. The enhancement of thiamin diphosphate's affinity to apotransketolase in the presence of donor substrate is probably one of the mechanisms underlying the substrate-affected transketolase regulation at low coenzyme concentrations.

  12. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  13. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications. PMID:18160357

  14. Donor criteria in hepatic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jonas, S; Bechstein, W O; Keck, H; Lemmens, H P; Blumhardt, G; Neuhaus, P

    1994-01-01

    The early outcome of 201 liver grafts transplanted consecutively between September 1988 and November 1991 was investigated retrospectively. Donors were categorized according to their hospitalization periods in an intensive care unit (ICU) prior to harvesting, their causes of death, and the variables generally believed to be critical in liver donation, such as arterial hypotension (n = 69; 34.3%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 20; 9.9%), elevated serum-aminotransferases (s-AT) (n = 11; 5.5%), or an age over 50 years (n = 16; 8.0%). Ninety-one donors (45.3%) spent less than 24 h in an ICU; 29 donors (14.4%) and 14 donors (7.0%) had hospitalization periods generally considered critical of 4-6 days and more than 6 days, respectively. The most common causes of death were subarachnoidal bleeding (n = 70; 34.8%), isolated head injuries (n = 68; 33.8%), and polytraumata (n = 33; 16.4%). The postischemic hepatocellular damage was evaluated comparing peak post-transplant s-AT, which did not differ significantly between groups; nor did donor and recipient ages or cold ischemia times. Fourteen grafts (7.0%) showed a reversible preservation injury presenting with post-transplant s-AT elevated above 2000 IU/l. Five cases (2.5%) of a primary non-functioning graft (PNF) underwent early retransplantation successfully. Serum-aminotransferases (AST: 4944 +/- 2280 IU/l; ATL: 3186 +/- 1918 IU/l) were significantly (P < 0.01) elevated as compared to primary functioning grafts (AST: 699 +/- 935 IU/l; ALT: 620 +/- 701 IU/l). The donor structure of both groups reflected the distribution of variables in the entire collective. No significant overrepresentations were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor.

  16. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  17. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  18. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  19. Pyrimidone-based series of glucokinase activators with alternative donor-acceptor motif.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Bian, Jianwei; Perreault, Christian; Aspnes, Gary E; Didiuk, Mary T; Dow, Robert L; Hank, Richard F; Jones, Christopher S; Maguire, Robert J; Tu, Meihua; Zeng, Dongxiang; Liu, Shenping; Knafels, John D; Litchfield, John; Atkinson, Karen; Derksen, David R; Bourbonais, Francis; Gajiwala, Ketan S; Hickey, Michael; Johnson, Theodore O; Humphries, Paul S; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-15

    Glucokinase activators are a class of experimental agents under investigation as a therapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An X-ray crystal structure of a modestly potent agent revealed the potential to substitute the common heterocyclic amide donor-acceptor motif for a pyridone moiety. We have successfully demonstrated that both pyridone and pyrimidone heterocycles can be used as a potent donor-acceptor substituent. Several sub-micromolar analogs that possess the desired partial activator profile were synthesized and characterized. Unfortunately, the most potent activators suffered from sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties. Nonetheless, these donor-acceptor motifs may find utility in other glucokinase activator series or beyond.

  20. New approaches to donor crossmatching and successful transplantation of highly sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, F L; Fuller, A; Cosimi, A B; Tolkoff-Rubin, N; Russell, P S; Rodey, G E; Fuller, T C

    1983-12-01

    A class I HLA molecule may bear not only a private or unique determinant, but a shared, yet discrete, public epitope. These public determinants occur with a much higher frequency in the random donor population than the associated private determinants--and thus, are encountered more often in random donor blood transfusions and in renal transplantation. Sera from highly sensitized dialysis patients have been reported to contain a restricted number of antibodies to public determinants rather than a diverse array of antibodies directed against the private HLA-AB epitopes. As detailed in this report, comprehensive serum analysis of the public antibodies in highly sensitized transplant candidates has optimized identification of potential crossmatch-compatible donors and has avoided needless crossmatches. During the past two years, the incidence of renal transplantation from cadaveric donors to highly sensitized recipients has doubled at this institution. At 10-25 months following transplantation, 70% of these allografts are functioning. Private HLA class I antigen incompatibility was not a barometer for exclusion in the final donor crossmatch of these highly sensitized recipients. Furthermore, positive donor T cell crossmatches with sera obtained more than six months prior to transplantation may not represent an impediment to successful transplantation. We conclude that the approach of detailed antibody analysis can result in an improved outlook for successful transplantation of more dialysis patients who are highly sensitized to the class I HLA alloantigens.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePlus

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 359 359 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Blood Donors on Medication - an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christian D K; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Wichmann, Michael G; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. RESULTS: For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of t(max) + 5 t(1/2) were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of t(max) + 24 t(1/2) is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. CONCLUSION: Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  3. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Changing Pattern of Donor Selection Criteria in Deceased Donor Liver Transplant: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Routh, Dronacharya; Naidu, Sudeep; Sharma, Sanjay; Ranjan, Priya; Godara, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, with standardization and progress in surgical techniques, immunosuppression and post liver transplantation patient care, the outcome of liver transplantation has been optimized. However, the principal limitation of transplantation remains access to an allograft. The number of patients who could derive benefit from liver transplantation markedly exceeds the number of available deceased donors. The large gap between the growing list of patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled efforts to maximize existing donor pool and identify new avenues. This article reviews the changing pattern of donor for liver transplantation using grafts from extended criteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors with viral hepatitis), donation after cardiac death, use of partial grafts (split liver grafts) and other suboptimal donors (hypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support). PMID:25755521

  5. Management of the feline blood donor.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, P M

    1992-12-01

    The feline blood donor should be considered a valuable asset to the veterinary clinic. As public awareness increases, so will the demand for high-quality blood products. Meeting this demand will require planning and a blood donor management program tailored to the clinic's needs. Consideration should be given to the areas of blood value, donor selection, blood collection, and maintaining donor health when developing a donor management program. Suggestions for reducing the stress and aggravation often associated with feline blood collection are provided.

  6. The probability of finding suitable directed donors.

    PubMed

    Kanter, M; Selvin, S; Myhre, B A

    1989-02-01

    A series of tables based on mathematical calculations is given as guidelines for the number of directed donors needed by members of various ethnic/racial groups to provide a desired number of units of blood with a selected probability of achieving this result. From these tables, certain conclusions can be drawn. Unrelated donors who do not know their blood type are an inefficient source of directed donors. Rh-negative patients are unlikely to obtain enough directed-donor units from either related or unrelated donors with confidence unless these donors known their blood type. In general, siblings, parents, and offspring are the most efficient directed donors from the standpoint of compatibility. Cousins, uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews are not much more likely to be compatible than unrelated donors are. It is easier to obtain suitable directed-donor units among Hispanics than among whites, blacks, or Asians, due to their skewed blood group frequencies. In general, using O-negative directed donors for Rh-positive recipients does not significantly increase the likelihood of finding suitable donors.

  7. Towards functional transplant donor matching by measurement of granzyme A and granzyme B production levels.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Brigitte; Hack, C Erik; Dickinson, Anne M; Wang, Xiao N; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Sachs, Annemarie; Wolbink, Angela; Niederwieser, Dietger; Eibl, Günther J; van Houwelingen, Hans C; Goulmy, Els

    2004-10-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) can be a major complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) especially when donor and recipient are unrelated. The latter serious complication, together with the growing number of available unrelated stem cell donors, demand a simple in vitro assay for functional stem cell donor selection. Activated donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells produce granzymes (Gr) that are involved in the pathogenesis of GvHD. We measured granzymes A and B (GrA and GrB) production levels in the supernatants of 96 h pretransplant mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) of 26 sibling and 31 unrelated patient/donor pairs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In detail, the GrA and GrB production levels from a selected cohort of 37 potential patient/donor pairs were correlated with relative responses (RR) of MLC and with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II mismatches and with the development of acute GvHD in a second, consecutive cohort of 20 sibling SCT recipients. In vitro measurement of GrA and GrB production levels significantly correlated with the RR of pretransplant MLC (r=0.492, p< or =0.01 and r=0.853, p< or =0.01, respectively) and increased with the number of HLA class II mismatches between patient and donor. Pretransplant GrA production levels were significantly associated with the in vivo development of acute GvHD grades II-IV in patients transplanted with an HLA-identical sibling donor (p< or =0.001). In conclusion, in vitro GrA and GrB production levels can be measured by a quantitative and sensitive ELISA. This novel and simple method may be used for functional selection of unrelated stem cell donors and for the identification of patients who are at risk for acute GvHD grades II-IV.

  8. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M

    1995-02-01

    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  9. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V; Giani, Anette S; Hofmann, Jan A; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors.

  10. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  11. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  12. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  13. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  14. False Positive B-Cells Crossmatch after Prior Rituximab Exposure of the Kidney Donor

    PubMed Central

    Desoutter, Judith; Apithy, Marie-Joëlle; Bartczak, Ségolène; Guillaume, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Crossmatching is essential prior to kidney transplantation to confirm compatibility between the donor and the recipient, particularly to prevent acute antibody-mediated rejection. An unexpected positive crossmatch may be obtained in recipients with an autoimmune disease or preexisting antibodies not detected by single-antigen bead array due to complement interference or who have been previously treated by desensitization protocols such as rituximab, antithymocyte globulin, or intravenous immunoglobulins. We report donor and recipient investigations that revealed unexpected positive B-cells crossmatch, probably due to donor cells, as the donor had received rituximab therapy shortly before organ harvesting, in a context of severe idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. We consequently detected unexpected Class II IgG complement-dependent cytotoxicity for all sera tested. Other laboratory investigations failed to elucidate the reasons for this recipient-related positivity. PMID:27239362

  15. Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

    2012-11-01

    The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

  16. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  17. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    PubMed

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  18. Directed organ donation: is the donor the owner?

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Antonia J; Price, David

    2010-01-01

    The issue of directed donation of organs from deceased donors for transplantation has recently risen to the fore, given greater significance by the relatively stagnant rate of deceased donor donation in the UK. Although its status and legitimacy is explicitly recognized across the USA, elsewhere a more cautious, if not entirely negative, stance has been taken. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Human Tissue Act 2004, and in Scotland the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006, are both silent in this regard. Although so-called conditional donation, donation to (or perhaps withheld from) a specific class, has been outlawed as a product of guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Health issued in the wake of the controversial incident occurring in the North of England in 1998, its intended application to ‘directed’ donation is less certain. Directed and conditional donations challenge the traditional construct of altruistic donation and impartial (equitable) allocation in a very immediate and striking fashion. They implicitly raise important questions as to whether the body or parts of the body are capable of being owned, and by whom. This paper attempts to explore the notion of donor ownership of body parts and its implications for both directed and conditional donation. PMID:20890462

  19. DGTI Register of Rare Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hustinx, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Summary For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed ‘DGTI Register of Rare Donors’ and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

  20. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    PubMed

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  1. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  2. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332

  3. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  4. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  5. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  6. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  7. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  8. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  9. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.41 Donor... testing reactive by a screening test for evidence of infection due to a communicable disease agent(s... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood...

  10. Recipients' views on payment of sperm donors.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, An; Provoost, Veerle; Wyverkens, Elia; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how recipients viewed payment of sperm donors. The study was conducted in Belgium, where, as in many countries, sperm donors receive recompense for their time and expenses. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 heterosexual and lesbian couples who, at the time of data collection, had at least one donor-conceived child aged 7-10 years or who were undergoing donor conception treatment. Although participants commonly described the issue of financial compensation as something that did not really concern them, all supported the idea that some level of payment was acceptable or even necessary. The participants also identified several ways in which donor payment offered advantages to their own position as (future) parents. Although the idea is commonly rehearsed that sperm donation is a gift and that monetary transaction for conception is demeaning, the participants of this study did not generally share this view. To them, a small financial return served as a symbolic acknowledgement of the donor's contribution and helped secure the type of relationship they expected from their donor. There was clearly concern, however, over high payments and the risk of attracting the wrong kind of donor. PMID:26099446

  11. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  12. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary.

  13. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  14. Pretreatment of donor islets with papain improves allograft survival without systemic immunosuppression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Kenjiro; Nishinakamura, Hitomi; Mera, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Kodama, Shohta

    2016-09-01

    Although current immunosuppression protocols improve the efficacy of clinical allogenic islet transplantation, T cell-mediated allorejection remains unresolved, and major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) play a crucial role in this process. Papain, a cysteine protease, has the unique ability to cleave the extracellular domain of the MHC class I structure. We hypothesized that pretreatment of donor islets with papain would diminish the expression of MHC class I on islets, reducing allograft immunogenicity and contributing to prolongation of islet allograft survival. BALB/c islets pretreated with papain were transplanted into C57BL/6J mice as an acute allorejection model. Treatment with 1 mg/mL papain significantly prolonged islet allograft survival. In vitro, to determine the inhibitory effect on T cell-mediated alloreactions, we performed lymphocyte proliferation assays and mixed lymphocyte reactions. Host T cell activation against allogenic islet cells was remarkably suppressed by pretreatment of donor islet cells with 10 mg/mL papain. Flow cytometric analysis was also performed to investigate the effect of papain treatment on the expression of MHC class I on islets. One or 10 mg/mL papain treatment reduced MHC class I expression on the islet cell surface. Pretreatment of donor islets with papain suppresses MHC class I-mediated allograft rejection in mice and contributes to prolongation of islet allograft survival without administration of systemic immunosuppressants. These results suggest that pretreatment of human donor islets with papain may reduce the immunogenicity of the donor islets and minimize the dosage of systemic immunosuppressants required in a clinical setting. PMID:27618231

  15. Chylous ascites secondary to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Stephen F; Daily, Patrick P; Baliga, Prabhakar; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baillie, G Mark; Rajagopolan, P R; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2002-08-01

    Live donor renal transplantation offers many significant advantages over cadaveric donor transplantation. Yet living donation continues to be underused, accounting for less than 30% of all donor renal transplants. In an attempt to remove the disincentives to live donation, Ratner et al. developed laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). LDN is gaining acceptance in the transplant community. The overriding concern must always be the safety and welfare of the donor. To this end, potential complications of LDN must be identified and discussed. We present a patient who developed the complication of chylous ascites from LDN. To improve the laparoscopic technique further, a discussion of its successes and complications needs to be encouraged. To this end, we present chylous ascites as a potential complication after LDN. We also offer suggestions to minimize the likelihood of this complication. PMID:12137847

  16. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  17. Neutrophils and lymphoid chimerism after adult living-related liver transplantation from a homozygous donor.

    PubMed

    Hajeer, A H; Issa, S; Alaskar, A; Abdullah, K; Awad, M; Tbakhi, A; Alabdulkareem, A

    2005-12-01

    Chimerism and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) pose significant risks to liver transplant patients. The risk of chimerism and GVHD is higher among cases of living-related liver transplant (LRLT). Donors homozygous at all HLA loci carry a higher risk for GVHD. Herein we present a case of LRLT. The recipient suffered from end-stage liver disease and received a right lobe graft from his son. After 8 months posttransplant, the patient developed profound bone marrow depression. The patient was negative for CMV, Brucella, HHV6, HHV8, HBV, HCV, and parvovirus. No skin or GI signs of GVHD were noted. The patient and donor were HLA typed by SSP. The donor was homozygous for all HLA loci while the patient shared the class II homozygosity and was class I heterozygous. Chimerism studies were prompted after noting that the neutrophil compartment of the patient was homozygous for all HLA loci. This initiated further studies of the PMN and lymphocytes by microsatellite analysis. A total 15 microsatellites were analyzed. The results suggest that the majority (75%) of the PMNs and 45% of the lymphocytes were of donor origin. The patient was treated with G-CSF; his WBC counts returned to normal. At 2.5 years posttransplant the patient had not developed GVHD, despite the large number of donor lymphocytes circulating in his bloodstream. The only complaint he had was severe arthritis, which was treated with steroids. It must be investigated whether this was the result of GVHD.

  18. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P < .05) from adjacent age groups. We estimate that a donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs.

  19. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  20. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  1. Liver regeneration after living donor transplant

    PubMed Central

    Olthoff, Kim M.; Emond, Jean C.; Shearon, Tempie H.; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B.; Fisher, Robert A.; Freise, Chris E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Everhart, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Methods 350 donors and 353 recipients in A2ALL (Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study) transplanted between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV, SLV), the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (in recipients), remnant and graft size, remnant to donor and graft to recipient weight ratio (RDWR, GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Results Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676±251g (mean± SD) and percent reconstitution was 80%±13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%±0.4% (8<0.8%). Graft weight was 60%±13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549±267g and percent reconstitution was 93%±18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors, recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth, but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (p=0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR=4.50, p=0.001), but not by GRWR or graft fraction (p>0.90 for each). Conclusions Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, confirming previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3 month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction impacts post

  2. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-24

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state.

  3. Impact of donor-acceptor geometry and metal chelation on photophysical properties and applications of triarylboranes.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Zachary M; Wang, Suning

    2009-10-20

    emission color of the sample. More recently, we have used these nonconjugated linkers to prepare organometallic donor-acceptor triarylboranes in which fluorescence and phosphorescence can simultaneously be observed from two different chromophores in the same molecule at ambient temperature. These dual emissive molecules remain sensitive to fluoride ions, and give synergistic singlet-triplet emission responses when titrated with F(-). Fluoride ions can also act as valuable chemical probes, providing insight into the electronic structure of this new class of optoelectronic materials. We have demonstrated that donor-acceptor triarylboranes are promising materials in anion sensing and electroluminescent device applications. Nonetheless, despite our work and that of other research groups, there is still much to be learned about organometallic and multiply emissive triarylboron systems.

  4. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björk, Mikael T.; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter

    2009-02-01

    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings.

  5. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor.

    PubMed

    Leitman, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  6. Aromatic fumaronitrile core-based donor-linker-acceptor-linker-donor (D-pi-A-pi-D) compounds: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Panthi, Krishna; Adhikari, Ravi M; Kinstle, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    A new class of aromatic fumaronitrile core-based compounds with different donors and linkers has been synthesized and well characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 have indole and 2-phenylindole groups as electron donors, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 have a diphenylamino group as the electron donor, and compound 5 has a 3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazole group as an electron donor. These compounds absorb in the blue-to-green region and emit in the blue-to-red region depending on the electron donor, linker, and solvents. The quantum yields of fluorescence of these compounds in solution are measured and found to be moderate, but in solid states, they are high. These compounds display strong emission solvatochromism that is reflected by a large shift in their fluorescence emission maxima on changing the solvents. This change is accompanied by a successive decrease in fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence lifetimes of these compounds are measured in different solvent and found to vary from <1 to 7 ns. Optical switching of these compounds with solvents, concentration, and excitation energy have been studied. The correlation between the functional group and optical properties has been established to some extent. The ability of these compounds to function as colorimetric and luminescence pH sensors is demonstrated with color changes and luminescence switching upon the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The potentiality of these compounds for application in optoelectronics has been optically assessed.

  7. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  8. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  9. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  10. Organic electron donors as powerful single-electron reducing agents in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Julie; Terme, Thierry; Vanelle, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    One-electron reduction is commonly used in organic chemistry for the formation of radicals by the stepwise transfer of one or two electrons from a donor to an organic substrate. Besides metallic reagents, single-electron reducers based on neutral organic molecules have emerged as an attractive novel source of reducing electrons. The past 20 years have seen the blossoming of a particular class of organic reducing agents, the electron-rich olefins, and their application in organic synthesis. This Review gives an overview of the different types of organic donors and their specific characteristics in organic transformations.

  11. Donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches.

    PubMed

    Merino, Gabriel; Beltrán, Hiram I; Vela, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    A series of donor-acceptor heteroleptic open sandwiches with formula CpM-M'Pyl (M = B, Al, Ga; M' = Li, Na; Cp = cyclopentadienyl; Pyl = pentadienyl) has been designed in silico using density functional theory. The most stable complexes are those containing boron as a donor atom. A molecular orbital analysis shows that the s character of the lone pair located at the group 13 element is mainly responsible for the complex stabilization. It is also found that the surrounding medium has a similar effect on these sandwiches such as in the "classical" donor-acceptor complexes, showing a decrement in the group 13 element-alkaline metal bond lengths.

  12. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

  13. Reassessing Medical Risk in Living Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineeta; Matas, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of unilateral nephrectomy on living donors have been important considerations for 60 years. Short-term risk is well established (0.03% mortality and <1% risk of major morbidity), but characterization of long-term risk is evolving. Relative to the general population, risk of mortality, ESRD, hypertension, proteinuria, and cardiovascular disease is comparable or lower. However, new studies comparing previous donors with equally healthy controls indicate increased risk of metabolic derangements (particularly involving calcium homeostasis), renal failure, and possibly, mortality. We discuss how these results should be interpreted and their influence on the practice of living donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25255922

  14. Remuneration of hematopoietic stem cell donors: principles and perspective of the World Marrow Donor Association.

    PubMed

    Boo, Michael; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Chapman, Jeremy; Lindberg, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander H; Shaw, Bronwen E; Switzer, Galen E; Yang, Edward; Egeland, Torstein

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative procedure for life-threatening hematologic diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from an unrelated donor, frequently residing in another country, may be the only option for 70% of those in need of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To maximize the opportunity to find the best available donor, individual donor registries collaborate internationally. To provide homogeneity of practice among registries, the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) sets standards against which registries are accredited and provides guidance and regulations about unrelated donor safety and care. A basic tenet of the donor registries is that unrelated HSC donation is an altruistic act; nonpayment of donors is entrenched in the WMDA standards and in international practice. In the United States, the prohibition against remuneration of donors has recently been challenged. Here, we describe the reasons that the WMDA continues to believe that HSC donors should not be paid because of ethical concerns raised by remuneration, potential to damage the public will to act altruistically, the potential for coercion and exploitation of donors, increased risk to patients, harm to local transplantation programs and international stem cell exchange, and the possibility of benefiting some patients while disadvantaging others.

  15. Directed blood donor program decreases donor exposure for children with sickle cell disease requiring chronic transfusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D O; Covert, B; Lindsey, T; Edwards, V; McLaughlin, L; Theus, J; Wray, R J; Jupka, K; Baker, D; Robbins, M; DeBaun, M R

    2012-01-01

    In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), primary and secondary prevention of strokes require indefinite regular blood transfusion therapy. The risks associated with repeated transfusions include alloimmunization and increased donor exposure. The Charles Drew Program is a directed blood donor program designed to lower donor exposure, decreasing the associated complications of transfusion; however, no evidence exists demonstrating the magnitude of the benefit to the recipient. Further, the use of extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching for C, E, and K has been well documented in a clinical trial setting but not extensively evaluated in a standard care setting. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness in reducing alloimmunization when matching for C, E, and K and the magnitude of the decrease in donor exposure in a directed blood donor program. The rate of alloimmunization and reduction of donor exposure were determined during the course of 1 year in a cohort of children with SCD who received regular directed donor blood transfusions. A total of 24 recipients were in the program, 16 females and 8 males, 4 to 20 years of age. During 2008, alloimmunization was 0 percent and donor exposure was reduced by 20 percent, compared with usual care. Extended RBC antigen matching has the same benefit as in a clinical trial setting for patients with SCD receiving blood transfusion therapy. Despite significant effort, we only achieved a modest decrease in donor exposure and cannot determine the immediate benefit of a directed blood donor program.

  16. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT.

  17. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  18. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-03-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  19. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  20. Donor conceived offspring conceive of the donor: the relevance of age, awareness, and family form.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Rarely have donor conceived offspring been studied. Recently, it has become more common for parents to disclose the nature of conception to their offspring. This new development raises questions about the donor's place in the offspring's life and identity. Using surveys collected by the Donor Sibling Registry, the largest U.S. web-based registry, during a 15 week period from October 2009 to January 2010, we found that donor offspring view the donor as a whole person, rather than as simple genetic material (he can know you; he has looks; he can teach you about yourself); they also believe that the donor should act on his humanity (he should know about you and not remain an anonymous genetic contributor). Other new issues that emerge from this research include the findings that offspring may want to control the decision about contacting their sperm donor in order to facilitate a bond between themselves and the donor that is separate from their relationship with their parents. They also wish to assure their parents that their natal families are primary and will not be disrupted. We discuss how the age at which offspring learned about their donor conception and their current age each make a difference in their responses to what they want from contact with their donor. Family form (heterosexual two-parent families and lesbian two-parent families) also affects donor terminology. The role of the genetic father is reconsidered in both types of families. Donor conceived offspring raised in heterosexual families discover that their natal father no longer carries biological information and he is relegated to being "only" a social father. Offspring raised by lesbian couples experience a dissipation of the family narrative that they have no father. The donor, an imagined father, offers clues to the offspring's personal identity. The natal family is no longer the sole keeper of identity or ancestry.

  1. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  2. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter T W; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  3. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.

    PubMed Central

    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3511833

  4. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  5. Management of the multiple organ donor.

    PubMed

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J

    1987-07-01

    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  6. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well.

  7. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  8. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  9. Curved Oligophenylenes as Donors in Shape-Persistent Donor-Acceptor Macrocycles with Solvatofluorochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Takuya; Orii, Jun; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-08-10

    Many optoelectronic organic materials are based on donor-acceptor (D-A) systems with heteroatom-containing electron donors. Herein, we introduce a new molecular design for all-carbon curved oligoparaphenylenes as donors, which results in the generation of unique shape-persistent D-A macrocycles. Two types of acceptor-inserted cycloparaphenylenes were synthesized. These macrocycles display positive solvatofluorochromic properties owing to their D-A characteristics, which were confirmed by theoretical and electrochemical studies. PMID:26140706

  10. Predictors of donor follow-up after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert S; Smith, Abigail R; Dew, Mary Amanda; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Ladner, Daniela P

    2014-08-01

    Donor safety in living liver donation is of paramount importance; however, information on long-term outcomes is limited by incomplete follow-up. We sought to ascertain factors that predicted postdonation follow-up in 456 living liver donors in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study. Completed donor follow-up was defined as physical, phone, or laboratory contact at a given time point. Univariate and multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models, using donor and recipient demographic and clinical data and donor quality-of-life data, were developed to predict completed follow-up. Ninety percent of the donors completed their follow-up in the first 3 months, and 83% completed their follow-up at year 1; rates of completed follow-up ranged from 57% to 72% in years 2 to 7 and from 41% to 56% in years 8 to 10. The probability of completed follow-up in the first year was higher for white donors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-8.58] but lower for donors whose recipients had hepatitis C virus or hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.17-0.69). After the first year, an older age at donation predicted more complete follow-up. There were significant center differences at all time points (OR range = 0.29-10.11), with center variability in both returns for in-center visits and the use of phone/long-distance visits. Donor follow-up in the first year after donation was excellent but decreased with time. Predictors of follow-up varied with the time since donation. In conclusion, adapting best center practices (enhanced through the use of telephones and social media) to maintain contact with donors represents a significant opportunity to gain valuable information about long-term donor outcomes. PMID:24824858

  11. Molecular characterization of GYPB and RH in donors in the American Rare Donor Program.

    PubMed

    Vege, S; Westhoff, C M

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been a challenge in clinical transfusion medicine, especially when the required donor RBCs must be U- and negative for high-prevalence Rh phenotypes (hr(B), hr(S)). It is now possible to genotype donors to identify or confirm Uvar and U- phenotypes, as well as Rh hr(B)- and hrS- phenotypes, and to characterize the different RH backgrounds found in these donors. In a preliminary study of donors registered in the American Rare Donor Program, twelve different RH backgrounds were identified in eighteen hr(B)- or hr(S)- donors. These results, summarized in the current report, confirm the heterogeneous nature of these phenotypes and are relevant for selection of donor units for patients with antibodies to high-prevalence Rh antigens. Not all phenotypically similar units will be compatible, and matching the Rh genotype of the donor to the patient is important to prevent further Rh sensitization. Most donors referred were hr(B)- and carry at least one hybrid RHD-CE(3-7)-D gene that encodes a variant C antigen linked to RHCE*ceS that encodes the VS+V- phenotype. Surprisingly, the majority of donors were heterozygous, some even carrying conventional alleles, suggesting that the loss of expression of the hr(B) epitopes on RBCs is a dominant phenotype. Although antigen-matching of patients with SCD with donors for C, E, and K antigens has decreased the incidence of alloimmunization, some patients still become immunized to Rh antigens, indicating the units were not truly matched. RH genotyping can identify those patients with SCD who carry RH alleles that encode altered C, e, or D who are at risk for production of "apparent auto" and alloantibodies to Rh antigens. RH genotyping of alloimmunized patients with SCD, partnered with genotyping of donors, can identify compatible units that would also eliminate the risk of further Rh alloimmunization. PMID:17105364

  12. Recent advance in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hashikura, Yasuhiko; Kawasaki, Seiji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Terada, Masaru; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Urata, Koichi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Ogino, Shiro; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2002-02-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)has been performed in more than 2000 cases around the world. This procedure is considered to have certain advantages over cadaveric liver transplantation, because detailed preoperative evaluation of the donor liver is possible and superior graft quality is available. The indication has recently been widened to include adult patients. The results of LDLT have been reported to be very good. In this article,several considerations on LDLT,including living donor selection and application to adult patients, are discussed. Between June 1990 and March 2001, 143 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital. During this period, 160 patients were determined to be candidates for liver transplantation in our institution, and 185 candidates were evaluated as potential donors for these patients. Thirty-eight of 185 donor candidates were excluded for reasons including liver dysfunction and withdrawal of consent. The recipients included 60 adults, 50 (83%) of whom are currently alive. Taking into account the worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donation,the importance of LDLT will probably never diminish. This procedure should be established on the basis of profound consideration of donor safety as well as accumulated expertise of hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:11865355

  13. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  14. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring.

