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Sample records for class ii region

  1. Ancient haplotypes of the HLA Class II region.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher K; Kas, Arnold; Paddock, Marcia; Qiu, Ruolan; Zhou, Yang; Subramanian, Sandhya; Chang, Jean; Palmieri, Anthony; Haugen, Eric; Kaul, Rajinder; Olson, Maynard V

    2005-09-01

    Allelic variation in codons that specify amino acids that line the peptide-binding pockets of HLA's Class II antigen-presenting proteins is superimposed on strikingly few deeply diverged haplotypes. These haplotypes appear to have been evolving almost independently for tens of millions of years. By complete resequencing of 20 haplotypes across the approximately 100-kbp region that spans the HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, and -DRB1 genes, we provide a detailed view of the way in which the genome structure at this locus has been shaped by the interplay of selection, gene-gene interaction, and recombination.

  2. Molecular characterization of MHC class II region in guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Mathew, J; Gupta, J; Mehra, S; Goyal, G; Sharma, D

    2010-12-01

    1. The MHC class II gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced in guinea fowl. 2. The NumeMHC II sequence of 754 nucleotides included complete exon 1 (91 nt), exon 2 (270 nt), exon 3 (282 nt) and exon 4 (110 nt). 3. The size of β(1) and β(2), domains were 89 and 93 amino acids, respectively in guinea fowl. 4. High amino acid variability (38·2%) was observed within guinea fowl in β(1) domain, while in β(2) domain, amino acid variability (6·3%) was low. 5. Among poultry species, the percent amino acid identity between guinea fowl and chicken, quail, pheasant and duck was 38·8, 42·2, 44·4 and 58·8 in β(1) domain; and 13·8, 17·0, 13·8 and 27·6 in β(2) domain, respectively. 6. Sequence alignment with mammalian and avian MHC showed that many of the conserved features of MHC class II glycoprotein was conserved in guinea fowl. 7. Within-species genetic distances (Poisson correction) based on cumulative amino acid variability in β(1) domain and β(2) domains was 0·141 in guinea fowl. 8. Guinea fowl showed low and similar genetic distances with all the poultry species (0·255-0·268) except duck (0·456). 9. Guinea fowl made separate branch within the major cluster having chicken, quail and pheasant, showing equal distance from these poultry species, whereas duck MHC II clustered separately.

  3. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  4. Localization of predisposition to Hodgkin disease in the HLA class II region

    SciTech Connect

    Klitz, W. ); Aldrich, C.L.; Fildes, N.; Begovich, A.B.; Horning, S.J. )

    1994-03-01

    Molecular typing of HLA class II loci has been performed on a sample of 196 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Division of patients into histological categories - nodular sclerosing Hodgkin disease versus all other types - shows significant overall association of the nodular sclerosing group with the HLA class II region. Haplotypes and alleles defined for the four loci typed - DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 - were present in both excess and deficit in the nodular sclerosing sample. Some of the effects are attributable to particular DRB1 and DQB1 alleles, while other effects are best explained by haplotypes marking the entire class II region or to particular combinations of alleles from two or more loci. These data also explain why earlier studies showed HLA linkage but not association, and they substantiate the specific involvement of the immune system in certain neoplastic diseases. 38 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  6. DMA and DMB are the only genes in the class II region of the human MHC needed for class II-associated antigen processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ceman, S.; Rudersdorf, R.A.; Petersen, J.M.

    1995-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that homozygous mutations between the LMP2 and DNA loci in the human MHC cause class II molecules to be abnormally conformed and unstable in the presence of SDS at low temperature, and impede class II-associated Ag processing and presentation. These abnormalities result from impaired ability to form intracellular class II/peptide complexes that predominate in normal cells. We show in this work that this defect results from deficient expression of either the DMA or the DMB gene. Human B-LCL.174 (DR3) cells, which have a deletion of all known expressible genes in the class II region, express transgene-encoded HLA-DR3, but have the abnormalities. Transfer of cosmid HA14, which contains the DMA and DMB genes, into .174 (DR3) cells restored normal DR3 conformation, stability in 0.4% SDS at 0{degrees}, and ability to process and present tetanus toxoid, but only when both DMA and DMB mRNAs were present. The requirement for both genetic expressions in engendering normal phenotypes was confirmed by transferring the cloned genes into .174 (DR3) cells separately or together. Because normal phenotypes were fully restored in transferent cells expressing DMA plus DMB, other genes in the {approximately} 1-mb homozygous class II region deletion in .174 (DR3) cells either do not participate in or are dispensable for apparently normal production of intracellular class II/peptide complexes. The properties of DM-deficient EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) suggest ways of identifying humans in whom DM deficiency contributes to congenital immunodeficiency and malignancy. 67 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. New genes in the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Hanson, I M; Poustka, A; Trowsdale, J

    1991-06-01

    A detailed map of the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex has been constructed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This map revealed clusters of sites for enzymes that cut preferentially in unmethylated CpG-rich DNA often found at the 5' ends of genes. Three of these clusters have been cloned by cosmid walking and chromosome jumping. Analysis of the clones encompassing these regions through the use of zoo blots, Northern blots, and cDNA libraries resulted in the discovery of four novel genes. The D6S111E and D6S112E genes are centromeric to the HLA-DPB2 gene, while D6S113E and D6S114E are between HLA-DNA and HLA-DOB. Preliminary characterization of the new genes indicates that they are unrelated to the class II genes themselves, although D6S114E expression, like class II expression, is inducible with interferon. In addition, the HLA-DNA gene has been accurately positioned and oriented for the first time.

  8. Molecular characterization of the Pb recombination hotspot in the mouse major histocompatibility complex class II region.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Taku; Yoshino, Masayasu; Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer; Koide, Tsuyoshi; Gaudieri, Silvana; Gojobori, Takashi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2002-08-01

    In the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region, meiotic recombination breakpoints are clustered in four specific sites known as hotspots. Here we reveal the primary structure of a hotspot near the Pb gene. A total of 12 crossover points were found to be confined to a 15-kb DNA segment of the Pb pseudogene. Moreover, the crossover points are concentrated in a 341-bp segment, which includes a part of exon 4 and intron 4 of the Pb gene. All four MHC hotspots appear to be located within genes or at the 3' end of genes, contrasting with characterized hotspots in budding yeast, which are mostly located at the 5'-promoter regions of genes. The Pb hotspot has several consensus motifs, an octamer transcription factor-binding sequence, the B-motif-like transcription factor-binding sequence, and tandem repeats of tetramer sequence-all of which are shared by the other three hotspots. Systematic analysis of the public database demonstrated that the full motif set occurs rarely in the nucleotide sequence of the entire MHC class II region. All results suggest that the motif set has an indispensable role in determining their site specificity.

  9. The CLIP region of invariant chain plays a critical role in regulating major histocompatibility complex class II folding, transport, and peptide occupancy.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, P; Germain, R N

    1994-09-01

    Invariant chain (Ii) contributes in a number of distinct ways to the proper functioning of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. These include promoting effective association and folding of newly synthesized MHC class II alpha and beta subunits, increasing transit of assembled heterodimers out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), inhibiting class II peptide binding, and facilitating class II movement to or accumulation in endosomes/lysosomes. Although the cytoplasmic tail of Ii makes a key contribution to the endocytic localization of class II, the relationship between the structure of Ii and its other diverse functions remains unknown. We show here that two thirds of the lumenal segment of Ii can be eliminated without affecting its contributions to the secretory pathway events of class II folding, ER to Golgi transport, or inhibition of peptide binding. These same experiments reveal that a short (25 residue) contiguous internal segment of Ii (the CLIP region), frequently found associated with purified MHC class II molecules, is critical for all three functions. Together with other recent findings, these results raise the possibility that the contributions of Ii to the early postsynthetic behavior of class II may depend on its interaction with the class II binding site. This would be consistent with the intracellular behavior of unoccupied MHC class I and class II molecules as incompletely folded proteins and imply a related structural basis for the similar contributions of Ii to class II and of short peptides to class I assembly and transport.

  10. Recombination hotspots rather than population history dominate linkage disequilibrium in the MHC class II region.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Liisa; Sajantila, Antti; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2003-01-01

    Recombination, demographic history, drift and selection influence the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome, but their relative contributions remain unclear. To investigate the effect of meiotic recombination versus population history on LD, three populations with different demographic histories (UK north Europeans, Saami and Zimbabweans) were genotyped for high-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a 75 kb DNA segment of the MHC class II region. This region spans three well-characterized recombination hotspots and a 60 kb long LD block. Despite a high level of underlying haplotype diversity and considerable divergence in haplotype composition between populations, all three populations showed very similar patterns of LD. Surprisingly, the entire 60 kb LD block was present even in Africans, although it was relatively difficult to detect owing to a systematic deficiency of high frequency SNPs. In contrast, DNA within recombination hotspots did not show this low nucleotide diversity in Africans. Thus, while population history has some influence on LD, our findings suggest that recombination hotspots play a major global role in shaping LD patterns as well as helping to maintain localized SNP diversity in this region of the MHC.

  11. On the Relationship of UC HII Regions and Class II Methanol Masers. I. Source Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Menten, K. M.; Wu, Y.; Bartkiewicz, A.; Rygl, K.; Reid, M. J.; Urquhart, J. S.; Zheng, X.

    2016-12-01

    We conducted Very Large Array C-configuration observations to measure positions and luminosities of Galactic Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and their associated ultra-compact H ii regions. The spectral resolution was 3.90625 kHz and the continuum sensitivity reached 45 μJy beam-1. We mapped 372 methanol masers with peak flux densities of more than 2 Jy selected from the literature. Absolute positions have nominal uncertainties of 0.″3. In this first paper on the data analysis, we present three catalogs; the first gives information on the strongest feature of 367 methanol maser sources, and the second provides information on all detected maser spots. The third catalog presents derived data of the 127 radio continuum counterparts associated with maser sources. Our detection rate of radio continuum counterparts toward methanol masers is approximately one-third. Our catalogs list properties including distance, flux density, luminosity, and the distribution in the Galactic plane. We found no significant relationship between luminosities of masers and their associated radio continuum counterparts, however, the detection rate of radio continuum emission toward maser sources increases statistically with the maser luminosities.

  12. Characterization of the MHC class II region in cattle. The number of DQ genes varies between haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    The organization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region in cattle was investigated by Southern blot analysis using human probes corresponding to DO, DP, DQ, and DR genes. Exon-specific probes were also employed to facilitate the assessment of the number of different bovine class II genes. The results indicated the presence of single DO beta and DR alpha genes, at least three DR beta genes, while the number of DQ genes was found to vary between MHC haplotypes. Four DQ haplotypes, DQ alpha 1 beta 1 to DQ alpha 2 beta 4, possessed a single DQ alpha and a single DQ beta gene whereas both these genes were duplicated in eight other haplotypes, DQ alpha 3 beta 5 to DQ alpha 9 beta 12. No firm evidence for the presence of bovine DP genes was obtained. The same human probes were also used to investigate the genetic polymorphism of bovine class II genes. DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, DR beta, and DO beta restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were resolved and in particular the DQ restriction fragment patterns were highly polymorphic. Comparison of the present result with the current knowledge of the class II region in other mammalian species suggested that the DO, DP, DQ, DR, and DZ subdivision of the class II region was established already in the ancestor of mammals. The DP genes appear to be the least conserved class II genes among mammalian species and may have been lost in cattle. The degree of polymorphism of different class II genes, as revealed by RFLP analyses, shows striking similarities between species.

  13. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  14. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  15. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; van der Walt, D. J.; Goedhart, S.; Gaylard, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    10 new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26-m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for 2 yr and 9 months, from 2012 August to 2015 May. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 ± 1 d. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7- and 12.2-GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  16. Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region.

    PubMed Central

    Bahram, S; Arnold, D; Bresnahan, M; Strominger, J L; Spies, T

    1991-01-01

    The class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may encode several genes controlling the processing of endogenous antigen and the presentation of peptide epitopes by MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A previously described peptide supply factor (PSF1) is a member of the multidrug-resistance family of transporters and may pump cytosolic peptides into the membrane-bound compartment where class I molecules assemble. A second transporter gene, PSF2, was identified 10 kilobases (kb) from PSF1, near the class II DOB gene. The complete sequences of PSF1 and PSF2 were determined from cDNA clones. The translation products are closely related in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Both contain a highly conserved ATP-binding fold and share 25% homology in a hydrophobic domain with a tentative number of eight membrane-spanning segments. Based on the principle dimeric organization of these two domains in other transporters, PSF1 and PSF2 may function as complementary subunits, independently as homodimers, or both. Taken together with previous genetic evidence, the coregulation of PSF1 and PSF2 by gamma interferon and the to-some-degree coordinate transcription of these genes suggest a common role in peptide-loading of class I molecules, although a distinct function of PSF2 cannot be ruled out. Images PMID:1946428

  17. A Spectroscopic Survey of the ClassII YSO Population in the LkH(alpha)101 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Scott; Lada, Elizabeth; Marinas, Naibi; Ybarra, Jason

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use the FLAMINGOS multi-object, near-IR spectrograph on the KPNO 4-m telescope to conduct a spectroscopic survey of previously-identified ClassII (``T Tauri'') YSO's in the LkH(alpha)101 star forming region. LkH(alpha)101 is a Herbig star with an associated population of ~ 150 YSOs. It is a member of the California Nebula, recently determined to be of comparable distance and size to the Orion Nebula, yet with significantly less star formation. We will use pre- existing FLAMINGOS photometry, combined with these spectra, to determine effective temperatures and luminosities for 72 ClassII YSO's. We will search for any age or mass distributions amongst the YSOs using theoretical tracks on the HR diagram. Finally, we will use these spectroscopic observations to constrain the effective temperatures and luminosities of the central sources when performing SED analysis to derive disk properties. The spatial distribution and environmental dependence of T Tauri disk properties in LkH(alpha)101 will then be explored. Additional targets on each multi-object mask will be used to search for substellar objects in the region to explore the low-end of the mass function.

  18. Differential HLA class I and class II associations in pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris patients from a prevalent Southeastern Brazilian region.

    PubMed

    Brochado, Maria José Franco; Nascimento, Daniela Francisca; Campos, Wagner; Deghaide, Neifi Hassan Saloum; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    Genetic factors, particularly those concerning HLA class II, have been associated with the pathogenesis of pemphigus. Taking advantage of an area where pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are prevalent in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, we have studied the HLA class I (A, B and C) and class II (DRB1 and DQA1/DQB1) profiles in 86 and 83 patients with PF and PV, respectively, as compared with 1592 controls from the same region. Among all the HLA alleles described herein, the more prevalent susceptibility alleles for PF were HLA-A*11, 33, -B*14; -DRB1*01:01, *01:02; -DQA1*01:02; and -DQB1*05:01. In PV patients, the HLA-B*38; -C*12; -DRB1*04:02, *08:04, *14:01, *14:04; -DQA1*03:01; and -DQB1*03:02 and *05:03 alleles were associated with susceptibility. The HLA-DRB1*01:02 allele and the HLA-DRB1*01-DQA1*01-DQB1*05 haplotype in PF patients and the HLA-DRB1*04:02 and *14:01 alleles and the HLA-DRB1*14-DQA1*01-DQB1*05 haplotype in PV patients were related with the highest etiologic fraction values. Distinct genetic patterns and not yet described HLA susceptibility/protection alleles/haplotypes profiles have been observed in this series. Our findings corroborate the differential genetic markers in PF and PV in an area where pemphigus is prevalent but not yet reported.

  19. Sorting signals in the MHC class II invariant chain cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region determine trafficking to an endocytic processing compartment

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic compartment where they encounter processed antigen is determined by the invariant chain (Ii). By analysis of Ii-transferrin receptor (TR) chimera trafficking, we have identified sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region that mediate this process. Two non-tyrosine-based sorting signals in the Ii cytoplasmic tail were identified that mediate localization to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits and promote rapid endocytosis. Leu7 and Ile8 were required for the activity of the signal most distal to the cell membrane whereas Pro15 Met16 Leu17 were important for the membrane-proximal signal. The same or overlapping non- tyrosine-based sorting signals are essential for delivery of Ii-TR chimeras, either by an intracellular route or via the plasma membrane, to an endocytic compartment where they are rapidly degraded. The Ii transmembrane region is also required for efficient delivery to this endocytic processing compartment and contains a signal distinct from the Ii cytoplasmic tail. More than 80% of the Ii-TR chimera containing the Ii cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane region is delivered directly to the endocytic pathway by an intracellular route, implying that the Ii sorting signals are efficiently recognized by sorting machinery located in the trans-Golgi. PMID:8034737

  20. Genomic structure of the horse major histocompatibility complex class II region resolved using PacBio long-read sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Viļuma, Agnese; Mikko, Sofia; Hahn, Daniela; Skow, Loren; Andersson, Göran; Bergström, Tomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region contains several gene families characterized by highly polymorphic loci with extensive nucleotide diversity, copy number variation of paralogous genes, and long repetitive sequences. This structural complexity has made it difficult to construct a reliable reference sequence of the horse MHC region. In this study, we used long-read single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to sequence eight Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the horse MHC class II region. The final assembly resulted in a 1,165,328 bp continuous gap free sequence with 35 manually curated genomic loci of which 23 were considered to be functional and 12 to be pseudogenes. In comparison to the MHC class II region in other mammals, the corresponding region in horse shows extraordinary copy number variation and different relative location and directionality of the Eqca-DRB, -DQA, -DQB and –DOB loci. This is the first long-read sequence assembly of the horse MHC class II region with rigorous manual gene annotation, and it will serve as an important resource for association studies of immune-mediated equine diseases and for evolutionary analysis of genetic diversity in this region. PMID:28361880

  1. Mg ii Lines Observed During the X-class Flare on 29 March 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Heinzel, P.; Kleint, L.; Kašparová, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mg ii lines represent one of the strongest emissions from the chromospheric plasma during solar flares. In this article, we studied the Mg ii lines observed during the X1 flare on 29 March 2014 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48) by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS detected large intensity enhancements of the Mg ii h and k lines, subordinate triplet lines, and several other metallic lines at the flare footpoints during this flare. We have used the advantage of the slit-scanning mode (rastering) of IRIS and performed, for the first time, a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the spectra. Moreover, we were also able to identify positions of strongest hard X-ray (HXR) emissions using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations and to correlate them with the spatial and temporal evolution of IRIS Mg ii spectra. The light curves of the Mg ii lines increase and peak contemporarily with the HXR emissions but decay more gradually. There are large red asymmetries in the Mg ii h and k lines after the flare peak. We see two spatially well-separated groups of Mg ii line profiles, non-reversed and reversed. In some cases, the Mg ii footpoints with reversed profiles are correlated with HXR sources. We show the spatial and temporal behavior of several other line parameters (line metrics) and briefly discuss them. Finally, we have synthesized the Mg ii k line using our non-LTE code with the Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) technique. Two kinds of models are considered, the flare model F2 of Machado et al. ( Astrophys. J. 242, 336, 1980) and the models of Ricchiazzi and Canfield ( Astrophys. J. 272, 739, 1983, RC models). Model F2 reproduces the peak intensity of the non-reversed Mg ii k profile at flare maximum, but does not account for high wing intensities. On the other hand, the RC models show the sensitivity of Mg ii line intensities to various electron-beam parameters. Our simulations also show that

  2. A large-scale genetic analysis reveals a strong contribution of the HLA class II region to giant cell arteritis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Carmona, F David; Mackie, Sarah L; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J; Hoffman, Gary S; Khalidi, Nader A; Koening, Curry L; Langford, Carol A; McAlear, Carol A; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G; Warrington, Kenneth J; Ytterberg, Steven R; Gregersen, Peter K; Pease, Colin T; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P C; de Bakker, Paul I W; Barrett, Jennifer H; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A; González-Gay, Miguel A; Morgan, Ann W; Martín, Javier

    2015-04-02

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10(-40), OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1(∗)04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10(-43)) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10(-46)), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10(-45)) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10(-6), OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10(-5), OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function.

  3. Memory Disrupting Effects of Nonmuscle Myosin II Inhibition Depend on the Class of Abused Drug and Brain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Sherri B.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Young, Erica J.; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared…

  4. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F. David; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M. Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Martínez-Berriochoa, Agustín; Unzurrunzaga, Ainhoa; Hidalgo-Conde, Ana; Madroñero-Vuelta, Ana B.; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Ordóñez-Cañizares, M. Carmen; Escalante, Begoña; Marí-Alfonso, Begoña; Sopeña, Bernardo; Magro, César; Raya, Enrique; Grau, Elena; Román, José A.; de Miguel, Eugenio; López-Longo, F. Javier; Martínez, Lina; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Díaz-López, J. Bernardino; Caminal-Montero, Luis; Martínez-Zapico, Aleida; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Sánchez-Martín, Julio; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Pérez-Conesa, Mercedes; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; García-Villanueva, M. Jesús; Fernández-Contreras, M. Encarnación; Sanchez-Pernaute, Olga; Blanco, Ricardo; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Callejas, José L.; Fanlo-Mateo, Patricia; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor M.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10−40, OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1∗04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10−43) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10−46), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10−45) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10−6, OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10−6, OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10−5, OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. PMID:25817017

  5. Common variants in the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 Class II region are associated with susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Fakiola, Michaela; Strange, Amy; Cordell, Heather J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Pirinen, Matti; Su, Zhan; Mishra, Anshuman; Mehrotra, Sanjana; Monteiro, Gloria R.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Dronov, Serge; Edkins, Sarah; Freeman, Colin; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Hunt, Sarah E.; Lacerda, Henio G.; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard; Pontes, Núbia N.; Rai, Madhukar; Singh, S.P.; Smith, Linda; Sousa, Olivia; Vukcevic, Damjan; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Wilson, Mary E.; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Christiansen, Frank; Witt, Campbell; Jeronimo, Selma M.B.; Sundar, Shyam; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Donnelly, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To identify susceptibility loci for visceral leishmaniasis we undertook genome-wide association studies in two populations; 989 cases and 1089 controls from India, and 357 cases in 308 Brazilian families (1970 individuals). The HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 locus was the only region to show strong evidence of association in both populations. Replication at this region was undertaken in a second Indian population comprising 941 cases and 990 controls, resulting in Pcombined=2.76×10−17 and OR(95%CI)=1.41(1.30-1.52) across the three cohorts at rs9271858. A conditional analysis provided evidence for multiple associations within the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 region, and a model in which risk differed between three groups of haplotypes better explained the signal and was significant in the Indian discovery and replication cohorts. In conclusion the HLA-DRB1-HLA-DQA1 HLA class II region contributes to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility in India and Brazil, suggesting shared genetic risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis that cross the epidemiological divides of geography and parasite species. PMID:23291585

  6. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    PubMed

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus in the MHC Class II Region Associated with Generalized Vitiligo Age of Onset

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ying; Birlea, Stanca A.; Fain, Pamela R.; Gowan, Katherine; Riccardi, Sheri L.; Holland, Paulene J.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Wallace, Margaret R.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Kemp, E. Helen; Gawkrodger, David J.; Weetman, Anthony P.; Picardo, Mauro; Leone, Giovanni; Taïeb, Alain; Jouary, Thomas; Ezzedine, Khaled; van Geel, Nanny; Lambert, Jo; Overbeck, Andreas; Spritz, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Generalized vitiligo is a common autoimmune disease in which acquired patchy depigmentation of skin, hair, and mucous membranes results from loss of melanocytes from involved areas. Previous genetic analyses have focused on vitiligo susceptibility, and have identified a number of genes involved in disease risk. Age of onset of generalized vitiligo also involves a substantial genetic component, but has not previously been studied systematically. In this study, we report a genome-wide association study of vitiligo age of onset in 1,339 generalized vitiligo patients, with replication in an independent cohort of 677 cases. We identified a quantitative trait locus for vitiligo age of onset in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region, located near c6orf10-BTNL2 (rs7758128; P = 8.14×10−11), a region that is also associated with generalized vitiligo susceptibility. In contrast, there was no association of vitiligo age of onset with any other MHC or non-MHC loci that are associated with vitiligo susceptibility. These findings highlight the differing roles played by genes involved in vitiligo susceptibility versus vitiligo age of onset, and illustrate that genome-wide analyses can be used to identify genes involved in quantitative aspects of disease natural history, as well as disease susceptibility per se. PMID:21326295

  8. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  9. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  10. Determinants of the DNA binding specificity of class I and class II TCP transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ivana L; Reinheimer, Renata; Ripoll, Rodrigo; Manassero, Nora G Uberti; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2012-01-02

    TCP proteins constitute a family of plant transcription factors with more than 20 members in angiosperms. They can be divided in two classes based on sequence homology and the presence of an insertion within the basic region of the TCP DNA binding and dimerization domain. Here, we describe binding site selection studies with the class I protein TCP16, showing that its DNA binding preferences are similar to those of class II proteins. Through sequence comparison and the analysis of mutants and chimeras of TCP16, TCP20 (class I), and TCP4 (class II), we established that the identity of residue 11 of the class I TCP domain or the equivalent residue 15 of the class II domain, whether it is Gly or Asp, determines a preference for a class I or a class II sequence, respectively. Footprinting analysis indicated that specific DNA contacts related to these preferences are established with one of the strands of DNA. The dimerization motif also influences the selectivity of the proteins toward class I and class II sequences and determines a requirement of an extended basic region in proteins with Asp-15. We postulate that differences in orientation of base-contacting residues brought about by the presence of either Gly or Asp are responsible for the binding site preferences of TCP proteins. Expression of repressor forms of TCP16 with Asp-11 or Gly-11 differently affects leaf development. TCP16-like proteins with Asp-11 in the TCP domain arose in rosids and may be related to developmental characteristics of this lineage of eudicots.

  11. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; SATHLER, Renata; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; ZANDA, Marcelo; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. Material and Methods A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO). Results A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06%) papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94%) papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40%) of them. Conclusions Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study. PMID:20835576

  12. HLA class II peptide-binding and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gebe, J A; Swanson, E; Kwok, William W

    2002-02-01

    The HLA class II locus is located in the 6p21.3 region on the short arm of chromosome 6 and encompasses approximately 700 kb. It consists of over 30 gene loci including the major class II structural genes DP, DQ and DR. While autoimmune disease correlates to specific DP, DQ or DR alleles have been documented, due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between the different HLA alleles, especially between the DR and DQ, the precise identification of susceptible MHC alleles for a number of autoimmune diseases remains elusive.

  13. The segment of invariant chain that is critical for association with major histocompatibility complex class II molecules contains the sequence of a peptide eluted from class II polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Freisewinkel, I M; Schenck, K; Koch, N

    1993-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules present peptides from an extracellular source of antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes. The class II-associated invariant chain affects this role of alpha and beta polypeptides by restriction of peptide loading to endocytic vesicles. Up to now no specific portion of the invariant chain has been defined as the class II binding site. We constructed recombinant invariant chain genes and inspected association of the mutant invariant chains with class II polypeptides. Here we demonstrate that an extracytoplasmic sequence of the invariant chain (aa 81-109) that is only 23 residues away from the transmembrane region is essential for contact with class II polypeptides, whereas the remaining C-terminal part is dispensable for binding. The sequence of invariant-chain-derived peptides that were eluted from class II molecules is contained in this segment and may define the class II binding site of the invariant chain. The membrane-proximal position of this region suggests that the invariant chain and invariant-chain-derived peptides isolated from class II molecules bind to a domain distinct from the class II pocket. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8415765

  14. Characterization of class I- and class II-like major histocompatibility complex loci in pedigrees of North Atlantic right whales.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Roxanne M; Murray, Brent W; White, Bradley N

    2014-01-01

    North Atlantic right whales have one of the lowest levels of genetic variation at minisatellite loci, microsatellite loci, and mitochondrial control region haplotypes among mammals. Here, adaptive variation at the peptide binding region of class I and class II DRB-like genes of the major histocompatibility complex was assessed. Amplification of a duplicated region in 222 individuals revealed at least 11 class II alleles. Six alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB1 and 5 alleles were assigned to the locus Eugl-DRB2 by assessing segregation patterns of alleles from 81 parent/offspring pedigrees. Pedigree analysis indicated that these alleles segregated into 12 distinct haplotypes. Genotyping a smaller subset of unrelated individuals (n = 5 and 10, respectively) using different primer sets revealed at least 2 class II pseudogenes (with ≥ 4 alleles) and at least 3 class I loci (with ≥ 6 alleles). Class II sequences were significantly different from neutrality at peptide binding sites suggesting loci may be under the influence of balancing selection. Trans-species sharing of alleles was apparent for class I and class II sequences. Characterization of class II loci represents the first step in determining the relationship between major histocompatibility complex variability and factors affecting health and reproduction in this species.

  15. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II gaming. 502.3 Section 502.3 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic,...

  16. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Class II gaming. 502.3 Section 502.3 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic,...

  17. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  18. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  19. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  20. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  1. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  2. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  3. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Colorado Assistant Attorney General to the Acting Regional Counsel, EPA Region VIII, “Re: Class II Well...) Letter from Colorado Assistant Attorney General to the Acting Regional Counsel, EPA Region VIII, “Re...; (3) Letter from Colorado Assistant Attorney General to the Acting Regional Counsel, EPA Region...

  4. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p < 0.05); significantly lower condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p < 0.05). In the whole sample condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p < 0.01) as well as condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in males than in females. Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population. PMID:23241136

  5. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Tower Building, 1580 Logan Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, Colorado, 80202-2405, or at the National... Colorado § 147.300 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in...

  6. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tower Building, 1580 Logan Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, Colorado, 80202-2405, or at the National... Colorado § 147.300 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in...

  7. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tower Building, 1580 Logan Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, Colorado, 80202-2405, or at the National... Colorado § 147.300 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in...