    PubMed

    Hertz, R; Nelson, M K; Kramer, W

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  15. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  16. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  17. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  18. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  19. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  20. Crystal growth of new charge-transfer salts based on π-conjugated donor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morherr, Antonia; Witt, Sebastian; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Bäcker, Jan-Peter; Schönhense, Gerd; Bolte, Michael; Krellner, Cornelius

    2016-09-01

    New charge transfer crystals of π-conjugated, aromatic molecules (phenanthrene and picene) as donors were obtained by physical vapor transport. The melting behavior, optimization of crystal growth and the crystal structure are reported for charge transfer salts with (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ-Fx, x=0, 2, 4), which was used as acceptor material. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Growth conditions for different vapor pressures in closed ampules were applied and the effect of these starting conditions for crystal size and quality is reported. The process of charge transfer was investigated by geometrical analysis of the crystal structure and by infrared spectroscopy on single crystals. With these three different acceptor strengths and the two sets of donor materials, it is possible to investigate the distribution of the charge transfer systematically. This helps to understand the charge transfer process in this class of materials with π-conjugated donor molecules.

  1. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than our study. There were five similar Indian studies and seropositivity rate varied from 0.72/1000 (using ELISA and WB) to 5.5/1000 (using ELISA alone). The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than all these studies. HIV seroprevalence in the present study is lower (P < 0.001) than other Indian figures. The present and other studies confirmed that the projected HIV seroprevalence (82/1000) in Indian blood donors was high. The NACO result was based on one-time ELISA screening reports from zonal blood testing centres which also receive samples from paid donors donating in commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  2. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  3. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  4. Building Better Donors: A Well-Informed Donor is an Asset to Any Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire philanthropists compare notes in private with their peers. Whether experienced philanthropists or first-time donors, they all want their gifts to make a difference, and they are hungry for knowledge about how to be effective donors. They want to be educated about philanthropy. Educational institutions are experts at making the case for…

  5. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  6. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  7. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  8. Detection of 549 new HLA alleles in potential stem cell donors from the United States, Poland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Frederick, C J; Cereb, N; Giani, A S; Ruppel, J; Maraszek, A; Pingel, J; Sauter, J; Schmidt, A H; Yang, S Y

    2016-01-01

    We characterized 549 new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles found in newly registered stem cell donors as a result of high-throughput HLA typing. New alleles include 101 HLA-A, 132 HLA-B, 105 HLA-C, 2 HLA-DRB1, 89 HLA-DQB1 and 120 HLA-DPB1 alleles. Mainly, new alleles comprised single nucleotide variations when compared with homologous sequences. We identified nonsynonymous nucleotide mutations in 70.7% of all new alleles, synonymous variations in 26.4% and nonsense substitutions in 2.9% (null alleles). Some new alleles (55, 10.0%) were found multiple times, HLA-DPB1 alleles being the most frequent among these. Furthermore, as several new alleles were identified in individuals from ethnic minority groups, the relevance of recruiting donors belonging to such groups and the importance of ethnicity data collection in donor centers and registries is highlighted.

  9. When donor families and organ recipients meet.

    PubMed

    Clayville, L

    1999-06-01

    Medical decisions about organ donation and transplantation are considered by a growing number of individuals. The complex issue of whether and to what extent organ recipients and donor families should interact or communicate has gained increasing public awareness, thereby creating an area of major ethical and legal concern for the transplant community. Communication issues have traditionally been decided by transplant coordinators and guided by personal beliefs, agency guidelines, and organizational policies. Organizations are often inconsistent in their practices, and this in turn causes frustration and confusion for both donor families and transplant recipients. This study explored how the experience of meeting the recipient(s) of a loved one's organ affected the grieving process of donor families and altered their lives. The information from this study might be useful to transplant professionals to develop guidelines and policies that lessen the confusion and frustration felt by those involved with the transplant process.

  10. Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Beletskiy, Evgeny V.; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2012-11-14

    Enzymes and their mimics use hydrogen bonds to catalyze chemical transformations. Small molecule transition state analogs of oxyanion holes are characterized by gas phase IR and photoelectron spectroscopy and their binding constants in acetonitrile. As a result, a new class of hydrogen bond catalysts is proposed (OH donors that can contribute three hydrogen bonds to a single functional group) and demonstrated in a Friedel-Crafts reaction.

  11. Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon.

    PubMed

    Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

    2006-10-20

    The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si(1-x)Ge(x) substrates with x< or =0.3 is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a relaxation of the Si ligands of the donor.

  12. Choosing the Order of Deceased Donor and Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in Pediatric Recipients: A Markov Decision Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J.; Chow, Eric K.H.; James, Nathan T.; Orandi, Babak J.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Smith, Jodi M.; Colombani, Paul M.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most pediatric kidney transplant recipients eventually require retransplantation, and the most advantageous timing strategy regarding deceased and living donor transplantation in candidates with only one living donor remains unclear. Methods A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was designed to compare, for a given patient with one living donor, living-donor-first followed if necessary by deceased donor retransplantation versus deceased-donor-first followed if necessary by living donor (if still able to donate) or deceased donor (if not) retransplantation. Based on Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, the model was designed to account for waitlist, graft, and patient survival, sensitization, increased risk of graft failure seen during late adolescence, and differential deceased donor waiting times based upon pediatric-priority allocation policies. Based on national cohort data, the model was also designed to account for aging or disease development leading to ineligibility of the living donor over time. Results Given a set of candidate and living donor characteristics, the Markov model provides the expected patient survival over a time horizon of 20 years. For the most highly sensitized patients (PRA>80%), a deceased-donor-first strategy was advantageous, but for all other patients (PRA<80%), a living-donor-first strategy was recommended. Conclusions This Markov model illustrates how patients, families, and providers can be provided information and predictions regarding the most advantageous use of deceased donor versus living donor transplantation for pediatric recipients. PMID:25594552

  13. 2509 living donor nephrectomies, morbidity and mortality, including the UK introduction of laparoscopic donor surgery.

    PubMed

    Hadjianastassiou, V G; Johnson, R J; Rudge, C J; Mamode, N

    2007-11-01

    The worldwide expansion of laparoscopic, at the expense of open, donor nephrectomy (DN) has been driven on the basis of faster convalescence for the donor. However, concerns have been expressed over the safety of the laparoscopic procedure. The UK Transplant National Registry collecting mandatory information on all living kidney donations in the country was analyzed for donations between November 2000 (start of living donor follow-up data reporting) to June 2006 to assess the safety of living DN, after the recent introduction of the laparoscopic procedure in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four transplant units reported data on 2509 donors (601 laparoscopic, 1800 open and 108 [4.3%] unspecified); 46.5% male; mean donor age: 46 years. There was one death 3 months postdischarge and a further five deaths beyond 1 year postdischarge. The mean length of stay was 1.5 days less for the laparoscopic procedure (p < 0.001). The risk of major morbidity for all donors was 4.9% (laparoscopic = 4.5%, open = 5.1%, p = 0.549). The overall rate of any morbidity was 14.3% (laparoscopic = 10.3%, open = 15.7%, p = 0.001). Living donation has remained a safe procedure in the UK during the learning curve of introduction of the laparoscopic procedure. The latter offers measurable advantages to the donor in terms of reduced length of stay and morbidity. PMID:17868058

  14. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  15. Donor-conceived children looking for their sperm donor: what do they want to know?

    PubMed Central

    Ravelingien, A.; Provoost, V.; Pennings, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to gain in-depth understanding of why some donor-conceived offspring want to know the identity of their sperm donor. Methods: Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed on first-hand quotes from donor-conceived offspring selected from a wide range of sources (including empirical studies and donor conception networks, registries and support groups). Results: We found that at least 7 different objectives can underlie the wish to know one’s donor: to avoid medical risks and consanguineous relationships; to connect with one’s roots; to complete one’s life (hi-)story; to understand where one’s traits come from; to discover or assess one’s defining characteristics and capabilities; to rectify a wrong-doing, and to map out one’s ancestral history. Conclusion: The analysis shows that there is great variance among identity-seekers in the weight they attribute to wanting to know their donor. It is also clear that they have very different assumptions about the role and importance of genetics in terms of establishing ‘who they are’ or ‘can become’, including deterministic misconceptions. Rather than treat all donor-conceived offspring’s needs as of equal concern, this analysis should help distinguish between and assess the relevance of the various motivations. PMID:24753953

  16. Attaining specific donor management goals increases number of organs transplanted per donor: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Michael E; McClean, Daniel; Falcone, Cassandra A; Arrington, Jeffrey; Matthews, Donna; Summe, Carrie

    2009-09-01

    Most organ procurement organization professionals and transplant surgeons intuitively know that meeting donor management goals improves organ allocation and transplant outcomes. In this era of evidence-based medicine, it is important to know whether the data support this assumption. All 6 organ procurement organizations in the United Network for Organ Sharing's region 10 agreed on 6 specific donor management goals. The organ procurement organizations then compared the number of organs transplanted per donor when goals were met with the number when goals were not met. Results were broken down by donor type: standard-criteria donation, expanded-criteria donation, and donation after cardiac death. For all 6 organ procurement organizations combined, the data for all of 2008 show a substantial and statistically significant improvement in number of organs transplanted per donor for standard criteria donation and total donors when goals are met, with a smaller degree of improvement (although not statistically significant) in the number of organs transplanted per donor for expanded-criteria donation and donation after cardiac death when goals are met.

  17. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of organ donation: evaluating investment into donor action and other donor initiatives.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James F; Kiberd, Bryce; Kalo, Zoltan; Keown, Paul; Roels, Leo; Kjerulf, Maria

    2004-04-01

    Initiatives aimed at increasing organ donation can be considered health care interventions, and will compete with other health care interventions for limited resources. We have developed a model capable of calculating the cost-utility of organ donor initiatives and applied it to Donor Action, a successful international program designed to optimize donor practices. The perspective of the payer in the Canadian health care system was chosen. A Markov model was developed to estimate the net present value incremental lifetime direct medical costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as a consequence of increased kidney transplantation rates. Cost-saving and cost-effectiveness thresholds were calculated. The effects of changing the success rate and time frame of the intervention was examined as a sensitivity analysis. Transplantation results in a gain of 1.99 QALYs and a cost savings of Can$104,000 over the 20-year time frame compared with waiting on dialysis. Implementation of an intervention such as Donor Action, which produced as few as three extra donors per million population, would be cost-effective at a cost of Can$1.0 million per million population. The cost-effectiveness of Donor Action and other organ donor initiatives compare favorably to other health care interventions. Organ donation may be underfunded in North America.

  19. A multidisciplinary program to educate and advocate for living donors.

    PubMed

    Sites, Anita K; Freeman, Jason R; Harper, Michael R; Waters, David B; Pruett, Timothy L

    2008-12-01

    Education is critical in decision making and the informed consent process in prospective living donors. Little has been written about how and what living donors should be taught. This article describes a multidisciplinary program for living donor education at the University of Virginia. The goals of the program are to impart information needed for prospective donors to make an informed decision and to independently evaluate donors' medical and psychosocial suitability. A partnership between the transplant department and an independent donor advocacy team establishes an environment conducive to education. By embracing independence, transparency, partnership, and advocacy, our program permits bidirectional education. This partnership facilitates unbiased understanding and appreciation of this education and considers each individual's unique circumstances when making informed decisions. Likewise, prospective donors educate the team about their circumstances, which helps the team safeguard the prospective donor and may enhance the safety of prospective donors and the perceived integrity of living organ donation. PMID:19186581

  20. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  1. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  2. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  3. Alternative donors: cord blood for adults.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for patients with hematological diseases. The probability of finding a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- identical donor among family members is around 25% and 30% that of having a full matched unrelated donor in the registry. Patients in need may also benefit of a HLA-mismatched HSCT either from an haploidentical donors or from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Much has been learned about UCB transplant (UCBT) since the first human UCBT was performed back in 1988. Cord blood banks have been established worldwide for the collection, cryopreservation, and distribution of UCB for HSCT. Today, a global network of cord blood banks and transplant centers has been established with a large common inventory of more than 650,000 UCB units available, allowing for more than 40,000 UCBT worldwide in children and adults with severe hematological diseases. Several studies have been published on UCBT, assessing risk factors such as cell dose and HLA mismatch. Outcomes of several retrospective comparative studies showed similar results using other stem cell sources both in pediatric and adult setting. New strategies are ongoing to facilitate engraftment and reduce transplant-related mortality. In this issue, we review the current results of UCBT in adults with hematological malignancies and the clinical studies comparing UCBT with other transplant strategies. We provide guidelines for donor algorithm selection in UCBT setting.

  4. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  5. Benzyne arylation of oxathiane glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The arylation of bicyclic oxathiane glycosyl donors has been achieved using benzyne generated in situ from 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT) and lead tetraacetate. Following sulfur arylation, glycosylation of acetate ions proceeded with high levels of stereoselectivity to afford α -glycosyl acetates in a 'one-pot' reaction, even in the presence of alternative acceptor alcohols.

  6. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  7. Analysis of SERF in Thai blood donors.

    PubMed

    Palacajornsuk, P; Hue-Roye, K; Nathalang, O; Tantimavanich, S; Bejrachandra, S; Reid, M E

    2005-01-01

    The Cromer blood group system consists of nine high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). We recently described one of these Cromer highprevalence antigens,SERF, the absence of which was found in a Thai woman. The lack of SERF antigen in this proband was associated with a substitution of nucleotide 647C>T in exon 5 of DAF, which is predicted to be a change of proline to leucine at amino acid position 182 in short consensus repeat (SCR) 3 of DAF. This study reports on PCR-RFLP analysis of the SERF allele with BstNI restriction endonuclease on more than one thousand Thai blood donor samples. One new donor homozygous (647T) and 21 donors heterozygous (647C/T) for the SERF allele were found. Among this cohort of random Thai blood donors, the SERF allele frequency was 1.1 percent. Thus, like other alleles in the Cromer blood group system, SERF is found in a certain ethnic group.

  8. The donor star winds in High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2014-10-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) are essential astrophysical laboratories. These objects represent an advanced stage in the evolution of massive binary systems, after the initially more massive star has already collapsed in a supernova explosion, but its remnant, a neutron star or black hole, remains gravitationally bound. The stellar wind from the OB-type donor is partially accreted onto its compact companion powering its relatively high X-ray luminosity. Since HMXBs accrete from the stellar wind, parameters such as the donor's mass-loss rate, the velocity of the wind, and its clumpiness are of fundamental importance.This proposal takes advantage of the unique capabilities of HST/STIS for UV spectroscopy. We focus on the most populous in the Galaxy class of those HMXBs where the stellar wind of the OB donor is directly accreted onto a neutron star. Recently, a new sub-class of HMXBs - "supergiant fast X-ray transients" - was discovered. It has been proposed that these enigmatic objects can be explained by the specific properties of their donor-star winds. The only way to validate or disprove this hypothesis is by a studying the wind diagnostics lines in the UV spectra of donor stars. The observations proposed here will, for the first time, provide the UV spectra of this important new type of accreting binaries. Our state-of-the art non-LTE expanding stellar atmospheres and 3-D stellar wind simulations allow thorough exploitation of the STIS spectra. As a result we will obtain the wind parameters for a representative sample of six Galactic HMXBs, thus heightening our knowledge thereof considerably.

  9. Allospecific rejection of MHC class I-deficient bone marrow by CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Haspot, F; Li, H W; Lucas, C L; Fehr, T; Beyaz, S; Sykes, M

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance of long-term immunosuppression is a desired goal in organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism offers a promising approach to tolerance induction, and we have aimed to develop low-toxicity, nonimmunodepleting approaches to achieve this outcome. In a mouse model achieving fully MHC-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow engraftment with minimal conditioning (3 Gy total body irradiation followed by anti-CD154 and T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow cells), CD4 T cells in the recipient are required to promote tolerance of preexisting alloreactive recipient CD8 T cells and thereby permit chimerism induction. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of CD4 T cells and NK cells reject MHC Class I-deficient and Class I/Class II-deficient marrow in a CD8 T cell-dependent manner. This rejection is specific for donor alloantigens, since recipient hematopoiesis is not affected by donor marrow rejection and MHC Class I-deficient bone marrow that is syngeneic to the recipient is not rejected. Recipient CD8 T cells are activated and develop cytotoxicity against MHC Class I-deficient donor cells in association with rejection. These data implicate a novel CD8 T cell-dependent bone marrow rejection pathway, wherein recipient CD8 T cells indirectly activated by donor alloantigens promote direct killing, in a T cell receptor-independent manner, of Class I-deficient donor cells.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    PubMed

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  11. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors. PMID:26520059

  12. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  13. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor. PMID:22683233

  14. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  15. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Director, Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...: James Bowman, MD, Medical Director at Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health... circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has not focused on specific research issues. Since the inception...

  16. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, π-complementary donor-acceptor-donor triads.

    PubMed

    Avinash, M B; Sandeepa, K V; Govindaraju, T

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary π-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids. PMID:23946856

  17. Does Class Size Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  18. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  19. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  20. Easy come, easy go. Retention of blood donors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, A

    2015-08-01

    Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism. The existing literature further suggests that first time donors can be retained by paying extra attention to adverse events (vasovagal reactions and fatigue). These events could be reduced by drinking water and muscle tension exercises. Feelings of anxiety (in regular donors) and stress can further prevent donors from returning. Planning donations amongst busy lives can help retention, and suggestions are given on which interventions might be helpful. PMID:26399971

  1. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  2. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  3. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  4. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  5. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  6. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  7. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  8. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  9. Alternative donor transplant of benign primary hematologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, J; Sodani, P; Symons, H

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic SCT is currently the only curative therapy for a range of benign inherited and acquired primary hematologic disorders in children, including BM failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. The preferred HLA-matched sibling donor is available for only about 25% of such children. However, there has been substantial progress over the last four decades in the use of alternative donors for those without a matched sibling—including HLA-matched unrelated donors, HLA-haploidentical related donors and unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood—so that it is now possible to find a donor for almost every child requiring an allograft. Below, we summarize the relative merits and limitations of the different alternative donors for benign hematologic conditions, first generally, and then in relation to specific disorders, and suggest recommendations for selecting such an alternative donor. PMID:25665040

  10. Hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy as an alternative to traditional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Buell, Joseph F; Hanaway, Michael J; Potter, Steven R; Cronin, David C; Yoshida, Atsushi; Munda, Rino; Alexander, J Wesley; Newell, Kenneth A; Bruce, David S; Woodle, E Steve

    2002-11-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (LDN) are well described, while similar data on hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (HALDN) are lacking. We compare hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with open donor nephrectomy. One hundred consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (10/98-8/01) donor/recipient pairs were compared to 50 open donor nephrectomy pairs (8/97-1/00). Mean donor weights were similar (179.6 +/- 40.8 vs. 167.4 +/- 30.3 lb; p = NS), while donor age was greater among hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (38.2 +/- 9.5 vs. 31.2 +/- 7.8 year; p < 0.01). Right nephrectomies was fewer in hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy [17/100 (17%) vs. 22/50 (44%); p < 0.05]. Operative time for hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.5 h; p < 0.01) was longer; however, return to diet (6.9 +/- 2.8 vs. 25.6 +/- 6.1 h; p < 0.01), narcotics requirement (17.9 +/- 6.3 vs. 56.3 +/- 6.4h; p < 0.01) and length of stay (51.7 +/- 22.2 vs. 129.6 +/- 65.7 h; p < 0.01) were less than open donor nephrectomy. Costs were similar ($11072 vs. 10840). Graft function and 1-week Cr of 1.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 g/dL (p = NS) were similar. With the introduction of HALDN, our laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy program has increased by 20%. Thus, similar to traditional laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy provides advantages over open donor nephrectomy without increasing costs. PMID:12482153

  11. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation. PMID:19938130

  12. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient.

    PubMed

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2016-03-01

    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation.

  13. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    PubMed

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    National Blood Service (NBS) Tissue Services (TS) operates living donor and deceased donor tissue banking programmes. The living bone donor programme operates in collaboration with 91 orthopaedic departments across the country and collects bone donations, in the form of surgically removed femoral heads (FHs), from over 5,000 patients per annum undergoing total hip replacement. Bone donated via the living programme constitutes approximately 55% of the total bone donated to NBS. Non-NBS tissue banks, primarily in hospital orthopaedic departments, also bank donated bone for the UK. A survey of information received from 16 collaborating orthopaedic centres, between April 2003 and August 2004, identified 709 excluded donors. The total number of donations banked from these sites was 1,538. Donations can be excluded before collection if there are contraindications noted in a potential donor's medical history before their operation. Donors may also be excluded after collection of the FH, for instance because of reactive microbiology tests for blood borne viruses, or if the donation storage conditions or related documentation have not met stringent quality requirements. In this survey, bone or joint conditions were the major reasons for excluding potential donors before donation (154 of 709 exclusions, 22%), followed by a current or a past history of malignancy (139 of 709 exclusions, 20%). Local staffing and operational difficulties sometimes resulted in potential donors being missed, or specific reasons for exclusion not being reported (117 exclusions). These out numbered exclusions due to patient refusal (80 exclusions). A small number (< 5) appear to have been excluded erroneously. There was considerable local variation in the reasons given for exclusion and certainly under-reporting. A survey of donations discarded after collection in the same period highlighted that 43% were donor related; 110 of 370 did not provide a follow-up blood sample. More than 30% were due to

  14. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    PubMed

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    National Blood Service (NBS) Tissue Services (TS) operates living donor and deceased donor tissue banking programmes. The living bone donor programme operates in collaboration with 91 orthopaedic departments across the country and collects bone donations, in the form of surgically removed femoral heads (FHs), from over 5,000 patients per annum undergoing total hip replacement. Bone donated via the living programme constitutes approximately 55% of the total bone donated to NBS. Non-NBS tissue banks, primarily in hospital orthopaedic departments, also bank donated bone for the UK. A survey of information received from 16 collaborating orthopaedic centres, between April 2003 and August 2004, identified 709 excluded donors. The total number of donations banked from these sites was 1,538. Donations can be excluded before collection if there are contraindications noted in a potential donor's medical history before their operation. Donors may also be excluded after collection of the FH, for instance because of reactive microbiology tests for blood borne viruses, or if the donation storage conditions or related documentation have not met stringent quality requirements. In this survey, bone or joint conditions were the major reasons for excluding potential donors before donation (154 of 709 exclusions, 22%), followed by a current or a past history of malignancy (139 of 709 exclusions, 20%). Local staffing and operational difficulties sometimes resulted in potential donors being missed, or specific reasons for exclusion not being reported (117 exclusions). These out numbered exclusions due to patient refusal (80 exclusions). A small number (< 5) appear to have been excluded erroneously. There was considerable local variation in the reasons given for exclusion and certainly under-reporting. A survey of donations discarded after collection in the same period highlighted that 43% were donor related; 110 of 370 did not provide a follow-up blood sample. More than 30% were due to

  15. Altered glycosylation in donor mice causes rejection of strain-matched skin and heart grafts.

    PubMed

    Gock, H; Murray-Segal, L J; Winterhalter, A C; Aminian, A; Moore, G T C; Brown, S J; d'Apice, A J F; Cowan, P J

    2014-04-01

    Differential protein glycosylation in the donor and recipient can have profound consequences for transplanted organs, as evident in ABO-incompatible transplantation and xenotransplantation. In this study, we investigated the impact of altered fucosylation on graft acceptance by using donor mice overexpressing human α1,2-fucosyltransferase (HTF). Skin and heart grafts from HTF transgenic mice were rapidly rejected by otherwise completely matched recipients (median survival times 16 and 14 days, respectively). HTF skin transplanted onto mice lacking T and B cells induced an natural killer cell-mediated innate rejection crisis that affected 50-95% of the graft at 10-20 days. However, in the absence of adaptive immunity, the residual graft recovered and survived long-term (>100 days). Experiments using "parked" grafts or MHC class II-deficient recipients suggested that indirect rather than direct antigen presentation plays a role in HTF skin graft rejection, although the putative antigen(s) was not identified. We conclude that altered glycosylation patterns on donor tissue can trigger a powerful rejection response comprising both innate and adaptive components. This has potential implications for allotransplantation, in light of increasing recognition of the variability of the human glycome, and for xenotransplantation, where carbohydrate remodeling has been a lynchpin of donor genetic modification.

  16. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  17. Transvaginal Route for Kidney Extraction in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy in terms of feasibility and reproducibility. Methods: A total of 115 consecutive female patients who underwent laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (n = 70) or transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy (n = 45) were included and compared in terms of operative characteristics, as well as donor and recipient outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed between the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy and transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy groups in terms of mean duration of warm and cold ischemia, operation time, length of hospital stay, arterial anastomoses, visual analog scale pain scores, serum creatinine levels, and receiver outcomes, whereas a significantly higher number of venous anastomoses was noted in the laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy group than in the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy group (P = .029). Conclusions: Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy seems to be a feasible and reproducible alternative to conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy in female donors provided the viability of the vagina as an organ retrieval route. PMID:25419107

  18. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  19. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  20. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  2. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  3. [Glomerular disease and living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Rita; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Campistol, Josep M

    2005-01-01

    Glomerular diseases are an important and frequent cause of renal transplant graft loss in the mid-long term, mainly due to primary renal disease recurrence. Glomerular diseases have particular connotations in living donor kidney transplantation, due to the risk of primary disease recurrence and subsequent graft loss, and also the risk of development of glomerular disease related donors have for their genetic similitude. The incidence of glomerular disease recurrence after transplantation varies with type, being especially frequent in IgA nephropathy and type II membranous proliferative glomerulopathy. The difference between histological and clinical recurrence should always be established, being much more frequent the first. Renal biopsy is the essential diagnostic test to detect and confirm the existence of glomerular disease after transplant, with immunofluorescence study being necessary to determine the type of glomerular disease.

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Artificial Insemination (Donor)

    PubMed Central

    Watters, W. W.; Sousa-Poza, J.

    1966-01-01

    Artificial insemination (donor) [A.I.D.] in humans is a medical procedure that has been carried out for roughly 50 years. Its legal status has not yet been established; its moral implications are still hotly contested, and its psychological and psychiatric implications are only now coming under scientific scrutiny. The use of this procedure in couples who are psychologically unsuited for it can have unfortunate consequences. The obstetrician should seek the assistance of a dynamically oriented psychiatrist in screening couples who ask for artificial insemination (donor). Parenthood, in line with psychoanalytic ego psychology, is seen as a phase of ego development. The potential for mothering and fathering children is a later stage in growth than the capacity to conceive and sire them. It is the psychiatrist's role to assess the couple's motivation for A.I.D. in the light of the extent to which they have achieved this degree of ego development. PMID:20328602

  5. [Management of the potential organ donor].

    PubMed

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Bravo, Sebastián; Romero, Carlos; Castro, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    Solid organ transplantation is limited by donor availability. The loss of brain function produces hemodynamic, respiratory, hormonal and metabolic changes that lead to hypotension and organ dysfunction. Management of a potential donor is similar to any critically ill patient. Cardiovascular stability and protective ventilatory support must be pursued, aimed at minimizing the local and systemic inflammatory response that is triggered by brain death. There is no consensus on protocols for hormonal supplementation. The administration of vasopressin analogues and steroids may be beneficial under certain conditions. Appropriate medical management helps to optimize the function of different organs prior to transplantation. This may increase the number of harvested organs and improve their functional outcome in the recipient.

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  7. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN. PMID:26463316

  8. Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Connie L; Delmonico, Francis L

    2005-07-01

    The first successful living-donor kidney transplant was performed 50 yr ago. Since then, in a relatively brief period of medical history, living kidney transplantation has become the preferred treatment for those with ESRD. Organ replacement from either a live or a deceased donor is preferable to dialysis therapy because transplantation provides a better quality of life and improved survival. The advantages of live versus deceased donor transplantation now are readily apparent as it affords earlier transplantation and the best long-term survival. Live kidney donation has also been fostered by the technical advance of laparoscopic nephrectomy and immunologic maneuvers that can overcome biologic obstacles such as HLA disparity and ABO or cross-match incompatibility. Congressional legislation has provided an important model to remove financial disincentives to being a live donor. Federal employees now are afforded paid leave and coverage for travel expenses. Candidates for renal transplantation are aware of these developments, and they have become less hesitant to ask family members, spouses, or friends to become live kidney donors. Living donation as practiced for the past 50 yr has been safe with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. However, the future experience may not be the same as our society is becoming increasingly obese and developing associated health problems. In this environment, predicting medical futures is less precise than in the past. Even so, isolated abnormalities such as obesity and in some instances hypertension are no longer considered absolute contraindications to donation. These and other medical risks bring additional responsibility in such circumstances to track the unknown consequences of a live-donor nephrectomy. PMID:15930096

  9. Taking a Step Forward in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: Transvaginal Retrieval of Donor's Kidney.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying Hao; Lim, Yu Ming Joel; Ng, Ying Woo; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been broadly recognized as the gold standard for kidney procurement used in kidney transplantation where it is not uncommon for donors to experience discomfort and aesthetic dissatisfaction over larger incision site. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is a surgical approach that allows scarless intraabdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. In this case report, we describe the first case of transvaginal retrieval of donor's kidney at the National University Hospital, Singapore. A 51-year-old Malay lady with no significant medical history volunteered to a living-related kidney donor. Perioperative antibiotics were administered. A 12 mm Excel port was placed over the left iliac fossa with camera insertion. Two additional ports were inserted over the left rectus sheath edge and left costal margin under direct vision. An additional 5 mm port at the left loin was placed for lateral retraction. A vaginal probe was then inserted to facilitate posterior colpotomy and transection of the left uterosacral ligament. Pneumoperitoneum was subsequently maintained with a LiNA McCartney(®) Tube. A 15 mm Endocatch(®) bag was inserted for retrieval of the kidney. The left kidney was placed in the Endocatch bag after transection of the hilar vessels where the kidney was retrieved vaginally with ease. Colpotomy was closed vaginally using Vicryl-0 continuous suture. Total blood loss was noted as 50 mL with warm ischemia time being 7 minutes and the entire retrieval taking totally 20 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the donor was discharged stable 3 days postoperation. The transplanted kidney retained normal graft function. Colpotomy retrieval for donor nephrectomy presents an innovative method for specimen retrieval with minimal disruption of donor anatomy. Doing away with laparotomy for kidney retrieval has indeed shown a reduction in recovery time, reduced postoperative pain, and

  10. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  11. Managing multiple masculinities in donor insemination: doctors configuring infertile men and sperm donors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how doctors configured infertile men and sperm donors in the development of donor insemination (DI) in Taiwan. In the initial stage (1950s-1970s) doctors adjusted clinical procedures to repair the deformed gender identities of infertile men. To expand DI in the late 1970s and early 1980s, doctors stressed the positive eugenics of DI by spotlighting the high intelligence of donors, playing down biological patrilineage and re-emphasising the contribution of men of higher rank in society. In the mid-1980s, when donors came to be seen as potential carriers of fatal diseases like acquired immune deficiency syndrome, doctors managed to associate risky donors with socially stigmatised men, and therefore perpetuate the conventional hierarchy of masculinities. As the intracytoplasmic sperm injection emerged in the early 1990s doctors quickly presented infertile men as universally longing for biological fatherhood and hence devalued DI in an attempt to augment paternal masculinity. These diverse configuration activities come together to create a socio-technical network of DI that most of the time perpetuates the reigning gender order, rather than destabilising it. I argue the importance of incorporating various types of participants in analysis to understand the changing dynamics of multiple masculinities along with the development of DI.

  12. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient. PMID:25674158

  13. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  14. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  15. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  16. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  18. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

  19. Insurability of living organ donors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, R C; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Klarenbach, S; Vlaicu, S; Garg, A X

    2007-06-01

    Being an organ donor may affect one's ability to obtain life, disability and health insurance. We conducted a systematic review to determine if insurability is affected by living organ donation, and if concern about insurability affects donor decision making. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCI, EconLit and Cochrane databases for articles in any language, and reviewed reference lists from 1966 until June 2006. All studies discussing the insurability of living organ donors or its impact on donor decision making were included. Data were independently abstracted by two authors, and the methodological quality appraised. Twenty-three studies, from 1972 to 2006, provided data on 2067 living organ donors, 385 potential donors and 239 responses from insurance companies. Almost all companies would provide life and health insurance to living organ donors, usually with no higher premiums. However, concern about insurability was still expressed by 2%-14% of living organ donors in follow-up studies, and 3%-11% of donors actually encountered difficulties with their insurance. In one study, donors whose insurance premiums increased were less likely to reaffirm their decision to donate. Based on available evidence, some living organ donors had difficulties with insurance despite companies reporting otherwise. If better understood, this potential barrier to donation could be corrected through fair health and underwriting policies.

  20. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  1. Optimizing aesthetic and functional outcomes at donor sites.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Seng-Feng; Tan, Ngian-Chye

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest by reconstructive surgeons in improving the aesthetic and functional outcomes of donor sites. As the success rate of free tissue transfers has exceeded more than 95% in most microsurgical centers, more emphasis can be shifted to the donor site. However, morbidities of donor sites can occur not only in free tissue transfers, but in locoregional flaps as well. In reconstructive procedures, the main principle is to mobilize normal tissue and utilize it to reconstruct an area of defect. The donor site, of course has no pathology, but is a previously healthy area. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to not only minimize postoperative complications at recipient sites, but also pay attention to donor sites. Just as in organ transplantation where efforts are made to ensure the safety and a good outcome for a donor patient, outcomes should be improved and morbidity reduced at donor sites in reconstructive surgery.

  2. Biliary complications in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chok, Kenneth S H; Lo, Chung Mau

    2016-07-01

    Living donor liver transplantation is an alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation in the face of insufficient deceased donor liver grafts. Unfortunately, the incidence of biliary complication after living donor liver transplantation is significantly higher than that after deceased donor liver transplantation using grafts from non-cardiac-death donations. The two most common biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation are bile leakage and biliary anastomotic stricture. Early treatment with endoscopic and interventional radiological approaches can achieve satisfactory outcomes. If treatment with these approaches fails, the salvage measure for prompt rectification will be surgical revision, which is now seldom performed. This paper also discusses risk factors in donor biliary anatomy that can affect recipients. PMID:26932842

  3. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  4. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center.

    PubMed

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S

    2015-09-01

    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts. PMID:26361653

  5. Metal-activated histidine carbon donor hydrogen bonds contribute to metalloprotein folding and function.

    PubMed

    Schmiedekamp, Ann; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-07-01

    Carbon donor hydrogen bonds are typically weak interactions that contribute less than 2 kcal/mol, and provide only modest stabilization in proteins. One exception is the class of hydrogen bonds donated by heterocyclic side chain carbons. Histidine is capable of particularly strong interactions through the Cepsilon(1) and Cdelta(2) carbons when the imidazole is protonated or bound to metal. Given the frequent occurrence of metal-bound histidines in metalloproteins, we characterized the energies of these interactions through DFT calculations on model compounds. Imidazole-water hydrogen bonding could vary from -11.0 to -17.0 kcal/mol, depending on the metal identity and oxidation state. A geometric search of metalloprotein structures in the PDB identified a number of candidate His C-H...O hydrogen bonds which may be important for folding or function. DFT calculations on model complexes of superoxide reductase show a carbon donor hydrogen bond positioning a water molecule above the active site.

  6. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2015-01-01

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions. PMID:26569229

  7. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis.

    PubMed

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2015-01-01

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions. PMID:26569229

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Nitroxyl (HNO) Donors in the Management of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Horowitz, John D; Ritchie, Rebecca H

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of hospital admission in the Western world, yet there remains a paucity of effective pharmacological management options. With the recent development of synthetic, next-generation nitroxyl (HNO) donors and their progress into clinical trials, it is timely to now provide an update on the therapeutic potential of HNO donors in the management of acute decompensated heart failure. In this article, we summarize current understanding of the pharmacology of HNO (in comparison with its redox sibling, nitric oxide), its spectrum of cardioprotective actions, and efforts to translate these into the clinic. Future research directions for this exciting new class of HF drugs are also considered. PMID:27566478

  9. Optoelectronic properties and charge transfer in donor-acceptor all-conjugated diblock copolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Botiz, I.; Schaller, R. D.; Verduzco, R.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-05-12

    All-conjugated block copolymers, which can self-assemble into well-ordered morphologies, provide exciting opportunities to rationally design and control the nanoscale organization of electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties in optoelectronic active layers. Here we report on the steady-state and time-resolved optical characterization of block copolymer films and solutions containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the donor block and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) with and without copolymerization with benzothiadiazole as the acceptor block. Transient absorption measurements suggest rapid charge transfer occurs in both systems, with higher efficiency observed in the latter composition. These results indicate that this class of materials has promise in preparing highly ordered bulk heterojunction all-polymer organic photovoltaic devices.

  10. Developments in asymmetric catalysis by metal complexes of chiral chelating nitrogen-donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christine A; Jones, Nathan D

    2007-11-01

    In part because of their straightforward and modular syntheses from readily available enantiopure starting materials, and their capacity to bind a wide variety of transition metals, chiral, chelating nitrogen-donor ligands have played a prominent role in asymmetric catalysis. A large number of highly enantioselective transformations rely upon these ligands whose reported classes are built around amine, imine, pyrrole, pyrrolidine, oxazoline and oxazolidine donor groups, among others. In this Perspective, we examine a selection of transformative developments in asymmetric catalysis by metal complexes of bi- and polydentate members of this ligand family. We describe approaches to ligand design and synthesis, structure and bonding in coordination complexes, and limitations and future challenges. PMID:17940641

  11. Attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring among a national cohort of identity-release oocyte and sperm donors

    PubMed Central

    Lampic, C.; Skoog Svanberg, A.; Sydsjö, G.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are oocyte donors and sperm donors' attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocyte and sperm donors in an identity-release donor programme support disclosure to donor offspring and have overall positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a global trend towards open-identity gamete donation with an increasing number of countries introducing legislation allowing only identifiable donors. While women and men who enrol in identity-release donor programmes accept that they may be contacted by donor offspring, there is limited knowledge of their attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring and how they perceive their relationship to potential donor offspring. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The present study is part of the ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, a prospective cohort study including donors at all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. During a 3-year period (2005–2008), donors were recruited consecutively and a total of 157 oocyte donors and 113 sperm donors (who did not donate to a specific ‘known’ couple) were included prior to donation. Participants in the present study include 125 female (80%) and 80 male donors (71%) that completed two follow-up assessments. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS AND METHODS Participants completed two postal questionnaires 2 months after donation and 14 months after donation. Attitudes towards disclosure to donor offspring were assessed with an established instrument. Perceptions of involvement with donor offspring and need for counselling was assessed with study-specific instruments. Statistical analyses were performed with non-parametric tests. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE A majority of oocyte and sperm donors supported disclosure to donor offspring (71–91%) and had positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring (80–87%). Sperm donors reported a

  12. Discontinuation of Living Donor Liver Transplantation due to Donor's Intraoperative Latex-Induced Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Masahiro; Tanabe, Minoru; Nagao, Keisuke; Kitago, Minoru; Fujisaki, Hiroto; Odaira, Masanori; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Itano, Osamu; Obara, Hideaki; Matsubara, Kentaro; Shimojima, Naoki; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Hoshino, Ken; Amagai, Masayuki; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    We report on a 33-year-old female liver donor candidate who developed intraoperative latex-induced anaphylactic shock during surgery for living donor transplantation. She was the mother of the organ recipient, who was a 9-year-old boy with biliary atresia. We planned extended lateral segmentectomy for her. Although we dissected the ligament around the left lobe, the systolic blood pressure suddenly dropped and her body became flushed and warm. We administered transfusion and an ephedrine injection to recover the blood pressure. Because she recovered after the treatment, we restarted the procedure. However, she went into shock again within a few minutes. We decided to discontinue the operation. Postoperative blood tests revealed an increase in IgE-RAST and basophil activation, suggesting that the anaphylactic shock was induced by latex. Because latex allergy has become a public health problem, this allergy should be kept in mind as a potential donor operation risk. PMID:23294079

  13. Donor-acceptor-donor tetrazines containing a ferrocene unit: synthesis, electrochemical and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Janowska, Izabela; Miomandre, Fabien; Clavier, Gilles; Audebert, Pierre; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Thi, Khuyen Hoang; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2006-11-30

    Donor-acceptor-donor tetrazines containing ferrocene moieties and phenyl unit as a pi-bridge have been synthesized and characterized. UV-vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltamperometric results indicate sizable intramolecular charge transfer interactions in the ground state when the ferrocene is directly bound to the tetrazine. On the other hand, the results show reduction of the electron-donor strength of ferrocene moieties when there is a phenyl linkage. Both tetrazines display a high reduction potential. The role of ferrocenyl groups appear to be detrimental to maximize the cubic hyperpolarizability gamma of tetrazines, as compared to purely organic groups such as thiophene. A possible explanation for this behavior may originate from metal-to-ligand charge transfer processes.

  14. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  15. Proteomic and mass spectroscopic quantitation of protein S-nitrosation differentiates NO-donors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Vaishali; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Chandrasena, R. Esala P.; Xu, Hua; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D.; Schiefer, Isaac T.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein S-nitrosation has been argued to be the most important signaling pathway mediating the bioactivity of NO. This post-translational modification of protein thiols is the result of chemical nitrosation of cysteine residues. The term NO-donors covers very different chemical classes: from clinical therapeutics to probes of routine use in chemical biology; their different chemistry is predicted to result in distinctive biology regulated by protein S-nitrosation. To measure the extent of protein S-nitrosation by NO-donors, a proteomic mass spectrometry method was developed, which quantitates free thiol versus nitrosothiol for each modified cysteine residue, coined d-Switch. This method is adapted from the biotin switch (BST) method, used extensively to identify S-nitrosated proteins in complex biological mixtures, however, BST does not quantitate free thiol. Since glutathione-S-transferase P1-1 (GST-P1) has been proposed to be a biological “NO carrier”, GST-P1 was used as a reporter protein. The 5 different chemical classes of NO-donors compared by d-Switch demonstrated very different profiles of protein S-nitrosation and response to O2 and cysteine, although, all NO-donors were oxidants towards GST-P1. The low limits of detection and the ability to use established MS database searching allowed facile generalization of the d-Switch method, therefore after incubation of neuronal cell cultures with nitrosothiol, it was possible not only to quantitate S-nitrosation of GST-P1, but also many other proteins, including novel targets such as ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1), moreover d-Switch also allowed identification of non-nitrosated proteins and quantitation of degree of nitrosation for individual protein thiols. PMID:20524644

  16. Cancer of the colon in an egg donor: policy repercussions for donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the tragic case of a young woman who died of cancer of the colon after successfully donating eggs to her younger sister. Although there is no direct link between her operation and the subsequent development of bowel carcinoma, this case imparts a feeling of unease when seen in conjunction with other cases reported during the last few years. It is a reminder that little is known of the long-term consequences of some aspects of assisted conception. Women undergoing ovarian stimulation for themselves or a matched recipient have the right to be advised, in an agreed format, that there is some concern about unproven potential risks from the stimulatory drugs. The safety of egg donors must assume priority over all other considerations, including lack of donors or any moral position. The recent decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to withdraw any form of payment or recompense to egg donors does not seem to us to be based on a balance of scientific advances, patient needs and the ethics of gamete supply. They state that the intention to withdraw payments was implicit in the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act. However the Act was based on the Warnock report made 6 years earlier. Even in 1990 ovum donation was uncommon and fertility drugs had not yet caused any unease. The Act provided the HFEA with discretionary powers to issue directions so that the future policies would be consistent with any emerging new medical evidence. It is imperative that the HFEA provide convincing evidence on how the current policy of payment to donors harms society, donors or recipients, and how in the UK the new policy will improve medical practice in assisted conception. Successful pilot studies must precede the implementation of any new policy. Failure to do this could cause irreversible harm to the practice of assisted conception using donor gametes, which will ultimately be against the basic aims of the 1990 HFE Act.

  17. Blood donors on teratogenic drugs and donor deferral periods in a clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Shin, Y H; Lee, S W; Shin, J Y; Kim, C H

    2012-05-01

    Deferral of blood donors taking teratogenic drugs is critical. From March 2008 to January 2009, we analysed stored blood specimens from donors who had taken teratogenic drugs and whose blood was transfused to women of childbearing age to determine the plasma concentration at the time of donation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 167 specimens were examined. The numbers of specimens exceeding the quantification limit were 7, 39, 4, 2 and 1 for finasteride, isotretinoin, acitretin, etretinate and dutasteride, respectively. Finasteride was beyond the recommended drug deferral period in one specimen. These results may help create practical deferral policies. PMID:22211799

  18. Thermoelectric Performance of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Conjugated Polymers Based on Benzothiadiazole Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Shouli; Zhen, Shijie; Lin, Kaiwen; Zhao, Li; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Wang, Liangying; Xiong, Jinhua; Zhu, Zhengzhou

    2015-06-01

    Donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are superior to other thermoelectric organic materials because it is much easier to modify their structure to reduce the bandgap between the conduction and valence bands, which is desirable for thermoelectric materials with high Seebeck coefficients. Despite this, studies of the thermoelectric performance of donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers are rare. In this study, four low-bandgap donor-acceptor-donor conjugated polymers, poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (PEBTE), poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[ c][1,2,5]selenadiazole) (PEBSeE), poly (4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4- c] pyridine) (PEPTE), and poly(4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4- b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4- c]pyridine) (PEPSeE), were deposited by electrochemical polymerization of 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (EBTE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydro-thieno[3,4-b][1,4] dioxin-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]selenadiazole (EBSeE), 4,7-bis(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c] pyridine (EPTE) and 4,7-bis (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5] selenadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (EPSeE), respectively and their thermoelectric performance was investi- gated. Compared with polyselenophenes, PEBTE and PEBSeE in pressed pellets had higher electrical conductivity (10-1-101 S cm-1) but lower Seebeck coefficient (14.0 μV K-1) at room temperature. Future work may focus on treatment of these donor-acceptor-donor polymers to improve their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, and further investigation of their thermoelectric performance.

  19. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    PubMed

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  20. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood. PMID:18343199

  1. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  2. Polymerization Initiated by Organic Electron Donors.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Julie; Rollet, Marion; Clément, Jean-Louis; Canard, Gabriel; Terme, Thierry; Gigmes, Didier; Vanelle, Patrice

    2016-05-10

    Polymerization reactions with organic electron donors (OED) as initiators are presented herein. The metal-free polymerization of various activated alkene and cyclic ester monomers was performed in short reaction times, under mild conditions, with small amounts of organic reducing agents, and without the need for co-initiators or activation by photochemical, electrochemical, or other methods. Hence, OED initiators enabled the development of an efficient, rapid, room-temperature process that meets the technical standards expected for industrial processes, such as energy savings, cost-effectiveness and safety. Mechanistic investigations support an electron-transfer initiation pathway that leads to the reduction of the monomer. PMID:27061743

  3. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

  4. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety.

  5. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  6. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  7. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in transplant donors: a donor-derived infections consensus conference report.

    PubMed

    Morris, M I; Daly, J S; Blumberg, E; Kumar, D; Sester, M; Schluger, N; Kim, S-H; Schwartz, B S; Ison, M G; Humar, A; Singh, N; Michaels, M; Orlowski, J P; Delmonico, F; Pruett, T; John, G T; Kotton, C N

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a ubiquitous organism that infects one-third of the world's population. In previous decades, access to organ transplantation was restricted to academic medical centers in more developed, low tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries. Globalization, changing immigration patterns, and the expansion of sophisticated medical procedures to medium and high TB incidence countries have made tuberculosis an increasingly important posttransplant infectious disease. Tuberculosis is now one of the most common bacterial causes of solid-organ transplant donor-derived infection reported in transplant recipients in the United States. Recognition of latent or undiagnosed active TB in the potential organ donor is critical to prevent emergence of disease in the recipient posttransplant. Donor-derived tuberculosis after transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which can best be prevented through careful screening and targeted treatment. To address this growing challenge and provide recommendations, an expert international working group was assembled including specialists in transplant infectious diseases, transplant surgery, organ procurement and TB epidemiology, diagnostics and management. This working group reviewed the currently available data to formulate consensus recommendations for screening and management of TB in organ donors. PMID:22883346

  8. Tuning the Rainbow: Systematic Modulation of Donor-Acceptor Systems through Donor Substituents and Solvent.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christopher B; van der Salm, Holly; Shillito, Georgina E; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C

    2016-09-01

    A series of donor-acceptor compounds is reported in which the energy of the triarylamine donor is systematically tuned through para substitution with electron-donating methoxy and electron-withdrawing cyano groups. The acceptor units investigated are benzothiadiazole (btd), dipyridophenazine (dppz), and its [ReCl(CO)3(dppz)] complex. The effect of modulating donor energy on the electronic and photophysical properties is investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, DFT calculations, electrochemistry, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, ground state and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Qualitative correlations between the donor energy and the properties of interest are obtained using Hammett σ(+) constants. Methoxy and cyano groups are shown to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the frontier molecular orbitals, with the HOMO affected more significantly than the LUMO, narrowing the HOMO-LUMO band gap as the substituent becomes more electron-donating-observable as a bathochromic shift in low-energy charge-transfer absorption bands. Charge-transfer emission bands are also dependent on the electron-donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, and in combination with the highly solvatochromic nature of charge-transfer states, emission can be tuned to span the entire visible region. PMID:27500590

  9. Progressive graft fibrosis and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies in pediatric late liver allografts.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Yoshizawa, Atushi; Uchida, Yoichiro; Egawa, Hiroto; Yurugi, Kimiko; Masuda, Satohiro; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Maekawa, Taira; Uemoto, Shinji; Haga, Hironori

    2012-11-01

    The role of donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) that develop late after living donor liver transplantation is unknown. Seventy-nine pediatric recipients who had good graft function and underwent protocol liver biopsy more than 5 years after transplantation (median = 11 years, range = 5-20 years) were reviewed. DSAs were determined with the Luminex single-antigen bead assay at the time of the last biopsy, and complement component 4d (C4d) immunostaining was assessed at the times of the last biopsy and the previous biopsy. The donor specificity of antibodies could be identified in 67 patients: DSAs were detected in 32 patients (48%), and they were usually against human leukocyte antigen class II (30 cases) but were rarely against class I (2 cases). These patients had a higher frequency of bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis (28/32 or 88%) than DSA-negative patients (6/35 or 17%, P < 0.001). Fibrosis was likely to be centrilobular-based. DSA-positive patients, in comparison with DSA-negative patients, had higher frequencies of diffuse/focal endothelial C4d staining (P < 0.001) and mild/indeterminate acute rejection [15/32 (47%) versus 5/35 (14%), P = 0.004]. Four DSA-negative patients were off immunosuppression, whereas no patients in the DSA-positive group were (P = 0.048). In conclusion, the high prevalence of graft fibrosis and anti-class II DSAs in late protocol biopsy samples suggests that humoral alloreactivity may contribute to the process of unexplained graft fibrosis late after liver transplantation.

  10. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Liver transplantation from living donors with Gilbert's syndrome is a safe procedure for both donors and recipients.

    PubMed

    Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Artis, Tarik; Donmez, Ramazan; Kargi, Ahmet; Sit, Mustafa; Aslan, Serdar; Yazar, Serafettin; Beyazit, Yavuz; Polat, Kamil Yalcin

    2015-11-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has become a favorable therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is a benign condition characterized by intermittent mild jaundice due to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is not obvious whether living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) from a donor with GS could result in a normal outcome for both the recipient and the donor. We aimed to determine whether right lobe hepatectomy is a safe procedure for living donors with GS and LT recipients. Between September 2011 and March 2015, 305 LDLT procedures using right lobe grafts were performed at Atasehir Memorial Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Nineteen of 305 LT candidates who had been diagnosed with GS were included in the current study. After a 12-h overnight fast, total and indirect bilirubin levels of donors and recipients were measured. The median follow-up after transplant was 16 months (range 3-36 months). The median age of donors was 25 (range 20-55 yr). Four donors (21%) were female, and 15 donors (89%) were male. The median age of donors was 51 (range 23-68 yr). Eleven recipients (57%) were female, and 8 (43%) were male. The median preoperative total bilirubin level of donors was 1.69 mg/dL (range 1.26-2.43 mg/dL) (normal range <1.2 mg/dL). The median total bilirubin level of donors on postoperative day 7 was 1.04 mg/dL (range 0.71-3.23 mg/dL). As our study has included a large number of donors with GS, it produced reliable evidence that right lobe hepatectomy is a safe procedure for living donors with GS and LT recipients. PMID:26271485

  12. Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Noritomo; Nakao, Atsunori; Osako, Takaaki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yamada, Taihei; Kohama, Keisuke; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Kotani, Joji

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors.

  13. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  14. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better?

    PubMed

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age.

  15. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs. PMID:17158322

  16. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified.

    PubMed

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-03-02

    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  17. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  18. Piezospectroscopy of isolated lithium donors and lithium-oxygen donor complexes in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannath, C.; Ramdas, A. K.

    1981-05-01

    The effect of uniaxial stress on the excitation spectra of interstitial lithium donors (Li) and of lithium-oxygen donor complexes (Li-O) in silicon is studied under a high resolution. For a compressive force, F-->, along [001], each 1s-->np transition in Si(Li) splits into three components, the central component occurring at the zero-stress position even at 2 kbar, the highest stress used. The intensity of the high-energy component decreases dramatically while that of the low-energy component increases. At the highest stress only the central and the low-energy components survive and the position of the low-energy component reaches a constant value as the stress increases. Interstitial lithium donors have an anomalous, "inverted" ground state with the fivefold 1s(E+T2) state close to the effective-mass position, its site symmetry being Td; the totally symmetric 1s(A1) state lies 6Δc=1.76+/-0.04 meV above it. The inverted ground state, the small value of 6Δc, the stress dependence of the ground-state wave functions, and a shear-deformation-potential constant Ξu of 8.77 +/- 0.07 eV characterizing both the ground and the excited states account for its striking piezospectroscopic behavior. Our studies in Li-O donor centers show that they have a group-V-like ground state with 1s(A1) lying below 1s(E) and 1s(T2). One of the donor species has a symmetry lower than Td with a symmetry axis along <100>, showing the effects of orientational degeneracy in its piezospectroscopic behavior.

  19. A simple scaling of the effectiveness of supporting mutual cooperation in donor-recipient games by various reciprocity mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2009-04-01

    In donor-recipient games (DRG), one of the sub-classes of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), it is well-known that a game structure is described by two parameters benefit (b) and cost (c) of cooperation. By means of a series of numerical experiments, we proved that the effectiveness of supporting mutual cooperation in DRG by various reciprocity mechanisms can be expressed in a single game structural parameter, b/c. This also implies that the dilemma strength in various donor-recipient games with various reciprocity mechanisms can be evaluated only by b/c, which is consistent with the previous novel finding by Nowak. It was also discussed whether this kind of parameterization idea can be extended to general games in PD game class.

  20. Pilot Class Testing: Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Foreign Language Program.

    Statistics derived from test score data from the pilot classes participating in the Washington Foreign Language Program are presented in tables in this report. An index accompanies the tables, itemizing the classes by level (FLES, middle, and high school), grade test, language skill, and school. MLA-Coop test performances for each class were…

  1. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  2. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  3. FDA seeks temporary blood donor changes. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested that blood collection agencies exclude donors at risk of Group O HIV, following two cases identified in 1996. Group O is very rare in the United States. Blood donors would be excluded if they were born or lived in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Niger or Nigeria since 1977, or had sexual conduct with anyone traveling to those areas. The number of excluded donors would be minute.

  4. Medicine. Consent from donors for embryo and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard; Chou, Vicki; Cedars, Marcelle I; Gates, Elena; Taylor, Robert N; Wagner, Richard M; Wolf, Leslie; Yamamoto, Keith R

    2003-08-15

    As research with human embryos and embryonic stem cells proceeds, the authors of this Policy Forum argue that all donors of biological materials should give informed consent, including oocyte and sperm donors. Informed consent is particularly important because of the diverse opinions and strong emotions that surround such research. Some gamete donors who are willing to help women and couples bear children may object to the use of their genetic materials for certain types of research.