  8. 40 CFR 147.300 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tower Building, 1580 Logan Street, Denver, Colorado, 80203. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region VIII, 999 18th Street, Suite 500, Denver, Colorado, 80202-2405, or at the National... Colorado § 147.300 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in...

  9. Trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules through intracellular compartments containing HLA-DM.

    PubMed

    Robbins, N F; Hammond, C; Denzin, L K; Pan, M; Cresswell, P

    1996-01-01

    The endosomal site(s) where MHC class II molecules become competent to bind antigenic peptide has not been completely characterized. We identified endocytic compartments through which newly synthesized MHC class II molecules move prior to their expression on the plasma membrane. The compartments co-sediment with lysosomes in the most dense regions of Percoll gradients. The appearance of proteolytic fragments of the invariant chain (I chain), namely leupeptin-induced proteins (LIPs) and class-II-associated invariant chain peptides (CLIP), in this region of the gradient suggests that the release of MHC class II molecules from I chain association occurs within these vesicles. The formation of SDS-stable alpha beta dimers indicated that MHC class II molecules contained within these compartments are receptive to peptide binding. A majority of the HLA-DM protein was found in the same region of the Percoll gradient, consistent with its established function in MHC class-II-restricted antigen presentation. Immunoelectron micrographs of dense-sedimenting compartments indicated that I chain, MHC class II, and DM molecules are contained within both multivesicular and multilamellar vesicles. The final stages of I chain dissociation from MHC class II molecules and DM-mediated peptide loading probably occur in these compartments.

  10. Cell surface expression and function of an HLA class II molecule with class I domain configuration

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules were expressed with extracellular polypeptide domains reorganized to form heavy (H) and light (L) chains (alpha 1-beta 1-beta 2 and alpha 2) analogous to class I. Accurate protein folding and dimerization is demonstrated by the ability of this 3+1-DR1 construct to bind class II- restricted peptides and stimulate CD4+ T cells. Cell surface expression of a functional class II molecule consisting of H and L chains supports the validity of current class II models and affirms the evolutionary relatedness of class I/II. MHC functions that differ between class I/II may be influenced by domain configuration, and the use of domain- shifted constructs will allow examination of this possibility. PMID:8340763

  11. Long-term pharyngeal airway changes after bionator treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seimin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J.; Kim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in the pharyngeal airway dimensions after functional appliance treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions. Methods Pharyngeal airway dimensions were compared between subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.6 ± 1.29 years) treated with a Class II bionator and age-matched control subjects with skeletal Class I occlusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.0 ± 1.21 years) using a series of lateral cephalograms obtained at the initial visit (T0), after treatment (T1), and at the completion of growth (T2). Results The length of the nasopharyngeal region was similar between adolescents with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions at all time points, while the lengths of the upper and lower oropharyngeal regions and the pharyngeal airway areas were significantly smaller in the skeletal Class II adolescents before treatment when compared to the control adolescents (p < 0.05). However, following treatment with a functional appliance, the skeletal Class II adolescents had increased pharyngeal airway dimensions, which became similar to those of the control subjects. Conclusions Functional appliance therapy can increase the pharyngeal airway dimensions in growing adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions, and this effect is maintained until the completion of growth. PMID:24511511

  12. Contrasting patterns of selection acting on MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota).

    PubMed

    Kuduk, K; Johanet, A; Allainé, D; Cohas, A; Radwan, J

    2012-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for proteins that play a critical role in the immune system response. The MHC genes are among the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, presumably due to balancing selection. The two MHC classes appear to differ in the rate of evolution, but the reasons for this variation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the level of polymorphism and the evolution of sequences that code for the peptide-binding regions of MHC class I and class II DRB genes in the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota). We found evidence for four expressed MHC class I loci and two expressed MHC class II loci. MHC genes in marmots were characterized by low polymorphism, as one to eight alleles per putative locus were detected in 38 individuals from three French Alps populations. The generally limited degree of polymorphism, which was more pronounced in class I genes, is likely due to bottleneck the populations undergone. Additionally, gene duplication within each class might have compensated for the loss of polymorphism at particular loci. The two gene classes showed different patterns of evolution. The most polymorphic of the putative loci, Mama-DRB1, showed clear evidence of historical positive selection for amino acid replacements. However, no signal of positive selection was evident in the MHC class I genes. These contrasting patterns of sequence evolution may reflect differences in selection pressures acting on class I and class II genes.

  13. Preferred SLA class I/class II haplotype combinations in German Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Gimsa, Ulrike; Ho, Chak-Sum; Hammer, Sabine E

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based. After comparing our data with published genotypes of different European pig breeds and Asian pigs, we hypothesise that the combination of particular but different haplotypes in different geographical regions may have developed under the evolutionary pressure of regionally endemic pathogens. This proposed mechanism ensures an efficient immune response despite low recombination rates.

  14. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  15. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  16. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY... concerning the issuance of certificates for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming: To correct a section... on the same day that it receives a tribe's response to the Office of Self Regulation's...

  17. 77 FR 4714 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY... proposes to amend the NIGC's self-regulation regulations to tailor the self-regulating qualifying criteria to a tribe's regulation of class II gaming activity and more clearly define and streamline the...

  18. [Does dental class II division 2 predispose to temporomandibular disorders?].

    PubMed

    Zuaiter, Shireen; Robin, Olivier; Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Raberin, Monique

    2013-09-01

    Because of its anatomical/physiological characteristics, the Class II division 2 (class II, div. 2) is one of the malocclusions considered as a possible risk factor for Temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A literature review was conducted from the electronic databases of Medline and Elsevier Masson, through the year 2010, in order to clarify the relationships that may exist between Class II division 2 and TMD. This research helped identify 50 articles: 7 articles specifically concerned the Class II div. 2, 37 articles concerned some of the characteristics of the Class II div. 2, considered individually (Class II, deep bite, retroclined maxillary incisors, mandibular retrognathism) and 6 articles orthodontic treatment. From the conclusions of these studies, the Class II, div. 2 does not appear to represent a significant risk factor for TMD. The clearest association would involve mandibular retrognathism and the risk of articular disk displacement. However, given the low number of articles published on this topic, the methodological variability and the contradictory results, it is difficult to identify reliable conclusions and, consequently, the therapeutic indications for the treatment of Class II div. 2 patients with TMD.

  19. Efficiency of Class I and Class II malocclusion treatment with four premolar extractions

    PubMed Central

    JANSON, Guilherme; NAKAMURA, Alexandre; BARROS, Sérgio Estelita; BOMBONATTI, Roberto; CHIQUETO, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Four premolar extractions is a successful protocol to treat Class I malocclusion, but it is a less efficient way when compared with other Class II treatment protocols. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of anteroposterior discrepancy on the success of four premolar extractions protocol. For that, treatment efficiency of Class I and complete Class II malocclusions, treated with four premolar extractions were compared. Methods: A sample of 107 records from 75 Class I (mean age of 13.98 years - group 1) and 32 Class II (mean age of 13.19 years - group 2) malocclusion patients treated with four premolar extractions was selected. The initial and final occlusal status of each patient was evaluated on dental casts with the PAR index. The treatment time was calculated based on the clinical charts, and the treatment efficiency was obtained by the ratio between the percentage of PAR reduction and treatment time. The PAR index and its components, the treatment time and the treatment efficiency of the groups were statistically compared with t tests and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The Class II malocclusion patients had a greater final PAR index than Class I malocclusion patients, and similar duration (Class I - 28.95 mo. and Class II - 28.10 mo.) and treatment efficiency. Conclusion: The treatment of the complete Class II malocclusion with four premolar extractions presented worse occlusal results than Class I malocclusion owing to incomplete molar relationship correction. PMID:24918660

  20. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  1. Identification by sequencing based typing and complete coding region analysis of three new HLA class II alleles: DRB3*0210, DRB3*0211 and DQB1*0310.

    PubMed

    Balas, A; Santos, S; Aviles, M J; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Lillo, R; Vicario, J L

    2000-10-01

    The study of HLA class II polymorphism by direct exon 2 DNA sequencing analysis has been established to be a reliable and accurate high-resolution typing procedure. This approach shows some advantages in relation to previous methods, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSO) and sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), basically due to the capability of analysis for the complete sequenced genomic region, including non-polymorphic motifs. DRB3 and DQB1 sequencing based typing (SBT) in unrelated bone marrow donor searching allowed us to detect three new alleles. The complete coding region sequences were characterised from cDNA. Two new DRB3 alleles, DRB3*0210 and DRB3*0211, were described in two Caucasian bone marrow donors. Both sequences showed single point mutations regarding DRB3*0202, producing amino acid replacements at positions 51 (Asp to Thr) and 67 (Leu to Ile), respectively. These two point mutations can be found in other DRB alleles, and suggest that gene conversion would be involved in the origin of both alleles. A new DQB1 sequence was found in a Spanish patient that showed two nucleotide differences, positions 134 and 141, with regard to its close similar DQB1*03011 allele. Only substitution at position 134 provoked amino acid replacement at residue 45, Glu to Gly. This single amino acid change would be involved in the lack of serologic recognition of this new molecule by DQ7-specific reagents.

  2. The simple class II and class III corrector: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Spary, David John; Little, Rachel Ann

    2015-03-01

    This article illustrates three case reports which describe a very simple appliance that is used to correct both class II and class III buccal segments. A class I molar relationship is achieved within 2-6 months. Hundreds of cases have been treated with these appliances over a number of years at Queen's Hospital, Burton upon Trent with great success.

  3. Ii Chain Controls the Transport of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules to and from Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian; Mellman, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules are synthesized as a nonameric complex consisting of three αβ dimers associated with a trimer of invariant (Ii) chains. After exiting the TGN, a targeting signal in the Ii chain cytoplasmic domain directs the complex to endosomes where Ii chain is proteolytically processed and removed, allowing class II molecules to bind antigenic peptides before reaching the cell surface. Ii chain dissociation and peptide binding are thought to occur in one or more postendosomal sites related either to endosomes (designated CIIV) or to lysosomes (designated MIIC). We now find that in addition to initially targeting αβ dimers to endosomes, Ii chain regulates the subsequent transport of class II molecules. Under normal conditions, murine A20 B cells transport all of their newly synthesized class II I-Ab αβ dimers to the plasma membrane with little if any reaching lysosomal compartments. Inhibition of Ii processing by the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor leupeptin, however, blocked transport to the cell surface and caused a dramatic but selective accumulation of I-Ab class II molecules in lysosomes. In leupeptin, I-Ab dimers formed stable complexes with a 10-kD NH2-terminal Ii chain fragment (Ii-p10), normally a transient intermediate in Ii chain processing. Upon removal of leupeptin, Ii-p10 was degraded and released, I-Ab dimers bound antigenic peptides, and the peptide-loaded dimers were transported slowly from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. Our results suggest that alterations in the rate or efficiency of Ii chain processing can alter the postendosomal sorting of class II molecules, resulting in the increased accumulation of αβ dimers in lysosome-like MIIC. Thus, simple differences in Ii chain processing may account for the highly variable amounts of class II found in lysosomal compartments of different cell types or at different developmental stages. PMID:9105036

  4. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies are designated as regional channels and are assigned for use...

  5. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies are designated as regional channels and are assigned for use...

  6. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. (a) The following frequencies are designated as regional channels and are assigned for use...

  7. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  8. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  9. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. Conclusions/Significance CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities. PMID:28027326

  10. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  11. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  12. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  13. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  14. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  15. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse--effects of selection and gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Minias, P; Bateson, Z W; Whittingham, L A; Johnson, J A; Oyler-McCance, S; Dunn, P O

    2016-05-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  16. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  17. HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Younger, A R; Amria, S; Jeffrey, W A; Mahdy, A E M; Goldstein, O G; Norris, J S; Haque, A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. Here, we show for the first time that prostate cancer cells express HLA class II proteins that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This data suggests that malignant prostate tumors can be targeted via the HLA class II pathway, and that class II-positive tumors could be employed for direct antigen presentation, and CD4+ T-cell mediated tumor immunotherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2008) 11, 334-341; doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4501021; published online 16 October 2007.

  18. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II alleles in wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    PubMed

    Bos, David H; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2005-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are usually among the most polymorphic in vertebrate genomes because of their critical role (antigen presentation) in immune response. Prior to this study, the MHC was poorly characterized in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), but the congeneric axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is thought to have an unusual MHC. Most notably, axolotl class II genes lack allelic variation and possess a splice variant without a full peptide binding region (PBR). The axolotl is considered immunodeficient, but it is unclear how or to what extent MHC genetics and immunodeficiency are interrelated. To study the evolution of MHC genes in urodele amphibians, we describe for the first time an expressed polymorphic class II gene in wild tiger salamanders. We sequenced the PBR of a class II gene from wild A. tigrinum (n=33) and identified nine distinct alleles. Observed heterozygosity was 73%, and there were a total of 46 polymorphic sites, most of which correspond to amino acid positions that bind peptides. Patterns of nucleotide substitutions exhibit the signature of diversifying selection, but no recombination was detected. Not surprisingly, trans-species evolution of tiger salamander and axolotl class II alleles was apparent. We have no direct data on the immunodeficiency of tiger salamanders, but the levels of polymorphism in our study population should suffice to bind a variety of foreign peptides (unlike axolotls). Our tiger salamander data suggest that the monomorphism and immunodeficiencies associated with axolotl class II genes is a relic of their unique historical demography, not their phylogenetic legacy.

  19. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  20. Airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Deepthi; Varma, Sapna; Ajith, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Materials and Methods: Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The ANB angle was negatively correlated with all the airway parameters. The airway area and volume was significantly reduced in Class II subjects compared to Class I. Conclusion: The results suggest a strong association between the airway and skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle. PMID:26321823

  1. Differential membrane association properties and regulation of class I and class II Arfs.

    PubMed

    Duijsings, Daniël; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; van Dooren, Sander H J; van Dommelen, Michiel M T; Wetzels, Roy; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Wessels, Els; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2009-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that act as major regulators of intracellular vesicular trafficking and secretory organelle pathway integrity. Like all small monomeric GTPases, Arf proteins cycle between a GDP-bound and a GTP-bound state, and this cycling is catalysed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins. While the class I Arfs, especially Arf1, have been studied extensively, little is known as yet about the function and regulation of class II Arfs, Arf4 and Arf5. In this study, we show that Arf proteins show class-specific dynamic behaviour. Moreover, unlike class I Arfs, membrane association of class II Arfs is resistant to inhibition of large Arf GEFs by Brefeldin A. Through the construction of Arf chimeric proteins, evidence is provided that the N-terminal amphipathic helix and a class-specific residue in the conserved interswitch domain determine the membrane-binding properties of class I and class II Arf proteins. Our results show that fundamental differences exist in behaviour and regulation of these small GTPases.

  2. Associations of Moyamoya patients with HLA class I and class II alleles in the Korean population.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hoon; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Yoo, Do-Sung; Huh, Pil-Woo; Cho, Kyung-Souk; Kim, Dal-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive cerebrovascular occlusion at the peripheral internal carotid artery and development of abnormal collateral circulation at the cerebral basal region. Although abnormal thrombogenesis, inflammation and autoimmune process might be involved in the etiology, the genetic pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease is still unknown. To evaluate the association of Moyamoya disease with HLA alleles in the Korean population, we investigated HLA class I and class II alleles in 28 Moyamoya patients and 198 unrelated healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B35 allele was significantly increased in the patients compared to the controls (32.1% vs. 10.1%, RR=4.2, p<0.008). Further analysis of HLA-B35 on onset age and sex showed that this allele was significantly increased compared to the controls in both late-onset and female group. Especially, HLA-B35 was the most significantly increased in female of late-onset group compared to the controls. These results suggest that HLA-B35 may be an useful genetic marker for Moyamoya disease, and particularly in females of late onset group in the Korean population. PMID:14676447

  3. Evaluation of Pharyngeal Space in Different Combinations of Class II Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jay; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shah, Romil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the pharyngeal airway linear measurements of untreated skeletal class II subjects with normal facial vertical pattern in prognathic maxilla with orthognathic mandible and orthognathic maxilla with retrognathic mandible. Materials and method: the sample comprised of lateral Cephalograms of two groups (30 each) of class II malocclusion variants. Group 1 comprised of class II malocclusion with prognathic maxilla and orthognathic mandible, whereas group 2 comprised of class II malocclusion with orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible. Each group was traced for the linear measurements of the pharyngeal airway like the oropharynx, nasopharynx and soft palate. The obtained data was subjected to independent t test and the Mann Whitney test to check the difference between the two groups and within the groups respectively. Results: there was significant difference between all the linear measurements at the soft palate region and the distance between the tip of soft palate to its counter point on the pharyngeal wall in oropharynx region (p-ppm). Conclusion: the pharyngeal airway for class II malocclusion with various combination in an average growth pattern adult showed significant difference. The present results suggested, that the pharyngeal airway space might be the etiological factor for different sagittal growth pattern of the jaws and probable usage of different growth modification appliance can influence the pharyngeal airway. PMID:26635436

  4. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisional aircraft flight manual containing the limitations established by §§ 21.83(h), 91.317, and 121.207... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates... applicant is entitled to a Class II provisional airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which a...

  5. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisional aircraft flight manual containing the limitations established by §§ 21.83(h), 91.317, and 121.207... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates... applicant is entitled to a Class II provisional airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which a...

  6. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisional aircraft flight manual containing the limitations established by §§ 21.83(h), 91.317, and 121.207... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates... applicant is entitled to a Class II provisional airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which a...

  7. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (f) The aircraft must be supplied with a provisional aircraft flight manual containing the... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates... airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which a Class II provisional type certificate has been issued...

  8. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisional aircraft flight manual containing the limitations established by §§ 21.83(h), 91.317, and 121.207... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates... applicant is entitled to a Class II provisional airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which a...

  9. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the terminal complex with passengers; (2) Prior to the first morning departure of each commuter or... operator first takes charge of the train, except for face-to-face relief. (b) A Class II brake test shall... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  10. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  11. Treatment of class ii in adulthood by forsus frd device

    PubMed Central

    DE NUCCIO, F.; D’EMIDIO, M.M.; DE NUCCIO, F.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Scientific research data show that the Forsus FRD seems to have a great potential in the correction of Class II in childhood. The conclusions reached by the various Authors seem to support the hypothesis of an exclusively or mainly dentoalveolar correction, as the skeletal correction seems to have no – or little – appreciable results. In the light of such provided by different Authors, the potential of dentoalveolar compensation in adult patients with mild skeletal class II was investigated. Materials and methods At the UOC (Complex Operative Unit) of Orthodontics at “G. Eastman” Hospital Rome, 3 cases of skeletal class II mild (ANB <5 °) in adult patients were selected. They were treated with fixed multibracket appliance and Forsus EZ2 module. Cephalometric tracings were compared at the beginning and at the end of the treatment in order to assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. Results The occlusal correction was achieved through a dentoalveolar compensation characterized by the flaring of the lower teeth. Conclusions Forsus FRD equipment is an excellent compromise for the correction of mild Class II, even during the post development age. The resulting correction is appreciated at dental alveolar level with a mesial movement of the incisors and molars. PMID:28280539

  12. From Ultracompact to Extended H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Franco, Jose

    1996-09-01

    The dynamical evolution of H II regions and wind-driven bubbles in dense clouds is studied. In particular, we address two different issues: (1) the conditions under which ultracompact H II (UCHII) regions can reach pressure equilibrium with their surrounding medium (and thereby stall their expansion) and (2) the appearance of a powerful dynamic instability in expanding H II regions. At pressure equilibrium, the ionized regions become static, and as long as the ionization sources and the ambient gas densities remain about constant, the resulting UCHII regions are stable and long-lived. The equilibrium sizes and densities, Rs,eq ˜3 X 10-2F⅓48T⅔H II, 4P-⅔7 pc and ni,eq ˜4 × 104P7T-1H II, 4 cm-3 (where Fβ8 is the photoionizing flux in units of 1048 s-11, P7 is the pressure in units of 10-7 dyne cm-2, and TH II,4 is the ion temperature in units of 104 K), are similar to those actually observed in UCHII regions. Similarly, ultra- compact wind-driven bubbles can reach pressure equilibrium, and the resulting final sizes are similar to those of UCHII'S. The same is true for a combined ultracompact structure consisting of an interior wind- driven cavity and an external H II region. For nonmoving stars in a constant-density medium, the lifetimes for all types of ultracompact objects only depend on the stellar lifetimes. For cases with a density gradient, depending on the core size and slope of the density distribution, some regions never reach the static equilibrium condition. A powerful dynamic instability appears when cooling is included in the neutral gas swept up by an H II region or a combined wind-H II region structure. This instability was first studied by Giuliani and is associated with the thin-shell instability described by Vishniac. The internal ionization front exacerbates the growth of the thin-shell instability, creating a rapid shell fragmentation, and our numerical simulations confirm the linear analysis of Giuliani. The fragments tend to merge as

  13. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  14. The nucleotide sequence of the sheep MHC class II DNA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Redmond, J.; Ballingall, K.T.; Wright, F.

    1995-01-11

    The human MHC class II DNA gene was identified and sequenced by Trowsdale and Kelly. When a molecular map of the HLA-D region became available, it was shown that the HLA-DNA gene was unusual in not having a B gene partner situated within a few kilobases (kb), the nearest B gene being HLA-DPB1. The nearest unpaired B gene is HLA-DOB which is approximately 160 kb telomeric of HLA-DNA. More recently, the mouse MHC class II genes H-20A and H-20B were shown to be equivalent to the HLA-DNA and HLA-DOB genes. Moreover, the mouse genes expressed an MHC class II protein whose tissue distribution was restricted to B cells and epithelial cell of the thymic medulla. No corresponding HLA-DN protein has been reported. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Extensive sharing of MHC class II alleles between rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Rouweler, Annemiek J M; de Groot, Natasja G; Louwerse, Annet; Otting, Nel; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2006-05-01

    In contrast to rhesus monkeys, substantial knowledge on cynomolgus monkey major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II haplotypes is lacking. Therefore, 17 animals, including one pedigreed family, were thoroughly characterized for polymorphic Mhc class II region genes as well as their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Different cynomolgus macaque populations appear to exhibit unique mtDNA profiles reflecting their geographic origin. Within the present panel, 10 Mafa-DPB1, 14 Mafa-DQA1, 12 Mafa-DQB1, and 35 Mafa-DRB exon 2 sequences were identified. All of these alleles cluster into lineages that were previously described for rhesus macaques. Moreover, about half of the Mafa-DPB1, Mafa-DQA1, and Mafa-DQB1 alleles and one third of the Mafa-DRB exon 2 sequences are identical to rhesus macaque orthologues. Such a high level of Mhc class II allele sharing has not been reported for primate species. Pedigree analysis allowed the characterization of nine distinct Mafa class II haplotypes, and seven additional ones could be deduced. Two of these haplotypes harbor a duplication of the Mafa-DQB1 locus. Despite extensive allele sharing, rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys do not appear to possess identical Mhc class II haplotypes, thus illustrating that new haplotypes were generated after speciation by recombination-like processes.

  16. Comparison of the transcriptional regulation of classical and non-classical MHC class II genes.

    PubMed

    Hake, Sandra B; Tobin, Helen M; Steimle, Viktor; Denzin, Lisa K

    2003-09-01

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) regulates expression of the classical and non-classical MHC class II genes, HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ and -DM, but not the B cell-specific HLA-DO (DO). Here we show that only HLA-DR expression is completely dependent on CIITA, since residual expression of HLA-DM, -DP and the beta chain of DQ was observed in CIITA-deficient RJ2.2.5 cells. Although DO shows a unique expression pattern compared to other MHC class II genes, prolonged IFN-gamma treatment of HeLa cells induced DOB expression. Similar to all MHC class II promoters, the DOB promoter contains the highly conserved W, X1, and Y boxes in addition to a putative OCT box. Mutational analysis of the DOB promoter demonstrated that the X1, Y and OCT boxes are necessary for maximum promoter activity.Furthermore, our results demonstrate that CREB-1, RFXANK and Oct-2 occupy the DOB promoter in vivo, However, CIITA and Bob-1 were only minimally recruited. Finally, fusion of Bjab, a DOB-negative B cell line, with.174 B cells that lack the complete MHC class II region (including the DO genes), lead to DO expression. These data indicate that the expression of DO is regulated by an unidentified factor in B cells.

  17. Interpreting the H II Region Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Clarke, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    We construct Monte Carlo simulations of the H II region luminosity function (H II LF), drawing ionizing stars from a constant stellar IMF, and the number of ionizing stars from a power-law distribution of constant slope. We find that observed variations in the form of the H II LF across the Hubble sequence can be explained by a trend in the maximum number of ionizing stars per nebula. In addition, variations in the form of the H II LF between arm and interarm populations of spiral galaxies can be explained by evolutionary effects. The H II LF can thus reveal features in the most recent (< 10 Myr) star formation history of the host galaxies.

  18. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  19. Defective MHC class II expression in an MHC class II deficiency patient is caused by a novel deletion of a splice donor site in the MHC class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Peijnenburg, A; Van den Berg, R; Van Eggermond, M J; Sanal, O; Vossen, J M; Lennon, A M; Alcaïde-Loridan, C; Van den Elsen, P J

    2000-01-01

    MHC class II deficiency patients are mutated for transcription factors that regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. Four complementation groups (A-D) are defined and the gene defective in group A has been shown to encode the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). Here, we report the molecular characterization of a new MHC class II deficiency patient, ATU. Cell fusion experiments indicated that ATU belongs to complementation group A. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed that the CIITA mRNA lacked 84 nucleotides. This deletion was the result of the absence of a splice donor site in the CIITA gene of ATU. As a result of this novel homozygous genomic deletion, ATU CIITA failed to transactivate MHC class II genes. Furthermore, this truncated CIITA of ATU did not display a dominant negative effect on CIITA-mediated transactivation of various isotypic MHC class II promoters.

  20. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I and MHC Class II Proteins: Conformational Plasticity in Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Marek; Abualrous, Esam T.; Sticht, Jana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is essential for adaptive immunity. Prior to presentation, peptides need to be generated from proteins that are either produced by the cell’s own translational machinery or that are funneled into the endo-lysosomal vesicular system. The prolonged interaction between a T cell receptor and specific pMHC complexes, after an extensive search process in secondary lymphatic organs, eventually triggers T cells to proliferate and to mount a specific cellular immune response. Once processed, the peptide repertoire presented by MHC proteins largely depends on structural features of the binding groove of each particular MHC allelic variant. Additionally, two peptide editors—tapasin for class I and HLA-DM for class II—contribute to the shaping of the presented peptidome by favoring the binding of high-affinity antigens. Although there is a vast amount of biochemical and structural information, the mechanism of the catalyzed peptide exchange for MHC class I and class II proteins still remains controversial, and it is not well understood why certain MHC allelic variants are more susceptible to peptide editing than others. Recent studies predict a high impact of protein intermediate states on MHC allele-specific peptide presentation, which implies a profound influence of MHC dynamics on the phenomenon of immunodominance and the development of autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the recent literature that describe MHC class I and II dynamics from a theoretical and experimental point of view and we highlight the similarities between MHC class I and class II dynamics despite the distinct functions they fulfill in adaptive immunity. PMID:28367149

  1. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    PubMed

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P < 0.01). Larger diameter values were present in the skeletal Class III subjects, while smaller diameter sizes were apparent in Class II subjects (multiple comparison tests). When gender, age, and skeletal type were all compared with the size of the sella (regression analyses), age was significantly related to a change of length (P < 0.01) and diameter (P < 0.001). Sella shape and dimensions reported in the current study can be used as reference standards for further investigations involving the sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  2. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, E A; Erlich, H A; Rickards, O; DeStefano, G F; Klitz, W

    1995-01-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative evenness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. PMID:7668268

  3. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    PubMed

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  4. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  5. Spectral Energy Distribution Analysis of Class I and Class II FU Orionis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Rodón, Javier A.; Gómez, Mercedes

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ~80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ~10-7 M ⊙ yr-1 versus ~10-5 M ⊙ yr-1 for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (~70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  6. Class II Division 1 in New Dimension: Role of Posterior Transverse Interarch Discrepancy in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion During the Mixed Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepanshu; Mahajan, Neeraj; Bansal, Samriti; Sawhney, Anshul; Kaur, Jasvir; Tripathi, Shashank; Malaviya, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Posterior transverse discrepancy as seen in some cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion in mixed dentition period can be related to typical skeletofacial characteristics. These features when studied early in the mixed dentition period give a clear view of the desired appropriate treatment plan in a particular case. Aim The purpose of this study was to establish a simple method to determine the posterior (intermolar) transverse discrepancy and craniofacial skeletal features between the dental arches during the mixed dentition in a sample of Class II Division 1 patients to provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance in the early approach. Materials and Methods A sample of 60 Class II Division 1 patients in mixed dention that were divided into 30 Class II Division 1 patients with posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) PTID group} and 30 Class II Division 1 patients without posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) NPTID group}. Thirty Class I subjects in mixed dentition were included as control. Results The skeletal features of the Class II group without PTID are those of the skeletal Class II associated with ‘anatomic’ mandibular retrusion (due to a micrognathic mandible) and those of the Class II group with PTID as skeletal Class II associated with only a ‘functional’ mandibular retrusion (due to a posteriorly displaced mandible of normal size). Conclusion This study confirmed the role of occlusion in the control of maxillomandibular skeletal relationships.The treatment strategies could be planned on the basis of the transverse component of Class II Division 1 groups in the mixed dentition period. PMID:26417555

  7. Regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Benitez, S.; Niemela, V.

    En base a observaciones espectroscópicas en el rango óptico, obtenidas en el CASLEO, se estudian las condiciones físicas de tres regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR: N76 en el entorno de Ab7, en la Nube Menor de Magallanes, N79 alrededor de Br 2, en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes y G2.4+1.4 alrededor de WR 102, en nuestra Galaxia. Estas regiones presentan una alta ionización. Se observa la línea nebular de HeII en 4686 Å . Utilizando líneas nebulares de diagnóstico, se derivan los valores de la densidad y la temperatura electrónica, así como también las abundancias de algunos de los elementos químicos nebulares.