  5. Stranger donors: a key link in transplant chains.

    PubMed

    Veys, Christopher G; Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2010-12-01

    Living donation to strangers is a complex issue that has caused some transplant centers to ban the practice altogether. Most prominent of the troublesome issues is the common source of these donors; namely, the Internet. These "stranger donors," however, are critical to both paired kidney transplants and chain kidney transplants. This article presents the ethical complexities of donors in these transplant arrangements and offers 2 case examples from our facility. Rigorous donor screening and informed consent processes are crucial, and together they help make transplant pairs and chains ethically feasible. PMID:21265290

  6. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran. PMID:27203584

  7. A Study of Donor Area in Follicular Unit Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Somiah, Savitha; Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The advent of follicular unit transplantation (FUT) has given a natural appearance in the recipient area in the past two decades, but has left behind an unsightly scar in the donor area. A study of donor area and techniques to make it cosmetically acceptable is lacking. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the donor area after follicular unit hair transplantation and to show a few techniques to make the donor scar aesthetically pleasing. Materials and Methods: The donor area was examined for scar width and patient satisfaction scores of donor area in 30 consecutive patients from March 2012 to February 2013 retrospectively after a minimum of 3 months after the procedure. Complications such as effluvium along suture line, wound infection, dehiscence, necrosis, folliculitis, keloids and wide scars were also noted. Results: Scar width increased with increase in width of the donor strip. Patient satisfaction scores declined with larger strip widths. The most common complication seen was folliculitis-like lesions. Double trichophytic closure yielded the most aesthetically acceptable scar. Conclusion: FUT produces a linear scar in the donor area, which can be a significant concern in patients wishing to cut their hair short. Restricting the width of the donor strip and trichophytic closure has greatly improved the appearance of the scar. PMID:24470718

  8. Disposition of sperm donors with resultant abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Kuller, J A; Meyer, W R; Traynor, K D; Hartmann, K E

    2001-08-01

    We wished to determine how clinicians manage sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. A directed, multiple-choice survey was given to reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists to assess management of sperm donors whose offspring have chromosomal or structural abnormalities. The questionnaire was completed by 66 reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrical geneticists. Abnormalities and the most common inheritance modes included: Trisomy 21 (aneuploidy, maternal origin), Turner syndrome (aneuploidy, paternal origin), cleft lip/palate (multifactorial), VATER sequence (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheo-esophageal fistula, radial and renal dysplasia, sporadic inheritance), and Hurler syndrome (autosomal recessive). Response choices were: (i) remove donor from programme, (ii) inform potential recipients of prior pregnancy outcomes and continue to use donor, or (iii) further study donor to assess karyotype/mutations. Inheritance mode appeared to influence decisions to remove donors from sperm banks; however, no clear consensus was noted. Guidelines exist for screening potential gamete donors, but not for managing donors whose offspring has a chromosomal or structural abnormality. Guidelines must be developed to manage sperm donors with untoward pregnancy outcomes. PMID:11473942

  9. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  10. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy from third-party donors: characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    PubMed Central

    Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus (ADV) are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood (CB) transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells. Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore, frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  11. Impact of donor age in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death donors: A decade of experience at Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Firl, Daniel J; Hashimoto, Koji; O'Rourke, Colin; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico N; Quintini, Cristiano; Kelly, Dympna M; Miller, Charles M; Fung, John J; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2015-12-01

    The use of liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors remains controversial, particularly with donors of advanced age. This retrospective study investigated the impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. We examined 92 recipients who received DCD grafts and 92 matched recipients who received donation after brain death (DBD) grafts at Cleveland Clinic from January 2005 to June 2014. DCD grafts met stringent criteria to minimize risk factors in both donors and recipients. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival in DCD recipients was significantly inferior to that in DBD recipients (82%, 71%, 66% versus 92%, 87%, 85%, respectively; P = 0.03). Six DCD recipients (7%), but no DBD recipients, experienced ischemic-type biliary stricture (P = 0.01). However, the incidence of biliary stricture was not associated with donor age (P = 0.57). Interestingly, recipients receiving DCD grafts from donors who were <45 years of age (n = 55) showed similar graft survival rates compared to those receiving DCD grafts from donors who were ≥45 years of age (n = 37; 80%, 69%, 66% versus 83%, 72%, 66%, respectively; P = 0.67). Cox proportional hazards modeling in all study populations (n = 184) revealed advanced donor age (P = 0.05) and the use of a DCD graft (P = 0.03) as unfavorable factors for graft survival. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of DBD graft failure increased with increasing age, but the risk of DCD graft failure did not increase with increasing age (P = 0.13). In conclusion, these data suggest that stringent donor and recipient selection may ameliorate the negative impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. DCD grafts should not be discarded because of donor age, per se, and could help expand the donor pool for liver transplantation.

  12. Fractal circuit sensors enable rapid quantification of biomarkers for donor lung assessment for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew T; Besant, Justin D; Mahmoudian, Laili; Poudineh, Mahla; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Hsin, Michael; Sargent, Edward H; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-08-01

    Biomarker profiling is being rapidly incorporated in many areas of modern medical practice to improve the precision of clinical decision-making. This potential improvement, however, has not been transferred to the practice of organ assessment and transplantation because previously developed gene-profiling techniques require an extended period of time to perform, making them unsuitable in the time-sensitive organ assessment process. We sought to develop a novel class of chip-based sensors that would enable rapid analysis of tissue levels of preimplantation mRNA markers that correlate with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in recipients after transplant. Using fractal circuit sensors (FraCS), three-dimensional metal structures with large surface areas, we were able to rapidly (<20 min) and reproducibly quantify small differences in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and ATP11B mRNA in donor lung biopsies. A proof-of-concept study using 52 human donor lungs was performed to develop a model that was used to predict, with excellent sensitivity (74%) and specificity (91%), the incidence of PGD for a donor lung. Thus, the FraCS-based approach delivers a key predictive value test that could be applied to enhance transplant patient outcomes. This work provides an important step toward bringing rapid diagnostic mRNA profiling to clinical application in lung transplantation. PMID:26601233

  13. Molecular Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Strategies for High-Capacitance Organic Dielectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Heitzer, Henry M; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-06-10

    Donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems occupy a rich history in molecular electronics and photonics. A key property of DBA materials is their typically large and tunable (hyper)polarizabilities. While traditionally, classical descriptions such as the Clausius-Mossotti formalism have been used to relate molecular polarizabilities to bulk dielectric response, recent work has shown that these classical equations are inadequate for numerous materials classes. Creating high-dielectric organic materials is critically important for utilizing unconventional semiconductors in electronic circuitry. Employing a plane-wave density functional theory formalism, we investigate the dielectric response of highly polarizable DBA molecule-based thin films. Such films are found to have large dielectric response arising from cooperative effects between donor and acceptor units when mediated by a conjugated bridge. Moreover, the dielectric response can be systematically tuned by altering the building block donor, acceptor, or bridge structures and is found to be nonlinearly dependent on electric field strength. The computed dielectric constants are largely independent of the density functional employed, and qualitative trends are readily evident. Remarkably large computed dielectric constants >15.0 and capacitances >6.0 μF/cm(2) are achieved for squaraine monolayers, significantly higher than in traditional organic dielectrics. Such calculations should provide a guide for designing high-capacitance organic dielectrics that should greatly enhance transistor performance.

  14. Fractal circuit sensors enable rapid quantification of biomarkers for donor lung assessment for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Andrew T.; Besant, Justin D.; Mahmoudian, Laili; Poudineh, Mahla; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Hsin, Michael; Sargent, Edward H.; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O.

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker profiling is being rapidly incorporated in many areas of modern medical practice to improve the precision of clinical decision-making. This potential improvement, however, has not been transferred to the practice of organ assessment and transplantation because previously developed gene-profiling techniques require an extended period of time to perform, making them unsuitable in the time-sensitive organ assessment process. We sought to develop a novel class of chip-based sensors that would enable rapid analysis of tissue levels of preimplantation mRNA markers that correlate with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in recipients after transplant. Using fractal circuit sensors (FraCS), three-dimensional metal structures with large surface areas, we were able to rapidly (<20 min) and reproducibly quantify small differences in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and ATP11B mRNA in donor lung biopsies. A proof-of-concept study using 52 human donor lungs was performed to develop a model that was used to predict, with excellent sensitivity (74%) and specificity (91%), the incidence of PGD for a donor lung. Thus, the FraCS-based approach delivers a key predictive value test that could be applied to enhance transplant patient outcomes. This work provides an important step toward bringing rapid diagnostic mRNA profiling to clinical application in lung transplantation. PMID:26601233

  15. The role of nitric oxide donors in schizophrenia: Basic studies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and chronic mental health disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. While the current antipsychotic medications have profoundly impacted the treatment of schizophrenia over the past 50 years, the newer atypical antipsychotics have not fulfilled initial expectations, and enormous challenges remain in long-term treatment of this debilitating disease. In particular, improved treatment of the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia which greatly impact overall morbidity is required. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the brain. The implication of NO in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is documented. Specifically, underproduction of NO is linked to this pathology. This, in turn, indicates that enhancement of nitrergic activity might be beneficial in this disease. Therefore, novel molecules aiming to increase NO production such as NO donors might constitute potential candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here I intended to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of this psychiatric disorder. Present analysis suggests that NO donors might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the potential neurotoxicity and the narrow therapeutic window of NO donors would add a note of caution in this context.

  16. Donor KIR B Genotype Improves Progression Free Survival of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Patients Receiving Unrelated Donor Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Wang, Tao; Marsh, Steven G.E.; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Haagenson, Michael D; Spellman, Stephen R.; Ladner, Martha; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Cooley, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associate with relapse protection and survival after allotransplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. We examined the possibility of a similar effect in a cohort of 614 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients receiving unrelated donor (URD) T-cell replete marrow or peripheral blood grafts. Sixty four percent (n=396) of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 allele HLA-matched; 26% were 9/10 allele matched. Seventy percent of donors had KIR B/x genotype; the others had KIR A/A genotype. NHL patients receiving 10/10 HLA-matched URD grafts with KIR B/x donors experienced significantly lower relapse at 5 years (26%; CI 21–32% vs. 37%; CI 27–46%, p=0.05) compared with KIR A/A donors, resulting in improved 5 year progression-free survival (PFS) (35%; CI 26–44% vs. 22%; CI 11–35%; p=0.007). In multivariate analysis, use of KIR B/x donors associated with significantly reduced relapse risk (RR 0.63, p=0.02) and improved PFS (RR 0.71, p=0.008). The relapse protection afforded by KIR B/x donors was not observed in HLA-mismatched transplants, and was not specific to any particular KIR-B gene. Selecting 10/10 HLA-matched and KIR B/x donors should benefit patients with NHL receiving URD allogeneic transplantation. PMID:27220262

  17. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  18. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  19. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  20. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support

  1. Evaluation of 100 patients for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trotter, J F; Wachs, M; Trouillot, T; Steinberg, T; Bak, T; Everson, G T; Kam, I

    2000-05-01

    The initial success of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the United States has resulted in a growing interest in this procedure. The impact of LDLT on liver transplantation will depend in part on the proportion of patients considered medically suitable for LDLT and the identification of suitable donors. We report the outcome of our evaluation of the first 100 potential transplant recipients for LDLT at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Denver, CO). All patients considered for LDLT had first been approved for conventional liver transplantation by the Liver Transplant Selection Committee and met the listing criteria of United Network for Organ Sharing status 1, 2A, or 2B. Once listed, those patients deemed suitable for LDLT were given the option to consider LDLT and approach potential donors. Donors were evaluated with a preliminary screening questionnaire, followed by formal evaluation. Of the 100 potential transplant recipients evaluated, 51 were initially rejected based on recipient characteristics that included imminent cadaveric transplantation (8 patients), refusal of evaluation (4 patients), lack of financial approval (6 patients), and medical, psychosocial, or surgical problems (33 patients). Of the remaining 49 patients, considered ideal candidates for LDLT, 24 patients were unable to identify a suitable donor for evaluation. Twenty-six donors were evaluated for the remaining 25 potential transplant recipients. Eleven donors were rejected: 9 donors for medical reasons and 2 donors who refused donation after being medically approved. The remaining 15 donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Using our criteria for the selection of recipients and donors for LDLT gave the following results: (1) 51 of 100 potential transplant recipients (51%) were rejected for recipient issues, (2) only 15 of the remaining 49 potential transplant recipients (30%) were able to identify an acceptable donor, and (3) 15 of 100 potential living donor

  2. Platelet donation drives: a novel initiative to recruit platelet donors.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Anita; Shah, Sneha; Patil, Dipali; Tambe, Manisha

    2014-06-01

    The most important strategy to ensure a safe and an adequate supply of blood and blood products is motivation, recruitment, selection and retention of voluntary non remunerated blood donors. With a view of the increased platelet necessity in our oncology setup, the first platelet donation drive in the city and to the best of our knowledge, in India was conducted by our hospital in November 2009. The aim was to identify target groups and expand our donor database. It was also essential that the donor's contribution is acknowledged and appropriately felicitated. A campaign called "Save a Life" was initiated and publicized locally. A core team consisting of Transfusion Medicine specialists, clinicians and an NGO (nongovernment organization) was formed. The best suitable date and venue were finalized for the platelet camp. The audience was addressed and willing donors were registered as volunteer platelet donors with our institute. In a span of 40 months, 15 platelet camps were organized in colleges, social organizations, and corporate offices. A total of 1035 donors were registered out of which, 382 (37%) donated platelets in our hospital. 125/382 (33.2%) donated Single Donor Platelets (SDP) more than once. The largest number of platelet donations by a single camp donor was 24 times. Due to multiple donations from donors, the SDP number was enhanced considerably and lead to addition of 699 SDP units to our inventory. The annual indoor and camp voluntary platelet donor numbers increased from 142 in 2006 to 631 in 2012 due to platelet drives. All platelet donations were altruistic as no incentives were offered to the donors. Ready availability of platelets and planning SDP inventory as per patient blood group requirements had a positive impact on clinical services.

  3. Significance of Semiquantitative Assessment of Preformed Donor-Specific Antibody Using Luminex Single Bead Assay in Living Related Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Egawa, Hiroto; Yurugi, Kimiko; Hishida, Rie; Tsuji, Hiroaki; Ashihara, Eiji; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Teramukai, Satoshi; Maekawa, Taira; Haga, Hironori; Uemoto, Sinji

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the risks of preoperatively produced donor-specific antibody (DSA) in liver transplantation. Methods. DSA was assessed using direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and anti-human globulin- (AHG-) CDC tests, as well as the Luminex Single Antigen assay. Among 616 patients undergoing blood type identical or compatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), 21 patients were positive for CDC or AHG-CDC tests, and the preserved serum from 18 patients was examined to determine targeted Class I and II antigens. The relationships between the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DSA and the clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the MFI of anti-Class I DSA: high (11 patients with MFI > 10,000), low (2 patients with MFI < 10,000), and negative (5 patients) MFI groups. Six of 11 patients with high Class-I DSA showed positive Class-II DSA. Hospital death occurred in 7 patients of the high MFI group. High MFI was a significant risk factor for mortality (P = 0.0155). Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between MFI strength and C4d deposition (P = 0.0498). Conclusions. HLA Class I DSA with MFI > 10,000 had a significant negative effect on the clinical outcome of patients with preformed DSA in LDLT. PMID:23818917

  4. The degree of safety of family replacement donors versus voluntary non-remunerated donors in an Egyptian population: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Messih, Ibrahim Y.; Ismail, Mona A.; Saad, Abeer A.; Azer, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections is considered an important strategy for maximising the safety of blood transfusions. Materials and methods A total of 17,118 donors, classified into two groups - family replacement donors and voluntary non-remunerated donors - were investigated for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum. In addition cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies were searched for in 160 donors (80 from each group). All the laboratory tests were done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the total cohort of donors, 87.7% were family donors and 12.3% were voluntary non-remunerated donors. There was a highly significant difference in age and gender between the two types of donors with voluntary donors being much younger and including a much higher proportion of male donors than female donors. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and CMV IgG were much higher in family donors than in voluntary donors, with the differences being highly statistically significant. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of syphilis among family replacement donors. As regards HIV and CMV IgM, significant differences were not detected between the two groups. Discussion The results of our study clearly showed that the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections is much higher among family replacement donors than among voluntary donors, and that voluntary donors are the best way of achieving safer blood. PMID:23245714

  5. Donor-Appended N,C-Chelate Organoboron Compounds: Influence of Donor Strength on Photochromic Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mellerup, Soren K; Yuan, Kang; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Suning

    2016-08-22

    Recently, four-coordinated N,C-chelate organoboron compounds have been found to show many interesting photochemical transformations depending on the nature of their chelating framework. As such, the effect of substitution on the chelate ligand has been well-established and understood, but the impact of the aryl groups attached to the boron atom remains less clear. To investigate the effect of enhanced charge-transfer character, a series of new N,C-chelate organoboron compounds with donor-functionalized aryl groups have been synthesized and characterized using NMR, UV/Vis, and electrochemical methods. These compounds were found to possess bright and tunable charge-transfer luminescence which is dependent on the donor strength of the amino substituent. In addition, some of these compounds undergo photochromic switching, producing dark isomers of various colors. This work establishes that donor-functionalization of the aryl groups in N,C-chelate boron compounds is an effective strategy for tuning both the photophysical and photochemical properties of such systems. The new findings also help elucidate the influence of electronic structure on the photoreactivity of N,C-chelate organoboron compounds which appears to be as important as steric crowding around the boron atom.

  6. Cardioprotection by H2S Donors: Nitric Oxide-Dependent and ‑Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chatzianastasiou, Athanasia; Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Efentakis, Panagiotis; Kaludercic, Nina; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Di Lisa, Fabio; Daiber, Andreas; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Szabó, Csaba; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule with protective effects in the cardiovascular system. To harness the therapeutic potential of H2S, a number of donors have been developed. The present study compares the cardioprotective actions of representative H2S donors from different classes and studies their mechanisms of action in myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to H2O2 led to significant cytotoxicity, which was inhibited by sodium sulfide (Na2S), thiovaline (TV), GYY4137 [morpholin-4-ium 4 methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate], and AP39 [(10-oxo-10-(4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol5yl)phenoxy)decyl) triphenylphospho-nium bromide]. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis prevented the cytoprotective effects of Na2S and TV, but not GYY4137 and AP39, against H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Mice subjected to left anterior descending coronary ligation were protected from ischemia-reperfusion injury by the H2S donors tested. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in vivo blocked only the beneficial effect of Na2S. Moreover, Na2S, but not AP39, administration enhanced the phosphorylation of endothelial NOS and vasodilator-associated phosphoprotein. Both Na2S and AP39 reduced infarct size in mice lacking cyclophilin-D (CypD), a modulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). Nevertheless, only AP39 displayed a direct effect on mitochondria by increasing the mitochondrial Ca(2+) retention capacity, which is evidence of decreased propensity to undergo permeability transition. We conclude that although all the H2S donors we tested limited infarct size, the pathways involved were not conserved. Na2S had no direct effects on PTP opening, and its action was nitric oxide dependent. In contrast, the cardioprotection exhibited by AP39 could result from a direct inhibitory effect on PTP acting at a site different than CypD. PMID:27342567

  7. Optimized donor management and organ preservation before kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Heiko M; Yard, Benito A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Benck, Urs; Schnülle, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is a major medical improvement for patients with end-stage renal disease, but organ shortage limits its widespread use. As a consequence, the proportion of grafts procured from extended criteria donors (ECD) has increased considerably, but this comes along with increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher incidence of immune-mediated rejection that limits organ and patient survival. Furthermore, most grafts are derived from brain dead organ donors, but the unphysiological state of brain death is associated with significant metabolic, hemodynamic, and pro-inflammatory changes, which further compromise patient and graft survival. Thus, donor interventions to preserve graft quality are fundamental to improve long-term transplantation outcome, but interventions must not harm other potentially transplantable grafts. Several donor pretreatment strategies have provided encouraging results in animal models, but evidence from human studies is sparse, as most clinical evidence is derived from single-center or nonrandomized trials. Furthermore, ethical matters have to be considered especially concerning consent from donors, donor families, and transplant recipients to research in the field of donor treatment. This review provides an overview of clinically proven and promising preclinical strategies of donor treatment to optimize long-term results after kidney transplantation.

  8. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  9. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  11. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  12. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  15. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  16. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  19. Multivalley effective mass theory simulation of donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Nielsen, Erik; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.

    2015-06-01

    Last year, Salfi et al. made the first direct measurements of a donor wave function and found extremely good theoretical agreement with atomistic tight-binding theory results [Salfi et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 605 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3941]. Here, we show that multivalley effective mass theory, applied properly, does achieve close agreement with tight-binding results and hence gives reliable predictions. To demonstrate this, we variationally solve the coupled six-valley Shindo-Nara equations, including silicon's full Bloch functions. Surprisingly, we find that including the full Bloch functions necessitates a tetrahedral, rather than spherical, donor central cell correction to accurately reproduce the experimental energy spectrum of a phosphorus impurity in silicon. We cross-validate this method against atomistic tight-binding calculations, showing that the two theories agree well for the calculation of donor-donor tunnel coupling. Further, we benchmark our results by performing a statistical uncertainty analysis, confirming that derived quantities such as the wave function profile and tunnel couplings are robust with respect to variational energy fluctuations. Finally, we apply this method to exhaustively enumerate the tunnel coupling for all donor-donor configurations within a large search volume, demonstrating conclusively that the tunnel coupling has no spatially stable regions. Although this instability is problematic for reliably coupling donor pairs for two-qubit operations, we identify specific target locations where donor qubits can be placed with scanning tunneling microscopy technology to achieve reliably large tunnel couplings.

  20. Management of the difficult split-thickness donor site.

    PubMed

    Wood, R J; Peltier, G L; Twomey, J A

    1989-01-01

    Split-thickness skin graft donor sites are often areas of significant morbidity in the elderly, in immunocompromised patients, and in steroid-dependent patients. We found that managing these donor sites with split-thickness skin and transparent dressings greatly increases the rate of healing and diminishes morbidity.

  1. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.51 Section 640.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.51 Section 640.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b)...

  3. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the…

  4. Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

  5. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  10. Blood Test May Rule Out Too Many Donor Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... finding ways to sign up more people as organ donors, but there is also a problem in that ... based solely on elevated troponin I if the organ is otherwise suitable. At our institution it has already changed how we evaluate donors, and I think this data will lead to ...

  11. Aromatic donor-acceptor interactions in non-polar environments.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Giles M; Pascu, Sofia I; Filip, Sorin V; West, Kevin R; Pantoş, G Dan

    2015-05-14

    We have evaluated the strength of aromatic donor-acceptor interactions between dialkyl naphthalenediimide and dialkoxynaphthalene in non-polar environments. (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to characterise this interaction. We concluded that the strength of donor-acceptor interactions in heptane is sufficient to drive supramolecular assemblies in this and other aliphatic solvents. PMID:25875729

  12. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  13. Psychological screening and the success of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R; Greenhalgh, L F; Richards, S I; Collins, R L

    1994-01-01

    In a previous case series, a psychologist's rating of couples' emotional adjustment and readiness for donor insemination was predictive of pregnancy rates. We attempted to replicate this finding with an extended series of 120 consecutive couples in which each spouse filled out questionnaires when evaluated for donor insemination. The Stress and Infertility Questionnaire measured specific attitudes and anxieties about donor insemination. The Brief Symptom Inventory assessed psychological distress. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale measured marital happiness. A psychologist used these questionnaires to rate the couple's overall adjustment in regard to donor insemination. Those couples rated as distressed had a session of psychological counselling. Outcome was reviewed at a mean of 20 months after evaluation, with categories of pregnancy, continuing donor insemination, failure to begin the programme, or dropped out. For the 120 couples overall, psychological factors did not predict pregnancy outcome. Younger age of the wife did predict higher pregnancy rates.

  14. Blood Donor Locator Service--Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    1991-12-24

    We are issuing these final regulations to govern the Blood Donor Locator Service, which we will establish and conduct, as required by section 8008 of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-647). Under these regulations, we will furnish to participating States at their request the last known personal mailing address (residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donation shows that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, if the State or an authorized blood donation facility has been unable to locate the donors. If our records or those of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) contain an adequate personal mailing address for the donor, we will provide it to the State so that the State or the blood donation facility can inform the donor that he or she may need medical care and treatment. PMID:10116070

  15. Successful organ transplantation from donors poisoned with a carbamate insecticide.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J H; Coelho, G R; Marques, G A; Gadelha, J B; Vasconcelos, J B; Valença, J T; Esmeraldo, R M; Meija, J A; Leite, C A; Almeida, E R

    2010-06-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only option for patients with end-stage liver disease. In Brazil, the mortality rate on the waiting list is about 25%. Multiple strategies to expand the donor pool are being pursed, however, grafts from poisoned donors are rarely used. This report documents successful liver, kidney and heart transplantations from four female donors who suffered brain death by hypoxia despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation following Aldicarb exposure ([2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)-oxime]). The success rate of 12 grafts from four donors poisoned by Aldicarb was 91% 6 months after transplantation. Poisoned patients are another pool of organ donors who at present are probably underused by transplantation services. More studies are necessary to confirm the safety for the recipients.

  16. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Update on donor assessment, resuscitation, and acceptance criteria, including novel techniques--non-heart-beating donor lung retrieval and ex vivo donor lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Waddell, Thomas K; van Raemdonck, Dirk; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2009-05-01

    The shortage of adequate organ donors remains a great challenge in clinical lung transplantation. With increasing experience in the medical management and surgical technique of lung transplantation, gradual expansion of the criteria for lung donor selection has occurred with beneficial effects on the donor pool. Interest in donation after cardiac death also is increasing as the gap increases between donors and the needs of listed patients. Successful use of these new sources of lungs depends on the accurate assessment and prediction of transplanted lung function. Promising techniques for lung assessment and diagnostics include investigating key genes associated with graft failure or good graft performance using molecular approaches, and ex vivo evaluation. Further studies are needed to answer remaining questions about the best technique and solution to reperfuse human lungs for several hours without edema formation. As the predictive ability to discern good from injured donor lungs improves, strategies to repair donor lungs become increasingly important. Prolonged normothermic EVLP seems to be a platform on which many reparative strategies can be realized. With these new methods for assessing and resuscitating lungs accurately, it is hoped that inroads will be made toward providing every listed patient a chance for successful lung transplantation. PMID:19662970

  18. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  19. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  20. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  1. Searching for Enduring Donor Relationships: Evidence for Factors and Strategies in a Donor/Organization Integration Model for Fund Raising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Hoon, Tanise L.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Higher education relies upon private philanthropy as a significant source of outside revenue, yet competition for donor resources escalates annually. Competency for building enduring donor relationships may positively influence institutional fund-raising outcomes by addressing this problem. Qualitative data are presented examining the utility of…

  2. True Friends: Tough Times and a New Generation of Donors Are Causing Institutions to Rethink Donor Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "The only way to have a friend is to be one." But what it means to be a good friend from a donor's perspective is changing. Today's donors have more options for their philanthropic interests than ever before, and they want deep connections with institutions that matter to them and share their values. If an institution is…

  3. Cross-dressing by donor dendritic cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation contributes to formation of the immunological synapse and maximizes responses to indirectly presented antigen.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kate A; Koyama, Motoko; Gartlan, Kate H; Leveque, Lucie; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2014-06-01

    The stimulation of naive donor T cells by recipient alloantigen is central to the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Using mouse models of transplantation, we have observed that donor cells become "cross-dressed" in very high levels of recipient hematopoietic cell-derived MHC class I and II molecules following BMT. Recipient-type MHC is transiently present on donor dendritic cells (DCs) after BMT in the setting of myeloablative conditioning but is persistent after nonmyeloablative conditioning, in which recipient hematopoietic cells remain in high numbers. Despite the high level of recipient-derived alloantigen present on the surface of donor DCs, donor T cell proliferative responses are generated only in response to processed recipient alloantigen presented via the indirect pathway and not in response to cross-dressed MHC. Assays in which exogenous peptide is added to cross-dressed MHC in the presence of naive TCR transgenic T cells specific to the MHC class II-peptide combination confirm that cross-dressed APC cannot induce T cell proliferation in isolation. Despite failure to induce T cell proliferation, cross-dressing by donor DCs contributes to generation of the immunological synapse between DCs and CD4 T cells, and this is required for maximal responses induced by classical indirectly presented alloantigen. We conclude that the process of cross-dressing by donor DCs serves as an efficient alternative pathway for the acquisition of recipient alloantigen and that once acquired, this cross-dressed MHC can assist in immune synapse formation prior to the induction of full T cell proliferative responses by concurrent indirect Ag presentation.

  4. Deceased Donor Uterine Transplantation: Innovation and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Flyckt, Rebecca L; Farrell, Ruth M; Perni, Uma C; Tzakis, Andreas G; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    This commentary endeavors to share our practical experience in developing and implementing the first uterine transplant clinical trial in the United States. Uterine transplant is a promising novel treatment for uterine factor infertility. After reported successful live births after uterine transplant in Sweden, research teams around the world are either embarking on or are considering the development of uterine transplant protocols. Our observations on the applied rather than theoretical aspects of uterine transplantation research in human subjects are detailed in this article. Important among these considerations are composing a broad and experienced multidisciplinary team as well as performing adequate preclinical preparations, including ideally animal studies and practice organ procurements. Ethical preparation is tantamount to clinical preparation for the complexities inherent in uterine transplant, and our suggestions for updating the current ethical criteria for uterine transplant are outlined here. We also describe our perspectives on the strengths and weaknesses of living compared with deceased donor models. Finally, we describe how a strong program can recover and adapt in the face of setbacks to continue a path toward innovation. PMID:27607877

  5. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  6. The Last Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  7. The Conversation Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  8. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  9. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  10. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  11. [Renal transplantation from living donor in Italy and Europe].

    PubMed

    Frascà, Giovanni M; Gaffi, G; Taruscia, D; D'Arezzo, M; Benozzi, L; Sagripanti, S

    2009-01-01

    Renal transplantation from a living donor shows a better graft and patient survival when compared with cadaver donor grafts. Moreover, since surgery can be planned in advance when a living donor is available, the time spent on dialysis while awaiting transplantation can be greatly reduced and dialysis treatment can be completely avoided in some cases. Only few risks for the donor have been reported as a consequence of nephrectomy, both in the short and long term. Nevertheless, despite these advantages, the number of living donor renal transplants carried out in Europe each year varies greatly from country to country and is particularly low in Spain and Italy. Several factors account for these differences, mainly the effectiveness of the organ procurement system, which could make people reluctant to living donation, and doctors' and patients' limited knowledge about living donor transplants. Nephrologists have the responsibility to identify patients eligible for transplant early in the course of the disease, and to inform them and their relatives about living donor transplantation, enabling them to make informed choices among the various treatment options in end-stage renal disease. PMID:19644833

  12. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  13. Prostate-Specific Antigen: Nonspecific in Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, K; Ostrowski, M; Kram, A; Safranow, K; Myślak, M; Sieńko, J; Sulikowski, T; Ciechanowski, K

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no clear position regarding the donation of organs from donors with prostate carcinoma (CaP) in European countries, except Italy. The lengthening of life expectancy increases the probability of prostate cancer among potential organ donors. The concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2 ng/mL at 60 years of age is related to the increasing possibility of identifying an advanced form of CaP. In recent years in Poland, the recommendation has been to determine tumor markers in potential donors. In the first year of the recommendation, 10% of potential male cadaveric donors were disqualified in West Pomerania, Poland, on the basis of elevated PSA levels (>10 ng/mL). To avoid reduction of the actual donor pool, each potential male donor reported to the center since January 2010 undergoes a routine histologic evaluation of the whole prostate, regardless of the PSA level, before organ implantation. In the study group (N = 52), histopathologic evaluation revealed 6 cases of CaP (12%). In CaP positive group Gleason score range from 2+2 to 3+4. In CaP donors PSA level have been noticed in range 1.79 ng/mL - 7.66 ng/mL. There was no correlation between histologically confirmed CaP and the PSA level. PMID:27496408

  14. Progress in donor assisted coal liquefaction: Hydroaromatic compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P.

    1993-12-31

    The role of hydrogen donor compounds in coal liquefaction has been extensively investigated since the mid 1960`s using model compounds and process derived hydrogen donor solvents. Our recent research and that of other investigators have shown that two model compounds in particular have great efficacy in solvating low rank coals. 1,2,3,10b tetrahydrofluoranthene (H{sub 4}Fl) and 1,2,3,6,7,8 hexahydropyrene (H{sub 6}Py) have been used to dissolve Wyodak coal to > 95% soluble material as measured by tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although these hydrogen donors are very effective, they may not be found in any significant concentrations in actual liquefaction process recycle solvents. Therefore, studies with process derived recycle materials are necessary to understand donor solvent chemistry. The objective of this paper is to present results of solvent hydrogenation experiments using heavy distillate solvents produced during testing at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility. We evaluated the impact of hydrogenation conditions upon hydrogen donor formation in process derived distillates and compared these process derived solvents with the highly effective H{sub 4}Fl and H{sub 6}Py donors in coal liquefaction tests. This paper presents data on reaction conditions used for distillate hydrotreating and subsequent coal liquefaction, with an aim toward understanding the relationship between reaction conditions and donor solvent quality in recycle distillates.

  15. Restless Legs Syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J.; Glynn, Simone A.; Rye, David B.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of blood donation related iron deficiency with pica or Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15–24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. RESULTS There were 9% and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of Probable or Probable/Possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron replete females, 13% in those with ferritin < 12ng/mL), but not in men. Probable RLS and pica co-expressed in 8 individuals, but no more frequently than expected by chance. CONCLUSION RLS and pica have been associated with iron deficiency in non-donor populations. This study indicates a potentially high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. PMID:23763445

  16. Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by donor semen.

    PubMed

    Shanis, B S; Check, J H; Baker, A F

    1989-01-01

    Therapeutic insemination by donor (TID) is being used with increasing frequency. Because many diseases, some of which are lethal, can be transmitted through semen, the American Fertility Society established guidelines for use of donor sperm. They limit TID to cases of male infertility or hereditary/genetic disorders. Donor selection requires good health and absence of genetic abnormalities; criteria for semen including normal sperm motility, concentration, and normal morphology, and blood screening for infectious agents. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing should be performed initially in donors for fresh semen inseminations. If positive, the assay is verified with a Western blot test; if negative, the donor should be screened at 6-month intervals. Frozen samples should not be used until the 180 day reevaluation of the donor. Many studies show higher pregnancy rates using fresh rather than frozen semen samples for insemination. New methods of cryopreservation minimize the deleterious effects of freezing. If these effects, namely decreased sperm motility and impaired penetration ability, are eliminated, pregnancy rates can be expected to rise. Frozen semen is preferable because it allows time for sexually transmitted diseases to manifest themselves and for specimens from those donors to be rejected prior to use. PMID:2619413

  17. Seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in the normal blood donor population and two aboriginal communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Seow, H F; Mahomed, N M; Mak, J W; Riddell, M A; Li, F; Anderson, D A

    1999-10-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been examined in many countries, but such studies have generally been limited to majority populations such as those represented in healthy blood donors or cross sections of urban populations. Due to its major route of enteric transmission, large differences in HEV prevalence might be expected between populations in the same country but with different living conditions. Using an ELISA based on GST-ORF2.1 antigen, the prevalence of IgG-class antibodies to HEV was examined in three distinct populations in Malaysia: the normal (urban) blood donor population and two aboriginal communities located at Betau, Pahang and Parit Tanjung, Perak. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 45 (44%) of 102 samples from Betau and 15 (50%) of 30 samples from Parit Tanjung, compared to only 2 (2%) of 100 normal blood donors. The distribution of sample ELISA reactivities was also consistent with ongoing sporadic infection in the aboriginal communities, while there was no significant relationship between HEV exposure and age, sex, or malaria infection. The high prevalence of antibodies to HEV in the two aboriginal communities indicates that this group of people are at high risk of exposure to HEV compared to the general blood donors, and the results suggest that studies of HEV seroprevalence within countries must take into account the possibility of widely varying infection rates between populations with marked differences in living conditions.

  18. Binding of tetramethylammonium to polyether side-chained aromatic hosts. Evaluation of the binding contribution from ether oxygen donors.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Sandra; De Nicola, Gina; Roelens, Stefano

    2003-10-17

    A set of macrocyclic and open-chain aromatic ligands endowed with polyether side chains has been prepared to assess the contribution of ether oxygen donors to the binding of tetramethylammonium (TMA), a cation believed incapable of interacting with oxygen donors. The open-chain hosts consisted of an aromatic binding site and side chains possessing a variable number of ether oxygen donors; the macrocyclic ligands were based on the structure of a previously investigated host, the dimeric cyclophane 1,4-xylylene-1,4-phenylene diacetate (DXPDA), implemented with polyether-type side chains in the backbone. Association to tetramethylammonium picrate (TMAP) was measured in CDCl(3) at T = 296 K by (1)H NMR titrations. Results confirm that the main contribution to the binding of TMA comes from the cation-pi interaction established with the aromatic binding sites, but they unequivocally show that polyether chains participate with cooperative contributions, although of markedly smaller entity. Water is also bound, but the two guests interact with aromatic rings and oxygen donors in an essentially noncompetitive way. An improved procedure for the preparation of cyclophanic tetraester derivatives has been developed that conveniently recycles the oligomeric ester byproducts formed in the one-pot cyclization reaction. An alternative entry to benzylic diketones has also been provided that makes use of a low-order cyanocuprate reagent to prepare in fair yields a class of compounds otherwise uneasily accessible.

  19. How membrane permeation is affected by donor delivery solvent.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P

    2012-11-28

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the rate and extent of membrane permeation is affected by switching the donor delivery solvent from water to squalane for different permeants and membranes. In a model based on rate-limiting membrane diffusion, we derive explicit equations showing how the permeation extent and rate depend mainly on the membrane-donor and membrane-receiver partition coefficients of the permeant. Permeation results for systems containing all combinations of hydrophilic or hydrophobic donor solvents (aqueous solution or squalane), permeants (caffeine or testosterone) and polymer membranes (cellulose or polydimethylsiloxane) have been measured using a cell with stirred donor and re-circulating receiver compartments and continuous monitoring of the permeant concentration in the receiver phase. Relevant partition coefficients are also determined. Quantitative comparison of model and experimental results for the widely-differing permeation systems successfully enables the systematic elucidation of all possible donor solvent effects in membrane permeation. For the experimental conditions used here, most of the permeation systems are in agreement with the model, demonstrating that the model assumptions are valid. In these cases, the dominant donor solvent effects arise from changes in the relative affinities of the permeant for the donor and receiver solvents and the membrane and are quantitatively predicted using the separately measured partition coefficients. We also show how additional donor solvent effects can arise when switching the donor solvent causes one or more of the model assumptions to be invalid. These effects include a change in rate-limiting step, permeant solution non-ideality and others.

  20. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  1. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia in Living Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Amit X.; Nevis, Immaculate F.; McArthur, Eric; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Koval, John J.; Lam, Ngan N.; Hildebrand, Ainslie M.; Reese, Peter P.; Storsley, Leroy; Gill, John S.; Segev, Dorry L.; Habbous, Steven; Bugeja, Ann; Knoll, Greg A.; Dipchand, Christine; Monroy-Cuadros, Mauricio; Lentine, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Young women wishing to become living kidney donors frequently ask whether nephrectomy will affect their future pregnancies. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of living kidney donors involving 85 women (131 pregnancies after cohort entry) who were matched in a 1:6 ratio with 510 healthy nondonors from the general population (788 pregnancies after cohort entry). Kidney donations occurred between 1992 and 2009 in Ontario, Canada, with follow-up through linked health care databases until March 2013. Donors and nondonors were matched with respect to age, year of cohort entry, residency (urban or rural), income, number of pregnancies before cohort entry, and the time to the first pregnancy after cohort entry. The primary outcome was a hospital diagnosis of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were each component of the primary outcome examined separately and other maternal and fetal outcomes. RESULTS Gestational hypertension or preeclampsia was more common among living kidney donors than among nondonors (occurring in 15 of 131 pregnancies [11%] vs. 38 of 788 pregnancies [5%]; odds ratio for donors, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 5.0; P = 0.01). Each component of the primary outcome was also more common among donors (odds ratio, 2.5 for gestational hypertension and 2.4 for preeclampsia). There were no significant differences between donors and nondonors with respect to rates of preterm birth (8% and 7%, respectively) or low birth weight (6% and 4%, respectively). There were no reports of maternal death, stillbirth, or neonatal death among the donors. Most women had uncomplicated pregnancies after donation. CONCLUSIONS Gestational hypertension or preeclampsia was more likely to be diagnosed in kidney donors than in matched nondonors with similar indicators of baseline health. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others.) PMID:25397608

  2. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  3. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  4. Donor Funding for Newborn Survival: An Analysis of Donor-Reported Data, 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Catherine; Lawn, Joy E.; Ranganathan, Meghna; Mills, Anne; Hanson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of global under-five deaths and is decreasing more slowly than maternal or child mortality. Donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), but no analysis to date has disaggregated aid for newborns. We evaluated if and how aid flows for newborn care can be tracked, examined changes in the last decade, and considered methodological implications for tracking funding for specific population groups or diseases. Methods and Findings We critically reviewed and categorised previous analyses of aid to specific populations, diseases, or types of activities. We then developed and refined key terms related to newborn survival in seven languages and searched titles and descriptions of donor disbursement records in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System database, 2002–2010. We compared results with the Countdown to 2015 database of aid for MNCH (2003–2008) and the search strategy used by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Prior to 2005, key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records but their frequency increased markedly thereafter. Only two mentions were found of “stillbirth” and only nine references were found to “fetus” in any spelling variant or language. The total value of non-research disbursements mentioning any newborn search terms rose from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010 (constant 2010 US$). The value of non-research projects exclusively benefitting newborns fluctuated somewhat but remained low, at US$5.7 million in 2010. The United States and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively. Conclusions Donor attention to newborn survival has increased since 2002, but it appears unlikely that donor aid is commensurate with the 3.0 million newborn deaths and 2.7 million

  5. Chylous ascites as a complication of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Caumartin, Yves; Pouliot, Frédéric; Sabbagh, Robert; Dujardin, Thierry

    2005-12-01

    Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN) is a minimally invasive technique for kidney procurement and was developed with the hope of reducing the disincentives associated with live renal donation. Compared with open donor nephrectomy (ODN), this alternative has many advantages including less postoperative pain and earlier return to work. Unfortunately, these benefits are sometimes negated by postoperative complications. Among these, chylous ascites (CA) is a rare but serious problem that is usually managed conservatively. We report the case of a living donor who developed CA refractory to initial conservative management and surgical treatment. We also discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of CA following LLDN. PMID:16297058

  6. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  7. Extending the donor pool: rehabilitation of poor organs.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients listed for lung transplantation exceeds the number of available transplantable organs because of a shortage of organ donors and a low utilization rate of donated lungs. A novel strategy of donor lung management, called ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) can keep the organ in a physiologic protective condition, and promises to increase lung utilization by reevaluating, treating, and repairing donor lungs before transplantation. Preclinical studies have shown great potential for EVLP as a platform for the delivery of novel therapies to repair injured organs ex vivo and improve the success of lung transplantation. PMID:25430427

  8. A New Approximate Chimera Donor Cell Search Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop chimera-based full potential methodology which is compatible with overflow (Euler/Navier-Stokes) chimera flow solver and to develop a fast donor cell search algorithm that is compatible with the chimera full potential approach. Results of this work included presenting a new donor cell search algorithm suitable for use with a chimera-based full potential solver. This algorithm was found to be extremely fast and simple producing donor cells as fast as 60,000 per second.

  9. Shallow-donor lasers in uniaxially stressed silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, K. A. Zhukavin, R. Kh.; Tsyplenkov, V. V.; Shastin, V. N.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.; Pavlov, S. G.; Huebers, H.-W.

    2013-02-15

    The effects of the terahertz-stimulated emission of Group-V donors (phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, bismuth) in uniaxially stressed silicon, excited by CO{sub 2} laser radiation are experimentally studied. It is shown that uniaxial compressive stress of the crystal along the [100] direction increases the gain and efficiency of stimulated radiation, significantly decreasing the threshold pump intensity. The donor frequencies are measured and active transitions are identified in stressed silicon. The dependence of the residual population of active donor states on the uniaxial compressive stress along the [100] direction is theoretically estimated.

  10. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  11. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  12. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  13. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know. PMID:25489130

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Improving Efficiencies in Live Kidney Donor Evaluation–Recommendations from a Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Serur, David; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Rodrigue, James R.; Hays, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The education, evaluation, and support of living donors before, during, and after donation have historically been considered the roles and responsibilities of transplant programs. Although intended to protect donors, ensure true informed consent, and prevent coercion, this structure often leaves referring nephrologists unclear about the donor process and uncertain regarding the ultimate outcome of potential donors for their patients. The aim of this article is to help the referring nephrologist understand the donor referral and evaluation process, help the referring nephrologist understand the responsibilities of the transplant program, and offer suggestions about how the referring nephrologist can help to improve efficiencies in the process of donor education and evaluation. A partnership between referring nephrologists and transplant programs is an important step in advancing living kidney donation. The referring nephrologists are the frontline providers and are in a unique position to offer education about living donation and improve efficiencies in the process. Understanding the donor referral and evaluation process, the responsibilities of the transplant program, and the potential role referring nephrologists can play in the process is critical to establishing such a partnership. PMID:26268509

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Improving Efficiencies in Live Kidney Donor Evaluation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Moore, Deonna R; Serur, David; Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Rodrigue, James R; Hays, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    The education, evaluation, and support of living donors before, during, and after donation have historically been considered the roles and responsibilities of transplant programs. Although intended to protect donors, ensure true informed consent, and prevent coercion, this structure often leaves referring nephrologists unclear about the donor process and uncertain regarding the ultimate outcome of potential donors for their patients. The aim of this article is to help the referring nephrologist understand the donor referral and evaluation process, help the referring nephrologist understand the responsibilities of the transplant program, and offer suggestions about how the referring nephrologist can help to improve efficiencies in the process of donor education and evaluation. A partnership between referring nephrologists and transplant programs is an important step in advancing living kidney donation. The referring nephrologists are the frontline providers and are in a unique position to offer education about living donation and improve efficiencies in the process. Understanding the donor referral and evaluation process, the responsibilities of the transplant program, and the potential role referring nephrologists can play in the process is critical to establishing such a partnership. PMID:26268509

  16. Donor Safety in Adult-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience of 356 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Haipeng; Yang, Jiayin; Yan, Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Background As an important means to tackle the worldwide shortage of liver grafts, adult-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-ALDLT) is the most massive operation a healthy person could undergo, so donor safety is of prime importance. However, most previous research focused on recipients, while complications in donors have not been fully described or investigated. Material/Methods To investigate donor safety in terms of postoperative complications, the clinical data of 356 A-ALDLT donors in our center from January 2002 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into a pre-2008 group (before January 2008) and a post-2008 group (after January 2008). Donor safety was evaluated with regard to the type, frequency, and severity of postoperative complications. Results There were no donor deaths in our center during this period. The overall complication rate was 23.0% (82/356). The proportion of Clavien I, II, III, and IV complications was 51.2% (42/82), 25.6% (21/82), 22.0% (18/82), and 1.2% (1/82), respectively. In all the donors, the incidence of Clavien I, II, III, and IV complications was 11.8% (42/356), 5.9% (21/356), 5.1% (18/356), and 0.3% (1/356), respectively. The overall complication rate in the post-2008 group was significantly lower than that in the pre-2008 group (18.1% (41/227) vs. 32.6% (42/129), P<0.01). Biliary complications were the most common, with an incidence of 8.4% (30/356). Conclusions The risk to A-ALDLT donors is controllable and acceptable with improvement in preoperative assessment and liver surgery. PMID:27178367

  17. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  18. Application of donor-donor energy migration (DDEM) for examining protein structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, Fredrik; Hagglof, Peter; Karolin, Jan; Ny, Tor; Johansson, Lennart B.

    1999-05-01

    Donor-Donor Energy Migration (DDEM) and fluorescence anisotropy experiments can be utilized as a versatile tool for examining protein structure and function. For this, pairs of identical fluorescent probes (D) are attached to unique residues created by means of site specific mutagenesis. Present work illustrates the applicability of the method on the latent form of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Different DD-pairs of mutated PAI-1 were prepared and studied, namely; V106C-H185C, H185C-M266C and M266C-V106C. The Cys residues were labelled with a sulfhydryl specific derivative of BODIPYR [N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a- diaza-s-indacene-3-yl)methyl iodo-acetamide]. To determine the rate of DDEM within such a pair, intramolecular order and dynamics must be considered (Biophys. J., 74, 11-21, 1997). For analysis of data, additonal information was obtained from experiments with the corresponding D-labelled single Cys mutants, that is, V106C, H185C and M266C. The stability of values determined was tested by generating and re-analyzing synthetic data. The intramolecular distances obtained agree, reasonably well, with those determined from the X-ray structure of latent PAI-1.

  19. [Biobanks and the return of results to donors].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Eric; Boeckhout, Martin; Zielhuis, Gerhard A; Bakker, Rachel; Janssens, A C J W Cecile; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks should return clinically significant and actionable research findings to donors who have given physical material to the biobank. Because the clinical significance of a research finding is hard to determine for the individual donor, a procedure to decide on clinical significance should be incorporated into a structure for the actual feedback of research results. Most published studies show that donors expect return of individual research results, but there is almost no experience with it. Explorative questionnaire-based research among Dutch biobanks from the BioBanking Medical Research Infrastructure (BBMRI.NL) shows that a substantial group of biobanks can return individual research findings from data analysis. On the basis of these experiences a return of results policy may be drafted that answers to the interests of donors and the possibilities of biobanks.

  20. Computer-assisted selection of donor sites for autologous grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Gerhardt, Paul; Horch, Hans-Henning

    1997-05-01

    A new method is proposed for a precise planning of autologous bone grafts in cranio- and maxillofacial surgery. In patients with defects of the facial skeleton, autologous bone transplants can be harvested from various donor sites in the body. The preselection of a donor site depends i.a. on the morphological fit of the available bone mass and the shape of the part that is to be transplanted. A thorough planning and simulation of the surgical intervention based on 3D CT studies leads to a geometrical description and the volumetric characterization of the bone part to be resected and transplanted. Both, an optimal fit and a minimal lesion of the donor site are guidelines in this process. We use surface similarity and voxel similarity measures in order to select the optimal donor region for an individually designed transplant.

  1. Thiophene dendrimer-based low donor content solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzfus, Dani M.; Ma, Chang-Qi; Nagiri, Ravi C. R.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Bäuerle, Peter; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Low donor content solar cells containing polymeric and non-polymeric donors blended with fullerenes have been reported to give rise to efficient devices. In this letter, we report that a dendrimeric donor can also be used in solution-processed low donor content devices when blended with a fullerene. A third generation dendrimer containing 42 thiophene units (42T) was found to give power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% when blended with PC70BM in optimized devices. The best efficiency was measured with 10 mole percent (mol. %) of 42T in PC70BM and X-ray reflectometry showed that the blends were uniform. Importantly, while 42T comprised 10 mol. % of the film, it made up 31% of the film by volume. Finally, it was found that solvent annealing was required to achieve the largest open circuit voltage and highest device efficiencies.

  2. [Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Hamburg blood donors].

    PubMed

    Weiland, T; Kühnl, P; Laufs, R; Heesemann, J

    1992-01-01

    One thousand regular blood donors of the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the University Hospital in Hamburg were screened for antibodies against the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. 7.2% were initially reactive in the enzyme immunoassay, 37.5% of which were confirmed by immunoblot. The seroprevalence of anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies thus is 2.7% in Hamburg blood donors. 25 of 27 positive donors received a physical exam, which did not reveal any symptoms of acute or chronic Lyme disease. 24 of these 25 donors were tested for B. burgdorferi-specific DNA in urine by polymerase chain reaction, which came out negative in all cases. Introduction of B. burgdorferi antibody screening is not regarded an effective means to prevent transfusion-transmitted Lyme disease.

  3. Laboratory identification of donor-derived coxsackievirus b3 transmission.

    PubMed

    Abbott, I J; Papadakis, G; Kaye, M; Opdam, H; Hutton, H; Angus, P W; Johnson, P D R; Kanellis, J; Westall, G; Druce, J; Catton, M

    2015-02-01

    Unexpected donor-to-recipient infectious disease transmission is an important, albeit rare, complication of solid organ transplantation. Greater work and understanding about the epidemiology of these donor-derived transmissions is continually required to further mitigate this risk. Herein we present the first reported case of proven donor-derived transmission of coxsackievirus serogroup-3, an enterovirus, following solid organ transplant. Swift and effective communication between the organ donation agency, treating physicians, laboratory testing and notification ensured a coordinated approach. The resulting clinical syndromes in the organ recipients were mild. This case highlights the requirement for ongoing surveillance over a broad range of infecting pathogens that may present as a donor-derived infection.

  4. Donor management and lung preservation for lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Laveena; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cypel, Marcelo

    2013-06-01

    Although lung transplantation has become a life-saving option for patients with end-stage lung disease, this intervention is hampered by a shortage of lungs in view of the growing number of people on the waiting list. Lungs are retrieved from only a small percentage of multiorgan donors, and the transplantation and intensive-care communities have recognised the need to develop innovative methods to expand the donor pool. Advancements in lung-preservation techniques in the preretrieval and postretrieval periods have increased the pool of available donors, and novel research and discoveries in this area have steadily improved post-transplantation adverse events. This Review summarises current best practice and the latest research on intensive-care management of a potential lung donor. We also discuss lung-preservation techniques, including advancements in normothermic ex-vivo lung perfusion, and the potential for a personalised medicine approach to the organ. PMID:24429157

  5. Donor-site morbidity after osteochondral autograft transfer procedures.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Robert F; Botker, Jesse C

    2004-09-01

    We report on 2 patients who had donor-site morbidity after an autogenous osteochondral grafting was performed. Both patients had fibrocartilage hypertrophy at the donor sites that contributed to knee pain and occasional locking; the second patient also had a lack of fibrocartilaginous regrowth with symptomatic residual osteocartilaginous defects. Additional arthroscopic surgery was required in both cases to trim the fibrocartilage. In addition, for the second case, a fresh osteoarticular allograft was used to transfer osteocartilaginous plugs back into the original knee donor sites due to continued knee pain. When performing an osteochondral autograft transfer, the benefits provided at the recipient site must be weighed against the possible donor-site morbidity that may result.

  6. Bartonella clarridgeiae bacteremia detected in an asymptomatic blood donor.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Sowy, Stanley; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Soares, Tânia Cristina Benetti; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to Bartonella clarridgeiae has been reported only on the basis of antibody detection. We report for the first time an asymptomatic human blood donor infected with B. clarridgeiae, as documented by enrichment blood culture, PCR, and DNA sequencing.

  7. Pressure dependence of donor excitation spectra in AlSb

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.; McCluskey, M.D.; Haller, E.E.

    2002-01-16

    We have investigated the behavior of ground to bound excited-state electronic transitions of Se and Te donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. Using broadband far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we observe qualitatively different behaviors of the electronic transition energies of the two donors. While the pressure derivative of the Te transition energy is small and constant, as might be expected for a shallow donor, the pressure derivatives of the Se transition energies are quadratic and large at low pressures, indicating that Se is actually a deep donor. In addition, at pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, we observe evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the selenium electronic transitions and a two-phonon mode.