  8. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells. 147.3400 Section 147.3400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection...

  9. 40 CFR 82.23 - Transfers of allowances of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfers of allowances of class II... § 82.23 Transfers of allowances of class II controlled substances. (a) Inter-company transfers... quantity of the transferor's class II consumption allowances, production allowances, export...

  10. Biochemical Characterization of the Split Class II Ribonucleotide Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Crona, Mikael; Hofer, Anders; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Tholander, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its flexibility with respect to oxygen load is reflected by the fact that its genome encodes all three existing classes of ribonucleotides reductase (RNR): the oxygen-dependent class I RNR, the oxygen-indifferent class II RNR, and the oxygen-sensitive class III RNR. The P. aeruginosa class II RNR is expressed as two separate polypeptides (NrdJa and NrdJb), a unique example of a split RNR enzyme in a free-living organism. A split class II RNR is also found in a few closely related γ-Proteobacteria. We have characterized the P. aeruginosa class II RNR and show that both subunits are required for formation of a biologically functional enzyme that can sustain vitamin B12-dependent growth. Binding of the B12 coenzyme as well as substrate and allosteric effectors resides in the NrdJa subunit, whereas the NrdJb subunit mediates efficient reductive dithiol exchange during catalysis. A combination of activity assays and activity-independent methods like surface plasmon resonance and gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis suggests that the enzymatically active form of the enzyme is a (NrdJa-NrdJb)2 homodimer of heterodimers, and a combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and molecular modeling suggests a plausible region in NrdJa that interacts with NrdJb. Our detailed characterization of the split NrdJ from P. aeruginosa provides insight into the biochemical function of a unique enzyme known to have central roles in biofilm formation and anaerobic growth. PMID:26225432

  11. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  12. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Dinakarsamy, V.; Santhosh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite. PMID:26015764

  13. On structural patterns in H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, W.A. )

    1989-05-01

    High-resolution photographs of H II regions show that a large number of stars embedded in the nebulosities appear to be surrounded by emply spaces. This phenomenon seems to be quite common but has escaped attention up to now. The effect is not a photographic one, nor does it arise in the half-tone reproduction processes employed in publications, but no satisfactory explanation is apparent. 9 refs.

  14. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  15. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  16. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  17. 25 CFR 522.5 - Disapproval of a class II ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class II ordinance. 522.5 Section 522.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.5 Disapproval of a class...

  18. HLA-DM is localized to conventional and unconventional MHC class II-containing endocytic compartments.

    PubMed

    Pierre, P; Denzin, L K; Hammond, C; Drake, J R; Amigorena, S; Cresswell, P; Mellman, I

    1996-03-01

    HLA-DM molecules remove invariant (Ii) chain peptides from newly synthesized MHC class II complexes. Their localization may thus delineate compartments, e.g., MIIC, specialized for loading peptides onto class II molecules. In murine A20 B cells, however, DM is not restricted to specialized endosomal class II-containing vesicles (CIIV). Although DM was found in CIIV, it was also found throughout the endocytic pathway, principally in lysosomes devoid of class II molecules. In human lymphoblasts, HLA-DM was found in structures indistinguishable from late endosomes or lysosomes, although in these cells the lysosomes contained MHC class II molecules. Thus, the distribution of HLA-DM does not necessarily identify specialized class II compartments. Many "MIIC" may represent conventional lysosomes that accumulate MHC class II and HLA-DM in a number of cell types.

  19. Photoevaporated Flows from H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizano, Susana; Canto, Jorge; Garay, Guido; Hollenbach, David

    1996-09-01

    We model the dynamics of a fast, isothermal ionized stellar wind loaded with mass injected from photoevaporated globules surrounding the massive star. The effect of the mass injection is to produce a density profile such that the ionization front can be trapped for 105 yr, depending on the physical characteristics of the neutral globules inside the H II region. We find that for neutral globules with sizes Rg 0.01 pc, masses of Mg ˜ 1 Msun, and number densities Ng ˜ 2x 104 pc-3, thought to be representative of globules in regions of massive star formation, the implied mean density and size of the mass-loaded regions of ionized gas are about 103-104 cm-3 and about 0.1 pc, respectively, similar to those of compact H II regions. Dust absorption of ionizing photons is important and decreases the densities of the mass-loaded winds with respect to their dust-free counterparts. Also, mass-loaded winds with dust evolve more slowly, since the dusty globules survive for longer times than the dust-free ones. Our models predict ionized flows with mass flow rates of Mdot ˜ 10-5 to 10-4 Msun yr-1. These ionized flows could be studied in radio recombination lines. Assuming Ng does not decline sharply with distance to the central star, the ionized flow will recombine after the characteristic "Strömgren" radius rS at which the ionizing photon rate goes to zero. Therefore, after this radius a neutral flow will accelerate adiabatically to a terminal velocity of VHI ˜ 40 km s-1. Neutral flows of this type could be searched for in the neutral hydrogen line at 21 cm in absorption against the continuum of the compact H II regions.

  20. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  1. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  2. Polycomb recruitment at the Class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Nathaniel H; Morgan, Julie E; Greer, Susanna F

    2015-10-01

    The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes. Transcription of CIITA through the IFN-γ inducible CIITA promoter IV (CIITA pIV) during activation is characterized by a decrease in trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), catalyzed by the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). While EZH2 is the known catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and is present at the inactive CIITA pIV, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment to mammalian promoters remains unknown. Here we identify two DNA-binding proteins, which interact with and regulate PRC2 recruitment to CIITA pIV. We demonstrate Yin Yang 1 (YY1) and Jumonji domain containing protein 2 (JARID2) are binding partners along with EZH2 in mammalian cells. Upon IFN-γ stimulation, YY1 dissociates from CIITA pIV while JARID2 binding to CIITA pIV increases, suggesting novel roles for these proteins in regulating expression of CIITA pIV. Knockdown of YY1 and JARID2 yields decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 at CIITA pIV, suggesting important roles for YY1 and JARID2 at CIITA pIV. JARID2 knockdown also results in significantly elevated levels of CIITA mRNA upon IFN-γ stimulation. This study is the first to identify novel roles of YY1 and JARID2 in the epigenetic regulation of the CIITA pIV by recruitment of PRC2. Our observations indicate the importance of JARID2 in CIITA pIV silencing, and also provide a novel YY1-JARID2-PRC2 regulatory complex as a possible explanation of differential PRC2 recruitment at inducible versus permanently silenced genes.

  3. The H II regions of IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.S.; Mason, S.F.; Gullixson, C.A. Prime Computer, Inc., Bedford, MA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ )

    1990-08-01

    New H-alpha images are presented of IC 1613, a small irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The images, obtained with a CCD on the 42-in telescope at Lowell Observatory, have been calibrated and used to produce an H-alpha luminosity function and a size distribution for the H II regions in IC 1613. The results are compared to results for NGC 6822 and the Magellanic Clouds. The size distribution is found to be Poissonian over a limited range. 24 refs.

  4. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Gupta, K K; Chaturvedi, T P

    2013-09-01

    Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR), root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  5. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  7. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1st M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1st M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. Results: One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1st molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. Conclusions: The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1st molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle. PMID:27011741

  8. H II REGIONS: WITNESSES TO MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Keto, Eric R.

    2010-03-10

    We describe the first three-dimensional simulation of the gravitational collapse of a massive, rotating molecular cloud that includes heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. These models were performed with the FLASH code, incorporating a hybrid, long characteristic, ray-tracing technique. We find that as the first protostars gain sufficient mass to ionize the accretion flow, their H II regions are initially gravitationally trapped, but soon begin to rapidly fluctuate between trapped and extended states, in agreement with observations. Over time, the same ultracompact H II region can expand anisotropically, contract again, and take on any of the observed morphological classes. In their extended phases, expanding H II regions drive bipolar neutral outflows characteristic of high-mass star formation. The total lifetime of H II regions is given by the global accretion timescale, rather than their short internal sound-crossing time. This explains the observed number statistics. The pressure of the hot, ionized gas does not terminate accretion. Instead, the final stellar mass is set by fragmentation-induced starvation. Local gravitational instabilities in the accretion flow lead to the build-up of a small cluster of stars, all with relatively high masses due to heating from accretion radiation. These companions subsequently compete with the initial high-mass star for the same common gas reservoir and limit its mass growth. This is in contrast to the classical competitive accretion model, where the massive stars are never hindered in growth by the low-mass stars in the cluster. Our findings show that the most significant differences between the formation of low-mass and high-mass stars are all explained as the result of rapid accretion within a dense, gravitationally unstable, ionized flow.

  9. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Generoso, Rodrigo; Sadoco, Elaine Cristina; Armond, Mônica Costa; Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years) with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). The Class II sample also consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). On a cross-sectional basis, mandibular length (Co-Gn) was compared between groups and genders. The between-stages changes were also evaluated, with the cervical vertebrae analysis used for establishing the bone maturation stages at CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS5. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mandibular length differed between skeletal patterns only at the earlier stages of development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS4 and CS5, whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS3 and CS4. The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, in exception of the CS5 stage in Class II.

  10. Secretory granules of mast cells accumulate mature and immature MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Schneider, H; Théry, C; Mazzeo, D; Tenza, D; Raposo, G; Bonnerot, C

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mast cells as well as dendritic cells, macrophages and B lymphocytes express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In mast cells, the majority of MHC class II molecules reside in intracellular cell type-specific compartments, secretory granules. To understand the molecular basis for the localisation of MHC class II molecules in secretory granules, MHC class II molecules were expressed, together with the invariant chain, in the mast cell line, RBL-2H3. Using electron and confocal microscopy, we observed that in RBL-2H3 cells, mature and immature class II molecules accumulate in secretory granules. Two particular features of class II transport accounted for this intracellular localization: first, a large fraction of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules remained associated with invariant chain fragments. This defect, resulting in a slower rate of MHC class II maturation, was ascribed to a low cathepsin S activity. Second, although a small fraction of class II dimers matured (i.e. became free of invariant chain), allowing their association with antigenic peptides, they were retained in secretory granules. As a consequence of this intracellular localization, cell surface expression of class II molecules was strongly increased by cell activation stimuli which induced the release of the contents of secretory granules. Our results suggest that antigen presentation, and thereby antigen specific T cell stimulation, are regulated in mast cells by stimuli which induce mast cell activation.

  11. 40 CFR 147.3006 - Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Injection pressure for existing Class... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND... Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule. (a) Rule-authorized Class II...

  12. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986. 522.11 Section 522.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF...

  13. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986. 522.11 Section 522.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF...

  14. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval requirements for class II ordinances. 522.4 Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4...

  15. Early treatment mechanics of the Class II division 2 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Carapezza, L J

    2000-01-01

    A most common type of early malocclusion that the pediatric dentist comes in contact with daily is the developing Class II Division 2 malocclusion (Fig 1-a,b). It is the malocclusion that the parents of the children we serve bring to our attention. Parental concern is the early crowding that develops in the anterior of the lower arch with risk of periodontal involvement. This malocclusion is readily amenable to interception at age 7 or 8 and can proceed with a protocol of defined objectives and predictable outcomes (Fig 2). With efficient and effective utility arch wire (UAW) mechanics a state of normalcy can be achieved within six to eight months of treatment.

  16. Specific suppression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in astrocytes by brain-enriched gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effect of brain-enriched gangliosides on constitutive and cytokine- inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes in cultured astrocytes was studied. Before treatment with gangliosides, astrocytes expressed constitutive MHC class I but not class II molecules, however, the expression of both MHC class I and II cell surface molecules on astrocytes was induced to high levels by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Constitutive and IFN-gamma-inducible expression of MHC class I and II molecules was suppressed by treatment of astrocytes with exogenous bovine brain gangliosides in a dose- dependent manner. Constitutive and induced MHC class I and II mRNA levels were also suppressed by gangliosides, indicating control through transcriptional mechanisms. This was consistent with the ability of gangliosides to suppress the binding activity of transcription factors, especially NF-kappa B-like binding activity, important for the expression of both MHC class I and II genes. These studies may be important for understanding mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS)- specific regulation of major histocompatibility molecules in neuroectodermal cells and the role of gangliosides in regulating MHC- restricted antiviral and autoimmune responses within the CNS. PMID:8376939

  17. Multi-wavelength study of triggered star formation around 25 H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Chuan-Peng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate 25 H II regions that show bubble morphology in 13CO(1-0) and infrared data, to search for quantitative evidence of triggered star formation by processes described by the collect and collapse (CC) and radiatively driven implosion (RDI) models. These H II regions display the morphology of a complete or partial bubble at 8 μm, and are all associated with the molecular clouds that surround them. We found that the electron temperature ranges from 5627 K to 6839 K in these H II regions, and the average electron temperature is 6083 K. The age of these H II regions is from 3.0 × 105 yr to 1.7 × 106 yr, and the mean age is 7.7 × 105 yr. Based on the morphology of the associated molecular clouds, we divide these H II regions into three groups, which may support CC and RDI models. We select 23 young IRAS sources which have an infrared luminosity of > 103Lsolar in 19 H II regions. In addition, we identify some young stellar objects (including Class I sources), which are only concentrated in H II regions G29.007+0.076, G44.339-0.827 and G47.028+0.232. The poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of the three H II regions all show a cometary globule. Comparing the age of each H II region with the characteristic timescales for star formation, we suggest that the three H II regions can trigger clustered star formation by an RDI process. In addition, we detect seven molecular outflows in the five H II regions for the first time. These outflow sources may be triggered by the corresponding H II regions.

  18. Negative regulation by HLA-DO of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Sant'Angelo, D B; Hammond, C; Surman, M J; Cresswell, P

    1997-10-03

    HLA-DM is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-like molecule that facilitates antigen processing by catalyzing the exchange of invariant chain-derived peptides (CLIP) from class II molecules for antigenic peptides. HLA-DO is a second class II-like molecule that physically associates with HLA-DM in B cells. HLA-DO was shown to block HLA-DM function. Purified HLA-DM-DO complexes could not promote peptide exchange in vitro. Expression of HLA-DO in a class II+ and DM+, DO- human T cell line caused the accumulation of class II-CLIP complexes, indicating that HLA-DO blocked DM function in vivo and suggesting that HLA-DO is an important modulator of class II-restricted antigen processing.

  19. MHC class II β genes in the endangered Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yi; Xue, Fei; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Ge, Yun-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to neutral markers, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) can reflect the fitness and adaptive potential of a given species due to its association with the immune system. For this reason, the use of MHC in endangered wildlife management has increased greatly in recent years. Here, we isolated complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) sequences to characterize the MHC class II β genes in Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus), a highly endangered cervid, which recovered from a severe population bottleneck consisting of 26 animals. Analysis of 7 individuals revealed the presence of 3 DRB and 3 DQB putatively functional gDNA sequences. The Ceel-DRB and DQB sequences displayed high variability in exon 2, and most nonsynonymous substitutions were detected in this region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that trans-species evolution of MHC class II β might occur in the Cervinae subfamily. Comparison of the number of sequences between gDNA and cDNA revealed that all sequences isolated from the genome were detectable in the cDNA libraries derived from different tissues (including the liver, kidney, and spleen), suggesting none of these sequences were derived from silent genes or pseudogenes. Characterization of the MHC class II β genes may lay the foundation for future studies on genetic structure, mate choice, and viability analysis in Hainan Eld's deer.

  20. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  1. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2007-11-10

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY{sup 112-113} and WLIY{sup 193-196}, with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB.

  2. Sibling rivalry: competition between MHC class II family members inhibits immunity.

    PubMed

    Denzin, Lisa K; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen-presenting cells is catalyzed by human leukocyte antigen-DM (HLA-DM) and modulated by HLA-DO. In a structural study in this issue, Guce et al. show that HLA-DO is an MHC class II mimic and functions as a competitive and essentially irreversible inhibitor of HLA-DM activity, thereby inhibiting MHC class II antigen presentation.

  3. HLA Class I and II study in a mestizo family with high incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    de Sorrentino, Alicia Habegger; Young, Marcela; Marinic, Karina; Motta, Patricia Fabiana; Baruzzo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease of which host genetic factors play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the HLA Class I and II genes in a family with a high incidence of AID to establish whether they contribute to the development of these disease. Four of them had been diagnosed with SLE and one with AHA. The patients with SLE showed the presence of HLA-A*02 B*40 DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype with a high statistical significance. This haplotype was not present in the healthy individuals and in the patient with AHA, although the DRB1*04:07 DQB1*03:02 haplotype (carried by both parents) was found in the AHA patients and one of the healthy individuals. We must consider how HLA Class I in linkage disequilibrium with HLA Class II may be involved in susceptibility or in the development of SLE. An extensive study in this population should be conducted to establish the true participation of the HLA Class I region.

  4. A CLASS I AND CLASS II CH{sub 3}OH MASER SURVEY OF EGOs FROM THE GLIMPSE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Churchwell, E.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.

    2009-09-10

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH maser survey of a sample of {approx}20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 {mu}m emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire images. These 4.5 {mu}m selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color Infrared Array Camera images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, toward EGOs is {approx}>64%-nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers, which trace molecular outflows, is {approx}89% toward EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. The two types of CH{sub 3}OH masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, while 44 GHz masers are widely distributed and generally trace diffuse 4.5 {mu}m features. We also present results of a complementary James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) single-pointing molecular line survey of EGOs in the outflow tracers HCO{sup +}(3-2) and SiO(5-4). The HCO{sup +} line profiles and high SiO detection rate (90%) are indicative of the presence of active outflows. No 44 GHz continuum emission is detected at the 5 mJy beam{sup -1} (5{sigma}) level toward 95% of EGOs surveyed, excluding bright ultracompact H II regions as powering sources for the 4.5 {mu}m outflows. The results of our surveys constitute strong evidence that EGOs are young, massive YSOs, with active outflows, presumably powered by ongoing accretion.

  5. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. 522.10 Section 522.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN... gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. For licensing of individually...

  6. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. 522.10 Section 522.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN... gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. For licensing of individually...

  7. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. 522.10 Section 522.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN... gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. For licensing of individually...

  8. The vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase system: variable class II type form elucidates separate stages of enzymogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmqvist, L; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H

    1995-01-01

    A mixed-class alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from avian liver. Its functional properties resemble the classical class I type enzyme in livers of humans and animals by exhibiting low Km and kcat values with alcohols (Km = 0.7 mM with ethanol) and low Ki values with 4-methylpyrazole (4 microM). These values are markedly different from corresponding parameters of class II and III enzymes. In contrast, the primary structure of this avian liver alcohol dehydrogenase reveals an overall relationship closer to class II and to some extent class III (69 and 65% residue identities, respectively) than to class I or the other classes of the human alcohol dehydrogenases (52-61%), the presence of an insertion (four positions in a segment close to position 120) as in class II but in no other class of the human enzymes, and the presence of several active site residues considered typical of the class II enzyme. Hence, the avian enzyme has mixed-class properties, being functionally similar to class I, yet structurally similar to class II, with which it also clusters in phylogenetic trees of characterized vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases. Comparisons reveal that the class II enzyme is approximately 25% more variable than the "variable" class I enzyme, which itself is more variable than the "constant" class III enzyme. The overall extreme, and the unusual chromatographic behavior may explain why the class II enzyme has previously not been found outside mammals. The properties define a consistent pattern with apparently repeated generation of novel enzyme activities after separate gene duplications. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479907

  9. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of a Sulfolobus solfataricus gene encoding a class II fumarase.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Grisa, M; Tortora, P; Vanoni, M

    1994-01-03

    Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of L-malate and fumarate. A Sulfolobus solfataricus fumarase gene (fumC) was cloned and sequenced. Typical archaebacterial regulatory sites were identified in the region flanking the fumC open reading frame. The fumC gene encodes a protein of 438 amino acids (47,899 Da) which shows several significant similarities with class II fumarases from both eubacterial and eukariotic sources as well as with aspartases. S. solfataricus fumarase expressed in Escherichia coli retains enzymatic activity and its thermostability is comparable to that of S. solfataricus purified enzyme despite a 11 amino acid C-terminal deletion.

  10. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    PubMed

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Miles, Lee G; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia.

  11. Selection and Trans-Species Polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes in the Order Crocodylia

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Miles, Lee G.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85–90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia. PMID:24503938

  12. Cloning of the major histocompatibility complex class II promoter binding protein affected in a hereditary defect in class II gene regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Reith, W; Barras, E; Satola, S; Kobr, M; Reinhart, D; Sanchez, C H; Mach, B

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression is directly involved in the control of normal and abnormal immune responses. In humans, HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP class II heterodimers are encoded by a family of alpha- and beta-chain genes clustered in the major histocompatibility complex. Their expression is developmentally controlled and normally restricted to certain cell types. This control is mediated by cis-acting sequences in class II promoters and by trans-acting regulatory factors. Several nuclear proteins bind to class II promoter sequences. In a form of hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by a defect in a trans-acting regulatory factor controlling class II gene transcription, we have observed that one of these nuclear factors (RF-X) does not bind to its target sequence (the class II X box). A cDNA encoding RF-X was isolated by screening a phage expression library with an X-box binding-site probe. The recombinant protein has the binding specificity of RF-X, including a characteristic gradient of affinity for the X boxes of HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ promoters. RF-X mRNA is present in the regulatory mutants, indicating a defect in the synthesis of a functional form of the RF-X protein. Images PMID:2498880

  13. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  14. Pseudomycoicidin, a Class II Lantibiotic from Bacillus pseudomycoides

    PubMed Central

    Basi-Chipalu, Shradha; Dischinger, Jasmin; Josten, Michaele; Szekat, Christiane; Zweynert, Annegret; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides with substantial posttranslational modifications. They are characterized by the unique amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine, which are introduced by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues and linkage of the resulting dehydrated amino acids with Cys residues. BLAST searches using the mersacidin biosynthetic enzyme (MrsM) in the NCBI database revealed a new class II lantibiotic gene cluster in Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442. Production of an antimicrobial substance with activity against Gram-positive bacteria was detectable in a cell wash extract of this strain. The substance was partially purified, and mass spectrometric analysis predicted a peptide of 2,786 Da in the active fraction. In order to characterize the putative lantibiotic further, heterologous expression of the predicted biosynthetic genes was performed in Escherichia coli. Coexpression of the prepeptide (PseA) along with the corresponding modification enzyme (PseM) resulted in the production of a modified peptide with the corresponding mass, carrying four out of eight possible dehydrations and supporting the presence of four thioether and one disulfide bridge. After the proteolytic removal of the leader, the core peptide exhibited antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, pseudomycoicidin is a novel lantibiotic with antimicrobial activity that was heterologously produced in E. coli. PMID:25769830

  15. Profiling antibodies to class II HLA in transplant patient sera.

    PubMed

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Lowe, Dave; Buchli, Rico; Daga, Sunil; Royer, Derek; Humphrey, Alisha; Cate, Steven; Osborn, Sean; Mojsilovic, Aleksandar; VanGundy, Rodney; Bardet, Wilfried; Duty, Andrew; Mojsilovic, Danijela; Jackson, Kenneth; Stastny, Peter; Briggs, David; Zehnder, Daniel; Higgins, Rob; Hildebrand, William

    2014-03-01

    Immunizing events including pregnancy, transfusions, and transplantation promote strong alloantibody responses to HLA. Such alloantibodies to HLA preclude organ transplantation, foster hyperacute rejection, and contribute to chronic transplant failure. Diagnostic antibody-screening assays detect alloreactive antibodies, yet key attributes including antibody concentration and isotype remain largely unexplored. The goal here was to provide a detailed profile of allogeneic antibodies to class II HLA. Methodologically, alloantibodies were purified from sensitized patient sera using an HLA-DR11 immunoaffinity column and subsequently categorized. Antibodies to DR11 were found to fix complement, exist at a median serum concentration of 2.3μg/mL, consist of all isotypes, and isotypes IgG2, IgM, and IgE were elevated. Because multimeric isotypes can confound diagnostic determinations of antibody concentration, IgM and IgA isotypes were removed and DR11-IgG tested alone. Despite removal of multimeric isotypes, patient-to-patient antibody concentrations did not correlate with MFI values. In conclusion, allogeneic antibody responses to DR11 are comprised of all antibody isotypes at differing proportions, these combined isotypes fix complement at nominal serum concentrations, and enhancements other than the removal of IgM and IgA multimeric isotypes may be required if MFI is to be used as a means of determining anti-HLA serum antibody concentrations in diagnostic clinical assays.

  16. 77 FR 64396 - Order of Succession for HUD Region II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region II AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the New York Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region II). This Order of...

  17. Early Endosomes Are Required for Major Histocompatiblity Complex Class II Transport to Peptide-loading Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Brachet, Valérie; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Desaymard, Catherine; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    Antigen presentation to CD4+ T lymphocytes requires transport of newly synthesized major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, where peptide loading occurs. This step is mediated by a signal located in the cytoplasmic tail of the MHC class II-associated Ii chain, which directs the MHC class II-Ii complexes from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. The subcellular machinery responsible for the specific targeting of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway, as well as the first compartments these molecules enter after exit from the TGN, remain unclear. We have designed an original experimental approach to selectively analyze this step of MHC class II transport. Newly synthesized MHC class II molecules were caused to accumulate in the Golgi apparatus and TGN by incubating the cells at 19°C, and early endosomes were functionally inactivated by in vivo cross-linking of transferrin (Tf) receptor–containing endosomes using Tf-HRP complexes and the HRP-insoluble substrate diaminobenzidine. Inactivation of Tf-containing endosomes caused a marked delay in Ii chain degradation, peptide loading, and MHC class II transport to the cell surface. Thus, early endosomes appear to be required for delivery of MHC class II molecules to the endocytic pathway. Under cross-linking conditions, most αβIi complexes accumulated in tubules and vesicles devoid of γ-adaptin and/or mannose-6-phosphate receptor, suggesting an AP1-independent pathway for the delivery of newly synthesized MHC class II molecules from the TGN to endosomes. PMID:10473634

  18. Lack of associations between HLA class II alleles and resistance to HIV-1 infection among white, non-Hispanic homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglong; Carrington, Mary; Kaslow, Richard A; Gao, Xiaojiang; Rinaldo, Charles R; Jacobson, Lisa P; Margolick, Joseph B; Phair, John; O'Brien, Stephen J; Detels, Roger

    2004-10-01

    HLA class II alleles were molecularly typed for 100 high-risk seronegative men and 184 low-risk seroconverters from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Seven resistant individuals homozygous for CCR5 Delta32 deletions were excluded from analysis. In the univariate analysis, no significant HLA class II associations with resistance/susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection were identified. However, the transporter associated with antigen presentation 2 (TAP2) Ala 665 variant associated with resistance in earlier analyses in the MACS was in linkage disequilibrium with some HLA class II alleles. After adjusting for the established associations with HLA-A*0205 subgroup and TAP2 Ala 665 variant, no HLA class II alleles were independently associated with resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Other genetic factors in the HLA class II-TAP region of the major histocompatibility complex might be involved.

  19. Probing the Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects using Weak Class II 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Bethany Ann; Cunningham, Nichol

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of class II 6.7GHz methanol masers towards four Massive Young Stellar Objects (MYSOs). The sources, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey (Lumsden et al. 2013), were previously understood to be non-detections for class II methanol maser emission in the methanol multi-beam (MMB) Survey (Caswell et al. 2010.) Class II methanol masers are a well-known sign post of massive star forming regions and may be utilized to probe their relatively poorly understood formation. It is possible that these non-detections are simply weak masers that are potentially associated with a younger evolutionary phase of MYSOs as hypothesized by Olmi et al. (2014). The sources were chosen to sample various stages of evolution, having similar 21 to 8 micron flux ratios and bolometric luminosities as other MYSOs with previous class II methanol maser detections. We observed all 4 MYSOs with ATCA (~2" resolution) at 10 times deeper sensitivity than previously obtained with the MMB survey and have a spectral resolution of 0.087kms^-1 . The raw data is reduced using the program Miriad (Sault, R. J., et al., 1995) and deconvolutioned using the program CASA (McMullin, J. P., et al. 2007.) We determine one of the four observed MYSOs is harboring a weak class II methanol maser. We discuss the possibility of sensitivity limitations on the remaining sources as well as environmental and evolutionary differences between the sources.

  20. 30 Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, D.

    2000-11-01

    The study of extragalactic H II regions has provided key data on ISM abundan ces in star-forming galaxies, and on the properties and physical mechanisms associated with starbursts. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert were early pioneers in obtaining high-quality on physical conditions in extragalactic H II regions. In this review I will highlight their contributions to the field and our present-day understanding of giant H II regions and starbursts.

  1. A class of trust-region methods for parallel optimization

    SciTech Connect

    P. D. Hough; J. C. Meza

    1999-03-01

    The authors present a new class of optimization methods that incorporates a Parallel Direct Search (PDS) method within a trust-region Newton framework. This approach combines the inherent parallelism of PDS with the rapid and robust convergence properties of Newton methods. Numerical tests have yielded favorable results for both standard test problems and engineering applications. In addition, the new method appears to be more robust in the presence of noisy functions that are inherent in many engineering simulations.