  8. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  9. Subcostal Skin Graft Donor Site for Autologous Ear Construction.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Greene, Arin K

    2015-06-01

    Autologous ear construction for microtia creates an auricle using a costal cartilage framework. To separate the construct from the mastoid, a skin graft is required to form a retroauricular sulcus. Skin graft donor sites that have been described include the inguinal area (split or full-thickness) or scalp (split-thickness). The purpose of this study is to report a novel skin graft donor site for ear construction. We harvest a full-thickness graft from the subcostal area based on the previous scar from the cartilage harvest. Unlike the inguinal donor site, this method does not place an additional scar on the child. In contrast to the scalp donor site, the technique is simpler and a full-thickness graft minimizes contraction of the retroauricular sulcus. PMID:26080199

  10. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context. PMID:25824702

  11. Results of genetic screening of donors for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A; Szentesi, I; Horváth, L

    1983-08-01

    Only 47 of 61 (77%) medical students were selected as sperm donors for artificial insemination. Fourteen were excluded because of family history 1, eye disorders 7, oligospermia 5, permanent structural chromosome aberration 1. PMID:6616950

  12. Electron Transfer Rate Maxima at Large Donor-Acceptor Distances.

    PubMed

    Kuss-Petermann, Martin; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-02-01

    Because of their low mass, electrons can transfer rapidly over long (>15 Å) distances, but usually reaction rates decrease with increasing donor-acceptor distance. We report here on electron transfer rate maxima at donor-acceptor separations of 30.6 Å, observed for thermal electron transfer between an anthraquinone radical anion and a triarylamine radical cation in three homologous series of rigid-rod-like donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triads with p-xylene bridges. Our experimental observations can be explained by a weak distance dependence of electronic donor-acceptor coupling combined with a strong increase of the (outer-sphere) reorganization energy with increasing distance, as predicted by electron transfer theory more than 30 years ago. The observed effect has important consequences for light-to-chemical energy conversion. PMID:26800279

  13. [Nursing management of a refractory cardiac death donor].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Marion

    2016-09-01

    The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort. PMID:27596504

  14. Section 17. Laparoscopic and minimal incisional donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-04-27

    Living donor hepatectomy is now a well-established surgical procedure. However, a large abdominal incision is still required, which results in a large permanent scar, especially for a right liver graft. This report reviews our techniques of minimally invasive or minimal incisional donor hepatectomy using a transverse incision.Twenty-five living donors underwent right hepatectomy with a transverse incision and 484 donors with a conventional incision between April 2007 and December 2012. Among the donors with a transverse incision, two cases were totally laparoscopic procedures using a hand-port device; 11 cases were laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy (hybrid technique), and 14 cases were open procedures using a transverse incision without the aid of the laparoscopic technique. Currently, a hybrid method has been exclusively used because of the long operation time and surgical difficulty in totally laparoscopic hepatectomy and the exposure problems for the liver cephalic portion during the open technique using a transverse incision.All donors with a transverse incision were women except for one. Twenty-four of the grafts were right livers without middle hepatic vein (MHV) and one with MHV. The donors' mean BMI was 21.1 kg/m. The median operation time was 355 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 346.1±247.3 mL (range, 70-1200). There was no intraoperative transfusion. These donors had 29 cases of grade I [14 pleural effusions (56%), 11 abdominal fluid collections (44%), 3 atelectasis (12%), 1bile leak (4%)], 1 case of grade II (1 pneumothorax) and two cases of grade III complications; two interventions were needed because of abdominal fluid collections by Clavien-Dindo classification. Meanwhile, donors with a conventional big incision, which included the Mercedes-Benz incision or an inverted L-shaped incision, had 433 cases of grade I, 19 cases of grade II and 18 cases of grade III complications. However, the liver enzymes and total bilirubin of all donors

  15. Section 17. Laparoscopic and minimal incisional donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-04-27

    Living donor hepatectomy is now a well-established surgical procedure. However, a large abdominal incision is still required, which results in a large permanent scar, especially for a right liver graft. This report reviews our techniques of minimally invasive or minimal incisional donor hepatectomy using a transverse incision.Twenty-five living donors underwent right hepatectomy with a transverse incision and 484 donors with a conventional incision between April 2007 and December 2012. Among the donors with a transverse incision, two cases were totally laparoscopic procedures using a hand-port device; 11 cases were laparoscopic-assisted hepatectomy (hybrid technique), and 14 cases were open procedures using a transverse incision without the aid of the laparoscopic technique. Currently, a hybrid method has been exclusively used because of the long operation time and surgical difficulty in totally laparoscopic hepatectomy and the exposure problems for the liver cephalic portion during the open technique using a transverse incision.All donors with a transverse incision were women except for one. Twenty-four of the grafts were right livers without middle hepatic vein (MHV) and one with MHV. The donors' mean BMI was 21.1 kg/m. The median operation time was 355 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 346.1±247.3 mL (range, 70-1200). There was no intraoperative transfusion. These donors had 29 cases of grade I [14 pleural effusions (56%), 11 abdominal fluid collections (44%), 3 atelectasis (12%), 1bile leak (4%)], 1 case of grade II (1 pneumothorax) and two cases of grade III complications; two interventions were needed because of abdominal fluid collections by Clavien-Dindo classification. Meanwhile, donors with a conventional big incision, which included the Mercedes-Benz incision or an inverted L-shaped incision, had 433 cases of grade I, 19 cases of grade II and 18 cases of grade III complications. However, the liver enzymes and total bilirubin of all donors

  16. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  17. Class, health and justice.

    PubMed

    Marchand, S; Wikler, D; Landesman, B

    1998-01-01

    Class inequalities in health are intuitively unjust. Although the link between social class and health status has been fully documented, the precise nature of the injustice has not been made clear. Four alternative views are presented, corresponding to four goals: (1) maximizing the sum total of health; (2) equalizing the health status of higher and lower social classes; (3) maximizing the health status of the lowest social class; and (4) maximizing the health status of the sickest individuals in society. The nature of the injustice is further obscured by several theoretical and empirical questions, like the degree and significance of personal responsibility for illness and the relation of the degree of economic inequality to sum total of health.

  18. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  19. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  20. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  1. Synthesis, Properties, and Design Principles of Donor-Acceptor Nanohoops.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Evan R; Hirst, Elizabeth S; Weber, Christopher D; Zakharov, Lev N; Lonergan, Mark C; Jasti, Ramesh

    2015-09-23

    We have synthesized a series of aza[8]cycloparaphenylenes containing one, two, and three nitrogens to probe the impact of nitrogen doping on optoelectronic properties and solid state packing. Alkylation of these azananohoops afforded the first donor-acceptor nanohoops where the phenylene backbone acts as the donor and the pyridinium units act as the acceptor. The impact on the optoelectronic properties was then studied experimentally and computationally to provide new insight into the effect of functionalization on nanohoops properties. PMID:27162989

  2. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:17692612

  3. Ethical considerations on kidney transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Pretagostini, R; Poli, L; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantage for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality rate of 0.03%. This theoretical risk to the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or other infectious agents, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also of recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies are considering kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and, therefore, do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:16182701

  4. [Pay attention to the donor material supply for corneal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pan, Z Q; Liang, Q F

    2016-09-11

    Corneal transplantation is an important method in the treatment of corneal blindness. It is imperative to improve the treatment effectiveness of corneal disease and reduce the possibility of corneal blindness with the progress of corneal transplantation surgery, the construction and development of eye banks and the rational use of donor materials. This article reviews the component corneal transplantation technology promotion, eye bank construction and preparation of donor slices for component corneal transplantation surgery. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 641-643). PMID:27647243

  5. Biospecimen repositories: Are blood donors willing to participate?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Erik A.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Mathew, Sunitha M.; Mast, Alan E.; Busch, Michael P.; Gottschall, Jerome L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes (NHLBI), the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS-I and -II) have conducted epidemiological, laboratory and survey research on volunteer blood donors. Some studies request additional permission to store biospecimens in a repository for future studies. Even if minority enrollment goals are achieved, minority participants may decline to participate in biospecimen repositories, potentially reducing the representativeness and applicability of studies performed using repositories. Study Design and Methods Demographics of donors consenting to “study only” or “study and repository” participation in the 2007 REDS-II Leukocyte Antibodies Prevalence Study (LAPS) were compared to data from a 1998 REDS-I survey of donor opinion regarding storage and use of biospecimens. Results Overall, 91% of LAPS subjects agreed to participate in the repository. Odds of repository participation were lower for subjects who were African American or Hispanic, 35 to 43 years old or had not completed high school. Odds of repository participation were lowest at one geographic location, regardless of other demographics. The 1998 survey of 50,000 blood donors revealed that 97% would approve of long-term storage of biospecimens for blood safety monitoring. Many donors would want notification or permission prior to repository participation. Conclusion Minority blood donors are less likely to participate in biospecimen repositories than Caucasians, though other variables also influence participation. The reluctance of minority donors to participate in repositories may result in a reduced number of biospecimens available for study and a decreased ability to definitely answer specific research questions in these populations. PMID:20456705

  6. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction. PMID:23908800

  7. Ethical considerations on kidney transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Pretagostini, R; Poli, L; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantage for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality rate of 0.03%. This theoretical risk to the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or other infectious agents, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also of recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies are considering kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and, therefore, do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation.

  8. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation.

  9. A class in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  10. Graft-versus-host-related immunosuppression is induced in mixed chimeras by alloresponses against either host or donor lymphohematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Graft-vs.-host (GVH)-related immunosuppression has previously been demonstrated in F1 rodent recipients of parental lymphoid cells, and has been thought to result from an immunologic attack of the donor against the host. Since all cells of such F1 recipients could potentially bear target class I MHC alloantigens, it has not previously been possible to determine precisely the target tissues responsible for development of GVH-related effects. In the present studies we have used mixed allogeneic chimeras as recipients of host or donor-strain lymphocyte inocula, and have made the surprising observation that "GVH- induced" immune unresponsiveness does not require GVH reactivity, per se, but develops in the presence of a one-way alloresponse against lymphohematopoietic cells in either the GVH or the host-versus-graft direction. PMID:3264329

  11. Minimally invasive surgery for live kidney donors: techniques and challenges.

    PubMed

    Brook, Nicholas R; Nicholson, Michael L

    2005-09-01

    Live kidney donation is assuming an increasingly prominent role in kidney transplantation programs. The traditional operative approach has been through an incision in the upper quadrant of the abdomen or in the loin, with the attendant potential postoperative complications associated with a large surgical wound. These problems may act as disincentives to prospective donors. The introduction of laparoscopic donor surgery in 1995 heralded a new era offering reduced post-operative pain and improved cosmetic result. It is hoped that these benefits may counter some disincentives and thereby increase donation rates. Three minimal-access approaches and their advantages and disadvantages are described: classical laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, and retroperitoneoscopic surgery. Published reports indicate extensive experience with the first 2 of these approaches and less experience with the latter. All 3 approaches present technical, physiological, and anatomical challenges in the context of retrieving an organ that is fit for transplantation. For minimal-access surgery to be accepted as the procedure of choice for live kidney donors, it must be demonstrated that morbidity is not transferred from donor to recipient when these techniques are used. Some concerns about these procedures are addressed. High-level evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials is generally lacking, but experiences of surgeons and patients suggest that, with appropriate modifications, these techniques are safe for both donors and allografts and also benefit donors' recovery. PMID:16252632

  12. [Use of related live donors in renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Broyer, M

    1996-06-01

    Collecting pertinent information is first step in assessing the use of living-related kidneys for transplantation. Current bioethics legislation in France limits kidney donation to first-degree family members and spouses in emergency situations. Severe penalties are inflicted for use of other donors or sale of organs. Further valuable information can be obtained from reports in the literature on complications in donors and on the advantages of living donor organs. The proportion of live donors in France is small (3.5% from 1984 through 1993) indicating that transplantation teams prefer cadaver organs except in pediatric cases. The proportion of live donor organs transplanted in northern Europe and North America is much higher. A quick survey of French teams show that opinions and practices vary. Questions still under debate include how to guarantee freedom to refuse or accept, a freedom directly related to correct information. Several propositions have been made in an attempt to harmonize management. First, an information sheet could be distributed during the early discussions, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of live organ donation. A list of complementary examinations could also be established to identify possible contraindications for nephrectomy and define exclusion criteria. A similar procedure adopted by all transplantation teams could be based on these propositions presented in the appendix. Potential donors could then benefit from uniform protection. PMID:8685149

  13. Role of cardiovascular imaging in selection of donor hearts

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Nandini; Gongora, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To perform a systematic review of literature on use of cardiovascular imaging in assessment of donor hearts. METHODS: A systematic search of current literature from January 1965 to August 2015 was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to investigate the different imaging modalities used to assess donor hearts. RESULTS: Recent literature still estimates only a 32% utilization of available donor hearts in the United States. Most common imaging modality used is transthoracic echocardiography. Use of advanced imaging modalities such as 3D echocardiography, cardiac computer tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance to evaluate donor hearts is not reported in literature. This review attempts to highlight the relevant imaging modalities that can be used to assess cardiac function in a time-efficient manner. The algorithm suggested in this review would hopefully pave the way to standardized protocols that can be adopted by organ procuring organizations to increase the donor pool. CONCLUSION: Use of advanced imaging techniques for a thorough assessment of organs will likely increase the donor pool. PMID:26722663

  14. Shuttling electrons on and off As donor atoms in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lo, C. C.; Lo Nardo, R.; Morton, J. J. L.; Simmons, S.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Meijer, J.; Rogalla, D.

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid quantum devices where electron spins are used for state initialization, fast manipulation, long range entanglement and detection, while nuclear spins are used for long term storage promise revolutionary advantages. Here we report our first experiments using a silicon-based device that utilizes electron and nuclear spins of arsenic donors. The device is a large-area, parallel-plate capacitor fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer where the SOI layer is implanted with arsenic donors, and a back gate is formed in the silicon below the buried oxide by a high-energy boron implantation. The electrons can be controllably stripped from the donors and then reintroduced to the ionized donors by applying appropriate gate voltages. We use ensemble ESR experiments (X-band, magnetic field of 0.35 T) to track the occupancy of the donors during these operations. Pulsed ESR is used to characterize the spin state of the donor electrons and the effect of applied electric fields below the ionization threshold. The spin state of the arsenic nuclei, and the effect of electron removal and reintroduction on the nuclear state is expected to be observable in pulsed ENDOR experiments. The work is funded by LPS and NSF-MWN.

  15. Embryo production by ovum pick up from live donors.

    PubMed

    Galli, C; Crotti, G; Notari, C; Turini, P; Duchi, R; Lazzari, G

    2001-04-01

    Embryo production by in vitro techniques has increased steadily over the years. For cattle where this technology is more advanced and is applied more, the number of in vitro produced embryos transferred to final recipients was over 30,000 in 1998. An increasing proportion of in vitro produced embryos are coming from oocytes collected from live donors by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (ovum pick up, OPU). This procedure allows the repeated production of embryos from live donors of particular value and is a serious alternative to superovulation. Ovum pick up is a very flexible technique. It can be performed twice a week for many weeks without side effects on the donor's reproductive career. The donor can be in almost any physiological status and still be suitable for oocyte recovery. A scanner with a sectorial or convex probe and a vacuum pump are required. Collection is performed with minimal stress to the donor. An average of 8 to 10 oocytes are collected per OPU with an average production of 2 transferable embryos. The laboratory production of embryos from such oocytes does not differ from that of oocytes harvested at slaughter as the results after transfer to final recipients. For other species such as buffalo and horses OPU has been attempted similarly to cattle and data will be presented and reviewed. For small ruminants, laparotomy or laparoscopy seems the only reliable route so far to collect oocytes from live donors.

  16. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    PubMed

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  17. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    PubMed

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization. PMID:24705384

  18. Fluid management in living donor hepatectomy: Recent issues and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the safety of healthy living liver donors is widely recognized during donor hepatectomy which is associated with blood loss, transfusion, and subsequent post-operative morbidity. Although the low central venous pressure (CVP) technique can still be effective, it may not be advantageous concerning the safety of healthy donors undergoing hepatectomy. Emerging evidence suggests that stroke volume variation (SVV), a simple and useful index for fluid responsiveness and preload status in various clinical situations, can be applied as a guide for fluid management to reduce blood loss during living donor hepatectomy. Synthetic colloid solutions are also associated with serious adverse events such as the use of renal replacement therapy and transfusion in critically ill or septic patients. However, it is uncertain whether the intra-operative use of colloid solution is associated with similarly adverse effects in patients undergoing living donor hepatectomy. In this review article we discuss the recent issues regarding the low CVP technique and the high SVV method, i.e., maintaining 10%-20% of SVV, for fluid management in order to reduce blood loss during living donor hepatectomy. In addition, we briefly discuss the effects of intra-operative colloid or crystalloid administration for surgical rather than septic or critically ill patients. PMID:26668500

  19. Gamete Donor Consent and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus on whether the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos remaining after infertility treatment morally require the informed consent of third-party gamete donors who contributed to the creation of the embryos. The principal guidelines for oversight and funding of hESC research in the United States make minimal or no demands for consent from gamete donors. In this article, I consider the arguments supporting and opposing gamete donor consent for hESC research and embryo research more broadly. I argue that it is not morally permissible to use leftover embryos in research without the informed consent of gamete donors, and that we should place restrictions on the use of existing hESC lines that may have been derived without informed consent. While the standard argument for this position relies on an appeal to gamete donors' interest in controlling what happens with their genetic material, I identify shortcomings with the standard approach and seek instead to locate the deeper moral foundations for gamete donor consent in rights to bodily integrity.

  20. Life insurance for living kidney donors: a Canadian undercover investigation.

    PubMed

    Yang, R C; Young, A; Nevis, I F P; Lee, D; Jain, A K; Dominic, A; Pullenayegum, E; Klarenbach, S; Garg, A X

    2009-07-01

    Some living kidney donors encounter difficulties obtaining life insurance, despite previous surveys of insurance companies reporting otherwise. To better understand the effect of donation on insurability, we contacted offices of life insurance companies in five major cities in Canada to obtain $100 000 of life insurance (20-year term) for 40 fictitious living kidney donors and 40 paired controls. These profiles were matched on age, gender, family history of kidney disease and presence of hypertension. The companies were blinded to data collection. The study protocol was reviewed by the Office of Research Ethics. The main study outcomes were the annual premium quoted and total time spent on the phone with the insurance agent. All donor and control profiles received a quote, with no significant difference in the premium quoted (medians $190 vs. $209, p = 0.89). More time was spent on the phone for donor compared to control profiles, but the absolute difference was small (medians 9.5 vs. 7.0 min, p = 0.046). Age, gender, family history of kidney disease and new-onset hypertension had no further effect on donor insurability in regression analysis. We found no evidence that kidney donors were disadvantaged in the first step of applying for life insurance. The effect donation has on subsequent phases of insurance underwriting remains to be studied.

  1. Spatially resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon.

    PubMed

    Salfi, J; Mol, J A; Rahman, R; Klimeck, G; Simmons, M Y; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2014-06-01

    Electron and nuclear spins of donor ensembles in isotopically pure silicon experience a vacuum-like environment, giving them extraordinary coherence. However, in contrast to a real vacuum, electrons in silicon occupy quantum superpositions of valleys in momentum space. Addressable single-qubit and two-qubit operations in silicon require that qubits are placed near interfaces, modifying the valley degrees of freedom associated with these quantum superpositions and strongly influencing qubit relaxation and exchange processes. Yet to date, spectroscopic measurements have only probed wavefunctions indirectly, preventing direct experimental access to valley population, donor position and environment. Here we directly probe the probability density of single quantum states of individual subsurface donors, in real space and reciprocal space, using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. We directly observe quantum mechanical valley interference patterns associated with linear superpositions of valleys in the donor ground state. The valley population is found to be within 5% of a bulk donor when 2.85 ± 0.45 nm from the interface, indicating that valley-perturbation-induced enhancement of spin relaxation will be negligible for depths greater than 3 nm. The observed valley interference will render two-qubit exchange gates sensitive to atomic-scale variations in positions of subsurface donors. Moreover, these results will also be of interest for emerging schemes proposing to encode information directly in valley polarization.

  2. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their

  3. The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor acetylenes - A detailed investigation of structure-property relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, A. E.; Graham, Eva; Khundkar, Lutfur R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Cheng, L.-T.; Perry, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of donor-acceptor acetylene compounds was synthesized in which systematic changes in both the conjugation length and the donor-acceptor strength were made. The effect of these structural changes on the spectroscopic and electronic properties of the molecules and, ultimately, on the measured second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (beta) was investigated. It was found that increases in the donor-acceptor strength resulted in increases in the magnitude of beta. For this class of molecules, the increase is dominated by the energy of the intramolecular charge-transfer transition, while factors such as the ground to excited-state dipole moment change and the transition-moment integral are much less important. Increasing the conjugation length from one to two acetylene linkers did not result in an increase in the value of beta; however, beta increased sharply in going from two acetylenes to three. This increase is attributed to the superposition of several nearly isoenergetic excited states.

  4. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: impact on an established renal transplant program.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, S; McEvoy, J R; Murray, C; Baillie, G M; Ashcraft, E; Sill, T; Rogers, J; Baliga, P; Rajagopolan, P R; Chavin, K

    2000-12-01

    The current disparity of viable organs and patients in need of a transplant has been an impetus for innovative measures. Live donor renal transplantation offers significant advantages compared with cadaveric donor transplantation: increased graft and patient survival, diminution in incidence of delayed graft function, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and reduction in waiting time. Notwithstanding these gains live donors continue to be underutilized and account for only approximately one quarter of all renal transplants performed in the United States. It has been felt that inherent disincentives to live donation have slowed its growth. These include degree and duration of postoperative pain and convalescence, child care concerns, cosmetic concerns, and time until return to full activities and employment. In an attempt to curtail the disincentives to live donation, laparoscopic live donation (laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; LDN) was developed. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of our first 25 laparoscopic nephrectomies (performed over a 10-month period from September 1998 through July 1999) with the previous 25 standard open donor nephrectomies (ODNs) completed over the past 3 years. We conducted a retrospective review of all donor nephrectomies and recipient pairs performed over the past 3 years. End points included sex, operative time, length of stay, immediate and long-term renal function, and willingness to donate. There were no differences in demographics of the ODN versus the LDN group. The average length of stay was 2.48+/-0.72 days for the LDN versus 4.08+/-0.28 days for the ODN. ODN and LDN have comparable short- and long-term function with no delayed graft function and no complications. Growth of living donor transplant has increased from 16 per cent of all kidney transplants performed in 1995 to 23 per cent in 1999. We conclude that LDN is a viable alternative to the standard donor operation. LDN has had a positive impact on the donor pool

  5. Impact of de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies detected by Luminex solid-phase assay after transplantation in a group of 88 consecutive living-donor renal transplantations.

    PubMed

    Dieplinger, Georg; Ditt, Vanessa; Arns, Wolfgang; Huppertz, Andrea; Kisner, Tuelay; Hellmich, Martin; Bauerfeind, Ursula; Stippel, Dirk L

    2014-01-01

    De novo donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) after renal transplantation are known to be correlated with poor graft outcome and the development of acute and chronic rejection. Currently, data for the influence of de novo DSA in patient cohorts including only living-donor renal transplantations (LDRT) are limited. A consecutive cohort of 88 LDRT was tested for the occurrence of de novo DSA by utilizing the highly sensitive Luminex solid-phase assay for antibody detection. Data were analyzed for risk factors for de novo DSA development and correlated with acute rejection (AR) and graft function. Patients with de novo DSA [31 (35%)] showed a trend for inferior graft function [mean creatinine change (mg/dL/year) after the first year: 0.15 DSA (+) vs. 0.02 DSA (-) (P = 0.10)] and a higher rate of AR episodes, especially in case of de novo DSA of both class I and II [6 (55%), (P = 0.05)]. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) appeared in five patients and was significantly correlated with de novo DSA (P = 0.05). Monitoring for de novo DSA after LDRT may help to identify patients at risk of declining renal function. Especially patients with simultaneous presence of de novo DSA class I and class II are at a high risk to suffer AR episodes.

  6. Charge and energy transfer in a bithiophene perylenediimide based donor-acceptor-donor system for use in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jan; Dreuw, Andreas; Burghardt, Irene

    2013-07-28

    The elementary charge and excitation energy transfer steps in a novel symmetric donor-acceptor-donor triad first described in Roland et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 273, consisting of a central perylenediimide moiety as a potential electron acceptor and two identical electron rich bithiophene compounds, have been investigated using quantum chemical methodology. These elementary processes determine the applicability of such systems in photovoltaic devices. The molecular structure, excited states and the photo-physical properties are investigated using smaller model systems and including solvation effects. The donor and acceptor π-systems are separated by an ethyl bridge such that the molecular orbitals are either located on the donor or acceptor moiety making the identification of locally excited versus charge transfer states straightforward. Using excited state geometry optimizations, the mechanism of photo-initiated charge separation could be identified. Geometry relaxation in the excited donor state leads to a near-degeneracy with the locally excited acceptor state, entailing strong excitonic coupling and resonance energy transfer. This energy transfer process is driven by planarization and bond length alternation of the donor molecule. Geometry relaxation of the locally excited acceptor state in turn reveals a crossing with the energetically lowest charge transfer excited state. The energetic position of the latter depends in a sensitive fashion on the solvent. This provides an explanation of the sequential process observed in the experiment, favoring ultrafast (∼130 fs) formation of the excited acceptor state followed by slower (∼3 ps scale) formation of the charge separated state.

  7. A Multicenter Study: North American Islet Donor Score in Donor Pancreas Selection for Human Islet Isolation for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Jia; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Shapiro, A M James; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Takita, Morihito; Levy, Marlon F; Posselt, Andrew M; Szot, Gregory L; Savari, Omid; Barbaro, Barbara; McGarrigle, James; Yeh, Chun Chieh; Oberholzer, Jose; Lei, Ji; Chen, Tao; Lian, Moh; Markmann, James F; Alvarez, Alejandro; Linetsky, Elina; Ricordi, Camillo; Balamurugan, A N; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Hering, Bernhard J; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Liu, Chengyang; Min, Zaw; Li, Yanjing; Naji, Ali; Fernandez, Luis A; Ziemelis, Martynas; Danobeitia, Juan S; Millis, J Michael; Witkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Selection of an optimal donor pancreas is the first key task for successful islet isolation. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in 11 centers in North America to develop an islet donor scoring system using donor variables. The data set consisting of 1,056 deceased donors was used for development of a scoring system to predict islet isolation success (defined as postpurification islet yield >400,000 islet equivalents). With the aid of univariate logistic regression analyses, we developed the North American Islet Donor Score (NAIDS) ranging from 0 to 100 points. The c index in the development cohort was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.76). The success rate increased proportionally as the NAIDS increased, from 6.8% success in the NAIDS < 50 points to 53.7% success in the NAIDS ≥ 80 points. We further validated the NAIDS using a separate set of data consisting of 179 islet isolations. A comparable outcome of the NAIDS was observed in the validation cohort. The NAIDS may be a useful tool for donor pancreas selection in clinical practice. Apart from its utility in clinical decision making, the NAIDS may also be used in a research setting as a standardized measurement of pancreas quality. PMID:26922947

  8. A survey of 1700 women who formed their families using donor spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Neroli; Blyth, Eric; Kramer, Wendy; Frith, Lucy

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the results of an online survey of 1700 recipients of donor spermatozoa conducted by the Donor Sibling Registry, aiming to understand the perspectives of respondents who had used donor spermatozoa. The survey examined: choice of sperm bank and donor; reporting of births and genetic disorders; disclosure; contact with donor and half-siblings; regulation of sperm donor activity and genetic testing; and access to medical information. The respondents formed three groups: single women; women in a same-sex relationship; and women in a heterosexual relationship. Some differences between the three cohorts were observed: preinsemination counselling; acceptance of donors without medical records or with chronic or late-onset diseases; awareness of choice of bank and type of donor; and views on the right of offspring to know their genetic origins. However, important areas of common ground were identified: the wish by those who had used an anonymous donor that they had used an open-identity donor; support for, and willingness to pay for, comprehensive genetic testing of donors; and desire for access to their donor's family health information. The implications of these results for policies concerning the use and management of donor spermatozoa will be discussed. This paper reports the results of a survey of 1700 women who used donor spermatozoa to conceive a child. The survey considers their views on the following areas: choice of sperm bank and donor; reporting of births and genetic disorders; disclosure; contact with donor and half-siblings; regulation of sperm donor activity and genetic testing; and access to medical information. This was an online survey was designed and conducted by the Donor Sibling Registry (DSR), a US-based non-profit organization that supports donor sperm recipients, donors and donor-conceived people. The survey aimed to understand the experiences, perspectives and concerns of women who had used donor spermatozoa. The respondents

  9. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days before or after recovery, except: (1) For donors of peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What...

  10. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days before or after recovery, except: (1) For donors of peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What...

  11. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days before or after recovery, except: (1) For donors of peripheral blood stem/progenitor cells, bone marrow... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What...

  12. Progression of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Dietary Methyl Donors: Temporal Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shabbeer, Shabana; Williams, Simon A.; Simons, Brian W.; Herman, James G.; Carducci, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient dose of dietary methyl groups are associated with a host of conditions ranging from neural tube defects to cancer. On the other hand, it is not certain what effect excess dietary methyl groups could have on cancer. This is especially true for prostate cancer (PCa), a disease that is characterized by increasing DNA methylation changes with increasing grade of the cancer. In this three-part study in animals, we look at (i) the effect of excess methyl donors on the growth rate of PCa in vivo, (ii) the ability of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, to demethylate in the presence of excess dietary methyl donors and (iii) the effect of in utero feeding of excess methyl donors to the later onset of PCa. The results show that when mice are fed a dietary excess of methyl donors, we do not see (i) an increase in the growth rate of DU-145 and PC-3 xenografts in vivo, or (ii) interference in the ability of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to demethylate the promoters of Androgen Receptor or Reprimo of PCa xenografts but (iii) a protective effect on the development of higher grades of PCa in the “Hi-myc” mouse model of PCa which were fed the increased methyl donors in utero. We conclude that the impact of dietary methyl donors on PCa progression depends upon the timing of exposure to the dietary agents. When fed before the onset of cancer, i.e. in utero, excess methyl donors can have a protective effect on the progression of cancer. PMID:22139053

  13. Ethical issues relating to renal transplantation from prediabetic living donor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Mexico, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end − stage kidney disease, and some patients may be transplant candidates. Organ supply is limited because of cultural issues. And, there is a lack of standardized clinical guidelines regarding organ donation. These issues highlight the tension surrounding the fact that living donors are being selected despite being prediabetic. This article presents, examines and discusses using the principles of non-maleficience, autonomy, justice and the constitutionally guaranteed right to health, the ethical considerations that arise from considering a prediabetic person as a potential kidney donor. Discussion Diabetes is an absolute contraindication for donating a kidney. However, the transplant protocols most frequently used in Mexico do not consider prediabetes as exclusion criteria. In prediabetic persons there are well known metabolic alterations that may compromise the long − term outcomes of the transplant if such donors are accepted. Even so, many of them are finally included because there are not enough donor candidates. Both, families and hospitals face the need to rapidly accept prediabetic donors before the clinical conditions of the recipient and the evolution of the disease exclude him/her as a transplant candidate; however, when using a kidney potentially damaged by prediabetes, neither the donor’s nor the recipient’s long term health is usually considered. Considering the ethical implication as well as the clinical and epidemiological evidence, we conclude that prediabetic persons are not suitable candidates for kidney donation. This recommendation should be taken into consideration by Mexican health institutions who should rewrite their transplant protocols. Summary We argue that the decision to use a kidney from a living donor known to be pre-diabetic or from those persons with family history of T2DM, obesity, hypertension, or renal failure, should be considered unethical in Mexico

  14. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  15. Preemptive Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation: Considerations of Equity and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B. Po-Han; Coresh, Josef; Segev, Dorry L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives There exists gross disparity in national deceased donor kidney transplant availability and practice: waiting times exceed 6 years in some regions, but some patients receive kidneys before they require dialysis. This study aimed to quantify and characterize preemptive deceased donor kidney transplant recipients and compare their outcomes with patients transplanted shortly after dialysis initiation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database, first-time adult deceased donor kidney transplant recipients between 1995 and 2011 were classified as preemptive, early (on dialysis≤1 year), or late recipients. Random effects logistic regression and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression were used to identify characteristics of preemptive deceased donor kidney transplant and evaluate survival in preemptive and early recipients, respectively. Results Preemptive recipients were 9.0% of the total recipient population. Patients with private insurance (adjusted odds ratio=3.15, 95% confidence interval=3.01–3.29, P<0.001), previous (nonkidney) transplant (adjusted odds ratio=1.94, 95% confidence interval=1.67–2.26, P<0.001), and zero-antigen mismatch (adjusted odds ratio=1.45, 95% confidence interval=1.37–1.54, P<0.001; Caucasians only) were more likely to receive preemptive deceased donor kidney transplant, even after accounting for center-level clustering. African Americans were less likely to receive preemptive deceased donor kidney transplant (adjusted odds ratio=0.44, 95% confidence interval=0.41–0.47, P<0.001). Overall, patients transplanted preemptively had similar survival compared with patients transplanted within 1 year after initiating dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.99–1.12, P=0.07). Conclusions Preemptive deceased donor kidney transplant occurs most often among Caucasians with private insurance, and survival is fairly

  16. Chemometric QSAR Modeling and In Silico Design of Antioxidant NO Donor Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Indrani; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    An acceleration of free radical formation within human system exacerbates the incidence of several life-threatening diseases. The systemic antioxidants often fall short for neutralizing the free radicals thereby demanding external antioxidant supplementation. Therein arises the need for development of new antioxidants with improved potency. In order to search for efficient antioxidant molecules, the present work deals with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies of a series of antioxidants belonging to the class of phenolic derivatives bearing NO donor groups. In this study, several QSAR models with appreciable statistical significance have been reported. Models were built using various chemometric tools and validated both internally and externally. These models chiefly infer that presence of substituted aromatic carbons, long chain branched substituents, an oxadiazole-N-oxide ring with an electronegative atom containing group substituted at the 5 position and high degree of methyl substitutions of the parent moiety are conducive to the antioxidant activity profile of these molecules. The novelty of this work is not only that the structural attributes of NO donor phenolic compounds required for potent antioxidant activity have been explored in this study, but new compounds with possible antioxidant activity have also been designed and their antioxidant activity has been predicted in silico. PMID:21617771

  17. Chemometric QSAR modeling and in silico design of antioxidant NO donor phenols.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Indrani; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal

    2011-03-01

    An acceleration of free radical formation within human system exacerbates the incidence of several life-threatening diseases. The systemic antioxidants often fall short for neutralizing the free radicals thereby demanding external antioxidant supplementation. Therein arises the need for development of new antioxidants with improved potency. In order to search for efficient antioxidant molecules, the present work deals with quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies of a series of antioxidants belonging to the class of phenolic derivatives bearing NO donor groups. In this study, several QSAR models with appreciable statistical significance have been reported. Models were built using various chemometric tools and validated both internally and externally. These models chiefly infer that presence of substituted aromatic carbons, long chain branched substituents, an oxadiazole-N-oxide ring with an electronegative atom containing group substituted at the 5 position and high degree of methyl substitutions of the parent moiety are conducive to the antioxidant activity profile of these molecules. The novelty of this work is not only that the structural attributes of NO donor phenolic compounds required for potent antioxidant activity have been explored in this study, but new compounds with possible antioxidant activity have also been designed and their antioxidant activity has been predicted in silico.

  18. Past and future of providing matched, unrelated donors for marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roeckel, I E; Baker, J

    1997-01-01

    Prior to 1979, bone marrow transplants were only performed with histocompatible sibling donors. Once it was established that histocompatible, unrelated donors could donate marrow for transplantation, the recruitment of such donors needed to be standardized. Blood donor centers had already identified the histocompatibility locus antigen (HLA) typing for donors who could be recruited to donate bone marrow. Recruiting a large number of donors required systematic evaluation and testing according to defined standards which were published in 1988 by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP). Peripheral stem cell collection (PBS) has been added as a transplant source. It promises additional therapeutic modalities, such as gene splicing to address other than cancer therapy.

  19. Creation of Superheterojunction Polymers via Direct Polycondensation: Segregated and Bicontinuous Donor-Acceptor π-Columnar Arrays in Covalent Organic Frameworks for Long-Lived Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shangbin; Supur, Mustafa; Addicoat, Matthew; Furukawa, Ko; Chen, Long; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Irle, Stephan; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-24

    By developing metallophthalocyanines and diimides as electron-donating and -accepting building blocks, herein, we report the construction of new electron donor-acceptor covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with periodically ordered electron donor and acceptor π-columnar arrays via direct polycondensation reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements in conjunction with structural simulations resolved that the resulting frameworks consist of metallophthalocyanine and diimide columns, which are ordered in a segregated yet bicontinuous manner to form built-in periodic π-arrays. In the frameworks, each metallophthalocyanine donor and diimide acceptor units are exactly linked and interfaced, leading to the generation of superheterojunctions-a new type of heterojunction machinery, for photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We show that this polycondensation method is widely applicable to various metallophthalocyanines and diimides as demonstrated by the combination of copper, nickel, and zinc phthalocyanine donors with pyrommellitic diimide, naphthalene diimide, and perylene diimide acceptors. By using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and electron spin resonance, we demonstrated that the COFs enable long-lived charge separation, whereas the metal species, the class of acceptors, and the local geometry between donor and acceptor units play roles in determining the photochemical dynamics. The results provide insights into photoelectric COFs and demonstrate their enormous potential for charge separation and photoenergy conversions. PMID:26030399

  20. Creation of Superheterojunction Polymers via Direct Polycondensation: Segregated and Bicontinuous Donor-Acceptor π-Columnar Arrays in Covalent Organic Frameworks for Long-Lived Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shangbin; Supur, Mustafa; Addicoat, Matthew; Furukawa, Ko; Chen, Long; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Irle, Stephan; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-24

    By developing metallophthalocyanines and diimides as electron-donating and -accepting building blocks, herein, we report the construction of new electron donor-acceptor covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with periodically ordered electron donor and acceptor π-columnar arrays via direct polycondensation reactions. X-ray diffraction measurements in conjunction with structural simulations resolved that the resulting frameworks consist of metallophthalocyanine and diimide columns, which are ordered in a segregated yet bicontinuous manner to form built-in periodic π-arrays. In the frameworks, each metallophthalocyanine donor and diimide acceptor units are exactly linked and interfaced, leading to the generation of superheterojunctions-a new type of heterojunction machinery, for photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We show that this polycondensation method is widely applicable to various metallophthalocyanines and diimides as demonstrated by the combination of copper, nickel, and zinc phthalocyanine donors with pyrommellitic diimide, naphthalene diimide, and perylene diimide acceptors. By using time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy and electron spin resonance, we demonstrated that the COFs enable long-lived charge separation, whereas the metal species, the class of acceptors, and the local geometry between donor and acceptor units play roles in determining the photochemical dynamics. The results provide insights into photoelectric COFs and demonstrate their enormous potential for charge separation and photoenergy conversions.

  1. Design of donor-acceptor star-shaped oligomers for efficient solution-processible organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, S A; Luponosov, Y N; Min, J; Solodukhin, A N; Surin, N M; Shcherbina, M A; Chvalun, S N; Ameri, T; Brabec, C

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes recent progress in the design, synthesis and properties of solution-processible star-shaped oligomers and their application in organic photovoltaics. Even though alternative chemistry has been used to design such oligomers, the most successful approach is based on a triphenylamine donor branching center, (oligo)thiophene conjugated spacers and dicyanovinyl acceptor groups. These are mainly amorphous low band-gap organic semiconductors, though crystalline or liquid crystalline ordering can sometimes be realized. It was shown that the solubility, thermal behavior and structure of such molecules in the bulk strongly depend on the presence and position of alkyl groups, as well as on their length. The photovoltaic properties of solution-processed molecules of this type are now approaching 5% which exceeds those of vacuum-sublimed devices. The design rules and future perspectives of this class of organic photovoltaic molecules are discussed. PMID:25277550

  2. Design of donor-acceptor star-shaped oligomers for efficient solution-processible organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, S A; Luponosov, Y N; Min, J; Solodukhin, A N; Surin, N M; Shcherbina, M A; Chvalun, S N; Ameri, T; Brabec, C

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes recent progress in the design, synthesis and properties of solution-processible star-shaped oligomers and their application in organic photovoltaics. Even though alternative chemistry has been used to design such oligomers, the most successful approach is based on a triphenylamine donor branching center, (oligo)thiophene conjugated spacers and dicyanovinyl acceptor groups. These are mainly amorphous low band-gap organic semiconductors, though crystalline or liquid crystalline ordering can sometimes be realized. It was shown that the solubility, thermal behavior and structure of such molecules in the bulk strongly depend on the presence and position of alkyl groups, as well as on their length. The photovoltaic properties of solution-processed molecules of this type are now approaching 5% which exceeds those of vacuum-sublimed devices. The design rules and future perspectives of this class of organic photovoltaic molecules are discussed.

  3. One pot/two donors/one diol give one differentiated trisaccharide: powerful evidence for reciprocal donor-acceptor selectivity (RDAS).

    PubMed

    Fraser-Reid, Bert; López, J Cristóbal; Radhakrishnan, K V; Nandakumar, M V; Gómez, Ana M; Uriel, Clara

    2002-09-21

    Three component, one-pot reactions involving equimolar amounts of the acceptor diol and both armed and disarmed donors presented simultaneously, produce a single double-differential glycosidation product; this phenomenon provides evidence for Reciprocal Donor Acceptor Selectivity (RDAS).

  4. Can egg donor selection be improved? - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessments of ovarian reserve (OR) in egg donor candidates are crucial for maximal donor selection. This study assesses whether recently reported new methods of OR assessment by age-specific (as-), rather than non-as (nas-) hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and triple nucleotide (CGG) repeats on the FMR1 (fragile X) gene have the potential of improving egg donor selection. Methods Seventy-three consecutive egg donor candidates (candidates), amongst those 21 who reached egg retrieval (donors), were prospectively investigated for as-FSH, as-AMH and number of CGG repeats. Abnormal findings were assessed in candidates and donors and oocyte yields in the latter were statistically associated with abnormal FSH and AMH (>/< 95% CI of as-levels) and with normal/abnormal numbers of CGG repeats (normal range 26-32). Results Amongst candidates mean as-AMH was 3.8 +/- 2.8 ng/mL (37.0% normal, 3.0 +/- 0.7 ng/mL; 26.6% low, 1.5 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; and 37.0% high, 5.8 +/- 2.2 ng/mL). AMH among donors was 4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/mL (33.3% normal, 14.3% low, and 52.4% high), yielding 17.8 +/- 7.2 oocytes, 42.9% in normal range (10-15), 9.5% in low (less than or equal to 9) and 47.6.% in high range (16-32). Candidates in 41.9% and donors in 38.1% demonstrated normal CGG counts; the remained were mostly heterozygous abnormal. Discussion Prospective assessment of even carefully prescreened candidates and donors still demonstrates shortcomings on both ends of the OR spectrum. Utilization of ovarian reserve testing methods, like as-hormones and CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene have potential of improving candidate selections. PMID:20576154

  5. Restoration of the Donor Face After Facial Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Gerald T.; Liacouras, Peter; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Garcia, Juan R.; Al Rakan, Mohammed; Murphy, Ryan; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current protocols for facial transplantation include the mandatory fabrication of an alloplastic “mask” to restore the congruency of the donor site in the setting of “open casket” burial. However, there is currently a paucity of literature describing the current state-of-the-art and available options. Methods During this study, we identified that most of donor masks are fabricated using conventional methods of impression, molds, silicone, and/or acrylic application by an experienced anaplastologist or maxillofacial prosthetics technician. However, with the recent introduction of several enhanced computer-assisted technologies, our facial transplant team hypothesized that there were areas for improvement with respect to cost and preparation time. Results The use of digital imaging for virtual surgical manipulation, computer-assisted planning, and prefabricated surgical cutting guides—in the setting of facial transplantation—provided us a novel opportunity for digital design and fabrication of a donor mask. The results shown here demonstrate an acceptable appearance for “open-casket” burial while maintaining donor identity after facial organ recovery. Conclusions Several newer techniques for fabrication of facial transplant donor masks exist currently and are described within the article. These encompass digital impression, digital design, and additive manufacturing technology. PMID:24835867

  6. Transport spectroscopy of coupled donors in silicon nano-transistors

    PubMed Central

    Moraru, Daniel; Samanta, Arup; Anh, Le The; Mizuno, Takeshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Tabe, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of dopant atoms in transistor functionality has significantly changed over the past few decades. In downscaled transistors, discrete dopants with uncontrolled positions and number induce fluctuations in device operation. On the other hand, by gaining access to tunneling through individual dopants, a new type of devices is developed: dopant-atom-based transistors. So far, most studies report transport through dopants randomly located in the channel. However, for practical applications, it is critical to control the location of the donors with simple techniques. Here, we fabricate silicon transistors with selectively nanoscale-doped channels using nano-lithography and thermal-diffusion doping processes. Coupled phosphorus donors form a quantum dot with the ground state split into a number of levels practically equal to the number of coupled donors, when the number of donors is small. Tunneling-transport spectroscopy reveals fine features which can be correlated with the different numbers of donors inside the quantum dot, as also suggested by first-principles simulation results. PMID:25164032

  7. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    PubMed

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor.

  8. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  9. Singlet-triplet donor-quantum-dot qubit in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Electron spins bound to phosphorus (P) donors in silicon (Si) are promising qubits due to their high fidelities, but donor-donor coupling is challenging. We propose an alternative two-electron singlet-triplet quantum-dot (QD) and donor (D) hybrid qubit. A QD is formed at a MOS 28-Si interface and is tunnel-coupled to implanted P. The proposed two-axis system is defined by the exchange and contact hyperfine interactions. We demonstrate that a few electron QD can be formed and tuned to interact with a donor. We investigate the spin filling of the QD-D system through charge-sensed (CS) magnetospectroscopy and identify spin-up loading consistent with a singlet-triplet splitting of ~100 μeV near a QD-D anti-crossing. We also demonstrate an enhanced CS readout contrast and time window due to the restricted relaxation path of the D through the QD. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Reducing donor exposure in preterm infants requiring multiple blood transfusions.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A.; Wilson, N.; Skacel, P.; Thomas, R.; Tidmarsh, E.; Yale, C.; de Silva, M.

    1995-01-01

    Preterm infants frequently require multiple blood transfusions. Traditionally, 'fresh' (less than seven days old) blood has been used but this often results in transfusions from multiple donors. To reduce donor exposure the policy for top-up transfusions was changed. A unit of blood under five days old with additional satellite packs was ordered for each infant and used up to its expiry date, allowing up to eight transfusions from a single donation to be given. The mean (SD) number of transfusions per infant in 43 infants transfused according to previous policy and in 29 transfused according to the new policy was similar at 5.6 (4.0) and 5.3 (3.1), respectively. However, donor exposure fell following the change in policy from 4.9 (3.5) to only 2.0 (0.9). Only one infant was exposed to more than three donors compared with 24 infants in the control group. Plasma potassium concentrations were not significantly different following transfusion of blood stored for up to 33 days. This simple change in policy has reduced donor exposure in infants requiring multiple top-up transfusions. PMID:7743280

  11. Donor site morbidity after articular cartilage repair procedures: a review.

    PubMed

    Matricali, Giovanni A; Dereymaeker, Greta Ph E; Luyten, Frank P

    2010-10-01

    In order to perform an Osteochondral Autologous Transplantation (OAT) or an Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI), the integrity of healthy intact articular cartilage at a second location needs to be violated. This creates the possibility for donor site morbidity. Only recently have any publications addressed this issue. The aim of this manuscript is to review the current knowledge on donor site morbidity after an OAT or an ACI. Reports were identified by searching Medline and Pubmed up to March 2010. Donor site morbidity was described mostly considering a clinical outcome, both in a qualitative (parameters in history or physical examination) and/or quantitative way (knee status reported by means of a numerical score). An increasing rate of problems is noted when using quantitative instead of qualitative parameters, and when donor site morbidity is the focus of attention, affecting up to more than half of the patients, in particular for an OAT procedure. The decision to harvest an osteochondral or cartilage biopsy to perform a repair procedure should therefore be taken with caution. This also underscores the need for further research to identify safe donor sites or to develop techniques that eliminate the need for a formal biopsy ccompletely.

  12. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pim M W; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C

    2015-06-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For these considerations, it was assumed that current developments in genetic testing and Internet possibilities mean that, now, all donors are potentially identifiable by their offspring, so no distinction was made between anonymous and non-anonymous donation. Genetic considerations did not lead to restrictive limits (indicating that up to 200 offspring or more per donor may be acceptable except in isolated social-minority situations). Psychosocial considerations on the other hand led to proposals of rather restrictive limits (10 families per donor or less). Operational and ethical considerations did not lead to more or less concrete limits per donor, but seemed to lie in-between those resulting from the aforementioned ways of viewing the issue. In the end, no unifying agreed figure could be reached; however the consensus was that the number should never exceed 100 families. The conclusions of the group are summarized in three recommendations. PMID:25817048

  13. Donor non-specific MICA antibodies in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sapák, Michal; Chreňová, Silvia; Tirpáková, Jana; Žilinská, Zuzana; Ďurmanová, Vladimíra; Shawkatová, Ivana; Jakuš, Vladimír; Kuba, Daniel; Buc, Milan

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in solid organ transplantations, an antibody mediated rejection caused by donor specific antibodies is still a major problem in kidney graft survival. Besides HLA-induced humoral response, antibodies against MICA antigens have recently attracted attention because of their possible role in graft rejection. The aim of our study was to establish whether renal recipients produce antibodies against MICA molecules due to the transplantation and if they are specific for MICA antigens of the donors. MICA antibody screening was performed in 124 kidney recipient sera. 22 sera, that were found to be MICA antibody positive, were further examined for MICA antibody profiles and compared with donor MICA alleles. The analysis of MICA antibody positive sera showed mostly more complex reactivity patterns. A significant fraction of patient sera (59%) reacted not only with the donor MICA antigens, but also with other MICA patterns. A match between antibody specificities and MICA antigens was observed in 41% of renal recipients only. On the other hand, as much as in 36% of recipient sera were detected antibodies against their own MICA molecules. We did not prove a complete correlation between the recipient MICA antibody specificities and MICA antigens of the donor. We assume that MICA antibody induction occurs not only due to the allogeneic stimulation itself but also due to other factors that need to be elucidated.

  14. Sexual risk behaviour and donor deferral in Europe.

    PubMed

    Offergeld, R; Kamp, C; Heiden, M; Norda, R; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2014-11-01

    One of the most controversial policies in blood transfusion worldwide is the permanent deferral from donating blood of men with sexual contacts to other men (MSM). This policy was implemented for safety reasons as sex between men is known to be a high risk factor for acquiring severe infectious diseases transmissible by blood transfusion. Sexual contacts among heterosexual persons may hold similar risks but a clear-cut discrimination between different individual risks is impossible. Nevertheless, the current blood donor deferral periods defined by European Union (EU) legislation depend on a distinction of different grades of risk with respect to sexual behaviour. Under the aegis of the Steering Committee on Blood Transfusion (CD-P-TS) of the Council of Europe (CoE), an international working group evaluated epidemiological and behavioural data, modelling studies on residual risk and spread of infections, and studies on adherence to donor selection criteria. The aim was to distinguish sexual behaviour of different risk categories. It was concluded, that existing data confirm that MSM and commercial sex workers (CSW) are groups at high risk. Any further grading lacks a scientific data base. Modelling studies indicate that adherence to deferral policies is of major relevance suggesting that good donor adherence may outweigh the small negative effects on blood safety postulated for changing from permanent to temporary deferral periods for high risk sexual behaviours. The fact that a considerable percentage of donors are MSM - despite the permanent deferral policy - demonstrates the need to increase donor understanding and adherence.

  15. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  16. Shrinking Your Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Olson, Jo Clay; Davis, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Toys in the classroom was the result of a National Science Foundation grant that brought two engineering graduate students to a middle school math class. The graduate students and teachers collaborated in an effort to enhance students' mathematical learning. An engineering context was theorized as a way to further develop students' understanding…

  17. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  18. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  19. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  20. Class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-10-23

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  1. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  2. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  3. Class Attitudes among Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, James F.; Lancaster, Diana M.

    Class attitudes among dental students were studied at Louisiana State University in spring 1986, with attention to attitudes toward leadership, faculty and administration, study habits, labs and clinics, information acquisition, social life, and class unification. Class attitudes became more uniform and deeply held as the classes progressed…

  4. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, K.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2011-03-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  5. The risks and benefits of human donor breast milk.

    PubMed

    Brent, Nancy

    2013-05-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Review the advantages and disadvantages of donor-banked milk over informal milk sharing.2.List disadvantages of proprietary infant formula for use as supplementation.3.Determine the primary ethical concerns when electing to use donor human milk versus propriety infant formula for supplementation. The benefits of breast-feeding, as well as the risks of some artificial formula, are well known. This growing recognition of the advantages of breast-feeding is reflected in the increased incidence of breast-feeding in recent years. However, one of the most common reasons for premature weaning is low milk supply, perceived or real, followed by nipple or breast pain. Given the increased awareness of the superiority of breast milk, however, more parents are turning to human donor milk to supplement their babies after they have been weaned.

  6. Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling?

    PubMed

    Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido

    2016-09-01

    It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified.

  7. Information rights and donor conception: lessons from adoption?

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Richard

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the Australian experience in providing information rights for people separated through adoption, and considers its relevance in adjusting the competing interests of those involved in donor conception. The Australian laws, which differ from State to State, create information rights for adults who have been adopted, and also--with more qualifications--for other family members, such as birth parents and siblings. Some laws also seek to protect privacy, notably by use of the "contact veto". The author argues that the review of the Australian laws provides strong support for the rights of donor offspring, when adult, to information about their genetic origins. It also raises important questions about the rights and interests of other family members involved in donor conception, and how they might be accommodated.

  8. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  9. Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling?

    PubMed

    Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido

    2016-09-01

    It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified. PMID:27116204

  10. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    PubMed

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited. PMID:15685919

  11. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N. V.; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-12-01

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affinities of the donor and the acceptor, the triplet-triplet state can have a stronger oscillator strength than the charge-transfer exciton. We discuss the possibility of intramolecular singlet fission from the triplet-triplet state, and how such fission can be detected experimentally.

  12. Transmission of donor melanoma to multiple organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Morris-Stiff, G; Steel, A; Savage, P; Devlin, J; Griffiths, D; Portman, B; Mason, M; Jurewicz, W A

    2004-03-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the most common tumour responsible for donor-derived post transplantation malignancies. We report the varied presentation and outcome of three graft recipients (two kidney and hepatic) who developed metastatic melanoma following cadaveric organ transplantation from a single multiorgan donor. Two of the recipients presented with symptomatic metastatic lesions and the third patient, despite being carefully monitored, developed evidence of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Two of the patients died as a direct result of their melanomas. The recipients of corneal and cardiac grafts remain disease-free. We conclude that despite careful screening, donor-derived tumours remain a not uncommon clinical entity. The identification of a lesion in one recipient should prompt immediate examination and investigation of the remaining recipients of multiorgan donations.

  13. Fluorinated arene, imide and unsaturated pyrrolidinone based donor acceptor conjugated polymers: Synthesis, structure-property and device studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Arawwawala Don Thilanga

    After the discovery of doped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor materials are widely studied as high impending active components in consumer electronics. They have received substantial consideration due to their potential for structural tailoring, low cost, large area and mechanically flexible alternatives to common inorganic semiconductors. To acquire maximum use of these materials, it is essential to get a strong idea about their chemical and physical nature. Material chemist has an enormous role to play in this novel area, including development of efficient synthetic methodologies and control the molecular self-assembly and (opto)-electronic properties. The body of this thesis mainly focuses on the substituent effects: how different substituents affect the (opto)-electronic properties of the donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers. The main priority goes to understand, how different alkyl substituent effect to the polymer solubility, crystallinity, thermal properties (e.g.: glass transition temperature) and morphological order. Three classes of D-A systems were extensively studied in this work. The second chapter mainly focuses on the synthesis and structure-property study of fluorinated arene (TFB) base polymers. Here we used commercially available 1,4-dibromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB) as the acceptor material and prepare several polymers using 3,3'-dialkyl(3,3'-R2T2) or 3,3'-dialkoxy bithiophene (3,3'-RO2T2) units as electron donors. A detail study was done using 3,3'-bithiophene donor units incorporating branched alkoxy-functionalities by systematic variation of branching position and chain length. The study allowed disentangling the branching effects on (i) aggregation tendency, intermolecular arrangement, (iii) solid state optical energy gaps, and (iv) electronic properties in an overall consistent picture, which might guide future polymer synthesis towards optimized materials for opto-electronic applications. The third chapter mainly focused on

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Corneal Transplantation Using Corneas from Foreign Donors versus Domestic Donors: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingxin; Liao, Congling; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Wang, Mingwu; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of corneal transplantation using corneas from foreign donors. Methods. One hundred and eight patients needing therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty were randomly divided into 2 groups (54 cases/group): foreign group using foreign donor corneas and domestic group using domestic donor corneas. Clinical outcome and incidence of postoperative complications were compared between groups. Results. No significant difference with respect to the therapeutic outcome and postoperative Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and neovascularization by final follow-up was observed between the two groups. The graft thickness in the foreign group was statistically higher than the domestic group at 1 month postoperatively, but not at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Corneal endothelial cell density in the domestic group was statistically higher than in the foreign group at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Corneal epithelial abnormalities in the foreign group were significantly higher than that in domestic group. The primary graft failure, incidence of graft survival, and postoperative complications such as immunologic rejection, graft infection, and secondary glaucoma were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Corneal transplantations using foreign donor corneas are as effective and safe as those using domestic donor corneas.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Corneal Transplantation Using Corneas from Foreign Donors versus Domestic Donors: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingxin; Liao, Congling; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Wang, Mingwu; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of corneal transplantation using corneas from foreign donors. Methods. One hundred and eight patients needing therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty were randomly divided into 2 groups (54 cases/group): foreign group using foreign donor corneas and domestic group using domestic donor corneas. Clinical outcome and incidence of postoperative complications were compared between groups. Results. No significant difference with respect to the therapeutic outcome and postoperative Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and neovascularization by final follow-up was observed between the two groups. The graft thickness in the foreign group was statistically higher than the domestic group at 1 month postoperatively, but not at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Corneal endothelial cell density in the domestic group was statistically higher than in the foreign group at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Corneal epithelial abnormalities in the foreign group were significantly higher than that in domestic group. The primary graft failure, incidence of graft survival, and postoperative complications such as immunologic rejection, graft infection, and secondary glaucoma were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Corneal transplantations using foreign donor corneas are as effective and safe as those using domestic donor corneas. PMID:25694823

  16. Efficient utilization of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) deceased donor kidney pool: an analysis of the effect of labeling.

    PubMed

    Hirth, R A; Pan, Q; Schaubel, D E; Merion, R M

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effect of the expanded criteria donor (ECD) label on (i) recovery of kidneys and (ii) acceptance for transplantation given recovery. An ECD is age > or = 60, or age 50-59 with > or = 2 of 3 specified comorbidities. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from 1999 to 2005, we modeled recovery rates through linear regression and transplantation probabilities via logistic regression, focusing on organs from donors just-younger versus just-older than the ECD age thresholds. We split the sample at July 1, 2002 to determine how decisions changed at the approximate time of implementation of the ECD definition. Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities dropped at age 60, but transplantation probabilities given recovery did not. After July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities rose at age 60, but transplantation probabilities contingent on recovery declined. No similar trends were observed at donor age 50 among donors with > or = 2 comorbidities. Overall, implementation of the ECD definition coincided with a reversal of an apparent reluctance to recover kidneys from donors over age 59, but increased selectiveness on the part of surgeons/centers with respect to these kidneys. PMID:20055795

  17. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Madhuri A.; De, Anuradha S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM) medical college and hospital on 24th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country. PMID:21321645

  18. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (<180 days), medium (181–270 days), or long (>270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan–Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; P<0.001) and more diversions to adults (31% versus 27%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, a lower kidney to candidate ratio remained associated with longer waiting time (hazard ratio, 0.56 for areas with <2:1 versus reference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; P<0.01). Large geographic variation in waiting time for pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity. PMID:24436470

  19. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors. PMID:23354598

  20. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  1. Gilbert's syndrome in healthy blood donors what next??