  2. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION AT THE PERIPHERY OF THE EVOLVED GIANT H II REGION W 39

    SciTech Connect

    Kerton, C. R.; Arvidsson, K.; Alexander, M. J. E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-03-15

    We present the first detailed study of the large, {approx}30 pc diameter, inner-Galaxy H II region W 39. Radio recombination line observations combined with H I absorption spectra and Galactic rotation models show that the region lies at V{sub LSR} = +65.4 {+-} 0.5 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to a near kinematic distance of 4.5 {+-} 0.2 kpc. Analysis of radio continuum emission shows that the H II region is being powered by a cluster of OB stars with a combined hydrogen-ionizing luminosity of log (Q) {>=} 50, and that there are three compact H II regions located on the periphery of W 39, each with log (Q) {approx} 48.5 (single O7-O9 V star equivalent). In the infrared, W 39 has a hierarchical bubble morphology, and is a likely site of sequential star formation involving massive stars. Kinematic models of the expansion of W 39 yield timescales of the order of Myr, consistent with a scenario where the formation of the smaller H II regions has been triggered by the expansion of W 39. Using Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL data, we show that star formation activity is not distributed uniformly around the periphery of W 39 but is concentrated in two areas that include the compact H II regions as well as a number of intermediate-mass Class I and Class II young stellar objects.

  3. A multiwavelength investigation of the H II region S311: young stellar population and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Mallick, K. K.; Jose, J.; Ogura, K.; Richichi, Andrea; Irawati, Puji; Kobayashi, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of the young stellar population and star formation activities around the H II region Sharpless 311. Using our deep near-infrared observations and archival Spitzer-IRAC observations, we have detected a total of 125 young stellar objects (YSOs) in an area of ˜86 arcmin2. The YSO sample includes eight Class I and 117 Class II candidate YSOs. The mass completeness of the identified YSO sample is estimated to be 1.0 M⊙. The ages and masses of the majority of the candidate YSOs are estimated to be in the range ˜0.1-5 Myr and ˜0.3-6 M⊙, respectively. The 8-μm image of S311 displays an approximately spherical cavity around the ionizing source, which was possibly created by the expansion of the H II region. The spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs reveals that a significant number of them are distributed systematically along the 8-μm emission with a majority clustered around the eastern border of the H II region. Four clumps/compact H II regions are detected in the radio continuum observations at 1280 MHz, which may have been formed during the expansion of the H II region. The estimated dynamical age of the region, main-sequence lifetime of the ionizing source, the spatial distribution and ages of the candidate YSOs indicate triggered star formation in the complex.

  4. 43 CFR 3108.2-3 - Reinstatement at higher rental and royalty rates: Class II reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rates: Class II reinstatements. 3108.2-3 Section 3108.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... rental and royalty rates: Class II reinstatements. (a) The authorized officer may, if the requirements of this section are met, reinstate an oil and gas lease which was terminated by operation of law...

  5. 40 CFR 82.23 - Transfers of allowances of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class II controlled substance being converted multiplied by the quotient of the ozone depletion potential of the first class II controlled substance divided by the ozone depletion potential of the second... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption...

  6. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... for Class II gaming systems and equipment to harmonize the charitable gaming exemption amount in the technical standards with the charitable gaming exemption amount in its Class II minimum internal control... Gaming Systems and Equipment AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  7. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  8. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  9. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  10. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  11. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  12. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Class II Controlled Substances a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class II Controlled Substances a B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Subpt. A, App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 82—Class II Controlled Substances a...

  17. [Class II malocclusion: some aspects of diagnostics and complex orthodontic and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Zorich, M E; Iatskevich, O S; Ivanov, S Iu; Muraev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Class II malocclusions are of interest to the practicing orthodontists since they constitute a significant percentage of the cases they treat. The process of establishing a treatment plan requires an assessment of therapeutic modifiability. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the characteristics, development, etiology and broad treatment consideration in Class II malocclusions.

  18. 40 CFR 147.1251 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mississippi § 147.1251 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Mississippi, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1251 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mississippi § 147.1251 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Mississippi, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1251 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mississippi § 147.1251 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Mississippi, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1251 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mississippi § 147.1251 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Mississippi, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1251 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mississippi § 147.1251 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Mississippi, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the State Oil and Gas Board of Mississippi approved by EPA pursuant to section 1425 of the SDWA. Notice of this...

  3. Class II combination therapy (distal jet and Jasper Jumpers): a case report.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S J

    2000-09-01

    Class II combination therapy is a method that combines orthodontic and orthopedic mechanics in a single stage of treatment. Molar distalization is followed by fixed functional mechanics to reduce the dependence upon patient compliance while seeking more predictable completion of Class II correction.

  4. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

  5. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  6. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  7. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

  8. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  9. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  10. A central role for HSC70 in regulating antigen trafficking and MHC class II presentation.

    PubMed

    Deffit, Sarah N; Blum, Janice S

    2015-12-01

    Cells rely on multiple intracellular trafficking pathways to capture antigens for proteolysis. The resulting peptides bind to MHC class II molecules to promote CD4(+) T cell recognition. Endocytosis enhances the capture of extracellular and cell surface bound antigens for processing and presentation, while autophagy pathways shunt cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens for presentation in the context of MHC class II molecules. Understanding how physiological changes and cellular stress alter antigen trafficking and the repertoire of peptides presented by class II molecules remains challenging, yet important in devising novel approaches to boost immune responses to pathogens and tumors. An abundant, constitutively expressed cytoplasmic chaperone, HSC70 plays a central role in modulating antigen transport within cells to control MHC class II presentation during nutrient stress. HSC70 may serve as a molecular switch to modulate endocytic and autophagy pathways, impacting the source of antigens delivered for MHC class II presentation during cellular stress.

  11. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.8 What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II... of Class II games. (a) Player interface displays. (1) If not otherwise provided to the player, the player interface shall display the following: (i) The purchase or wager amount; (ii) Game results;...

  12. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.8 What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II... of Class II games. (a) Player interface displays. (1) If not otherwise provided to the player, the player interface shall display the following: (i) The purchase or wager amount; (ii) Game results;...

  13. 25 CFR 547.8 - What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.8 What are the minimum technical software standards applicable to Class II... of Class II games. (a) Player interface displays. (1) If not otherwise provided to the player, the player interface shall display the following: (i) The purchase or wager amount; (ii) Game results;...

  14. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Sanderson, Claire; Belov, Katherine

    2007-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is currently threatened by an emerging wildlife disease, devil facial tumour disease. The disease is decreasing devil numbers dramatically and may lead to the extinction of the species. At present, nothing is known about the immune genes or basic immunology of the devil. In this study, we report the construction of the first genetic library for the Tasmanian devil, a spleen cDNA library, and the isolation of full-length MHC Class I and Class II genes. We describe six unique Class II beta chain sequences from at least three loci, which belong to the marsupial Class II DA gene family. We have isolated 13 unique devil Class I sequences, representing at least seven Class I loci, two of which are most likely non-classical genes. The MHC Class I sequences from the devil have little heterogeneity, indicating recent divergence. The MHC genes described here are most likely involved in antigen presentation and are an important first step for studying MHC diversity and immune response in the devil.

  15. HLA class II sequence variants influence tuberculosis risk in populations of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Gudmundsson, Larus J.; Blondal, Kai; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon Axel; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Karason, Ari; Kardum, Ljiljana Bulat; Knežević, Jelena; Kristjansson, Helgi; Kristjansson, Mar; Love, Arthur; Luo, Yang; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sulem, Patrick; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Dembic, Zlatko; Nejentsev, Sergey; Blondal, Thorsteinn; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections cause 9.0 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.5 million deaths annually1. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of TB we tested 28.3 million variants identified through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders for association with TB (8,162 cases and 277,643 controls), pulmonary TB (PTB), and M. tuberculosis infection. We found association of three sequence variants in the HLA class II region: rs557011[T] (MAF=40.2%) with M. tuberculosis infection (OR =1.14, P=3.1×10-13) and PTB (OR=1.25, P=5.8×10-12) and rs9271378[G] (MAF=32.5%) with PTB (OR=0.78, P=2.5×10-12), both located between HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1. Finally, a missense variant p.Ala210Thr in HLA-DQA1, (MAF=19.1%, rs9272785) shows association with M. tuberculosis infection (P=9.3×10-9, OR=1.14). The association of these variants with PTB was replicated in large samples of European ancestry from Russia and Croatia (P< 5.9×10-4). These findings demonstrate that the HLA class II region contributes to the complex genetic risk of tuberculosis, possibly through reduced presentation of protective M. tuberculosis antigens to T cells. PMID:26829749

  16. Mechanism for the definition of elongation and termination by the class II CCA-adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Toh, Yukimatsu; Takeshita, Daijiro; Numata, Tomoyuki; Fukai, Shuya; Nureki, Osamu; Tomita, Kozo

    2009-11-04

    The CCA-adding enzyme synthesizes the CCA sequence at the 3' end of tRNA without a nucleic acid template. The crystal structures of class II Thermotoga maritima CCA-adding enzyme and its complexes with CTP or ATP were determined. The structure-based replacement of both the catalytic heads and nucleobase-interacting neck domains of the phylogenetically closely related Aquifex aeolicus A-adding enzyme by the corresponding domains of the T. maritima CCA-adding enzyme allowed the A-adding enzyme to add CCA in vivo and in vitro. However, the replacement of only the catalytic head domain did not allow the A-adding enzyme to add CCA, and the enzyme exhibited (A, C)-adding activity. We identified the region in the neck domain that prevents (A, C)-adding activity and defines the number of nucleotide incorporations and the specificity for correct CCA addition. We also identified the region in the head domain that defines the terminal A addition after CC addition. The results collectively suggest that, in the class II CCA-adding enzyme, the head and neck domains collaboratively and dynamically define the number of nucleotide additions and the specificity of nucleotide selection.

  17. MHC class II genes in European wolves: a comparison with dogs.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Jennifer M; Ellegren, Hans

    2002-10-01

    The genome of the grey wolf, one of the most widely distributed land mammal species, has been subjected to both stochastic factors, including biogeographical subdivision and population fragmentation, and strong selection during the domestication of the dog. To explore the effects of drift and selection on the partitioning of MHC variation in the diversification of species, we present nine DQA, 10 DQB, and 17 DRB1 sequences of the second exon for European wolves and compare them with sequences of North American wolves and dogs. The relatively large number of class II alleles present in both European and North American wolves attests to their large historical population sizes, yet there are few alleles shared between these regions at DQB and DRB1. Similarly, the dog has an extensive array of class II MHC alleles, a consequence of a genetically diverse origin, but allelic overlap with wolves only at DQA. Although we might expect a progression from shared alleles to shared allelic lineages during differentiation, the partitioning of diversity between wolves and dogs at DQB and DRB1 differs from that at DQA. Furthermore, an extensive region of nucleotide sequence shared between DRB1 and DQB alleles and a shared motif suggests intergenic recombination may have contributed to MHC diversity in the Canidae.

  18. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  19. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    PubMed

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway.

  20. Land before coal: class and regional development in southeast Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Pudup, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    At the turn of the century southeast Kentucky's economy was transformed from household subsistence farming and manufacturing to industrial coal production. During prior decades the economy had lapsed into subsistence, failing to generate demands for local industry, and blocking export-oriental development. Three county case studies reveal each possessed a resident middle class whose social bases were large property ownership, control over local commerce, and dominance of county politics. The emergence and constitution of the local middle class is explained in terms of longevity, kinship, and the political economic localisms endemic to the southern United States. Although it did not become a regional capitalist vanguard, the local middle class nonetheless became essential in the local edifice of capitalism by investing in county seat commercial and service industries and by continuing its control of local politics. The middle class also facilitated the capitalization of mountain resources. Case studies illuminate this role, distinguish among categories of resource investors, and describe geographical outcomes of capital investment.

  1. The H II regions of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239

    SciTech Connect

    Krienke, K.; Hodge, P. Washington, University, Seattle )

    1991-03-01

    The luminosities of the 88 H II regions of NGC 3239, very likely a merging galaxy system, were measured by digital analysis of a photographic plate (20 A bandwidth filter). Despite evidence for earlier starburst activity, the present H II luminosity function is very similar to that for the LMC, including a supergiant H II region of 0.76 the luminosity of 30 Dor. The measured H II regions of NGC 3239 have an H-alpha total luminosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 40th erg/s. 13 refs.

  2. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  3. Class I and class II major histocompatibility molecules play a role in bone marrow-derived macrophage development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Simske, S. J.; Beharka, A. A.; Balch, S.; Luttges, M. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play significant roles in T cell development and immune function. We show that MHCI- and MHCII-deficient mice have low numbers of macrophage precursors and circulating monocytes, as well as abnormal bone marrow cell colony-stimulating factor type 1 secretion and bone composition. We suggest that MHCI and MHCII molecules play a significant role in macrophage development.

  4. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  5. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations.

    PubMed

    Bowen, L; Aldridge, B M; Miles, A K; Stott, J L

    2006-05-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters.

  6. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  7. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  8. A structural transition in class II major histocompatibility complex proteins at mildly acidic pH

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Peptide binding by class II major histocompatibility complex proteins is generally enhanced at low pH in the range of hydrogen ion concentrations found in the endosomal compartments of antigen- presenting cells. We and others have proposed that class II molecules undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that is associated with enhanced peptide loading. However, no one has previously provided direct evidence for a structural change in class II proteins in the mildly acidic pH conditions in which enhanced peptide binding is observed. In this study, susceptibility to denaturation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent or heat was used to probe the conformation of class II at different hydrogen ion concentrations. Class II molecules became sensitive to denaturation at pH 5.5-6.5 depending on the allele and experimental conditions. The observed structural transition was fully reversible if acidic pH was neutralized before exposure to SDS or heat. Experiments with the environment- sensitive fluorescent probe ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid) provided further evidence for a reversible structural transition at mildly acidic pH associated with an increase in exposed hydrophobicity in class II molecules. IAd conformation was found to change at a higher pH than IEd, IEk, or IAk, which correlates with the different pH optimal for peptide binding by these molecules. We conclude that pH regulates peptide binding by influencing the structure of class II molecules. PMID:8551215

  9. β2-Glycoprotein I/HLA class II complexes are novel autoantigens in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kenji; Jin, Hui; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Morikami, Satoko; Arase, Noriko; Kishida, Kazuki; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Kohyama, Masako; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Horita, Tetsuya; Takasugi, Kiyoshi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Ken; Katayama, Ichiro; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Lanier, Lewis L; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Hideto; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-04-30

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications. β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) complexed with phospholipid is recognized as a major target for autoantibodies in APS; however, less than half the patients with clinical manifestations of APS possess autoantibodies against the complexes. Therefore, the range of autoantigens involved in APS remains unclear. Recently, we found that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules transport misfolded cellular proteins to the cell surface via association with their peptide-binding grooves. Furthermore, immunoglobulin G heavy chain/HLA class II complexes were specific targets for autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we demonstrate that intact β2GPI, not peptide, forms a complex with HLA class II molecules. Strikingly, 100 (83.3%) of the 120 APS patients analyzed, including those whose antiphospholipid antibody titers were within normal range, possessed autoantibodies that recognize β2GPI/HLA class II complexes in the absence of phospholipids. In situ association between β2GPI and HLA class II was observed in placental tissues of APS patients but not in healthy controls. Furthermore, autoantibodies against β2GPI/HLA class II complexes mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity against cells expressing the complexes. These data suggest that β2GPI/HLA class II complexes are a target in APS that might be involved in the pathogenesis.

  10. Downregulation of class II transactivator (CIITA) expression by synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Celine; Hose, Stacey; O'Brien, Terrence P; Sinha, Debasish

    2004-01-30

    Cannabinoid receptors are known to be expressed in microglia; however, their involvement in specific aspects of microglial immune function has not been demonstrated. Many effects of cannabinoids are mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, designated CB1 and CB2. We have shown that the CB1 receptor is expressed in microglia that also express MHC class II antigen (J. Neuroimmunol. 82 (1998) 13-21). In our present study, we have analyzed the effect of cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 on MHC class II expression on the surface of IFN-gamma induced microglial cells by flow cytometry. CP55,940 blocked the class II MHC expression induced by IFN-gamma. It has been shown that the regulation of class II MHC genes occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, and a non-DNA binding protein, class II transactivator (CIITA), has been shown to be the master activator for class II transcription. We find that mRNA levels of CIITA are increased in IFN-gamma induced EOC 20 microglial cells and that this increase is almost entirely eliminated by the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940. These data suggests that cannabinoids affect MHC class II expression through actions on CIITA at the transcriptional level.

  11. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression.

    PubMed

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-31

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37-0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology.

  12. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression

    PubMed Central

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35–0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology. PMID:28139690

  13. Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawry, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Part I, "Searching for the Right Way to Begin Class," described the various iterations of beginning class rituals the author used over the years. Those rituals began with a prayer to the Holy Spirit as was required at the Catholic women's college Marymount in Tarrytown, New York, where he first taught out of graduate school in 1965. That…

  14. CDw78 defines MHC class II-peptide complexes that require Ii chain-dependent lysosomal trafficking, not localization to a specific tetraspanin membrane microdomain.

    PubMed

    Poloso, Neil J; Denzin, Lisa K; Roche, Paul A

    2006-10-15

    MHC class II molecules (MHC-II) associate with detergent-resistant membrane microdomains, termed lipid rafts, which affects the function of these molecules during Ag presentation to CD4+ T cells. Recently, it has been proposed that MHC-II also associates with another type of membrane microdomain, termed tetraspan microdomains. These microdomains are defined by association of molecules to a family of proteins that contain four-transmembrane regions, called tetraspanins. It has been suggested that MHC-II associated with tetraspanins are selectively identified by a mAb to a MHC-II determinant, CDw78. In this report, we have re-examined this issue of CDw78 expression and MHC-II-association with tetraspanins in human dendritic cells, a variety of human B cell lines, and MHC-II-expressing HeLa cells. We find no correlation between the expression of CDw78 and the expression of tetraspanins CD81, CD82, CD53, CD9, and CD37. Furthermore, we find that the relative amount of tetraspanins bound to CDw78-reactive MHC-II is indistinguishable from the amount bound to peptide-loaded MHC-II. We found that expression of CDw78 required coexpression of MHC-II together with its chaperone Ii chain. In addition, analysis of a panel of MHC-II-expressing B cell lines revealed that different alleles of HLA-DR express different amounts of CDw78 reactivity. We conclude that CDw78 defines a conformation of MHC-II bound to peptides that are acquired through trafficking to lysosomal Ag-processing compartments and not MHC-II-associated with tetraspanins.

  15. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  16. Presence of antibodies against self human leukocyte antigen class II molecules in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Takamura, Masaaki; Genda, Takuya; Ichida, Takafumi; Nomoto, Minoru; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. Considering the identical features of de novo AIH after LT and classical AIH, as well as the importance of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection, we investigated the presence of circulating anti-HLA class II antibodies in the sera of 35 patients with AIH, 30 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 30 healthy donors using fluorescent dye-impregnated beads bound to HLA molecules. We then investigated the allele specificity of the antibodies and identified the HLA alleles in each patient using DNA-based HLA typing. We also examined HLA class II expression in liver samples using immunohistochemistry. Anti-HLA class II antibodies were detected significantly more frequently in the patients with AIH (88.1%) than in the patients with PBC (33.3%) or in the healthy donors (13.3%) (both P <0.01). We confirmed that the anti-HLA class II antibodies in the AIH patients showed specificity for several HLA class II alleles, including self HLA class II alleles. Moreover, positive reactivity with anti-self HLA class II antibodies was associated with higher serum transaminase levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time, that antibodies against self HLA class II alleles were detectable in patients with AIH. Our results suggest that an antibody-mediated immune response against HLA class II molecules on hepatocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis or acceleration of liver injury in AIH.

  17. Investigation of X-class Flare-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections with and without DH Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrance, M. Bendict; Shanmugaraju, A.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2015-11-01

    A statistical analysis of 135 out of 141 X-class flares observed during 1997 - 2012 with and without deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts has been performed. It was found that 79 events (X-class flares and coronal mass ejections - Group I) were associated with DH type II radio bursts and 62 X-class flare events were not. Out of these 62 events without DH type IIs, 56 events (Group II) have location information, and they were selected for this study. Of these 56 events, only 32 were associated with CMEs. Most of the DH-associated X-class events ({˜} 79 %) were halo CMEs, in contrast to 14 % in Group II. The average CME speed of the X-class flares associated with DH type IIs is 1555 km s-1, which is nearly twice that of the X-class flare-associated CMEs without DH event (744 km s-1). The X-class flares associated with DH radio bursts have a mean flare intensity (3.63 × 10^{-4} W m^{-2}) that is 38 % greater than that of X-class flares without DH radio bursts (2.23 × 10^{-4} W m^{-2}). In addition to the greater intensity, it is also found that the the duration and rise time of flares associated with DH radio emission (DH flares) is more than twice than that of the flares without DH radio emission. When the events were further divided into two categories with respect to their source locations in eastern and western regions, 65 % of the events in the radio-loud category (with DH radio bursts) are from the western hemisphere and the remaining 35 % are from the eastern hemisphere. On the other hand, in the radio-quiet category (without DH radio bursts), nearly 60 % of the events are from the eastern hemisphere in contrast to those of the radio-loud category. It is found that 81 % of the events from eastern regions have flare durations > 30 min in the DH-flare category, in contrast to a nearly equal number from the western side for flare durations longer/shorter than 30 min. Similarly, the eastern events in the DH-flare category have a longer average rise-time of

  18. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes.'' The special controls identify the following risks to health... Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph...

  19. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  20. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability... Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Documents: Topical Oxygen Chamber for... Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities'' to the Division of Small...

  1. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Maciel, Tamela E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  2. Regulation of a transfected human class II major histocompatibility complex gene in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Boss, J M; Strominger, J L

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the cis-acting DNA elements that are involved in regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex genes, including gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) induction, 5' flanking DNA deletions of a DQ beta "minigene" were analyzed in stable transfected cell lines. At least four elements 5' to the gene were found to be involved in DQ beta regulation. Deletion of sequences from -2500 to -159 base pairs (bp) resulted in increased transcription, suggesting that negative regulatory elements resided in the deleted region. These clones were all capable of responding to gamma-IFN. Further deletion of sequences from -159 to -128 bp resulted in constitutive high level transcription and the inability of these constructions to respond to gamma-IFN. A deletion to -107 bp resulted in a decrease in the basal level of expression that was restored by removal of the 5' DNA sequence to -82 bp, suggesting the presence of a second negative element. Finally, deletion to -64 bp caused a marked decrease in expression, suggesting the loss of an element necessary for high levels of transcription. The gamma-IFN control and the transcription control elements contain the conserved upstream sequences found in all class II genes, suggesting a role for these sequences. Images PMID:3097644

  3. Repression domains of class II ERF transcriptional repressors share an essential motif for active repression.

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Matsui, K; Hiratsu, K; Shinshi, H; Ohme-Takagi, M

    2001-08-01

    We reported previously that three ERF transcription factors, tobacco ERF3 (NtERF3) and Arabidopsis AtERF3 and AtERF4, which are categorized as class II ERFs, are active repressors of transcription. To clarify the roles of these repressors in transcriptional regulation in plants, we attempted to identify the functional domains of the ERF repressor that mediates the repression of transcription. Analysis of the results of a series of deletions revealed that the C-terminal 35 amino acids of NtERF3 are sufficient to confer the capacity for repression of transcription on a heterologous DNA binding domain. This repression domain suppressed the intermolecular activities of other transcriptional activators. In addition, fusion of this repression domain to the VP16 activation domain completely inhibited the transactivation function of VP16. Comparison of amino acid sequences of class II ERF repressors revealed the conservation of the sequence motif (L)/(F)DLN(L)/(F)(x)P. This motif was essential for repression because mutations within the motif eliminated the capacity for repression. We designated this motif the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, and we identified this motif in a number of zinc-finger proteins from wheat, Arabidopsis, and petunia plants. These zinc finger proteins functioned as repressors, and their repression domains were identified as regions that contained an EAR motif.

  4. Operating Systems. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Charlene

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing an operating systems course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A student…

  5. Automated Accounting. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phillip

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and admnistrators in implementing an automated accounting course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A student lab…

  6. PDZ Domain Dependent Regulation of NHE3 Occurs by Both Internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PDZ Binding Motifs.

    PubMed

    Cha, Boyoung; Yang, Jianbo; Singh, Varsha; Zachos, Nicholas C; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Chen, Tian-E; Chakraborty, Molee; Tse, Chung-Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-03-10

    NHE3 directly binds NHERF family scaffolding proteins that are required for many aspects of NHE3 regulation. The NHERFs bind both to an internal region (aa. 586-660) of the NHE3 C-terminus and to the NHE3 C-terminal four amino acids. The internal NHERF binding region contains both putative Class I (-592SAV-) and Class II (-595CLDM-) PDZ binding motifs (PBM). Point mutagenesis showed that only the Class II motif contributes to NHERF binding. In this study, the roles in regulation of NHE3 activity of these two PBMs were investigated, revealing: 1) Interaction between these binding sites since mutation of either removed nearly all NHERF binding. 2) Mutations in either significantly reduced basal NHE3 activity. Total and percent plasma membrane (PM) NHE3 protein expression were reduced in the C-terminal but not in the internal PBD mutation. 3) cGMP and Ca2+-mediated inhibition of NHE3 were impaired both in the internal and in the C-terminal PBM mutations. 4) A significant reduction in half-life of the PM pool of NHE3 in only the internal PBM mutation but no change in total NHE3 half-life in either. 5) Some difference in NHE3 associating proteins in the two PBM mutations. In conclusion, NHE3 binds to NHERF proteins via both an internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PBM, which interact. The former appears to determine NHE3 stability of a pool in the PM and the letter determines total expression and percent PM expression.

  7. A Case of Probable MHC Class II Deficiency with Disseminated BCGitis.

    PubMed

    Alyasin, Soheyla; Abolnezhadian, Farhad; Khoshkhui, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by abnormality of MHC class II molecules surface expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections but the immunodeficiency is not as severe as SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency), as evidenced by failure to develop disseminated infection after BCG vaccination. Therefore, MHC II deficiency with BCGosis, that is disseminated BCGitis, is not reported commonly. We report an interesting case of BCGosis after vaccination that was diagnosed to have probable MHC II deficiency.

  8. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Materials and Methods Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. Conclusion The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods. PMID:28361023

  9. Model of the expansion of H II region RCW 82

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R. E-mail: gviana2005@gmail.com

    2014-05-10

    This paper aims to resolve the problem of formation of young objects observed in the RCW 82 H II region. In the framework of a classical trigger model the estimated time of fragmentation is larger than the estimated age of the H II region. Thus the young objects could not have formed during the dynamical evolution of the H II region. We propose a new model that helps resolve this problem. This model suggests that the H II region RCW 82 is embedded in a cloud of limited size that is denser than the surrounding interstellar medium. According to this model, when the ionization-shock front leaves the cloud it causes the formation of an accelerating dense gas shell. In the accelerated shell, the effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability dominate and the characteristic time of the growth of perturbations with the observed magnitude of about 3 pc is 0.14 Myr, which is less than the estimated age of the H II region. The total time t {sub ∑}, which is the sum of the expansion time of the H II region to the edge of the cloud, the time of the R-T instability growth, and the free fall time, is estimated as 0.44 < t {sub ∑} < 0.78 Myr. We conclude that the young objects in the H II region RCW 82 could be formed as a result of the R-T instability with subsequent fragmentation into large-scale condensations.

  10. The Green Bank Telescope Galactic H II Region Discovery Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, R. T.

    2010-08-01

    We discovered a large population of previously unknown Galactic H II regions by using the Green Bank Telescope to detect their hydrogen radio recombination line emission. Since recombination lines are optically thin at 3 cm wavelength, we can detect H II regions across the entire Galactic disk. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident 24 μm and 21 cm continuum emission. For the Galactic zone -16 ° <= ell <= 67° and |b| <= 1°, we detected 602 discrete recombination line components from 448 lines of sight, 95% of the sample targets, which more than doubles the number of known H II regions in this part of the Milky Way. We found 25 new first quadrant nebulae with negative LSR velocities, placing them beyond the solar orbit. Because we can detect all nebulae inside the solar orbit that are ionized by O-stars, the Discovery Survey targets, when combined with existing H II region catalogs, give a more accurate census of Galactic H II regions and their properties. The distribution of H II regions across the Galactic disk shows strong, narrow (~1 kpc wide) peaks at Galactic radii of 4.3 and 6.0 kpc. The longitude-velocity distribution of H II regions now gives unambiguous evidence for Galactic structure, including the kinematic signatures of the radial peaks in the spatial distribution, a concentration of nebulae at the end of the Galactic Bar, and nebulae located on the kinematic locus of the 3 Kpc Arm.

  11. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE GALACTIC H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Rood, R. T.

    2010-08-01

    We discovered a large population of previously unknown Galactic H II regions by using the Green Bank Telescope to detect their hydrogen radio recombination line emission. Since recombination lines are optically thin at 3 cm wavelength, we can detect H II regions across the entire Galactic disk. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 21 cm continuum emission. For the Galactic zone -16 {sup 0} {<=} l {<=} 67{sup 0} and |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}, we detected 602 discrete recombination line components from 448 lines of sight, 95% of the sample targets, which more than doubles the number of known H II regions in this part of the Milky Way. We found 25 new first quadrant nebulae with negative LSR velocities, placing them beyond the solar orbit. Because we can detect all nebulae inside the solar orbit that are ionized by O-stars, the Discovery Survey targets, when combined with existing H II region catalogs, give a more accurate census of Galactic H II regions and their properties. The distribution of H II regions across the Galactic disk shows strong, narrow ({approx}1 kpc wide) peaks at Galactic radii of 4.3 and 6.0 kpc. The longitude-velocity distribution of H II regions now gives unambiguous evidence for Galactic structure, including the kinematic signatures of the radial peaks in the spatial distribution, a concentration of nebulae at the end of the Galactic Bar, and nebulae located on the kinematic locus of the 3 Kpc Arm.

  12. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?...

  13. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  14. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS... gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems must provide a method to:...

  15. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?...

  16. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  17. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING SYSTEMS... gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems must provide a method to:...

  18. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  19. Structure and evolution of fossil H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Schwarz, J.

    1971-01-01

    The structure and evolution of a fossil H II region created by a burst of ionizing radiation from a supernova is considered. The cooling time scale for the shell is about 10 to the 6th power years. Superposition of million-year-old fossil H II regions may account for the temperature and ionization of the interstellar medium. Fossil H II regions are unstable to growth of thermal condensations. Highly ionized filamentary structures form and dissipate in about 10,000 years. Partially ionized clouds form and dissipate in about 10 to the 6th power years.

  20. Thirty Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, D. R.

    2002-02-01

    I review a small part of the past thirty years of studies of extragalactic H II regions. Comparing a review of available results in 1975 to what we know today, we see a enormous increase in our knowledge of physical conditions and abundances in extragalactic H II regions, chemical evolution of galaxies, and the primordial helium fraction. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert have made pioneering contributions to this field. Here I outline the progress in understanding extragalactic H II regions and highlight the Peimberts' contributions.

  1. Protein sorting within the MHC class II antigen-processing pathway.

    PubMed

    Marks, M S

    1998-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are required for the presentation of antigenic peptides that are derived predominantly from internalized proteins. The assembly of MHC class II/peptide complexes occurs within endosomal compartments of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Therefore, for assembly to occur, MHC class II molecules, foreign proteins, and accessory molecules must be sorted to appropriate intracellular sites. My laboratory is trying to understand how proteins are sorted to various antigen-processing compartments as well as to conventional endosomal organelles. Using chimeric marker proteins and a variety of biochemical and genetic approaches, we are addressing the specificity of protein sorting and the mechanisms by which sorting signals are deciphered. By using a similar chimeric protein approach to target endogenous proteins to distinct compartments, we hope to address the role of processing events in each compartment in the generation of MHC class II ligands.

  2. 46 CFR 128.220 - Class II non-vital systems-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 128.320 of this subpart, a Class II non-vital piping-system need not meet the requirements for materials and pressure design of subchapter F of this chapter. (b) Piping for salt-water service must be...

  3. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  4. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  5. Class II correction in a growing patient with hyperdivergent growth patterns and severe overjet.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In general, the success of Class II treatment depends as much on the skill of the orthodontist as it does on a favorable facial-growth pattern. Lack of sufficient favorable growth during treatment will make it difficult to correct the skeletal malrelationship or significantly improve the facial profile. The case report presents the treatment of a patient with a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with severe overjet and a hyperdivergent growth pattern.

  6. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2010-08-01

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact (UC) H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears to be able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of UC H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of UC H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  7. UNDERSTANDING SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2010-08-10

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact (UC) H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears to be able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of UC H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of UC H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  8. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2010-08-25

    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of ultracompact H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of ultracompact H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  9. Isolation and characterization of three class II MHC genomic clones from the chicken.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y X; Pitcovski, J; Peterson, L; Auffray, C; Bourlet, Y; Gerndt, B M; Nordskog, A W; Lamont, S J; Warner, C M

    1989-03-15

    A genomic library was constructed from sperm DNA from an individual of the inbred chicken line G-B2, MHC haplotype B6. The library was screened with a chicken class II probe (beta 2 exon specific) and three MHC class II beta chain genomic clones were isolated. The restriction maps of the three clones showed that each of the three clones was unique. The position of the beta chain sequence was located in each of the three genomic clones by Southern blot hybridization. Subclones containing the beta chain gene were produced from each of the genomic clones and the orientation of the leader peptide, beta 1, beta 2, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic exons was determined by Southern blot hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. The complete nucleotide sequence of two of the three subclones was determined. Comparison of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the two subclones with other class II beta chain sequences showed that the B6 chicken beta chain genes are evolutionarily related to the class II beta chain genes from chickens of other MHC haplotypes, and to class II beta chain genes from other species. Analysis of Southern blots of B6 chicken DNA, as well as the isolation of the three beta chain genes, suggests that chickens of the B6 haplotype possess at least three MHC class II beta chain genes.

  10. A general model of invariant chain association with class II major histocompatibility complex proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C; McConnell, H M

    1995-01-01

    The binding of invariant chain to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is an important step in processing of MHC class II proteins and in antigen presentation. The question of how invariant chain can bind to all MHC class II proteins is central to understanding these processes. We have employed molecular modeling to predict the structure of class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP)-MHC protein complexes and to ask whether the predicted mode of association could be general across all MHC class II proteins. CLIP fits identically into the MHC class II alleles HLA-DR3, I-Ak, I-Au, and I-Ad, with a consistent pattern of hydrogen bonds, contacts, and hydrophobic burial and without bad contacts. Our model predicts the burial of CLIP residues Met-91 and Met-99 in the deep P1 and P9 anchor pockets and other detailed interactions, which we have compared with available data. The predicted pattern of I-A allele-specific effects on CLIP binding is very similar to that observed experimentally by alanine-scanning mutations of CLIP. Together, these results indicate that CLIP may bind in a single, general way across products of MHC class II alleles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7667280

  11. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26560829

  12. 47 CFR 73.29 - Class C stations on regional channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class C stations on regional channels. 73.29... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.29 Class C stations on regional channels. No license will be granted for the operation of a Class C station on a regional channel....

  13. 47 CFR 73.29 - Class C stations on regional channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class C stations on regional channels. 73.29... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.29 Class C stations on regional channels. No license will be granted for the operation of a Class C station on a regional channel....

  14. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... in and responsibility for the conduct of any gaming operation unless it elects to allow...

  15. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... in and responsibility for the conduct of any gaming operation unless it elects to allow...

  16. 25 CFR 522.4 - Approval requirements for class II ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 522.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.4 Approval... in and responsibility for the conduct of any gaming operation unless it elects to allow...

  17. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations.... 10901 § 1150.35 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class...

  18. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations.... 10901 § 1150.35 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class...

  19. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations.... 10901 § 1150.35 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class...

  20. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations.... 10901 § 1150.35 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class...

  1. 49 CFR 1150.35 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class II carriers. 1150.35 Section 1150.35 Transportation Other Regulations.... 10901 § 1150.35 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class I or Class...

  2. The common marmoset: a new world primate species with limited Mhc class II variability.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S G; de Groot, N G; Brok, H; Doxiadis, G; Menezes, A A; Otting, N; Bontrop, R E

    1998-09-29

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate species that is highly susceptible to fatal infections caused by various strains of bacteria. We present here a first step in the molecular characterization of the common marmoset's Mhc class II genes by nucleotide sequence analysis of the polymorphic exon 2 segments. For this study, genetic material was obtained from animals bred in captivity as well as in the wild. The results demonstrate that the common marmoset has, like other primates, apparently functional Mhc-DR and -DQ regions, but the Mhc-DP region has been inactivated. At the -DR and -DQ loci, only a limited number of lineages were detected. On the basis of the number of alleles found, the -DQA and -B loci appear to be oligomorphic, whereas only a moderate degree of polymorphism was observed for two of three Mhc-DRB loci. The contact residues in the peptide-binding site of the Caja-DRB1*03 lineage members are highly conserved, whereas the -DRB*W16 lineage members show more divergence in that respect. The latter locus encodes five oligomorphic lineages whose members are not observed in any other primate species studied, suggesting rapid evolution, as illustrated by frequent exchange of polymorphic motifs. All common marmosets tested were found to share one monomorphic type of Caja-DRB*W12 allele probably encoded by a separate locus. Common marmosets apparently lack haplotype polymorphism because the number of Caja-DRB loci present per haplotype appears to be constant. Despite this, however, an unexpectedly high number of allelic combinations are observed at the haplotypic level, suggesting that Caja-DRB alleles are exchanged frequently between chromosomes by recombination, promoting an optimal distribution of limited Mhc polymorphisms among individuals of a given population. This peculiar genetic make up, in combination with the limited variability of the major histocompatability complex class II repertoire, may contribute to the common

  3. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  4. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  5. Sequence analysis of the MHC class II DPB1 gene in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Bak, E-J; Ishii, Y; Omatsu, T; Kyuwa, S; Hayasaka, I; Yoshikawa, Y

    2005-06-01

    The diversity of the MHC class II region in non-human primates is a focus of biomedical research because this region plays a crucial role in the recognition of antigens in the immune system. In particular, the chimpanzee [Pan troglodytes (Patr)], which belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea, has been used as a human model for the study of diseases such as human hepatitis C virus (HCV), human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, to which only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible. In the present study, polymorphisms of the MHC-DPB1 gene (Patr-DPB1) in a chimpanzee colony in Japan were examined using a stepwise polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In order to design a suitable primer pair which would amplify exon 2 of the Patr-DPB1 gene, a fragment of approximately 8 kb from exon 1 to exon 3 was amplified from chimpanzee genomic DNA. After designing a 500-bp primer pair at the 3' region of intron 1 and the 5' region of intron 2, analysis of DPB1 exon 2 alleles of each chimpanzee was carried out. Twenty-two chimpanzees were used in our study, and we identified seven alleles by sequence analysis on the Patr-DPB1 gene, including one new allele. The obtained nucleotide sequence patterns suggest that Patr-DPB1 alleles emerge by genetic variations such as the exchange of sequence motifs and the accumulation of point mutations.

  6. HLA class I and class II of the Nivkhi, an indigenous population carrying HTLV-I in Sakhalin, Far Eastern Russia.

    PubMed

    Lou, H; Li, H C; Kuwayama, M; Yashiki, S; Fujiyoshi, T; Suehara, M; Osame, M; Yamashita, M; Hayami, M; Gurtsevich, V; Ballas, M; Imanishi, T; Sonoda, S

    1998-11-01

    The Nivkhi are a native people isolated in the Nogliki region of Sakhalin, Far East Russia, where our group recently recognized human T-cell lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. In order to trace the Nivkhi's ethnic background and the HTLV-I carriers, we investigated HLA class I and II allele types of 53 Nivkhi (including four HTLV-I carriers). Major HLA class I alleles of the Nivkhi were A*24, A*02, B*40, B*48, B*27, B*35 with allele frequencies similar to the Orochon, a native people isolated in Northeast China. Major Nivkhi class II alleles were DRB1*0901, DRB1*1401, DRB1*1201, DRB1*1106 with allele frequencies similar to the Ainu in Hokkaido, Japan, but dissimilar to other Asian Mongoloids, including the general Japanese population. The same HLA class I and II allele frequencies are found in both Nivkhi HTLV-I carriers and the background population. A dendrogram of HLA class I alleles showed that the Nivkhi were closely related to the Orochon and Yakut, and remotely related to the Japanese, Ainu and other Asian Mongoloids. Interestingly, the Nivkhi were intermediately related to the Amerindians (Inuit, Tlingit and Andeans), a relationship closer than to the Japanese and Asian Mongoloids. These results suggested the Nivkhi might be related to some genetic group of Northeast Asian Mongoloids like the Orochon and Yakut, being infected with HTLV-I in the distant past before diverging into the current major Mongoloid ethnic groups.

  7. Alveolar bone thickness and lower incisor position in skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Ozer, Torun; Uysal, Tancan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lower incisor position and bony support between patients with Class II average- and high-angle malocclusions and compare with the patients presenting Class I malocclusions. Methods CBCT records of 79 patients were divided into 2 groups according to sagittal jaw relationships: Class I and II. Each group was further divided into average- and high-angle subgroups. Six angular and 6 linear measurements were performed. Independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn post-hoc tests were performed for statistical comparisons. Results Labial alveolar bone thickness was significantly higher in Class I group compared to Class II group (p = 0.003). Lingual alveolar bone angle (p = 0.004), lower incisor protrusion (p = 0.007) and proclination (p = 0.046) were greatest in Class II average-angle patients. Spongious bone was thinner (p = 0.016) and root apex was closer to the labial cortex in high-angle subgroups when compared to the Class II average-angle subgroup (p = 0.004). Conclusions Mandibular anterior bony support and lower incisor position were different between average- and high-angle Class II patients. Clinicians should be aware that the range of lower incisor movement in high-angle Class II patients is limited compared to average- angle Class II patients. PMID:23814708

  8. Quasar H II Regions During Cosmic Reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-03-30

    Cosmic reionization progresses as HII regions form around sources of ionizing radiation. Their average size grows continuously until they percolate and complete reionization. We demonstrate how this typical growth can be calculated around the largest, biased sources of UV emission such as quasars by further developing an analytical model based on the excursion set formalism. This approach allows us to calculate the sizes and growth of the HII regions created by the progenitors of any dark matter halo of given mass and redshift with a minimum of free parameters. Statistical variations in the size of these pre-existing HII regions are an additional source of uncertainty in the determination of very high redshift quasar properties from their observed HII region sizes. We use this model to demonstrate that the transmission gaps seen in very high redshift quasars can be understood from the radiation of only their progenitors and associated clustered small galaxies. The fit requires the epoch of overlap to be at z = 5.8 {+-} 0.1. This interpretation makes the transmission gaps independent of the age of the quasars observed. If this interpretation were correct it would raise the prospects of using radio interferometers currently under construction to detect the epoch of reionization.

  9. Cellular misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules are possible targets for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Arase, Noriko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-11-01

    The major function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is the presentation of peptide antigens to helper T cells. However, when misfolded proteins are associated with MHC class II molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without processing to peptides. Of note, misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules are specifically recognized by autoantibodies produced in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules is associated with the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases conferred by each MHC class II allele. Therefore, misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules may be recognized as 'neo-self' antigens by the immune system and be involved in the pathogenicity of autoimmune diseases.

  10. BIITE: A Tool to Determine HLA Class II Epitopes from T Cell ELISpot Data.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Lies; O'Neill, Patrick K; Quigley, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Catherine J; Maillere, Bernard; Robinson, John H; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Altmann, Daniel M; Boyton, Rosemary J; Asquith, Becca

    2016-03-01

    Activation of CD4+ T cells requires the recognition of peptides that are presented by HLA class II molecules and can be assessed experimentally using the ELISpot assay. However, even given an individual's HLA class II genotype, identifying which class II molecule is responsible for a positive ELISpot response to a given peptide is not trivial. The two main difficulties are the number of HLA class II molecules that can potentially be formed in a single individual (3-14) and the lack of clear peptide binding motifs for class II molecules. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to interpret ELISpot data (BIITE: Bayesian Immunogenicity Inference Tool for ELISpot); specifically BIITE identifies which HLA-II:peptide combination(s) are immunogenic based on cohort ELISpot data. We apply BIITE to two ELISpot datasets and explore the expected performance using simulations. We show this method can reach high accuracies, depending on the cohort size and the success rate of the ELISpot assay within the cohort.

  11. BIITE: A Tool to Determine HLA Class II Epitopes from T Cell ELISpot Data

    PubMed Central

    Boelen, Lies; O’Neill, Patrick K.; Quigley, Kathryn J.; Reynolds, Catherine J.; Maillere, Bernard; Robinson, John H.; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Altmann, Daniel M.; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Asquith, Becca

    2016-01-01

    Activation of CD4+ T cells requires the recognition of peptides that are presented by HLA class II molecules and can be assessed experimentally using the ELISpot assay. However, even given an individual’s HLA class II genotype, identifying which class II molecule is responsible for a positive ELISpot response to a given peptide is not trivial. The two main difficulties are the number of HLA class II molecules that can potentially be formed in a single individual (3–14) and the lack of clear peptide binding motifs for class II molecules. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to interpret ELISpot data (BIITE: Bayesian Immunogenicity Inference Tool for ELISpot); specifically BIITE identifies which HLA-II:peptide combination(s) are immunogenic based on cohort ELISpot data. We apply BIITE to two ELISpot datasets and explore the expected performance using simulations. We show this method can reach high accuracies, depending on the cohort size and the success rate of the ELISpot assay within the cohort. PMID:26953935

  12. The stamp technique for direct Class II composite restorations: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Halim, Mohamad Syahrizal; Carmen, Koh; Fung, Chew Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Stamp” technique is a new method for placing large composite restorations with accurate occlusal topography. It was introduced mainly to restore Class I cavities and erosively damaged teeth. This technique is indicated when the preoperative anatomy of the tooth is intact and not lost due to the carious lesion. A precise tooth-like filling an accurate functional occlusion is obtained when the stamp technique is applied. However, using this technique to restore Class II cavities is not established yet. Aim: To introduce modifications of the stamp technique that make it applicable to restore Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The traditional materials and tools used for direct composite restorations are needed with no additional instruments. Clinical illustrations and step-by-step description are provided in this paper. Results and Conclusion: Using the stamp technique to restore Class II cavities is achievable, simple and practical, and result in a very accurate anatomical restoration. PMID:27656074

  13. Genetic mapping of the LMP2 proteasome subunit gene to the BoLA class IIb region

    SciTech Connect

    Shalhevet, D.; Da, Y.; Beever, J.E.; Eijk, M.J.T. van; Ma, R.; Lewin, H.A.; Gaskins, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Recent identification of four tightly-linked genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans and rodents has led to a better understanding of class I antigen processing mechanisms. Two of these genes, LMP2 and LMP7, encode subunits of a low molecular mass poypeptide (LMP) complex. Several observations suggest that the LMP complex may be the proteolytic system responsible for generating the size-restricted peptides required for MHC class I assembly. For example, the LMP complex is a large cytoplasmic structure that is antigenically and biochemically related to the proteasome, a proteolytic complex that mediates degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Data regarding proteolytic specificity indicates that the LMP complex may specifically produce nonamers, the appropriate peptide size for class I binding. In addition, similar to all components of the class I assembly process, intra-MHC LMP genes are regulated by IFN{gamma}. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  15. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  16. Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

  17. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Khademi, Mohsen; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Link, Jenny; Alfredsson, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Hillert, Jan; Oturai, Annette B.; Hemme, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50–60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP) kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10−15) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10−5). In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006), and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10−5). The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10−4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes). HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and lays

  18. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial–abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets. PMID:27698117

  19. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity.

    PubMed

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets.

  20. Interstellar Bubbles in Two Young H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Chu, You-Hua; Points, Sean D.; Danforth, Charles W.; Rosado, Margarita; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2001-08-01

    Massive stars are expected to produce wind-blown bubbles in the interstellar medium; however, ring nebulae, suggesting the existence of bubbles, are rarely seen around main-sequence O stars. To search for wind-blown bubbles around main-sequence O stars, we have obtained high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images and high-dispersion echelle spectra of two pristine H II regions, N11B and N180B, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These H II regions are ionized by OB associations that still contain O3 stars, suggesting that the H II regions are young and have not hosted any supernova explosions. Our observations show that wind-blown bubbles in these H II regions can be detected kinematically, but not morphologically, because their expansion velocities are comparable to or only slightly higher than the isothermal sound velocity in the H II regions. Bubbles are detected around concentrations of massive stars, individual O stars, and even an evolved red supergiant (a fossil bubble). Comparisons between the observed bubble dynamics and model predictions show a large discrepancy (1-2 orders of magnitude) between the stellar wind luminosity derived from bubble observations and models and that derived from observations of stellar winds. The number and distribution of bubbles in N11B differ from those in N180B, which can be explained by the difference in the richness of stellar content between these two H II regions. Most of the bubbles observed in N11B and N180B show a blister structure, indicating that the stars were formed on the surfaces of dense clouds. Numerous small dust clouds, similar to Bok globules or elephant trunks, are detected in these H II regions, and at least one of them hosts on-going star formation.

  1. MHC class I and MHC class II DRB gene variability in wild and captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Ina; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Mishra, Sudanshu; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2010-10-01

    Bengal tigers are highly endangered and knowledge on adaptive genetic variation can be essential for efficient conservation and management. Here we present the first assessment of allelic variation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II DRB genes for wild and captive tigers from India. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced alpha-1 and alpha-2 domain of MHC class I and beta-1 domain of MHC class II DRB genes in 16 tiger specimens of different geographic origin. We detected high variability in peptide-binding sites, presumably resulting from positive selection. Tigers exhibit a low number of MHC DRB alleles, similar to other endangered big cats. Our initial assessment-admittedly with limited geographic coverage and sample size-did not reveal significant differences between captive and wild tigers with regard to MHC variability. In addition, we successfully amplified MHC DRB alleles from scat samples. Our characterization of tiger MHC alleles forms a basis for further in-depth analyses of MHC variability in this illustrative threatened mammal.

  2. Time Variability in Simulated Ultracompact and Hypercompact H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Madrid, R.; Peters, T.; Keto, E. R.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Banerjee, R.; Klessen, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    Observations of ultracompact and hypercompact H II regions have shown time variations in their radio-continuum flux (Franco-Hernández & Rodríguez 2004; Galván-Madrid et al. 2008), suggesting that (some of) these ionized regions harbor stars that are still accreting from an infalling neutral accretion flow that becomes ionized in its innermost part (Keto 2007). We present an analysis of the flux variation of H II regions formed in the simulations incorporating self-gravity and both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation presented by Peters et al. (2010a,b,c). According to this model, a small but non-negligible fraction (~10%) of observed H II regions should have detectable flux variations (larger than 10%) in timescales of 10 years.

  3. Association of chronic fatigue syndrome with human leucocyte antigen class II alleles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Fritz, E L; Kerr, J R; Cleare, A J; Wessely, S; Mattey, D L

    2005-01-01

    Background: A genetic component to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been proposed, and a possible association between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigens and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction has been shown in some, but not all, studies. Aims: To investigate the role of HLA class II antigens in CFS. Methods: Forty nine patients with CFS were genotyped for the HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DQB1 alleles and the frequency of these alleles was compared with a control group comprising 102 normal individuals from the UK. All patients and controls were from the same region of England and, apart from two patients, were white. Results: Analysis by 2 × 2 contingency tables revealed an increased frequency of HLA-DQA1*01 alleles in patients with CFS (51.0% v 35%; odds ratio (OR), 1.93; p  =  0.008). HLA-DQB1*06 was also increased in the patients with CFS (30.2% v 20.0%; OR, 1.73, p  =  0.052). Only the association between HLA-DQA1*01 and CFS was significant in logistic regression models containing HLA-DQA1*01 and HLA-DRQB1*06, and this was independent of HLA-DRB1 alleles. There was a decreased expression of HLA-DRB1*11 in CFS, although this association disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: CFS may be associated with HLA-DQA1*01, although a role for other genes in linkage disequilibrium cannot be ruled out. PMID:16049290

  4. Pulling a Ligase out of a “HAT”: pCAF Mediates Ubiquitination of the Class II Transactivator

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is essential to the regulation of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes transcription. As the “master regulator” of MHC II transcription, CIITA regulation is imperative and requires various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in order to facilitate its role. Previously we identified various ubiquitination events on CIITA. Monoubiquitination is important for CIITA transactivity, while K63 linked ubiquitination is involved in crosstalk with ERK1/2 phosphorylation, where together they mediate cellular movement from the cytoplasm to nuclear region. Further, CIITA is also modified by degradative K48 polyubiquitination. However, the E3 ligase responsible for these modifications was unknown. We show CIITA ubiquitination and transactivity are enhanced with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300/CBP associated factor (pCAF), and the E3 ligase region within pCAF is necessary for both. Additionally, pCAF mediated ubiquitination is independent of pCAF's HAT domain, and acetylation deficient CIITA is K48 polyubiquitinated and degraded in the presence of pCAF. Lastly, we identify the histone acetyltransferase, pCAF, as the E3 ligase responsible for CIITA's ubiquitination. PMID:28286521

  5. The biogenesis of the MHC class II compartment in human I-cell disease B lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The localization and intracellular transport of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules nd lysosomal hydrolases were studied in I-Cell Disease (ICD) B lymphoblasts, which possess a mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-independent targeting pathway for lysosomal enzymes. In the trans-Golgi network (TGN), MHC class II- invariant chain complexes colocalized with the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D in buds and vesicles that lacked markers of clathrin-coated vesicle-mediated transport. These vesicles fused with the endocytic pathway leading to the formation of "early" MHC class II-rich compartments (MIICs). Similar structures were observed in the TGN of normal beta lymphoblasts although they were less abundant. Metabolic labeling and subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that newly synthesized cathepsin D and MHC class II-invariant chain complexes enter a non-clathrin-coated vesicular structure after their passage through the TGN and segregation from the secretory pathway. These vesicles were also devoid of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor, a marker of early and late endosomes. These findings suggest that in ICD B lymphoblasts the majority of MHC class II molecules are transported directly from the TGN to "early" MIICs and that acid hydrolases cam be incorporated into MIICs simultaneously by a Man-6-P-independant process. PMID:8603911

  6. Class II G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Ligands in Neuronal Function and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; de Maturana, Rakel Lopez; Brenneman, Randall; Walent, Tom; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play pivotal roles in regulating the function and plasticity of neuronal circuits in the nervous system. Among the myriad of GPCRs expressed in neural cells, class II GPCRs which couples predominantly to the Gs–adenylate cyclase–cAMP signaling pathway, have recently received considerable attention for their involvement in regulating neuronal survival. Neuropeptides that activate class II GPCRs include secretin, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin-related peptides. Studies of patients and animal and cell culture models, have revealed possible roles for class II GPCRs signaling in the pathogenesis of several prominent neurodegenerative conditions including stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Many of the peptides that activate class II GPCRs promote neuron survival by increasing the resistance of the cells to oxidative, metabolic, and excitotoxic injury. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which class II GPCRs signaling modulates neuronal survival and plasticity will likely lead to novel therapeutic interventions for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16052036

  7. Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Chervonsky, A V; Medzhitov, R M; Denzin, L K; Barlow, A K; Rudensky, A Y; Janeway, C A

    1998-08-18

    Intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is characterized by passage through specialized endocytic compartment(s) where antigenic peptides replace invariant chain fragments in the presence of the DM protein. These changes are accompanied by structural transitions of the MHC molecules that can be visualized by formation of compact SDS-resistant dimers, by changes in binding of mAbs, and by changes in T cell responses. We have observed that a mAb (25-9-17) that is capable of staining I-Ab on the surface of normal B cells failed to interact with I-Ab complexes with a peptide derived from the Ealpha chain of the I-E molecule but bound a similar covalent complex of I-Ab with the class II binding fragment (class II-associated invariant chain peptides) of the invariant chain. Moreover, 25-9-17 blocked activation of several I-Ab-reactive T cell hybridomas but failed to block others, suggesting that numerous I-Ab-peptide complexes acquire the 25-9-17(+) or 25-9-17(-) conformation. Alloreactive T cells were also able to discriminate peptide-dependent variants of MHC class II molecules. Thus, peptides impose subtle structural transitions upon MHC class II molecules that affect T cell recognition and may thus be critical for T cell selection and autiommunity.

  8. PowerScope a Class II corrector – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Joby; Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Sureshkumar, Brijesh; George, Susha Mariam; Mathew, Manu Mundackal; Sebastian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022” prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions. PMID:27307671

  9. Dynamics of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Compartments during B Cell Receptor–mediated Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lankar, Danielle; Vincent-Schneider, Hélène; Briken, Volker; Yokozeki, Takeaki; Raposo, Graça; Bonnerot, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Antigen recognition by clonotypic B cell receptor (BcR) is the first step of B lymphocytes differentiation into plasmocytes. This B cell function is dependent on efficient major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–restricted presentation of BcR-bound antigens. In this work, we analyzed the subcellular mechanisms underlying antigen presentation after BcR engagement on B cells. In quiescent B cells, we found that MHC class II molecules mostly accumulated at the cell surface and in an intracellular pool of tubulovesicular structures, whereas H2-M molecules were mostly detected in distinct lysosomal compartments devoid of MHC class II. BcR stimulation induced the transient intracellular accumulation of MHC class II molecules in newly formed multivesicular bodies (MVBs), to which H2-M was recruited. The reversible downregulation of cathepsin S activity led to the transient accumulation of invariant chain–MHC class II complexes in MVBs. A few hours after BcR engagement, cathepsin S activity increased, the p10 invariant chain disappeared, and MHC class II–peptide complexes arrived at the plasma membrane. Thus, BcR engagement induced the transient formation of antigen-processing compartments, enabling antigen-specific B cells to become effective antigen-presenting cells. PMID:11854359

  10. Dust in a few southern H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Swarna Kanti; Iyengar, K. V. K.; Rengarajan, T. N.; Tandon, S. N.; Verma, R. P.; Daniel, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    The property of dust in four southern H II region/molecular cloud complexes (RCW 108, RCW 57, RCW 122, and G351.6-1.3) was discussed. These regions were observed at an effective wavelength of 150 micron using TIFR balloon borne 1 m telescope and deconvolved maps with a resolution of 1 min were obtained. The data were combined with other available data to derive the properties of the infrared emitting dust in these regions.

  11. Identification of MHC class II restricted T-cell-mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T-cell responses. As judged from blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan-HLA class II and anti-HLA-DR antibodies. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell depletion before the 10 days of expansion, resulted in total loss of reactivity in the ELISPOT culture for most peptide specificities. FACS analyses with intracellular interferon-γ staining of T cells expanded in the presence of M. tuberculosis peptides confirmed that the responsive cells were indeed CD4(+). In conclusion, T-cell immunity against HLA-I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis-derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells and restricted by HLA-II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide-based vaccines.