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajendra G.; Lakshmidevi, K. B.; Ronghe, Vidya; Dinesh, U. S.

    2016-01-01

    Settings: This study was done in a tertiary care hospital having bed strength of more than 700 beds at SDM Medical College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, located in Northern Karnataka. Aim: The study was done to ascertain prevalence of Gilbert's syndrome in healthy blood donors and review the literature about feasibility of utilizing blood components from Gilbert's syndrome donors. Materials and Methods: The study was done for 18 months and 7030 whole blood units were collected and all the units were subjected to mandatory transfusion-transmitted screening and all the plasma bags which were icteric on visual inspection were subjected to hematological and biochemical investigations to rule out other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Results: Seven thousand and thirty units were collected and 445 (6.3%) were discarded due to various reasons. Of them, 50 units (0.71%) had Gilbert's syndrome. All had unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and other hematological and liver function tests were within normal range. Statistical analysis was done to find mean, median, and standard deviation from mean and standard error of mean with lower and upper confidence limits. Conclusion: Majority of blood donors whose plasma is icteric are suffering from Gilbert's syndrome (GS). This disease does not cause any harm to donor or patient but raises a lot of concern as many severe disorders also manifest in similar way. The available literature shows that all blood components can be used from donors suffering from GS. There should be introspection. Proper guidelines are to be framed about the use and discarding of blood components in donors with GS. PMID:27011673

  2. [Gamete donor karyotyping: between real usefulness and safety rules].

    PubMed

    Siffroi, J-P

    2004-09-01

    The Commission de génétique de la Fédération française des CECOS has recently sent a questionnaire to each CECOS asking for the year of activity starting, the number of karyotypes performed every year, the number and the type of chromosomal abnormalities and the consequences for the donation process. For sperm donors, 9410 karyotypes have been realized during a mean number of 21.3 years. Fifty-seven chromosomal abnormalities (0.6%) have led to the exclusion of the donors, twenty of which being directly dangerous for the offspring [eight t(13;14), three reciprocal translocations, two structural abnormalities of unknown origin and seven inversions]. Twenty-three anomalies (three supernumerary markers, five 47,XYY, five fragile sites and ten mosaicism) as well as nine other (three Y chromosome inversions and six pericentric inversions of chromosome 9), although considered either as innocuous or as chromosomal variants, have also been excluded. Lastly, five miscellaneous abnormalities have also been considered as exclusion factors. Familial data and sperm counts were known for 28 of these donors. For egg donors, only 681 karyotypes have been performed during a mean number of 7.8 years of activity. Five karyotype abnormalities have led to the exclusion of the donor: one 47,XXX, one mosaicism 45,X/47,XXX/46,XX, one case of non specific rearrangements in half of mitosis and two reciprocal translocations [t(8;20) (q13;p13) et t(3;17) (q26;p13)]. The consequences of this study on gamete donor genetic screening are discussed. PMID:15380766

  3. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate. This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2 g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375 mg/m2), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients. There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83 ± 16.0 (14952 ± 5820) and 63 ± 36.0 (10321 ± 7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468–634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group. In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients. PMID:26844479

  4. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  5. Structure and Function of Four Classes of the 4Fe-4S Protein, IspH.

    PubMed

    Rao, Guodong; Oldfield, Eric

    2016-07-26

    IspH, (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl 4-diphosphate reductase, is an essential enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis and an important drug/herbicide target. Using X-ray crystallographic, bioinformatics, mutagenesis/kinetics/stability, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results, we show that organisms from different environments ultilize one of four main IspH classes. The classes are based on the arrangement of the aromatic residues near the 4Fe-4S cluster and the presence or absence of N- and C-terminal extensions. Class A enzymes are found primarily in anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. Class B enzymes are found in aerobic bacteria. Class C enzymes are found in cyanobacteria and plants. Class D enzymes are found in apicomplexan parasites. Using mutagenesis, we show that the cluster-associated aromatic groups in class A and class B IspHs enhance cluster oxidative stability. Y198A, F302A, and a C-terminal truncation mutant of the class B (Escherichia coli) IspH have catalytic activity lower than that of the wild-type protein when using methyl viologen as the electron donor, but higher activity with dithionite as the electron donor, due to ready access of the small reductant to the cluster, consistent with their increased oxygen and H2O2 sensitivity. F302A has the largest effect on the reaction rates, and EPR studies indicate this residue affects Fe-S cluster structure. Similar effects on cluster stability are seen with class A (F14A and Y98A) mutants; however, effects on ET rates are smaller, and there are no differences between the EPR spectra of mutant and wild-type proteins. Overall, the results are of general interest because they show, for the first time, that there are multiple IspH classes that have evolved to allow organisms to survive in diverse oxidative-stress environments. PMID:27357244

  6. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  7. DoMINO: Donor milk for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of mother’s own milk is the optimal way to feed infants, including very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g). Importantly for VLBW infants, who are at elevated risk of neurologic sequelae, mother’s own milk has been shown to enhance neurocognitive development. Unfortunately, the majority of mothers of VLBW infants are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk and thus supplementation with formula or donor milk is necessary. Given the association between mother’s own milk and neurodevelopment, it is important to ascertain whether provision of human donor milk as a supplement may yield superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to formula. Our primary hypothesis is that VLBW infants fed pasteurized donor milk compared to preterm formula as a supplement to mother’s own milk for 90 days or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first, will have an improved cognitive outcome as measured at 18 months corrected age on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed. Secondary hypotheses are that the use of pasteurized donor milk will: (1) reduce a composite of death and serious morbidity; (2) support growth; and (3) improve language and motor development. Exploratory research questions include: Will use of pasteurized donor milk: (1) influence feeding tolerance and nutrient intake (2) have an acceptable cost effectiveness from a comprehensive societal perspective? Methods/Design DoMINO is a multi-centre, intent-to-treat, double blinded, randomized control trial. VLBW infants (n = 363) were randomized within four days of birth to either (1) pasteurized donor milk or (2) preterm formula whenever mother’s own milk was unavailable. Study recruitment began in October 2010 and was completed in December 2012. The 90 day feeding intervention is complete and long-term follow-up is underway. Discussion Preterm birth and its complications are a leading cause long-term morbidity among Canadian children. Strategies to mitigate this

  8. [Living donors for kidney transplantation: ethical and legal challenges].

    PubMed

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Fournier, Catherine; Legendre, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has developed very heterogeneously worldwide despite excellent results and without taking into account the context of global organ shortage. Such a heterogeneity highlights persistent ethical issues, whereas organ trafficking is emerging as an organized transplant tourism reinforcing the need for strong national legal frameworks. Despite its powerful regulation system, which ensures standardization, transparency and accountability of support for donation, France remains reluctant to enlarge the circle of legal donors, whereas it would be the first step to give a greater role to living organ donation. PMID:20510152

  9. Strongly localized donor level in oxygen doped gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, C.; Suski, T.; Ager, J.W. III; Fischer, S.; Meyer, B.K.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.

    1996-08-01

    A classification in terms of localization of donor defects in GaN is performed by Raman spectroscopy under large hydrostatic pressure. We observe a significant decrease of free carrier concentration in highly O doped GaN epitaxial films at 22 GPa, indicating the presence of a strongly localized donor defect at large pressure. Monitoring the phonon plasmon coupled mode, we find similarities with results on highly n-type bulk crystals. We refine the model of localized defects in GaN and transfer it to the AlGaN system.

  10. Electron Donor Potential of Eastern North Dakota Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Klapperich, R. J.; Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    We have a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 9 sites in North Dakota and Minnesota. The site in the Elk Valley aquifer in northeastern North Dakota has the highest denitrification rates and the greatest concentration of electron donors (organic carbon ~0.4%, pyrite as S ~0.4%, and ferrous iron ~0.3%) in the sediments. In contrast, denitrification rates at our other ISM sites are lower (or even below detection), as are the electron donor concentrations in the sediments. Knowing that the sediments at all of our ISM sites were placed as outwash during the last Wisconsinan glaciation (~12ka), we wonder what caused the variation in electron donor supplies in our aquifers. It has been suggested that variations is the electron donor concentrations in the various Late Cretaceous shale strata exposed during glaciation may help explain the variation in electron donor concentrations in overlying aquifers formed nearby. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of electron donors available in these bedrock units. Bedrock samples (n = 39) from 20 sites in eastern North Dakota were obtained by drilling during the summer of 2006 in conjunction with the North Dakota State Water Commission. Samples were frozen before analysis for bulk mineralogical content by X-ray diffraction, organic carbon, pyrite as inorganic S, and ferrous iron contents. It was hypothesized that the Pierre Shale would have the highest donor concentration, but it appears that other formations, such as the Carlile and Greenhorn contain higher concentrations of electron donors. Organic carbon concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 1.0%) are relatively low while concentrations in the Carlile (3.5% - 6.5%) and Greenhorn (~8.5%) are significantly higher. Pyrite as inorganic S concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 0.2%), Carlile (0.3% - 0.5%), and Greenhorn (~0.5%) are similarly distributed. In the future, it may be possible to create a qualitative index

  11. Donor-acceptor chemistry in the main group.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Eric

    2014-06-21

    This Perspective article summarizes recent progress from our laboratory in the isolation of reactive main group species using a general donor-acceptor protocol. A highlight of this program is the use of carbon-based donors in combination with suitable Lewis acidic acceptors to yield stable complexes of parent Group 14 element hydrides (e.g. GeH2 and H2SiGeH2). It is anticipated that this strategy could be extended to include new synthetic targets from throughout the Periodic Table with possible applications in bottom-up materials synthesis and main group element catalysis envisioned. PMID:24788390

  12. [Quality of life of living kidney donor: a national report].

    PubMed

    Briançon, S; Germain, L; Baudelot, C; Bannay, A; Virion, J-M; Thuong, M

    2011-07-01

    The renal transplantation is nowadays the reference treatment of ESRD. Living donor kidney transplantation is less often performed in France than in other countries. Nevertheless, numerous French and international surveys have evidenced that it provides the recipients a longer life expectancy and a better quality of life. Donors themselves, what do they become? How are they? For the first time in France, a survey has been implemented to investigate the quality of life of living kidney donor to one of their close relations. This study has been undertaken by the Agency of the biomedecine and the service Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (EEC), of the University teaching hospital of Nancy. The main objective was to describe the quality of life of the living donors having given a kidney for more than a year and less than 5 years. The secondary objective was to contribute to the knowledge of the main factors associated to the living kidney donor quality of life, one year after the donation. Participants had to be living in France at the time of the donation which had taken place between June 30(th), 2005 and March 1(st), 2009. A folder gathering various self-administrated questionnaires was sent to the place of residence of the donor between March and April, 2010. These data were completed by medical data collected near the transplantation centres by the Agency of biomedecine within the framework of the register CRISTAL. They included the characteristics of the donation and of the donor at the very time of the donation, 3 months after the donation and at the last annual assessment. Three living donors in four, that is 501 persons, agreed to fully participate. They constituted a representative national sample of all the living donors of this period. The non participants were younger (4.5 years on average) and had a less adequate annual follow-up. The women were more represented (61 %) than men. The median age was 53 years. More of 2/3 were employed at the time of the

  13. Novel R-roscovitine NO-donor hybrid compounds as potential pro-resolution of inflammation agents

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Gabriele; Bertinaria, Massimo; Rolando, Barbara; Fruttero, Roberta; Lucas, Christopher D.; Dorward, David A.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Megson, Ian L.; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of multiple human inflammatory diseases. Novel pharmacological strategies which drive neutrophils to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) have been shown to facilitate the resolution of inflammation. Both the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) R-roscovitine and nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to enhance apoptosis of neutrophils and possess pro-resolution of inflammation properties. In order to search for new multi-target pro-resolution derivatives, here we describe the design, synthesis and investigation of the biological potential of a small series of hybrid compounds obtained by conjugating R-roscovitine with two different NO-donor moieties (compounds 2, 9a, 9c). The synthesized compounds were tested as potential pro-resolution agents, with their ability to promote human neutrophil apoptosis evaluated. Both compound 9a and 9c showed an increased pro-apoptotic activity when compared with either R-roscovitine or structurally related compounds devoid of the ability to release NO (des-NO analogues). Inhibition of either NO-synthase or soluble guanylate cyclase did not affect the induction of apoptosis by the R-roscovitine derivatives, similar to that reported for other classes of NO-donors. In contrast the NO scavenger PTIO prevented the enhanced apoptosis seen with compound 9a over R-roscovitine. These data show that novel compounds such as CDKi–NO-donor hybrids may have additive pro-resolution of inflammation effects. PMID:23394865

  14. Fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium dyes induced by two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guibao; Hu, Dawei; Zhao, Xian; Shao, Zongshu; Liu, Huijun; Tian, Yupeng

    2007-06-01

    We report the fluorescence upconversion properties of a class of improved pyridinium toluene- p-sulfonates having donor- π-acceptor (D- π-A) structure under two-photon excitation at 1064 nm. The experimental results show that both the two-photon excited (TPE) fluorescence lifetime and the two-photon pumped (TPP) energy upconversion efficiency were increased with the enhancement of electron-donating capability of the donor in the molecule. It is also indicated that an overlong alkyl group tends to result in a weakened molecular conjugation, leading to a decreased two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section. By choosing the donor, we can obtain a longest fluorescence lifetime of 837 ps, a highest energy upconversion efficiency of ˜6.1%, and a maximum TPA cross-section of 8.74×10 -48 cm 4 s/photon in these dyes.

  15. Using bound exciton transitions to optically resolve neutral donor hyperfine states of various donor species in Silicon-28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvail, Jeff; Dluhy, Phillip; Saeedi, Kamyar; Szech, Michael; Riemann, Helge; Abromisov, Nikolai; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Thewalt, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus in silicon is established as a promising resource for use in quantum information processing tasks. The neutral donor hyperfine states have been shown to have record long coherence times, high fidelity gates via RF pulses, and projective readout via optical bound exciton transitions. As Shannon's theory of information tells us, we can process more information in an alphabet of more symbols, so there is motivation to look at donors with higher nuclear spin than the I = 1 / 2 of 31P, which provide access to Hilbert spaces of dimension greater than two. In this talk I will describe optical studies of the donors 75As (I = 3 / 2), 121Sb (I = 5 / 2), and 209Bi (I = 9 / 2) in 28Si.

  16. Trimethylsilane-containing donor-acceptor-donor type material for red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we described a donor-acceptor-donor type red fluorescence material, which have the bulky trimethylsilane groups in the donor moieties. To explore the electroluminescence properties of these materials, multilayered OLEDs were fabricated with a device structure of ITO/2-TNATA (60 nm)/NPB (40 nm)/Red 1 (2%):rubrene (50%):Alq3 (30 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/Liq (3 nm)/Al (100 nm). A device using Red 1 as the dopant material showed a maximum luminance of 5138 cd/m2 at 12.0 V, maximum luminous efficiencies of 1.62 cd/A, and maximum power efficiencies of 1.04 lm/W. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of this device was (0.67, 0.33) at 7.0 V, which indicated stable color chromaticity at various voltages. PMID:22852373

  17. Development of a Donor-Centered Approach to Risk Assessment: Rebalancing Nonmaleficence and Autonomy.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, C; Gordon, E J; Reese, P P; Kulkarni, S

    2015-09-01

    Living kidney donors are often excluded from the shared decision making and patient-centered models that are advocated in medical practice. Thresholds for acceptable risk vary between transplant centers, and between clinicians and donors. Although donor selection committees commonly focus on medical risks, potential donors also consider nonmedical risks and burdens, which may alter their assessment of an acceptable level of medical risk. Thus, transplant centers may encounter ethical tensions between nonmaleficence and respect for donor autonomy. A donor-centered model of risk assessment and risk reconciliation would integrate the donor's values and preferences in a shared decision about their eligibility to donate. This paper argues for shifting to a donor-centered model of risk assessment, and presents a research agenda to facilitate the greater participation of donors in their own evaluation and approval processes. PMID:25868787

  18. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  19. Acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation using living donor versus deceased donor grafts: A propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Ibtesam A; Damian, Daniela; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Sakai, Tetsuro; Donaldson, Joseph; Winger, Daniel G; Kellum, John A

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). Few studies investigating the incidence and risk factors for AKI after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been published. LDLT recipients have a lower risk for post-LT AKI than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) recipients because of higher quality liver grafts. We retrospectively reviewed LDLTs and DDLTs performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2011. AKI was defined as a 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline (preoperative) values within 48 hours. One hundred LDLT and 424 DDLT recipients were included in the propensity score matching logistic model on the basis of age, sex, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, Child-Pugh score, pretransplant SCr, and preexisting diabetes mellitus. Eighty-six pairs were created after 1-to-1 propensity matching. The binary outcome of AKI was analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression, incorporating the main exposure of interest (LDLT versus DDLT) with the aforementioned matching criteria and postreperfusion syndrome, number of units of packed red blood cells, and donor age as fixed effects. In the corresponding matched data set, the incidence of AKI at 72 hours was 23.3% in the LDLT group, significantly lower than the 44.2% in the DDLT group (P = 0.004). Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression showed that living donor liver allografts were significantly associated with reduced odds of AKI at 72 hours after LT (P = 0.047; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.096-0.984). The matched patients had lower body weights, better preserved liver functions, and more stable intraoperative hemodynamic parameters. The donors were also younger for the matched patients than for the unmatched patients. In conclusion, receiving a graft from a living donor has a protective effect against early post-LT AKI. PMID:25980614

  20. Economy class syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahiar, F; Mohler, S R

    1994-10-01

    A recent case of the "Economy Class Syndrome" is presented, emphasizing the syndrome's aeromedical implications and prevention. The clinical presentation, current modes of prophylaxis and therapy, plus a brief but pertinent historical background, are described. The syndrome is potentially fatal, and the authors stress that the condition needs to be recognized as a preventable hazard of air travel. Adoption of the preventive measures described herein can assist in promoting healthy air travel.

  1. Suitability Criteria for Adult Related Donors: A Consensus Statement from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Standing Committee on Donor Issues.

    PubMed

    Worel, Nina; Buser, Andreas; Greinix, Hildegard T; Hägglund, Hans; Navarro, Willis; Pulsipher, Michael A; Nicoloso de Faveri, Grazia; Bengtsson, Mats; Billen, Annelies; Espino, German; Fechter, Mirjam; Giudice, Valeria; Hölig, Kristina; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Leitner, Gerda; Netelenbos, Tanja; Niederwieser, Dietger; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Rocha, Vanderson; Torosian, Tigran; Vergueiro, Carmen; Weisdorf, Daniel; Yabe, Hiromasa; Halter, Jörg P

    2015-12-01

    The number of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants performed globally each year continues to increase. Advances in HLA typing, better supportive care, and administration of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens allow treatment of older patients with older sibling donors. Pretransplant donor assessment and testing are very important processes affecting the quality and safety of donation. For unrelated HSC donors detailed recommendations for health assessment have been published, allowing donation only if they are unrestrictedly healthy. Eligibility criteria for related donors are less strict and vary significantly between centers. In situations where a family donor does not meet the suitability criteria for unrelated donors, involved physicians often struggle with the decision whether the matched relative is suitable for donation or not. On behalf of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Standing Committee on Donor Issues, we intended to develop a consensus document with recommendations for donor workup and final clearance of family donors who would not be able to serve as unrelated donors because of their age or pre-existing diseases. This article covers different topics intending to support decision-making, with the goal of minimizing medical risk to the donor and protection of the recipient from transmissible diseases.

  2. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  3. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic. PMID:24007222

  4. Donor and recipient sex in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: what really matters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haesook T.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Woolfrey, Ann E.; St. Martin, Andrew; Chen, Junfang; Saber, Wael; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Armand, Philippe; Eapen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether and how recipient-donor sex affects transplantation outcomes of 11,797 patients transplanted between 2008 and 2010. Thirty-seven percent were male recipients with male donors, 21% male recipients with female donors, 25% female recipients with male donors, and 17% female recipients with female donors. In multivariable analyses, male recipients had inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared to females regardless of donor sex, with an 11% relative increase in the hazard of death (P<0.0001) and a 10% relative increase in the hazard of death or relapse (P<0.0001). The detrimental effect of male recipients varied by donor sex. For male recipients with male donors, there was a 12% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of relapse compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0036) and male recipients with female donors (P=0.0037). For male recipients with female donors, there was a 19% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of non-relapse mortality compared with male recipients with male donors (P<0.0001) and a 22% relative increase compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0003). In addition, male recipients with female donors showed a 21% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P<0.0001) compared with female recipients with male donors. Donor sex had no effect on outcomes for female recipients. Transplantation of grafts from male and female donors was associated with inferior overall survival and progression-free survival in male recipients with differing patterns of failure. Recipient sex is an important prognostic factor independent of donor sex. PMID:27354023

  5. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  6. Treating Families of Bone Marrow Recipients and Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Luekemia and aplastic anemia are beginning to be treated by bone marrow transplants, involving donors and recipients from the same family. Such intimate involvement in the patient's life and death struggles typically produces a family crisis and frequent maladaptive responses by various family members. (Author)

  7. Donor Behavior and Voluntary Support for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.; Ramey, Garey

    Voluntary support of higher education in America is investigated through regression analysis of institutional characteristics at two points in time. The assumption of donor rationality together with explicit consideration of interorganizational relationships offers a coherent framework for the analysis of voluntary support by the major…

  8. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy in Complete Situs Inversus

    PubMed Central

    Gahagan, John V.; Whealon, Matthew D.; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by transposition of organs. We report a case of renal transplantation using a kidney from a living complete situs inversus donor. The recipient was a 59-year-old female with end-stage renal disease because of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The donor was the 56-year-old sister of the recipient with complete situs inversus. CT angiogram of the abdomen and pelvis showed complete situs inversus and an otherwise normal appearance of the bilateral kidneys with patent bilateral single renal arteries and longer renal vein in the right kidney. The patient was taken to the operating room for a hand-assisted laparoscopic right donor nephrectomy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home in good condition on postoperative day 1. The recipient experienced no episodes of acute rejection or infection, with serum creatinine levels of 0.8–1.2 mg/dL. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in a patient with complete situs inversus remains a technically feasible operation and the presence of situs inversus should not preclude consideration for living kidney donation. PMID:27579434

  9. Techniques that acquire donor profiling information from fingermarks - A review.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Annemieke; van Beek, Fleur T; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2016-03-01

    Fingermarks are among the most important types of evidence that can be encountered at the scene of a crime since the unique ridge pattern of a fingerprint can be used for individualization. But fingermarks contain more than the characteristic pattern of ridges and furrows, they are composed of a wide variety of different components that originate from endogenous and exogenous sources. The chemical composition can be used to obtain additional information from the donor of the fingermark, which in turn can be used to create a donor profile. Donor profiling can serve at least two purposes i) to enhance the evidential value of fingermarks and ii) to provide valuable tactical information during the crime scene investigation. Retrieving this additional information is not limited to fingermarks that have been used for individualization, but can also be applied on partial and/or distorted fingermarks. In this review we have summarized the types of information that can be obtained from fingermarks. Additionally, an overview is given of the techniques that are available addressing their unique characteristics and limitations. We expect that in the nearby future, donor profiling from contact traces, including fingermarks will be possible.

  10. Social media and organ donor registration: the Facebook effect.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Massie, A B; Alexander, C E; Stewart, B; Montgomery, R A; Benavides, N R; Fleming, G D; Segev, D L

    2013-08-01

    Despite countless media campaigns, organ donation rates in the United States have remained static while need has risen dramatically. New efforts to increase organ donation through public education are necessary to address the waiting list of over 100,000 patients. On May 1, 2012, the online social network, Facebook, altered its platform to allow members to specify "Organ Donor" as part of their profile. Upon such choice, members were offered a link to their state registry to complete an official designation, and their "friends" in the network were made aware of the new status as a donor. Educational links regarding donation were offered to those considering the new organ donor status. On the first day of the Facebook organ donor initiative, there were 13 054 new online registrations, representing a 21.1-fold increase over the baseline average of 616 registrations. This first-day effect ranged from 6.9× (Michigan) to 108.9× (Georgia). Registration rates remained elevated in the following 12 days. During the same time period, no increase was seen in registrations from the DMV. Novel applications of social media may prove effective in increasing organ donation rates and likewise might be utilized in other refractory public health problems in which communication and education are essential. PMID:23777475

  11. Central role of altruism in the recruitment of gamete donors.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores problems associated with using altruism as the central value in gamete donation, and in doing so draws on empirical data that sheds light on why gamete donors choose to donate. Donation of bodily material is, arguably, supposed to be motivated by altruism, and this is the view taken by many European governments. Other values are often ignored or rejected as morally inappropriate. This paper analyses some conceptual and practical problems with the use of altruism as the motivation to determine moral acceptability-drawing on empirical data that suggests gamete donors are not motivated purely by altruism, and that motivations are in fact quite complex. Two problems are first analysed: (1) how do we distinguish altruistic from non-altruistic donations and (2) how do we distinguish between removing barriers and providing incentives. A final question, triggered by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics' report, is whether the meaning of the payment should be decided on the basis of an a priori definition or on the basis of the donors' subjective experience. It is concluded that there are different legitimate core values in donation, which should be balanced. In order to value the good generated by donation, donors with mixed motives should be accepted, as long as helping others is an important motive and also features in their motivation. PMID:25743052

  12. Fullerene derivatives as electron donor for organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Taojun; Wang, Xiao-Feng E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Sano, Takeshi; Kido, Junji; Hong, Ziruo E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrated the performance of unconventional, all-fullerene-based, planar heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using fullerene derivatives indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) and phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron donors with fullerene C{sub 70} as the electron acceptor. Two different charge generation processes, including charge generation in the fullerene bulk and exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface, have been found to exist in such all-fullerene-based PHJ cells and the contribution to the total photocurrent from each process is strongly dependent on the thickness of fullerene donor. The optimized 5 nm ICBA/40 nm C{sub 70} PHJ cell gives clear external quantum efficiency responses for the long-wavelength photons corresponding to the dissociation of strongly bound Frenkel excitons, which is hardly observed in fullerene-based single layer reference devices. This approach using fullerene as a donor material provides further possibilities for developing high performance OPV cells.

  13. Ex Vivo Perfusion Treatment of Infection in Human Donor Lungs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, D; Cypel, M; Bonato, R; Machuca, T N; Iskender, I; Hashimoto, K; Linacre, V; Chen, M; Coutinho, R; Azad, S; Martinu, T; Waddell, T K; Hwang, D M; Husain, S; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2016-04-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a platform to treat infected donor lungs with antibiotic therapy before lung transplantation. Human donor lungs that were rejected for transplantation because of clinical concern regarding infection were randomly assigned to two groups. In the antibiotic group (n = 8), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h with high-dose antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 400 mg or azithromycin 500 mg, vancomycin 15 mg/kg, and meropenem 2 g). In the control group (n = 7), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h without antibiotics. A quantitative decrease in bacterial counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was found in all antibiotic-treated cases but in only two control cases. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were significantly lower in the antibiotic group compared with the control group. EVLP with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy significantly improved pulmonary oxygenation and compliance and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were strongly correlated with levels of perfusates tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β at 12 h. In conclusion, EVLP treatment of infected donor lungs with broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduced BAL bacterial counts and endotoxin levels and improved donor lung function. PMID:26730551

  14. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  15. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  16. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  17. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  18. 21 CFR 640.73 - Reporting of fatal donor reactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of fatal donor reactions. 640.73 Section 640.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.73 Reporting of...

  19. Donor Financing of Basic Education: Opportunities and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Liesbet; Wathne, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made in improving access to basic education in recent years, but international support has been less than promised and the "funding gap" to achieve universal primary education remains stubbornly present. This article identifies six interrelated factors that constrain such donor financing. Prioritization of basic education,…

  20. Improving Organ Donor Registration Using Kiosks in Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salim, Ali; Berry, Cherisse; Ley, Eric J.; Schulman, Danielle; Anderson, Jacqueline; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the USA, organ donor shortage is especially pronounced among minority ethnic populations such as Hispanics, who are 60% less likely to donate compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Recent evidence suggests that US Hispanics may consent to organ donation via a registry within a doctor's office. The objective of this study was to investigate…