  12. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for Negative... II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for Negative... apparatus devices intended for NPWT may comply with the requirement of special controls for class II...

  13. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  14. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  15. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.9 What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system... digits to accommodate the design of the game. (3) Accounting data displayed to the player may be... audit, configuration, recall and test modes; or (ii) Temporarily, during entertaining displays of...

  16. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  17. Ribonucleotide Reduction in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Function and Expression of Genes Encoding Class Ib and Class II Ribonucleotide Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Stephanie S.; Warner, Digby F.; Tsenova, Liana; Timm, Juliano; McKinney, John D.; Kaplan, Gilla; Rubin, Harvey; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, possesses a class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), encoded by the nrdE and nrdF2 genes, in addition to a putative class II RNR, encoded by nrdZ. In this study we probed the relative contributions of these RNRs to the growth and persistence of M. tuberculosis. We found that targeted knockout of the nrdF2 gene could be achieved only in the presence of a complementing allele, confirming that this gene is essential under normal, in vitro growth conditions. This observation also implied that the alternate class Ib small subunit encoded by the nrdF1 gene is unable to substitute for nrdF2 and that the class II RNR, NrdZ, cannot substitute for the class Ib enzyme, NrdEF2. Conversely, a ΔnrdZ null mutant of M. tuberculosis was readily obtained by allelic exchange mutagenesis. Quantification of levels of nrdE, nrdF2, nrdF1, and nrdZ gene expression by real-time, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR with molecular beacons by using mRNA from aerobic and O2-limited cultures showed that nrdZ was significantly induced under microaerophilic conditions, in contrast to the other genes, whose expression was reduced by O2 restriction. However, survival of the ΔnrdZ mutant strain was not impaired under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Moreover, the lungs of B6D2/F1 mice infected with the ΔnrdZ mutant had bacterial loads comparable to those of lungs infected with the parental wild-type strain, which argues against the hypothesis that nrdZ plays a significant role in the virulence of M. tuberculosis in this mouse model. PMID:14573627

  18. Kinematic detection of supernova remnants in giant H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    1986-12-01

    In a kinematic survey of giant H II regions in M 101, four sources that have large velocity widths at low intensity levels are detected. Two of these large-velocity-width sources (LVWSs) are, within the limit of resolution, coincident with nonthermal radio sources several times as luminous as Cas A. The LVWS in NGC 5471 B is so bright that it is possible to separate its broad profile from the narrower profile of the background H II region. H-alpha CCD photometry, optical spectroscopy, and high-resolution radio data are combined to derive its physical properties, which support Skillman's (1985) identification of the object as a supernova remnant. The other LVWSs might be supernova remnants embedded in giant H II regions, unusually massive wind-driven shells, or the combination of both.

  19. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    de Bittencourt, Aristeu Corrêa; Saga, Armando Yukio; Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Tanaka, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available. OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment. RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics. PMID:26352852

  20. Class II major histocompatibility complex tetramer staining: progress, problems, and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vollers, Sabrina S; Stern, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    The use of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers in the detection and analysis of antigen-specific T cells has become more widespread since its introduction 11 years ago. Early challenges in the application of tetramer staining to CD4+ T cells centred around difficulties in the expression of various class II MHC allelic variants and the detection of low-frequency T cells in mixed populations. As many of the technical obstacles to class II MHC tetramer staining have been overcome, the focus has returned to uncertainties concerning how oligomer valency and T-cell receptor/MHC affinity affect tetramer binding. Such issues have become more important with an increase in the number of studies relying on direct ex vivo analysis of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. In this review we discuss which problems in class II MHC tetramer staining have been solved to date, and which matters remain to be considered. PMID:18251991

  1. Allelic diversity at MHC class II DQ loci in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): evidence for duplication.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Saket K; Deb, Sitangsu M; Kumar, Subodh; Mitra, Abhijit; Sharma, Arjava; Sakaram, Durgam; Naskar, Soumen; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Sita R

    2010-12-01

    The genetic diversity of MHC class II DQ genes was investigated in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Highly variable regions (exons 2-3) of DQ genes were amplified from 152 buffaloes and genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Alleles identified by differential restriction patterns were sequenced for the characterization. PCR-RFLP was a rapid method to discriminate between DQA1 and duplicated DQA2 genes in buffalo, however, the method appeared to be inadequate for determining the more complicated DQB genotypes. A total of 7 and 10 alleles were identified for DQA and DQB loci, respectively. Nucleotide as well as amino acid variations among DQ alleles particularly at peptide binding regions were high. Such variations were as expected higher in DQB than DQA alleles. The phylogenetic analysis for both genes revealed the grouping of alleles into two major sub-groups with higher genetic divergence. High divergence among DQ allelic families and the isolation of two diverse DQA and DQB sequences from individual samples indicated duplication of DQ loci was similar in buffalo to other ruminants.

  2. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigated using both PCR-based methods and unamplified genomic DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and southern blots. A total of 13 different exon 2 sequences were obtained independently from DNA and/or RNA, thus confirming gene transcription and likely functionality of the genes. Nine out of 13 alleles were found in more than one country, and two alleles appeared in all countries. Positive selection was detected in the region coding for the peptide binding region (PBR). A maximum of three alleles per individual was detected by sequencing and the RFLP pattern consisted of 4–7 fragments, indicating a minimum number of 2–4 loci per individual. A phylogenetic analysis, demonstrated that the blue tit sequences are divergent compared to sequences from other passerines resembling a different MHC lineage than those possessed by most passerines studied to date. PMID:23919136

  3. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles).

    PubMed

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2015-06-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more than one class of MHC genes. We investigated mate choice based on the compatibility of MHC class I and II genes in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles). We also investigated mate choice based on microsatellite-derived pairwise relatedness, to attempt to distinguish MHC-specific effects from genomewide effects. We found MHC-assortative mating, based on MHC class II, but not class I genes. Parent pairs had smaller MHC class II DRB amino acid distances and smaller functional distances than expected from random pairings. When we separated the analyses into within-group and neighbouring-group parent pairs, only neighbouring-group pairs showed MHC-assortative mating, due to similarity at MHC class II loci. Our randomizations showed no evidence of genomewide-based inbreeding, based on 35 microsatellite loci; MHC class II similarity was therefore the apparent target of mate choice. We propose that MHC-assortative mate choice may be a local adaptation to endemic pathogens, and this assortative mate choice may have contributed to the low MHC genetic diversity in this population.

  4. Exposing the Specific Roles of the Invariant Chain Isoforms in Shaping the MHC Class II Peptidome.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Simon; Cloutier, Maryse; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2013-12-13

    The peptide repertoire (peptidome) associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs) is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii) chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  5. Three classes of plasmid (47-63 kb) carry the type B neurotoxin gene cluster of group II Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47-63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin-antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4.

  6. HLA class II haplotypes distinctly associated with vaso-occlusion in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Najat; Al-Ola, Khadija; Al-Subaie, Abeer M; Ali, Muhallab E; Al-Irhayim, Zaid; Al-Irhayim, A Qader; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the association of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes with sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). DRB1*100101 was positively associated, while DRB1*140101, DRB1*150101, and DQB1*060101 were negatively associated, with VOC. Both susceptible (DRB1*100101-DQB1*050101) and protective (DRB1*110101-DQB1*030101 and DRB1*150101-DQB1*060101) haplotypes were identified, indicating that HLA class II haplotypes influence VOC risk.

  7. Targeting the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Lapointe, Réjean

    2012-09-01

    The success of immunotherapy relies on the participation of all arms of the immune system and the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in preventing tumor growth is now well established. Understanding how tumors evade immune responses holds the key to the development of cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how MHC Class II expression varies in cancer cells and how this influences antitumor immune responses. We also discuss the means that are currently available for harnessing the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway for the development of efficient vaccines to activate the immune system against cancer.

  8. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  9. HLA-DM induces CLIP dissociation from MHC class II alpha beta dimers and facilitates peptide loading.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Cresswell, P

    1995-07-14

    Human leukocyte antigen DM (HLA-DM) molecules are structurally related to classical MHC class II molecules and reside in the lysosome-like compartment where class II-restricted antigen processing is thought to occur. Mutant cell lines lacking HLA-DM are defective in antigen processing and accumulate class II molecules associated with a nested set of invariant chain-derived peptides (class II-associated invariant chain peptides, CLIP). Here we show that HLA-DM catalyzes the dissociation of CLIP from MHC class II-CLIP complexes in vitro and facilitates the binding of antigenic peptides. The reaction has an acidic pH optimum, consistent with its occurrence in a lysosome-like compartment in vivo. Antibody blocking experiments suggest that a transient interaction between HLA-DM and the MHC class II-CLIP complex is required.

  10. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  13. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  14. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  15. The common marmoset: A new world primate species with limited Mhc class II variability

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Susana G.; de Groot, Natasja G.; Brok, Herbert; Doxiadis, Gaby; Menezes, Alexandre A. L.; Otting, Nel; Bontrop, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate species that is highly susceptible to fatal infections caused by various strains of bacteria. We present here a first step in the molecular characterization of the common marmoset’s Mhc class II genes by nucleotide sequence analysis of the polymorphic exon 2 segments. For this study, genetic material was obtained from animals bred in captivity as well as in the wild. The results demonstrate that the common marmoset has, like other primates, apparently functional Mhc-DR and -DQ regions, but the Mhc-DP region has been inactivated. At the -DR and -DQ loci, only a limited number of lineages were detected. On the basis of the number of alleles found, the -DQA and -B loci appear to be oligomorphic, whereas only a moderate degree of polymorphism was observed for two of three Mhc-DRB loci. The contact residues in the peptide-binding site of the Caja-DRB1*03 lineage members are highly conserved, whereas the -DRB*W16 lineage members show more divergence in that respect. The latter locus encodes five oligomorphic lineages whose members are not observed in any other primate species studied, suggesting rapid evolution, as illustrated by frequent exchange of polymorphic motifs. All common marmosets tested were found to share one monomorphic type of Caja-DRB*W12 allele probably encoded by a separate locus. Common marmosets apparently lack haplotype polymorphism because the number of Caja-DRB loci present per haplotype appears to be constant. Despite this, however, an unexpectedly high number of allelic combinations are observed at the haplotypic level, suggesting that Caja-DRB alleles are exchanged frequently between chromosomes by recombination, promoting an optimal distribution of limited Mhc polymorphisms among individuals of a given population. This peculiar genetic make up, in combination with the limited variability of the major histocompatability complex class II repertoire, may contribute to the common

  16. Crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin I (SEI) in complex with a human major histocompatibility complex class II molecule.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisa M; Guan, Rongjin; Swaminathan, Chittoor P; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2006-09-01

    Superantigens are bacterial or viral proteins that elicit massive T cell activation through simultaneous binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and T cell receptors. This activation results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory cytokines, causing toxic shock. A remarkable property of superantigens, which distinguishes them from T cell receptors, is their ability to interact with multiple MHC class II alleles independently of MHC-bound peptide. Previous crystallographic studies have shown that staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens belonging to the zinc family bind to a high affinity site on the class II beta-chain. However, the basis for promiscuous MHC recognition by zinc-dependent superantigens is not obvious, because the beta-chain is polymorphic and the MHC-bound peptide forms part of the binding interface. To understand how zinc-dependent superantigens recognize MHC, we determined the crystal structure, at 2.0 A resolution, of staphylococcal enterotoxin I bound to the human class II molecule HLA-DR1 bearing a peptide from influenza hemagglutinin. Interactions between the superantigen and DR1 beta-chain are mediated by a zinc ion, and 22% of the buried surface of peptide.MHC is contributed by the peptide. Comparison of the staphylococcal enterotoxin I.peptide.DR1 structure with ones determined previously revealed that zinc-dependent superantigens achieve promiscuous binding to MHC by targeting conservatively substituted residues of the polymorphic beta-chain. Additionally, these superantigens circumvent peptide specificity by engaging MHC-bound peptides at their conformationally conserved N-terminal regions while minimizing sequence-specific interactions with peptide residues to enhance cross-reactivity.

  17. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hajjej, Abdelhafidh; Almawi, Wassim Y.; Hattab, Lasmar; El-Gaaied, Amel; Hmida, Slama

    2015-01-01

    In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1), using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO) method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%), HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%), HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%), and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%). Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2%) as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese). This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool. PMID:26317228

  18. MHC class II tetramers made from isolated recombinant α and β chains refolded with affinity-tagged peptides.

    PubMed

    Braendstrup, Peter; Justesen, Sune; Osterbye, Thomas; Nielsen, Lise Lotte Bruun; Mallone, Roberto; Vindeløv, Lars; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Targeting CD4+ T cells through their unique antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor makes MHC class II tetramers an attractive strategy to identify, validate and manipulate these cells at the single cell level. Currently, generating class II tetramers is a specialized undertaking effectively limiting their use and emphasizing the need for improved methods of production. Using class II chains expressed individually in E. coli as versatile recombinant reagents, we have previously generated peptide-MHC class II monomers, but failed to generate functional class II tetramers. Adding a monomer purification principle based upon affinity-tagged peptides, we here provide a robust method to produce class II tetramers and demonstrate staining of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We also provide evidence that both MHC class II and T cell receptor molecules largely accept affinity-tagged peptides. As a general approach to class II tetramer generation, this method should support rational CD4+ T cell epitope discovery as well as enable specific monitoring and manipulation of CD4+ T cell responses.

  19. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  20. Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic H II regions was estimated using the R = log([O II] (λλ3726 + 29)/[O III] λ5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter, while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the H II region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in the 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2 = [S II] (λλ6717 + 31)/Hα emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 and U. Teff and metallicity estimations for a sample of 865 H II regions, whose emission-line intensities were compiled from the literature, do not show any Teff-Z correlation. On the other hand, it seems to be hints of the presence of an anticorrelation between Teff-U. We found that the majority of the studied H II regions (∼87 per cent) present Teff values in the range between 37 and 40 kK, with an average value of 38.5(±1) kK. We also studied the variation of Teff as a function of the galactocentric distance for 14 spiral galaxies. Our results are in agreement with the idea of the existence of positive Teff gradients along the disc of spiral galaxies.

  1. A NEW CATALOG OF H II REGIONS IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Azimlu, M.; Marciniak, R.; Barmby, P.

    2011-10-15

    We present a new catalog of H II regions in M31. The full disk of the galaxy ({approx}24 kpc from the galaxy center) is covered in a 2.2 deg{sup 2} mosaic of 10 fields observed with the Mosaic Camera on the Mayall 4 m telescope as part of the Local Group Galaxies survey. We used HIIphot, a code for automated photometry of H II regions, to identify the regions and measure their fluxes and sizes. A 10{sigma} detection level was used to exclude diffuse gas fluctuations and star residuals after continuum subtraction. That selection limit may result in missing some faint H II regions, but our catalog of 3691 H II regions is still complete to a luminosity of L{sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. This is five times fainter than the only previous CCD-based study which contained 967 objects in the NE half of M31. We determined the H{alpha} luminosity function (LF) by fitting a power law to luminosities larger than L{sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 36.7} and determined a slope of 2.52 {+-} 0.07. The in-arm and inter-arm LFs peak at different luminosities but they have similar bright-end slopes. The inter-arm regions are less populated (40% of total detected regions) and constitute only 14% of the total luminosity of L{sub H{alpha}} = 5.6 x 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} (after extinction correction and considering 65% contribution from diffused ionized gas). A star formation rate of 0.44 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} was estimated from the H{alpha} total luminosity; this value is consistent with the determination from the Spitzer 8 {mu}m image. We removed all known and potential planetary nebulae, yet we found a double-peaked LF. The inter-arm older population suggests a starburst between 15 and 20 million years ago. This result is in agreement with UV studies of the star formation history in M31 which found a star formation rate decrease in the recent past. We found a fair spatial correlation between the H II regions and stellar clusters in selected star-forming regions. Most of the matched

  2. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  3. Current Teaching of Proximal Retention Grooves for Class II Amalgam Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey gathered information on methods of class II amalgam preparation taught in 59 dental schools. Focus was on the teaching and testing of proximal retention groove use, stated rationale for placing retention grooves, and the relationship of the instruction to board criteria for cavity preparation. (MSE)

  4. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Assistant Attorney General,” May 28, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... wells. 147.50 Section 147.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  9. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  10. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  11. Proposed Class II Permit MI-035-2R-0034: Fact Sheet and Draft Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA plans to issue a Class II permit for Muskegon Development Company’s Holcomb 1-22 well in Clare County, Mich. Document page contains factsheet about proposed UIC permit for Holcomb 1-22 well to Muskegon Development Company.

  12. 78 FR 11795 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Minimum Internal Control Standards of NIGC regulations. DATES: Submit comments on or before April 8, 2013... Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming (MICS). 77 FR 58707. Like the Technical Standards, the MICS... Gaming Systems and Equipment AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. [Features of the hormonal status in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and class II malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Gus, L A; Arsenina, O I; Komolov, I S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on androgen levels in female patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction of varying degree and class II malocclusion. The study revealed significant correlation between degenerative and inflammatory TMJ changes and androgens level in patients with stigmas of connective tissue dysplasia (p<0.05), probably due to indirect proinflammatory action of androgens as they stimulate inflammatory mediators expression.

  14. 40 CFR 147.1800 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Environmental Law Section, for the Attorney General of Ohio, September 30, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1800 Section 147.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1800 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Environmental Law Section, for the Attorney General of Ohio, September 30, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1800 Section 147.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1800 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Environmental Law Section, for the Attorney General of Ohio, September 30, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1800 Section 147.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1800 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Environmental Law Section, for the Attorney General of Ohio, September 30, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1800 Section 147.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1800 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Environmental Law Section, for the Attorney General of Ohio, September 30, 1982. (d) The Program Description and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1800 Section 147.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. Ectopic expression of HLA-DO in mouse dendritic cells diminishes MHC class II antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Fallas, Jennifer L; Tobin, Helen M; Lou, Olivia; Guo, Donglin; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Denzin, Lisa K

    2004-08-01

    The MHC class II-like molecule HLA-DM (DM) (H-2M in mice) catalyzes the exchange of CLIP for antigenic peptides in the endosomes of APCs. HLA-DO (DO) (H-2O in mice) is another class II-like molecule that is expressed in B cells, but not in other APCs. Studies have shown that DO impairs or modifies the peptide exchange activity of DM. To further evaluate the role of DO in Ag processing and presentation, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human HLA-DOA and HLA-DOB genes under the control of a dendritic cell (DC)-specific promoter. Our analyses of DCs from these mice showed that as DO levels increased, cell surface levels of A(b)-CLIP also increased while class II-peptide levels decreased. The presentation of some, but not all, exogenous Ags to T cells or T hybridomas was significantly inhibited by DO. Surprisingly, H-2M accumulated in DO-expressing DCs and B cells, suggesting that H-2O/DO prolongs the half-life of H-2M. Overall, our studies showed that DO expression impaired H-2M function, resulting in Ag-specific down-modulation of class II Ag processing and presentation.

  20. 40 CFR 147.3006 - Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule. 147.3006 Section 147.3006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED...

  1. 40 CFR 147.3006 - Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Injection pressure for existing Class II wells authorized by rule. 147.3006 Section 147.3006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED...

  2. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986. 522.11 Section 522.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF..., 1986. For licensing of individually owned gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986, under §...

  3. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986. 522.11 Section 522.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF..., 1986. For licensing of individually owned gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986, under §...

  4. 40 CFR 147.100 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II... published in the Federal Register ; the effective date of this program is June 19, 1986. This program... Register effective June 19, 1986. (1) Alaska Statutes, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Title 31, §§...

  5. 25 CFR 522.11 - Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986. 522.11 Section 522.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF..., 1986. For licensing of individually owned gaming operations operating on September 1, 1986, under §...

  6. 40 CFR 147.100 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II... published in the Federal Register ; the effective date of this program is June 19, 1986. This program... Register effective June 19, 1986. (1) Alaska Statutes, Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Title 31, §§...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  12. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells. 147.3200 Section 147.3200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Assiniboine...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  16. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells. 147.3400 Section 147.3400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo...

  17. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  1. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells. 147.3400 Section 147.3400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo...

  2. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells. 147.3400 Section 147.3400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells. 147.3200 Section 147.3200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Assiniboine...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells. 147.3200 Section 147.3200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Assiniboine...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  10. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells. 147.3200 Section 147.3200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Assiniboine...

  11. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells. 147.3200 Section 147.3200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Assiniboine...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  13. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  14. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  15. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  16. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  18. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  19. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells. 147.3400 Section 147.3400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  4. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  5. An orthodontic-surgical approach to Class II subdivision malocclusion treatment.

    PubMed

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Despite the different orthodontic approaches to Class II subdivision malocclusions one has also to consider the skeletal components before undertaking any treatment protocol. Significant involvement of the skeletal structures may require a combined surgical orthodontic treatment, which has remained stable for more than four years, as illustrated in this case report.

  6. AN ORTHODONTIC-SURGICAL APPROACH TO CLASS II SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant′ana, Eduardo; Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Despite the different orthodontic approaches to Class II subdivision malocclusions one has also to consider the skeletal components before undertaking any treatment protocol. Significant involvement of the skeletal structures may require a combined surgical orthodontic treatment, which has remained stable for more than four years, as illustrated in this case report. PMID:19466264

  7. 46 CFR 128.210 - Class II vital systems-materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II vital systems-materials. 128.210 Section 128.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE... Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, if shown to provide a level of safety equivalent to materials...

  8. Differential expression of HLA class II antigens on human fetal and adult lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J A; Jones, D B; Evans, P R; Smith, J L

    1985-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to monomorphic determinants of the MHC class II subregion locus products: DP, DR and DQ, was used to investigate the expression of these antigens on early lymphocytes and macrophages from human fetal liver (13-20 weeks), placenta (16 weeks and term) and cord blood, in relation to the class II phenotype of cells from adult tonsil and peripheral blood. Fetal liver sections and cell suspensions showed differential expression of class II antigens. DP was expressed at a higher frequency (11.0% of nucleated cells) than DR on lymphoid cells and macrophages from fetal liver, and DQ was either absent or expressed on less than 0.3% of nucleated cells. Consistent with this finding, DP but not DR or DQ antigens were observed on vascular elements and macrophages in the villi of 16-week placenta. At term, all three subregion locus products were expressed. Adult tonsil and peripheral blood B lymphocytes expressed DP, DR and DQ antigens with similar frequency; however, DQ was expressed at a lower frequency than DP and DR on cord blood B lymphocytes. In contrast, 30-50% macrophages from cord blood and adult peripheral blood expressed DP and DR, but fewer (5% and 18%, respectively) expressed DQ. These data suggest that class II antigens are expressed in the sequence DP, DR, DQ on developing lymphocytes. A similar sequence is suggested for macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3894221

  9. Building Students' Reasoning Skills by Promoting Student-Led Discussions in an Algebra II Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2013-01-01

    Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…

  10. 77 FR 76069 - Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah... Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act, Quinex Energy Corporation timely filed a petition for reinstatement of oil and gas lease UTU88055 for lands in Uintah County, Utah, and paid all required rentals...

  11. 76 FR 14686 - Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah... Terminated Oil and Gas Lease, Utah. SUMMARY: In accordance with Title IV of the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act (Pub. L. 97-451), Dudley & Associates timely filed a petition for reinstatement of oil and...

  12. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients.

    PubMed

    Emami, Meibodi Shahin; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Showkatbakhsh, Abdolrahman

    2007-01-01

    Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 +/-1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  13. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  14. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  15. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    PAZINATTO, Flavia Bittencourt; GIONORDOLI NETO, Ranulfo; WANG, Linda; MONDELLI, José; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. Material and Methods Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05). Results After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II) were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. Conclusions Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment. PMID:22858698

  16. DUST EMISSION FROM EVOLVED AND UNEVOLVED H II REGIONS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C. T.; Oey, M. S.; Li, A.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Paradis, D.; Churchwell, E.; Gordon, K. D.; Lawton, B.; Meixner, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Reach, W.T.

    2011-05-10

    We present a study of the dust properties of 12 classical and superbubble H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We use infrared photometry from Spitzer (8, 24, 70, and 160 {mu} m bands), obtained as part of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) program, along with archival spectroscopic classifications of the ionizing stars to examine the role of stellar sources on dust heating and processing. Our infrared observations show surprisingly little correlation between the emission properties of the dust and the effective temperatures or bolometric magnitudes of stars in the H II regions, suggesting that the H II region evolutionary timescale is not on the order of the dust processing timescale. We find that the infrared emission of superbubbles and classical H II regions shows little differentiation between the two classes, despite the significant differences in age and morphology. We do detect a correlation of the 24 {mu} m emission from hot dust with the ratio of 70-160 {mu} m flux. This correlation can be modeled as a trend in the temperature of a minority hot dust component, while a majority of the dust remains significantly cooler.

  17. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Père David's deer.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Zhang, Pei; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Hai-Long; Chen, Yi-Yan; Kuang, Ye-Ye; Ge, Yun-Fa; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2011-01-18

    The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated "HURRAH" based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1) All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2) these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1) and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2). The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens.

  18. Diversity at the major histocompatibility complex Class II in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Woodward, Rachael E; Sanderson, Claire E; Eldridge, Mark D B; Belov, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is the sole survivor of a previously widely distributed and diverse lineage of ornithorhynchid monotremes. Its dependence on healthy water systems imposes an inherent sensitivity to habitat degradation and climate change. Here, we compare genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II-DZB gene and 3 MHC-associated microsatellite markers with diversity at 6 neutral microsatellite markers in 70 platypuses from across their range, including the mainland of Australia and the isolated populations of Tasmania, King Island, and Kangaroo Island. Overall, high DZB diversity was observed in the platypus, with 57 DZB β1 alleles characterized. Significant positive selection was detected within the DZB peptide-binding region, promoting variation in this domain. Low levels of genetic diversity were detected at all markers in the 2 island populations, King Island (endemic) and Kangaroo Island (introduced), with the King Island platypuses monomorphic at the DZB locus. Loss of MHC diversity on King Island is of concern, as the population may have compromised immunological fitness and reduced ability to resist changing environmental conditions.

  19. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies.

  20. Characterization, polymorphism, and evolution of MHC class II B genes in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V; Negro, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    During the last decade, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology because of its potential implications in many biological processes. New insights into the gene structure and evolution of MHC genes can be gained through study of additional lineages of birds not yet investigated at the genomic level. In this study, we characterized MHC class II B genes in five families of birds of prey (Accipitridae, Pandionidae, Strigidae, Tytonidae, and Falconidae). Using PCR approaches, we isolated genomic MHC sequences up to 1300 bp spanning exons 1 to 3 in 26 representatives of each raptor lineage, finding no stop codons or frameshift mutations in any coding region. A survey of diversity across the entirety of exon 2 in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni reported 26 alleles in 21 individuals. Bayesian analysis revealed 21 positively selected amino acid sites, which suggests that the MHC genes described here are functional and probably expressed. Finally, through interlocus comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also discuss genetic evidence for concerted and transspecies evolution in the raptor MHC.

  1. Single-Molecule Motions of MHC Class II Rely on Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kozono, Haruo; Matsushita, Yufuku; Ogawa, Naoki; Kozono, Yuko; Miyabe, Toshihiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Okimoto, Noriaki; Taiji, Makoto; Kanagawa, Osami; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein can bind peptides of different lengths in the region outside the peptide-binding groove. Peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) contribute to the binding affinity of the peptide for MHC and change the immunogenicity of the peptide/MHC complex with regard to T cell receptor (TCR). The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are currently unknown. The molecular flexibility of the peptide/MHC complex may be an important determinant of the structures recognized by certain T cells. We used single-molecule x-ray analysis (diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)) and fluorescence anisotropy to investigate these mechanisms. DXT enabled us to monitor the real-time Brownian motion of the peptide/MHC complex and revealed that peptides without PFRs undergo larger rotational motions than peptides with PFRs. Fluorescence anisotropy further revealed that peptides without PFRs exhibit slightly larger motions on the nanosecond timescale. These results demonstrate that peptides without PFRs undergo dynamic motions in the groove of MHC and consequently are able to assume diverse structures that can be recognized by T cells. PMID:25606683

  2. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression distinguishes two distinct B cell developmental pathways during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    All mature B cells coexpress major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, I-A and I-E, which are restriction elements required for antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells. However, the expression of class II during the early stages of B cell development has been unclear. We demonstrate here that there is a difference in the expression of class II during murine B cell development in the fetal liver and adult bone marrow (BM). These differences define two distinct B cell developmental pathways. The Fetal-type (FT) pathway is characterized by pre-B and immature IgM+ B cells generated in the fetal liver which initially lack all class II expression. In contrast, the Adult-type (AT) pathway is typified by B cells developing in the adult BM which express class II molecules from the pre-B cell stage. In vitro stromal cell cultures of sorted fetal liver and adult BM pro-B cells indicated that the difference in I-A expression during B cell development is intrinsic to the progenitors. In addition, we show that FT B cell development is not restricted to the fetal liver but occurs in the peritoneal cavities, spleens, liver, and BM of young mice up to at least 1 mo of age. The AT B cell development begins to emerge after birth but is, however, restricted to the BM environment. These findings indicate that there are two distinct B cell developmental pathways during ontogeny, each of which could contribute differentially to the immune repertoire and thus the functions of B cell subsets and lineages. PMID:7913950

  3. Characterization of polymorphism within the H2-M MHC class II loci.

    PubMed

    Hermel, E; Yuan, J; Monaco, J J

    1995-01-01

    The products of the class II-like H2-M genes of the major histocompatibility complex are required for class II antigen processing. We sequenced H2-Ma and Mb from several mouse strains to determine whether these genes are polymorphic like the classical H2-A and E genes, or are oligomorphic, like H2-O. Both Mb loci appear to be transcribed and are distinct from each other. Mb1 and Mb2 differ by about 11% at the nucleotide level and are most dissimilar in their second exons (corresponding to the beta 1 domain). Relative to the published Mb1d haplotype sequence, the products of the b, g7, f, and k2 alleles of Mb1 from Mus musculus domesticus and the separate mouse species Mus spretus differ by only one to four amino acids. The majority of the changes occurred in the second exon of Mb1, in contrast to HLA-DMB, the human orthologue. Little polymorphism was seen for Mb2, and Ma was invariant in all strains tested. The similarity of the g7 allele to those from other haplotypes makes it unlikely that the M class II genes play a role in the autoimmune diabetes of NOD strain mice. The M genes are regulated in a manner similar to classical class II genes, in that they are upregulated by IFN-gamma in macrophages, and to a lesser extent by IL4 in B cells. When modeled on the crystal structure of the HLA-DR1 class II molecule, nearly all of the differences between M beta 1 and M beta 2 affect residues facing away from the putative peptide binding groove.

  4. Analysis of cDNA coding MHC class II beta chain of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Hatta, Yuki; Kanai, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Hayasaka, Ikuo; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2002-04-01

    The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, Patr) is the closest zoological living relative of humans and shares approximately 98.6% genetic homology to human beings. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a critical role in T cell-mediated immune responses in vertebrates, the information on Patr MHC remains at a relatively poor level. Therefore, we attempted to isolate Patr MHC class II genes and determine their nucleotide sequences. The cDNAs encoding Patr MHC class II DP, DQ and DR beta chains were isolated from the cDNA library of a chimpanzee B lymphocyte cell line Bch261. As a result of screening, the clone 6-3-1 as a representative of Patr DP clone, clone 30-1 as a Patr DQ clone, and clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 having different sequences as Patr DR clones were detected. The clone 6-3-1 consisted of 1,062 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 777 bp. In the same way, clone 30-1 consisted of 1,172 nucleotides including ORF of 786 bp, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 consisted of 1,163 nucleotides including ORF of 801 bp. Except for five nucleotide changes, clones 4-7-1 and 55-1 were the same sequence. By comparison with the nucleotide sequences already reported on chimpanzee MHC class II beta 1 genes, clones 6-3-1, 30-1, 4-7-1 and 55-1 were classified as PatrDPB1*16, PatrDQB1*0302, PatrDRB1*0201 and PatrDRB1*0204, respectively. This is the first report to describe complete cDNA sequences of Patr DP and DQ molecules. The nucleotide sequence data of Patr MHC class II genes obtained in this study will be useful for the genotyping of Patr MHC class II genes in individual chimpanzees.

  5. Trans-Species Polymorphism and Selection in the MHC Class II DRA Genes of Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ballingall, Keith T.; Rocchi, Mara S.; McKeever, Declan J.; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  6. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-06-30

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  7. Spectrum of MHC Class II Variability in Darwin’s Finches and Their Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Grant, Peter R.; Grant, B. Rosemary; Sato, Tetsuji; O’hUigin, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The study describes >400 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B exon 2 and 114 intron 2 sequences of 36 passerine bird species, 13 of which belong to the group of Darwin’s finches (DFs) and the remaining 23 to close or more distant relatives of DFs in Central and South America. The data set is analyzed by a combination of judiciously selected statistical methods. The analysis reveals that reliable information concerning MHC organization, including the assignment of sequences to loci, and evolution, as well as the process of species divergence, can be obtained in the absence of genomic sequence data, if the analysis is taken several steps beyond the standard phylogenetic tree construction approach. The main findings of the present study are these: The MHC class II B region of the passerine birds is as elaborate in its organization, divergence, and genetic diversity as the MHC of the eutherian mammals, specifically the primates. Hence, the reported simplicity of the fowl MHC is an oddity. With the help of appropriate markers, the divergence of the MHC genes can be traced deep in the phylogeny of the bird taxa. Transspecies polymorphism is rampant at many of the bird MHC loci. In this respect, the DFs behave as if they were a single, genetically undifferentiated population. There is thus far no indication of alleles that could be considered species, genus, or even DF group specific. The implication of these findings is that DFs are in the midst of adaptive radiations, in which morphological differentiation into species is running ahead of genetic differentiation in genetic systems such as the MHC or the mitochondrial DNA. The radiations are so young that there has not been enough time to sort out polymorphisms at most of the loci among the morphologically differentiating species. These findings parallel those on Lake Victoria haplochromine fishes. Several of the DF MHC allelic lineages can be traced back to the MHC genes of the species Tiaris obscura

  8. Modified Class II open sandwich restorations: evaluation of interfacial adaptation and influence of different restorative techniques.

    PubMed

    Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid E; van Dijken, Jan W V; Hörstedt, Per

    2002-06-01

    The sandwich technique with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) has been proposed to relieve the contraction stresses of direct resin composite (RC) restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial adaptation to enamel and dentin of modified Class II open RMGIC/RC sandwich restorations and the influence of different light curing techniques and matrix bands. Forty box-shaped Class II fillings were placed in vivo in premolars scheduled for extraction after one month. In groups I and II, a metal matrix was used; RC was inserted with horizontal (group I) and diagonal (group II) increments and cured with indirect/direct light. Group III was performed as group II, but a transparent matrix was used. Group IV was as group II, but with a separating liner between RMGIC and RC. Group V was a closed sandwich restoration. Interfacial quality was studied using SEM replica technique. Gap-free interfacial adaptation to enamel was observed for RMGIC in 70%, for RC in 70% and to dentin for RMGIC in 81%, for RC in 56%. No significant differences were seen between the experimental groups. At the cervical margins, RMGIC showed significantly better adaptation to enamel than RC, 74% and 42%, respectively. In conclusion, the investigated restorations showed a high percentage of gap-free interfacial adaptation in vivo. Interfacial adaptation to dentin and to cervical enamel was significantly better for RMGIC than for RC.

  9. Exploring the unified class of Type II Supernovae with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Stefano; Howell, Dale Andrew; Sand, David J.; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; McCully, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally Type II supernovae (SNe) have been separated into two distinct classes based on the shape of their light curves after peak: Type II plateau (IIP) and Type II linear (IIL) SNe. Recent works suggest that Type II SNe form a continuum of objects from a single progenitor system. Here we present data for a set of Type II SNe collected with the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network and observed simultaneously with UVOT-Swift. In the growing sample of Type II SNe, we search for clear evidence to distinguish the two classes. SNe IIL show a similar drop at the end of their short steep plateau that resemble the drop visible in SNe IIP. We show that also at early phase SNe IIP and IIL are similar both in the UV and in the optical. Our analysis is consistent with the scenario that SNe IIP and IIL come from similar progenitors but with SN IIL progenitors having been stripped of their hydrogen envelope before explosion. While SNe IIL are on average more luminous than SNe IIP, we show that they both produce a comparable amount of nickel.

  10. Antigen Targeting to Human HLA Class II Molecules Increases Efficacy of DNA Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Løset, Geir Åge; Vikse, Elisabeth; Fugger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It has been difficult to translate promising results from DNA vaccination in mice to larger animals and humans. Previously, DNA vaccines encoding proteins that target Ag to MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules on APCs have been shown to induce rapid, enhanced, and long-lasting Ag-specific Ab titers in mice. In this study, we describe two novel DNA vaccines that as proteins target HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules. These vaccine proteins cross-react with MHC-II molecules in several species of larger mammals. When tested in ferrets and pigs, a single DNA delivery with low doses of the HLA-II–targeted vaccines resulted in rapid and increased Ab responses. Importantly, painless intradermal jet delivery of DNA was as effective as delivery by needle injection followed by electroporation. As an indication that the vaccines could also be useful for human application, HLA-II–targeted vaccine proteins were found to increase human CD4+ T cell responses by a factor of ×103 in vitro. Thus, targeting of Ag to MHC-II molecules may represent an attractive strategy for increasing efficacy of DNA vaccines in larger animals and humans. PMID:27671110

  11. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Sato, Yasunori; Serizawa, Toru; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Barfod, Bierta E.; Ono, Junichi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  12. THE HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELS OF THE COMETARY COMPACT H ii REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Jiang-Shui E-mail: zhuqf@ustc.edu.cn E-mail: jzwang@shao.ac.cn

    2015-10-10

    We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultracompact H ii regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a 40.9/21.9 M{sub ⊙} star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense (n = 8000 cm{sup −3}) molecular material with a stellar velocity of 15 km s{sup −1}. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne ii] 12.81 μm and H{sub 2} S(2) lines from the ionized regions and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell are mainly due to the expansion of the H ii region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell simply reflects the motion of the dense shell with respect to the star. These differences can be used to distinguish two sets of models.

  13. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Mycobacterium...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based...

  14. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? (a) Fault events. (1) The following are fault events that must be capable of being recorded by the Class II gaming system: Event Definition and action to be taken (i) Component fault Reported when a fault on a component is detected....

  15. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events? (a) Fault events. (1) The following are fault events that must be capable of being recorded by the Class II gaming system: Event Definition and action to be taken (i) Component fault Reported when a fault on a component is detected....

  16. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... internal components. (h) Financial instrument acceptors. (1) Any Class II gaming system components that... regulations governing minimum internal control standards. (2) Prior to completion of a valid financial... governing minimum internal control standards. (i) Financial instrument dispensers. (1) Any Class II...

  17. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  18. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  19. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  20. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  1. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  2. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  3. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  4. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II... the game, and are specially manufactured or proprietary and not off-the-shelf, shall display a unique... outcome or integrity of any game, progressive award, financial instrument, cashless transaction,...

  5. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.12 What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II... software, files, data, and prize schedules. (2) Downloads of software, games, prize schedules, or other... performed in a manner that will not affect game play. (5) Downloads shall not affect the integrity...

  6. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II... the game, and are specially manufactured or proprietary and not off-the-shelf, shall display a unique... outcome or integrity of any game, progressive award, financial instrument, cashless transaction,...

  7. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY...-Field Digital Mammography System.'' This guidance document describes a means by which a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system may comply with special controls that apply to these class II...

  8. Selective abrogation of major histocompatibility complex class II expression on extrahematopoietic cells in mice lacking promoter IV of the class II transactivator gene.

    PubMed

    Waldburger, J M; Suter, T; Fontana, A; Acha-Orbea, H; Reith, W

    2001-08-20

    MHC class II (MHCII) molecules play a pivotal role in the induction and regulation of immune responses. The transcriptional coactivator class II transactivator (CIITA) controls MHCII expression. The CIITA gene is regulated by three independent promoters (pI, pIII, pIV). We have generated pIV knockout mice. These mice exhibit selective abrogation of interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced MHCII expression on a wide variety of non-bone marrow-derived cells, including endothelia, epithelia, astrocytes, and fibroblasts. Constitutive MHCII expression on cortical thymic epithelial cells, and thus positive selection of CD4(+) T cells, is also abolished. In contrast, constitutive and inducible MHCII expression is unaffected on professional antigen-presenting cells, including B cells, dendritic cells, and IFN-gamma-activated cells of the macrophage lineage. pIV(-/-) mice have thus allowed precise definition of CIITA pIV usage in vivo. Moreover, they represent a unique animal model for studying the significance and contribution of MHCII-mediated antigen presentation by nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in health and disease.

  9. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Samal, M. R.; Pirogov, L.

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer/IRS survey of Class II objects in Orion A. I. (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, D. M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Furlan, E.; Najita, J.; Sargent, B.; Hernandez, J.; Calvet, N.; Adame, L.; Espaillat, C.; Megeath, S. T.; Muzerolle, J.; McClure, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 319 Class II disks observed with Spitzer/IRS in the Orion A star-forming region. We described the Spitzer/IRS and IRTF/SpeX observations and data reduction process in Kim+ (2013, J/ApJ/769/149). The Orion A objects in this paper were selected based on the identification of young stars with disks by IRAC/Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) color-color diagrams (Megeath+ 2012, J/AJ/144/192). We observed them using Spitzer/IRS during campaigns 36, 39, 40, and 44 between 2006 November and 2007 October. To this group we added 16 additional objects (5 in the ONC; 11 in L1641) that were reclassified as Class II from Class 0/I sources observed in the Orion A protostar survey by C. Poteet et al. (2016, in preparation); 14 of these 16 were observed during campaigns 39 and 40, but 2 sources were observed in campaign 56 (see table 1). Of our IRS targets observed in both SL and LL modules in Orion A with Spitzer/IRS, we observed 120 at near-IR (0.8-2.4um) wavelengths with the medium-resolution spectrograph SpeX, on the NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea during the 2010A, 2011A, and 2011B semesters (see table 3). (9 data files).

  11. Low MHC class II diversity in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Sanderson, Claire; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    The largest remaining carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), is currently under threat of extinction due to a fatal contagious cancer-devil facial tumour disease. Low major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity is believed to have contributed to the transmission of the tumour allograft through devil populations. Here, we report low MHC class II variability in this species, with DA β chain genes (Saha-DAB1, 2 and 3) exhibiting very limited diversity and the sole α chain gene (Saha-DAA) monomorphic. Three, six and three alleles were found at Saha-DAB1, 2 and 3, respectively, with a predominant allele found at each locus. Heterozygosity at these three loci is low in the eastern population and modestly higher in northwestern individuals. The results are indicative of a selective sweep likely due to an infectious disease resulting in the fixation of selectively favoured alleles and depletion of genetic diversity at devil class II loci. Several attempts were made to isolate the other marsupial classical class II gene family, namely, DB, resulting in only one DBB pseudogene being found. These findings further support the view that this species has a compromised capacity to respond to pathogen evolution, emerging infectious diseases and environmental changes.

  12. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-06-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouse I-A(q) in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336].

  13. Chemical modification of Class II G-protein coupled receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chapter, Megan C.; White, Caitlin M.; De Ridder, Angela; Chadwick, Wayne; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Recent research and clinical data have begun to demonstrate the huge potential therapeutic importance of ligands that modulate the activity of the secretin-like, Class II, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Ligands that can modulate the activity of these Class II GPCRs may have important clinical roles in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders. While these receptors present important new therapeutic targets, the large glycoprotein nature of their cognate ligands poses many problems with respect to therapeutic peptidergic drug design. These native peptides often exhibit poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, poor receptor selectivity and resultant low potencies in vivo. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the structural modification of these peptides to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Successful modification strategies have included D-amino acid substitutions, selective truncation, and fatty acid acylation of the peptide. Through these and other processes, these novel peptide ligand analogs can demonstrate enhanced receptor subtype selectivity, directed signal transduction pathway activation, resistance to proteolytic degradation, and improved systemic bioavailability. In the future, it is likely, through additional modification strategies such as addition of circulation-stabilizing transferrin moieties, that the therapeutic pharmacopeia of drugs targeted towards Class II secretin-like receptors may rival that of the Class I rhodopsin-like receptors that currently provide the majority of clinically used GPCR-based therapeutics. Currently, Class II-based drugs include synthesized analogues of vasoactive intestinal peptide for type 2 diabetes or parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis. PMID:19686775

  14. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. Methods We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Results Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. Conclusions A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival

  15. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Corrie A.; Negroni, Maria P.; Kellersberger, Katherine A.; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 310 helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange. PMID:22084083

  16. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange.

    PubMed

    Painter, Corrie A; Negroni, Maria P; Kellersberger, Katherine A; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E; Stern, Lawrence J

    2011-11-29

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 3(10) helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange.

  17. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  18. Occurrence of classes I and II integrons in Enterobacteriaceae collected from Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Mai M.; Amer, Fatma A.; Allam, Ayman A.; El-Sokkary, Rehab H.; Gheith, Tarek; Arafa, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrons are genetic units characterized by the ability to capture and incorporate gene cassettes, thus can contribute to the emergence and transfer of antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the presence and distribution of class I and class II integrons and the characteristics of the gene cassettes they carry in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from nosocomial infections at Zagzig University Hospital in Egypt, (2) to determine their impact on resistance, and (3) to identify risk factors for the existence of integrons. Relevant samples and full clinical history were collected from 118 inpatients. Samples were processed; isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. Integrons were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized into class I or II by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Integron-positive isolates were subjected to another PCR to detect gene cassette, followed by gene cassette sequencing. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recognized, 41 of them (53.9%) were integron-positive; 39 strains carried class I and 2 strains carried class II integrons. Integrons had gene cassettes encoding different combinations and types of resistance determinants. Interestingly, blaOXA129 gene was found and ereA gene was carried on class I integrons. The same determinants were carried within isolates of the same species as well as isolates of different species. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). No risk factors were associated for integron carriage. We conclude that integrons carrying gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance are significantly present among Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infection in our hospital. Risk factors for acquisition remain to be identified. PMID:26157425

  19. Dust properties in H II regions in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaño, M.; Kennicutt, R.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verley, S.; Hermelo, I.; Boquien, M.; Albrecht, M.; Kramer, C.; Braine, J.; Pérez-Montero, E.; De Looze, I.; Xilouris, M.; Kovács, A.; Staguhn, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The infrared emission (IR) of the interstellar dust has been claimed to be a tracer of the star formation rate. However, the conversion of the IR emission into star formation rate can be strongly dependent on the physical properties of the dust, which are affected by the environmental conditions where the dust is embedded. Aims: We study here the dust properties of a set of H ii regions in the Local Group galaxy M 33 presenting different spatial configurations between the stars, gas, and dust to understand the dust evolution in different environments. Methods: We modelled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of each region using the DustEM tool and obtained the mass relative to hydrogen for very small grains (VSG, YVSG), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (YPAH), and big grains (BG, YBG). We furthermore performed a pixel-by-pixel SED modelling and derived maps of the relative mass of each grain type for the whole surface of the two most luminous H ii regions in M 33, NGC 604 and NGC 595. Results: The relative mass of the VSGs (YVSG/YTOTAL) changes with the morphology of the region: YVSG/YTOTAL is a factor of 1.7 higher for H ii regions classified as filled and mixed than for regions presenting a shell structure. The enhancement in VSGs within NGC 604 and NGC 595 is correlated to expansive gas structures with velocities ≥50 km s-1. The gas-to-dust ratio derived for the H ii regions in our sample exhibits two regimes related to the H i-H2 transition of the interstellar medium (ISM). Regions corresponding to the H i diffuse regime present a gas-to-dust ratio compatible with the expected value if we assume that the gas-to-dust ratio scales linearly with metallicity, while regions corresponding to a H2 molecular phase present a flatter dust-gas surface density distribution. Conclusions: The fraction of VSGs can be affected by the conditions of the interstellar environment: strong shocks of 50-90 km s-1 existing in the interior of the most luminous H ii

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. Radio Recombination Lines in Galactic H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quireza, Cintia; Rood, Robert T.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.

    2006-07-01

    We report radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum observations of a sample of 106 Galactic H II regions made with the NRAO 140 Foot (43 m) radio telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia. We believe this to be the most sensitive RRL survey ever made for a sample this large. Most of our source integration times range between 6 and 90 hr, yielding typical rms noise levels of ~1.0-3.5 mK. Our data result from two different experiments performed, calibrated, and analyzed in similar ways. A C II survey was made at the 3.5 cm wavelength to obtain accurate measurements of carbon radio recombination lines. When combined with atomic (C I) and molecular (CO) data, these measurements will constrain the composition, structure, kinematics, and physical properties of the photodissociation regions that lie on the edges of H II regions. A second survey was made at the 3.5 cm wavelength to determine the abundance of 3He in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Together with measurements of the 3He+ hyperfine line, we get high-precision RRL parameters for H, 4He, and C. Here we discuss significant improvements in these data with both longer integrations and newly observed sources.

  2. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE AND METALLICITY IN H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Monica; GarcIa-Rojas, Jorge E-mail: jogarcia@iac.e

    2010-01-10

    The metallicities implied by collisionally excited lines (CELs) of heavy elements in H II regions are systematically lower than those implied by recombination lines (RLs) by factors of approx2, introducing uncertainties of the same order in the metallicities inferred for the interstellar medium of any star-forming galaxy. Most explanations of this discrepancy are based on the different sensitivities of CELs and RLs to electron temperature, and invoke either some extra heating mechanism producing temperature fluctuations in the ionized region or the addition of cold gas in metal-rich inclusions or ionized by cosmic rays or X-rays. These explanations will change the temperature structure of the ionized gas from the one predicted by simple photoionization models, and depending on which one is correct, will imply different metallicities for the emitting gas. We select nine H II regions with observed spectra of high quality and show that simple models with metallicities close to the ones implied by oxygen CELs reproduce easily their temperature structure, measured with T{sub e}([N II])/T{sub e}([O III]), and their oxygen CELs emission. We discuss the strong constraints that this agreement places on the possible explanations of the discrepancy and suggest that the simplest explanation, namely errors in the line recombination coefficients by factors approx2, might be the correct one. In such case, CELs will provide the best estimates of metallicity.

  3. On the formation and expansion of H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Jose; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of H II regions in spherical clouds with small, constant-density cores and power-law density distributions r exp -w outside the core is described analytically. It is found that there is a critical exponent above which the cloud becomes completely ionized. Its value in the formation phase depends on the initial conditions, but it has a well-defined value w(crit) = 3/2 during the expansion phase. For w less than w(crit), the radius of the H II region grows at a given rate, while neutral mass accumulates in the interphase between the ionization and shock fronts. For w = w(crit), the fronts move together without mass accumulation. Cases with w greater than w(crit) lead to the champagne phase: once the cloud is fully ionized, the expansion becomes supersonic. For self-gravitating disks without magnetic fields, the main features include a new 'variable-size' stage. The initial shape of the H II region has a critical point beyond which the disk becomes completely ionized.

  4. Computed tomography assessment of temporomandibular joint position and dimensions in patients with class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Ciger, Semra

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate and compare the positions and dimensions of the temporomandibular joint and its components, respectively, in patients with Class II division 1 and division 2 malocclusions. Material and Methods Computed tomography images of 14 patients with Class II division 1 and 14 patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion were included with a mean age of 11.4 ± 1.2 years. The following temporomandibular joint measurements were made with OsiriX medical imaging software program. From the sagittal images, the anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces and the mandibular fossa depths were measured. From the axial images, the greatest anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the mandibular condyles, angles between the long axis of the mandibular condyle and midsagittal plane, and vertical distances from the geometric centers of the condyles to midsagittal plane were measured. The independent samples t-test was used for comparing the measurements between the two sides and between the Class II division 1 and 2 groups. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the right and left temporomandibular joints; therefore, the data were pooled. There were statistically significant differences between the Class II division 1 and 2 groups with regard to mandibular fossa depth and anterior joint space measurements. Conclusions In Class II patients, the right and left temporomandibular joints were symmetrical. In the Class II division 1 group, the anterior joint space was wider than that in Class II division 2 group, and the mandibular fossa was deeper and wider in the Class II division 1 group. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, Class II malocclusion, Cone beam computed tomography. PMID:28298985

  5. Pyruvic oxime dioxygenase from heterotrophic nitrifier Alcaligenes faecalis is a nonheme Fe((II))-dependent enzyme homologous to class II aldolase.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Shuhei; Uematsu, Chisato; Dohra, Hideo; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2017-01-06

    Pyruvic oxime dioxygenase (POD), a key enzyme in heterotrophic nitrification, was purified from Alcaligenes faecalis, and the molecular and catalytic characteristics were reexamined. POD was purified as the homotetramer of the subunit whose molecular weight was 30,000. The deduced amino acid sequence of POD was homologous with a class II aldolase that has been regarded as the Zn((II))-dependent enzyme catalyzing aldol reactions. The recombinant protein showed weak POD activity, and was activated by reconstitution with Fe((II)). Affinity and catalytic constants were estimated at 470 μM and 4.69 sec(-1), respectively. The POD was inactivated by EDTA to remove bound divalent metal cations. A reconstitution experiment demonstrated that Fe((II)), not Zn((II)), is essential for POD activity and that Mn((II)) could partially fulfill the function of Fe((II)). A mutant POD with replacement of His(183), corresponding to one of three Zn((II))-binding ligands in the class II aldolase, by Asn was purified as a homotetrameric protein but showed no catalytic activities. Those results suggest that the POD is homologous to class II aldolase having non-heme Fe((II)) as a catalytic center instead of Zn((II)). A possible mechanism of the POD reaction is discussed on the basis of that of a known Fe((II))-dependent dioxygenase.

  6. Pyruvic oxime dioxygenase from heterotrophic nitrifier Alcaligenes faecalis is a nonheme Fe(II)-dependent enzyme homologous to class II aldolase

    PubMed Central

    Tsujino, Shuhei; Uematsu, Chisato; Dohra, Hideo; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvic oxime dioxygenase (POD), a key enzyme in heterotrophic nitrification, was purified from Alcaligenes faecalis, and the molecular and catalytic characteristics were reexamined. POD was purified as the homotetramer of the subunit whose molecular weight was 30,000. The deduced amino acid sequence of POD was homologous with a class II aldolase that has been regarded as the Zn(II)-dependent enzyme catalyzing aldol reactions. The recombinant protein showed weak POD activity, and was activated by reconstitution with Fe(II). Affinity and catalytic constants were estimated at 470 μM and 4.69 sec−1, respectively. The POD was inactivated by EDTA to remove bound divalent metal cations. A reconstitution experiment demonstrated that Fe(II), not Zn(II), is essential for POD activity and that Mn(II) could partially fulfill the function of Fe(II). A mutant POD with replacement of His183, corresponding to one of three Zn(II)-binding ligands in the class II aldolase, by Asn was purified as a homotetrameric protein but showed no catalytic activities. Those results suggest that the POD is homologous to class II aldolase having non-heme Fe(II) as a catalytic center instead of Zn(II). A possible mechanism of the POD reaction is discussed on the basis of that of a known Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase. PMID:28059164

  7. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens in human Schwann cell cultures and effects of infection with Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, N M; Mirsky, R; Grange, J M; Jessen, K R

    1987-01-01

    Recent experiments on rats have raised the possibility that Schwann cells can present antigens to T lymphocytes. We have investigated whether this mechanism might be relevant in leprosy by determining under what conditions human Schwann cells express class I and class II antigens, and whether infection with Mycobacterium leprae affects this expression. The distribution of these antigens was examined on human Schwann cells in dissociated cell cultures derived from human fetal peripheral nerves. We find that both Schwann cells and fibroblastic cells in these cultures normally express class I antigens but not class II antigens. When Schwann cells are infected with live Mycobacterium leprae for 48 h, 73% of Schwann cells phagocytose the bacteria. Mycobacterium leprae prevents 3H-thymidine incorporation into cultured human Schwann cells, but does not affect class I expression in these cells. Treatment of normal and Mycobacterium leprae infected cultures with gamma-interferon for 72 h induces class II expression on most Schwann cells but not on the majority of fibroblastic cells. The fact that human Schwann cells infected with Mycobacterium leprae can be induced by gamma-interferon to express class II antigens suggests that they may be able to present Mycobacterium leprae antigens to T lymphocytes and thus initiate immune responses against the bacteria. We suggest that a failure of this response, such as that seen within nerve trunks in lepromatous leprosy, is caused by deficient class II expression on Schwann cells. This deficiency in class II expression, in turn, may be caused by the reduced gamma-interferon production characteristic of lepromatous leprosy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3115648

  8. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  9. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants.

    PubMed

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Zehra Jamal, Wafa

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  10. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Habib Ollah; Taheri, Morteza; Abolfazli, Salman; Asgary, Saeed; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD), vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL), open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD), and gingival margin level (GML) were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery) postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters. Conclusion: Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements. PMID:25628670

  11. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution.

  12. Integration of the Herbst and Begg appliance in the management of severe Class II malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Desai, Asavari L; Hegde, Manjunath; Dinesh, M R; Amarnath, B C

    2014-10-01

    The efficacy of the Herbst appliance in a normalizing sagittal relationship in patients with a Class II malocclusion is well-documented. This case report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old male patient with severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible and mildly prognathic maxilla, convex profile, and lip trap. He had severely proclined maxillary incisors and retroclined mandibular incisors, overjet of 13 mm and overbite of 7 mm. Since the patient was in the peak pubertal growth phase, growth modulation was carried out with the Herbst appliance for 8 months, followed by fixed appliance therapy with the Begg appliance for 11 months. Combination of Herbst and Begg appliance led to a very favorable treatment outcome and greatly improved the patient's appearance.

  13. Sequence and phylogenetic position of a class II aldolase gene in the amitochondriate protist, Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Henze, K; Morrison, H G; Sogin, M L; MüllerM

    1998-11-19

    A Giardia lamblia gene, Glfba, was cloned and sequenced. This gene codes for a 324-residue-long putative class II fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase. The positions of gaps and phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods showed the sequence to be most closely related to the as-yet uncharacterized aldolases of Helicobacter pylori and Aquifex aeolicus and to the group that comprises the Calvin-cycle aldolases of photosynthetic proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. In combination with the known taxonomic and functional distribution of class I and II aldolases, the results indicate that the G. lamblia enzyme is distinct in its evolutionary history from all eukaryotic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolases studied so far.

  14. Drug carrier systems for solubility enhancement of BCS class II drugs: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Bhargava, Deepak; Thakkar, Arti; Arora, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Poor aqueous solubility impedes a drug's bioavailability and challenges its pharmaceutical development. Pharmaceutical development of drugs with poor water solubility requires the establishment of a suitable formulation layout among various techniques. Various approaches have been investigated extensively to improve the aqueous solubility and poor dissolution rate of BCS class II and IV drugs. In this literature review, novel formulation options, particularly for class II drugs designed for applications such as micronization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, co-crystallisation, super critical fluid technology, solubilisation by change in pH, salt formation, co-solvents, melt granulation, and solid dispersion, liposomal/niosomal formulations, are discussed in detail to introduce biopharmaceutical challenges and recent approaches to facilitate more efficient drug formulation and development.

  15. Target recognition, resistance, immunity and genome mining of class II bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kjos, Morten; Borrero, Juan; Opsata, Mona; Birri, Dagim J; Holo, Helge; Cintas, Luis M; Snipen, Lars; Hernández, Pablo E; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-12-01

    Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which these peptides recognize and kill target cells, how producer cells protect themselves from their own bacteriocin (self-immunity) and how target cells may develop resistance. In this review we discuss some important recent progress in these areas for the non-lantibiotic (class II) bacteriocins. We also discuss some examples of how the current wealth of genome sequences provides an invaluable source in the search for novel class II bacteriocins.

  16. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  17. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    PubMed Central

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Zehra Jamal, Wafa

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors. PMID:25548686

  18. Species specificity and augmentation of responses to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in human CD4 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Murine T cell responses to human class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules were shown to be a minimum of 20-70-fold lower than responses to allogeneic molecules. Transgenic mice expressing slightly below normal (75-95%) or very high (250-380%) cell surface levels of human CD4 were utilized to determine whether this was due to a species-specific interaction between murine CD4 and class II molecules. Human CD4 was shown to function in signal transduction events in murine T cells based on the ability of anti-human CD4 antibody to synergize with suboptimal doses of anti-murine CD3 antibody in stimulating T cell proliferation. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, T cell responses to human class II molecules were enhanced up to threefold, whereas allogeneic responses were unaltered. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were enhanced at least 10-fold, whereas allogeneic responses were between one and three times the level of normal responses. The relatively greater enhancement of the response to human class II molecules in both lines argues for a preferential interaction between human CD4 and human class II molecules. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were blocked by antibodies to CD4 of either species, indicating participation by both molecules. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to both human and murine class II molecules were almost completely blocked with anti-human CD4 antibody, whereas anti-murine CD4 antibody had no effect. However, anti-murine CD4 continued to synergize with anti-CD3 in stimulating T cell proliferation in these mice. Thus, overexpression of human CD4 selectively impaired the ability of murine CD4 to assist in the process of antigen recognition. The ability of human CD4 to support a strong allogeneic response under these conditions indicates that this molecule can interact with murine class II molecules to a

  19. HLA class II associations with rheumatic heart disease among clinically homogeneous patients in children in Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Stanevicha, Valda; Eglite, Jelena; Sochnevs, Arturs; Gardovska, Dace; Zavadska, Dace; Shantere, Ruta

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of immune reactions has a major role in the development of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and differs between patients with rheumatic fever (RF). Some authors think the risk of acquiring RHD is associated with the HLA class II DR and DQ loci, but other views exist, due to the various HLA-typing methods and ways of grouping cases. Our goal was to determine the relations between HLA class II alleles and risk of or protection from RF in patients with relatively homogeneous clinical manifestations. A total of 70 RF patients under the age of 18 years were surveyed in Latvia. HLA genotyping of DRB1*01 to DRB1*18 and DQB1*0201-202, *0301-305, *0401-402, *0501-504, and *0601-608 was performed using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers. Data for a control group of 100 healthy individuals typed for HLA by the same method were available from the databank of the Immunology Institute of Latvia. Of the RF patients, 47 had RHD and 8 had Sydenham's chorea. We concluded that HLA class II DRB1*07-DQB1*0401-2 and DRB1*07-DQB1*0302 could be the risk alleles and HLA class II DRB1*06 and DQB1*0602-8, the protective ones. Patients with mitral valve regurgitation more often had DRB1*07 and DQB1*0401-2, and patients with multivalvular lesions more often had DRB1*07 and DQB1*0302. In Sydenham's chorea patients, the DQB1*0401-2 allele was more frequent. Genotyping control showed a high risk of RF and RHD in patients with DRB1*01-DQB1*0301-DRB1*07-DQB1*0302 and DRB1*15-DQB1*0302-DRB1*07-DQB1*0303. PMID:14680508

  20. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Montanha, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27007768

  1. Preventing postoperative tooth sensitivity in class I, II and V restorations.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2002-02-01

    Postoperative tooth sensitivity in Class I, II and V resin-based composite restorations continues to be an unpredictable problem in dentistry. In spite of meticulous use of dentin bonding agents, dentists and patients are faced with the sensitivity problem and the frustrating need to remove restorations and occasionally accomplish endodontic therapy on teeth that were not sensitive before the restorations were placed. Practitioners have developed numerous preventive methods to overcome the sensitivity challenge, which I have described in this article.

  2. Non surgical treatment of a Class II malocclusion with skeletal hyperdivergency and anterior open bite.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Flores, Jose Ma

    2009-01-01

    The malocclusions with hyperdivergent vertical growth patterns are more difficult to treat without a combined approach, including orthodontics and orthodontic surgery. The goal of this article is to describe a nonsurgical approach of a Class II malocclusion on an adult patient presenting a skeletal hyperdivergency. Fundamental criteria must be respected including proper diagnosis, proper treatment timing to maximize growth potential, patient cooperation, etc. These factors are critical in the favorable treatment outcome of any jaw discrepancy.

  3. Garvieacin Q, a Novel Class II Bacteriocin from Lactococcus garvieae BCC 43578

    PubMed Central

    Zendo, Takeshi; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Pumpuang, Laphaslada; Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae BCC 43578 produces a novel class II bacteriocin, garvieacin Q (GarQ), 70 amino acids in length and containing a 20-amino-acid N-terminal leader peptide. It is cleaved at the Gly-Gly site to generate the mature GarQ (5,339 Da), which is especially inhibitory against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and other L. garvieae strains. PMID:22210221

  4. Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes.

    PubMed

    Auffray, C; Lillie, J W; Arnot, D; Grossberger, D; Kappes, D; Strominger, J L

    DNA sequences of four human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha chain DNA sequences (derived from cDNA and genomic clones representing DC1 alpha, DC4 alpha, DX alpha and SB alpha) are presented and compared to DR alpha and to mouse I-A alpha and I-E alpha sequences. These data suggest possible mechanisms for the generation of polymorphism and the evolution of the DR, DC and SB families.

  5. Rapid palatal expander: an anchor unit for second molar distalization in Angle Class II treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K

    2010-01-01

    Distal movement of maxillary molars is a common approach for nonextraction treatment of Angle Class II patients. Because of known difficulties involving moving the maxillary first molars distally in the presence of second molars, this article describes how the distally directed force is applied immediately to the second molars. A rapid palatal expander can be used as a reliable unit to facilitate the distal movement of the second maxillary molars.

  6. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  7. Structural and evolutionary aspects of antenna chromophore usage by class II photolyases.

    PubMed

    Kiontke, Stephan; Gnau, Petra; Haselsberger, Reinhard; Batschauer, Alfred; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2014-07-11

    Light-harvesting and resonance energy transfer to the catalytic FAD cofactor are key roles for the antenna chromophores of light-driven DNA photolyases, which remove UV-induced DNA lesions. So far, five chemically diverse chromophores have been described for several photolyases and related cryptochromes, but no correlation between phylogeny and used antenna has been found. Despite a common protein topology, structural analysis of the distantly related class II photolyase from the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei (MmCPDII) as well as plantal orthologues indicated several differences in terms of DNA and FAD binding and electron transfer pathways. For MmCPDII we identify 8-hydroxydeazaflavin (8-HDF) as cognate antenna by in vitro and in vivo reconstitution, whereas the higher plant class II photolyase from Arabidopsis thaliana fails to bind any of the known chromophores. According to the 1.9 Å structure of the MmCPDII·8-HDF complex, its antenna binding site differs from other members of the photolyase-cryptochrome superfamily by an antenna loop that changes its conformation by 12 Å upon 8-HDF binding. Additionally, so-called N- and C-motifs contribute as conserved elements to the binding of deprotonated 8-HDF and allow predicting 8-HDF binding for most of the class II photolyases in the whole phylome. The 8-HDF antenna is used throughout the viridiplantae ranging from green microalgae to bryophyta and pteridophyta, i.e. mosses and ferns, but interestingly not in higher plants. Overall, we suggest that 8-hydroxydeazaflavin is a crucial factor for the survival of most higher eukaryotes which depend on class II photolyases to struggle with the genotoxic effects of solar UV exposure.

  8. A salt bridge turns off the foot-pocket in class-II HDACs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Zuolong; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Hai-Bin; Li, Min; Wu, Ruibo

    2016-08-21

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are promising anticancer targets and several selective inhibitors have been created based on the architectural differences of foot-pockets among HDACs. However, the "gate-keeper" of foot-pockets is still controversial. Herein, it is for the first time revealed that a conserved R-E salt bridge plays a critical role in keeping foot-pockets closed in class-II HDACs by computational simulations. This finding is further substantiated by our mutagenesis experiments.

  9. Correction of class II division I malocclusion after extraction using Roth prescription

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Chauhan, Arun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    A 19-year-old female patient with convex profile, posterior divergence having Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion with incompetent lips and rotations in various teeth was treated with fixed mechanotherapy. All the first premolars were extracted. Roth prescription of 0.022″×0.028″ slot was used. Proximal stripping was performed to correct a black triangle in the embrasure area in the upper anteriors. The entire treatment took about 15 months. PMID:23975910

  10. Correction of class II division I malocclusion after extraction using Roth prescription.

    PubMed

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Chauhan, Arun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-08-23

    A 19-year-old female patient with convex profile, posterior divergence having Angle's class II division 1 malocclusion with incompetent lips and rotations in various teeth was treated with fixed mechanotherapy. All the first premolars were extracted. Roth prescription of 0.022″ × 0.028″ slot was used. Proximal stripping was performed to correct a black triangle in the embrasure area in the upper anteriors. The entire treatment took about 15 months.

  11. Hyperexpression of interferon-gamma-induced MHC class II genes associated with reorganization of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Ulevitch, R. J.; Kline, L.; Schreiber, R. D.; Pingel, J.; Amaldi, I.; Reith, W.; Mach, B.

    1991-01-01

    Class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products are key recognition units in the induction and regulation of the immune response. Expression of class I and class II may be constitutive or inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). A key step in the induction of MHC genes is recognition of IFN-gamma by its membrane receptor. The work described here examines the regulation of the occupied IFN-gamma receptor by the cytoskeleton. To do this the authors have used the fungal metabolites dihydrocytochalasin B (DHCB) and cytochalasin D (CD), substances that bind to actin filaments and thereby disrupt the cytoskeleton. The authors have studied the effect of DHCB and CD on IFN-gamma-induced MHC gene expression in 143 B cells, a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. Herein the authors demonstrate that alterations in the cytoskeleton induced by DHCB and CD can lead to increases in IFN-gamma-induced MHC gene expression. Dihydrocytochalasin B added up to 3 hours after IFN-gamma results in a threefold to sixfold increase in levels of class II mRNA while producing minimal enhancement of class I gene expression. In contrast, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression was unaltered by IFN-gamma or by the cytochalasins. The increased amount of class II mRNA can be accounted for by a concomitant increase in transcription rate of this gene. Studies using 125I-IFN-gamma demonstrate that the occupied IFN-gamma receptor associates with a Triton X-100 insoluble fraction of 143 B cells and that DHCB and CD markedly inhibit this association. The results described here provide evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis that the activity of the occupied IFN-gamma receptor may be modulated by interactions with the cytoskeleton of the cell. This receptor may be one of a group of plasma membrane receptors that are sensitive to the action of cytochalasins after ligand binding. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1907805

  12. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  13. Skeletal and dental changes with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Kharbanda, O P; Duggal, R; Parkash, H

    2000-12-01

    This prospective cephalometric study was undertaken to assess the mode and magnitude of Class II correction with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in growing children. The sample comprised subjects with similar malocclusion and age range (9-12 years) who were specifically selected for nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy. Cephalograms were analyzed to assess the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes that occurred after correction of the molar relationship, the overjet, and the overbite during the 9-month treatment period. The results revealed a significant improvement in the anteroposterior jaw relationship, suggested by the significant reduction in the ANB angle (1.62 degrees ) and in Wits AO-BO (1.42 mm). The mandibular length increase of 0.56 mm suggests that the Class II elastics used in nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy had a minimal stimulatory effect on mandibular growth. There was a significant increase in the anterior and posterior facial heights and the ramal height. Almost all of the dental changes were significant. The most striking feature were a significant retraction and extrusion of the maxillary incisors and proclination and intrusion of the lower incisors accompanied by extrusion of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors extruded by 1.64 mm under the influence of the undesirable downward component of the Class II elastic forces. The major contribution to overjet and molar correction was predominantly dentoalveolar.

  14. HLA Class II Antigen Presentation in Prostate Cancer Cells: A Novel Approach to Prostate Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doonan, Bently Patrick; Haque, Azizul

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a deadly disease that is in drastic need of new treatment strategies for late stage and metastatic prostate cancer. Immunotherapy has emerged as a viable option to fill this void. Clinical trials have been conducted that induce tumor clearance through cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, these studies have had mixed outcomes with the overlying problem being the lack of a complete immune response with sustained killing and the formation of tumor specific memory cells. To overcome this, we have outlined the need for activating the HLA class II pathway in inducing a sustained CD8+ T cell response and the development of effective memory. We have also discussed the ability of prostate cancer cells to express stable HLA class II molecules that can be manipulated for tumor antigen (Ag) processing and presentation. This review also sets to outline new directions that exist for the use of class II-restricted Ags/peptides in devising cancer vaccines as well as combined chemoimmunotherapy. A better understanding of these concepts will improve future cancer vaccine studies and further the field of cancer immunobiology.

  15. Stress-induced alterations in interferon production and class II histocompatibility antigen expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Cunnick, J. E.; Armfield, A. V.; Wood, P. G.; Rabin, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Mild electric foot-shock has been shown to be a stressor that can alter immune responses. Male Lewis rats were exposed to one session of 16 5.0-s 1.6-mA foot-shocks. Production of interferon-gamma by splenocytes in response to concanavalin-A was decreased in spleens from the shocked rats compared to control spleens. Spleen cells from rats treated with nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and then shocked, showed dose-dependent attenuation of the suppression of interferon-gamma production. This suggests that catecholamines mediate shock-induced suppression of interferon-gamma production. The percentage of splenic mononuclear cells expressing class II histocompatibility (Ia) antigens on their surfaces from spleens of shocked rats was determined by flow cytometry. Significantly decreased class II positive mononuclear cells were present in the spleens of shocked rats in comparison to the spleens of control rats. This may reflect an alteration of cell trafficking or decreased production of class II antigens.

  16. Mutations and selection in the generation of class II histocompatibility antigen polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, K; Wiman, K; Emmoth, E; Larhammar, D; Böhme, J; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Ronne, H; Peterson, P A; Rask, L

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of seven human DR and DC class II histocompatibility antigen beta-chain amino acid sequences indicates that the allelic variation is of comparable magnitude within the DR and DC beta-chain genes. Silent and replacement nucleotide substitutions in six DR and DC beta-chain sequences, as well as in seven murine class II sequences (three I-A beta and four I-A alpha alleles) were analyzed. The results suggest that the mutation rates are of a comparable magnitude in the nucleotide sequences encoding the first and second external domains of the class II molecules. Nevertheless, the allelic amino acid replacements are predominantly located in the first domains. We conclude that a conservative selective pressure acts on the second domains, whereas in many positions in the first domains replacement substitutions are selectively neutral or maybe even favoured. Thus, the difference between the first and second domains as regards the number of amino acid replacements is mainly due to selection. PMID:6589154

  17. Relation of HLA class I and II supertypes with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Kuniholm, M H; Anastos, K; Kovacs, A; Gao, X; Marti, D; Sette, A; Greenblatt, R M; Peters, M; Cohen, M H; Minkoff, H; Gange, S J; Thio, C L; Young, M A; Xue, X; Carrington, M; Strickler, H D

    2013-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype has been associated with the probability of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, no prior studies have examined whether this relationship may be further characterized by grouping HLA alleles according to their supertypes, defined by their binding capacities. There is debate regarding the most appropriate method to define supertypes. Therefore, previously reported HLA supertypes (46 class I and 25 class II) were assessed for their relation with HCV clearance in a population of 758 HCV-seropositive women. Two HLA class II supertypes were significant in multivariable models that included: (i) supertypes with significant or borderline associations with HCV clearance after adjustment for multiple tests, and (ii) individual HLA alleles not part of these supertypes, but associated with HCV clearance in our prior study in this population. Specifically, supertype DRB3 (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.4; P=0.004) was associated with HCV persistence, whereas DR8 (PR=1.8; P=0.01) was associated with HCV clearance. Two individual alleles (B*57:01 and C*01:02) associated with HCV clearance in our prior study became nonsignificant in analysis that included supertypes, whereas B*57:03 (PR=1.9; P=0.008) and DRB1*07:01 (PR=1.7; P=0.005) retained their significance. These data provide epidemiologic support for the significance of HLA supertypes in relation to HCV clearance.

  18. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  19. Chicken major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of the B haplotype present self and foreign peptides.

    PubMed

    Cumberbatch, J A; Brewer, D; Vidavsky, I; Sharif, S

    2006-08-01

    The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or B-complex, mediates genetic resistance and susceptibility to infectious disease. For example, the B19 haplotype is associated with susceptibility to Marek's disease. Here, we describe the sequencing and analysis of peptides presented by B19 MHC class II molecules. A B19/B19 B-cell line was used for the immunoaffinity purification of MHC class II molecules, which was followed by acid elution of the bound peptides. The eluted peptides were then analysed using tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty peptide sequences were obtained, ranging from 11 to 25 amino acids in length. Source protein cellular localization included the plasma membrane, cytosol and endosomal pathway. In addition, five peptides from the envelope glycoprotein of chicken syncytial virus (CSV) were identified. Chicken syncytial virus had been used as a helper virus along with reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T for transformation of B19/B19B cells. Alignment and analysis of the peptide sequence pool provided a putative peptide-binding motif for the B19 MHC class II.

  20. Radiological dose assessment of NORM disposal in Class II injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Williams, G.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Arnish, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    Subsurface disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) via injection into Class II wells was modeled to estimate potential radiological doses to individuals consuming water from a shallow aquifer. A generic model was developed for the injection of 100,000 barrels of NORM waste containing 2,000 picocuries per liter of radium into a layered geologic system. In separate modeling runs, it was assumed that a casing failure released the entire volume of NORM into each successive geologic layer, including the shallow aquifer. Radionuclide concentrations and related potential doses were calculated for receptors located in the shallow aquifer from 0 to 20 miles down gradient of the injection well. The results indicated that even under conservative assumptions, calculated radionuclide concentrations and potential doses associated with subsurface disposal of NORM in Class II wells were below levels of regulatory concern. The preliminary results from a dose assessment of a specific project entailing injection of NORM into Class II wells support the conclusions of the generic study.

  1. Bite force and its association with stability following Class II/1 functional appliance treatment.

    PubMed

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the value of pre-treatment maximal molar bite force as a predictive variable in determining post-treatment changes and stability following functional appliance treatment in Class II malocclusion children. Twenty-eight Class II malocclusion children having undergone functional appliance treatment were followed for at least 1 year post-treatment. Maximal molar bite force measurements, lateral cephalograms, and study casts were taken before treatment, after treatment, and after post-treatment follow-up. Relationships between pre-treatment maximal molar bite force and dental or cephalometric changes post-treatment were examined. Patients were divided into stable and unstable groups, based on dental sagittal changes (overjet and molar relationship), and differences between the two groups of patients determined. Post-treatment changes varied widely. Thirteen children showed dentoalveolar sagittal relapse, namely a shift in molars towards a Class II relationship and an increase in overjet, while 15 did not. The unstable group demonstrated a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force, as well as a more obtuse gonial angle, than the stable group. The gonial angle was found to be negatively correlated to maximal molar bite force and may thus be a cephalometric indicator partly reflecting the functional condition of the masticatory muscles. Children with a lower pre-treatment maximal molar bite force were more prone to dentoalveolar sagittal relapse following functional appliance treatment.

  2. Management of a growing Skeletal Class II Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sagittal and transverse discrepancies often coexist in skeletal class II malocclusions. Orthopedic growth modification can work well in such cases, provided that the remaining pubertal growth is adequate and that the clinician can provide timely treatment to coincide with the peak growth period. The transverse discrepancy is generally corrected first, establishing a proper base for the sagittal correction to follow. For example, in a skeletal class II case with a narrow maxillary arch and retrusive mandible, maxillary expansion is performed initially to facilitate functional mandibular advancement. The present article illustrates an exception to this rule, in a case where sagittal correction was undertaken before transverse correction to make optimal use of the patient's pubertal growth spurt in first phase followed by a second phase of fixed appliance therapy during adolescence to achieve optimal results. How to cite this article: Sharma NS. Management of a growing Skeletal Class II Patient: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):48-54. PMID:25206189

  3. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Heather A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Geraghty, Daniel E; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H; Krebs, Shelly J; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; McElrath, M Juliana; Montefiori, David C; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H; Thomas, Rasmi

    2015-07-15

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1-specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120-204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial.

  4. Remarkably low affinity of CD4/peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Peter; Southcombe, Jennifer H.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Huo, Jiandong; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; McColl, James; Lever, Melissa; Evans, Edward J.; Hudson, Alexander; Chang, Veronica T.; Hanke, Tomáš; Godkin, Andrew; Dunne, Paul D.; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Palayret, Matthieu; Screaton, Gavin R.; Petersen, Jan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Fugger, Lars; Dushek, Omer; Xu, Xiao-Ning; Davis, Simon J.; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    The αβ T-cell coreceptor CD4 enhances immune responses more than 1 million-fold in some assays, and yet the affinity of CD4 for its ligand, peptide-major histocompatibility class II (pMHC II) on antigen-presenting cells, is so weak that it was previously unquantifiable. Here, we report that a soluble form of CD4 failed to bind detectably to pMHC II in surface plasmon resonance-based assays, establishing a new upper limit for the solution affinity at 2.5 mM. However, when presented multivalently on magnetic beads, soluble CD4 bound pMHC II-expressing B cells, confirming that it is active and allowing mapping of the native coreceptor binding site on pMHC II. Whereas binding was undetectable in solution, the affinity of the CD4/pMHC II interaction could be measured in 2D using CD4- and adhesion molecule-functionalized, supported lipid bilayers, yielding a 2D Kd of ∼5,000 molecules/μm2. This value is two to three orders of magnitude higher than previously measured 2D Kd values for interacting leukocyte surface proteins. Calculations indicated, however, that CD4/pMHC II binding would increase rates of T-cell receptor (TCR) complex phosphorylation by threefold via the recruitment of Lck, with only a small, 2–20% increase in the effective affinity of the TCR for pMHC II. The affinity of CD4/pMHC II therefore seems to be set at a value that increases T-cell sensitivity by enhancing phosphorylation, without compromising ligand discrimination. PMID:27114505

  5. Putting the Pieces Together: Teaching in Tandem about Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Gender at an Appalachian Regional University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel; Hardesty, Constance

    This paper describes an effort to coordinate teaching in two college classes--an Introduction to Sociology class and a Writing II class--to focus on issues of entitlement, such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality. The tandem effort was designed to encourage students to explore the subjects more deeply than would have been likely in…

  6. H II Region Metallicity Distribution in the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.; Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of metals in the Galaxy provides important information about galaxy formation and evolution. H II regions are the most luminous objects in the Milky Way at mid-infrared to radio wavelengths and can be seen across the entire Galactic disk. We used the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Green Bank Telescope to measure radio recombination line and continuum emission in 81 Galactic H II regions. We calculated LTE electron temperatures using these data. In thermal equilibrium metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. Our H II region distribution covers a large range of Galactocentric radius (5-22 kpc) and samples the Galactic azimuth range 330°-60°. Using our highest quality data (72 objects) we derived an O/H Galactocentric radial gradient of -0.0383 ± 0.0074 dex kpc-1. Combining these data with a similar survey made with the NRAO 140 Foot telescope we get a radial gradient of -0.0446 ± 0.0049 dex kpc-1 for this larger sample of 133 nebulae. The data are well fit by a linear model and no discontinuities are detected. Dividing our sample into three Galactic azimuth regions produced significantly different radial gradients that range from -0.03 to -0.07 dex kpc-1. These inhomogeneities suggest that metals are not well mixed at a given radius. We stress the importance of homogeneous samples to reduce the confusion of comparing data sets with different systematics. Galactic chemical evolution models typically derive chemical evolution along only the radial dimension with time. Future models should consider azimuthal evolution as well.

  7. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird. PMID:24683452

  8. Extraordinary MHC class II B diversity in a non-passerine, wild bird: the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (Aves: Rallidae).

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Miguel; Muñoz, Joaquin; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) hosts the most polymorphic genes ever described in vertebrates. The MHC triggers the adaptive branch of the immune response, and its extraordinary variability is considered an evolutionary consequence of pathogen pressure. The last few years have witnessed the characterization of the MHC multigene family in a large diversity of bird species, unraveling important differences in its polymorphism, complexity, and evolution. Here, we characterize the first MHC class II B sequences isolated from a Rallidae species, the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. A next-generation sequencing approach revealed up to 265 alleles that translated into 251 different amino acid sequences (β chain, exon 2) in 902 individuals. Bayesian inference identified up to 19 codons within the presumptive peptide-binding region showing pervasive evidence of positive, diversifying selection. Our analyses also detected a significant excess of high-frequency segregating sites (average Tajima's D = 2.36, P < 0.05), indicative of balancing selection. We found one to six different alleles per individual, consistent with the occurrence of at least three MHC class II B gene duplicates. However, the genotypes comprised of three alleles were by far the most abundant in the population investigated (49.4%), followed by those with two (29.6%) and four (17.5%) alleles. We suggest that these proportions are in agreement with the segregation of MHC haplotypes differing in gene copy number. The most widespread segregating haplotypes, according to our findings, would contain one single gene or two genes. The MHC class II of the Eurasian Coot is a valuable system to investigate the evolutionary implications of gene copy variation and extensive variability, the greatest ever found, to the best of our knowledge, in a wild population of a non-passerine bird.

  9. Class I HDACs Regulate Angiotensin II-Dependent Cardiac Fibrosis via Fibroblasts and Circulating Fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah M.; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Douglas, Katherine B.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kim; Yeager, Michael E.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis, which is defined as excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue, contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases involving diverse organ systems. Cardiac fibrosis predisposes individuals to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden death, and is commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block cardiac fibrosis in pre-clinical models of heart failure. However, which HDAC isoforms govern cardiac fibrosis, and the mechanisms by which they do so, remains unclear. Here, we show that selective inhibition of class I HDACs potently suppresses angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiac fibrosis by targeting two key effector cell populations, cardiac fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes. Class I HDAC inhibition blocks cardiac fibroblast cell cycle progression through derepression of the genes encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p15 and p57. In contrast, class I HDAC inhibitors block agonist-dependent differentiation of fibrocytes through a mechanism involving repression of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings define novel roles for class I HDACs in the control of pathological cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, since fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including heart, lung and kidney failure, our results suggest broad utility for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents that function, in part, by targeting these circulating mesenchymal cells. PMID:24374140

  10. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  11. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  12. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D.; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F.; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A.; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S.; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal. PMID:25808889

  13. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  14. Carbonic Anhydrase Interaction With Lipothioars Enites: A Novel Class of Isozymes I and II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Timotheatou, Despina; Ioannou, Panayiotis V.; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II with a series of As(III) derivatives, dialkyl and diaryl rac-2,3-dimyristoyloxypropyldithioarsonites, was investigated kinetically and spectrophotometrically, utilizing the native and Co(II)-substituted enzymes. Depending on the substitution pattern at the -As(SR)2 moiety of the investigated derivatives, inactive compounds were found for R = phenyl or naphthyl, and active ones for derivatives containing carboxyl groups (R = CH2COOH, cysteinyl and glutathionyl). Together with the arsonolipids previously investigated, the active compounds of this series - the "lipothioarsenites"- constitute a novel class of CA inhibitors that bind to the metal ion within the enzyme active site, as proved by changes in the electronic spectra of adducts of such inhibitors with Co(II)CA. PMID:18475756

  15. Human epidermal Langerhans cells cointernalize by receptor-mediated endocytosis "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (T6 antigens) and class II molecules (HLA-DR antigens).

    PubMed Central

    Hanau, D; Fabre, M; Schmitt, D A; Garaud, J C; Pauly, G; Tongio, M M; Mayer, S; Cazenave, J P

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR and T6 surface antigens are expressed only by Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells in normal human epidermis. We have previously demonstrated that T6 antigens are internalized in Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is induced by the binding of BL6, a monoclonal antibody directed against T6 antigens. In the present study, using a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-DR antigens, on human epidermal cells in suspension, we show that the surface HLA-DR antigens are also internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis in Langerhans and indeterminate cells. Moreover, using immunogold double labeling, we demonstrate that T6 and HLA-DR antigens are internalized through common coated regions of the membrane of Langerhans or indeterminate cells. The receptor-mediated endocytosis that is induced involves coated pits and vesicles, receptosomes, lysosomes, and also, in Langerhans cells, the Birbeck granules. Thus, T6 antigens, which are considered to be "unusual" or "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, HLA-DR, are internalized in Langerhans and indeterminate cells through common receptor-mediated endocytosis organelles. Images PMID:3106979

  16. Radial brightness profiles of extragalactic H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Castaneda, H. O.; Beckman, J. E.

    1998-02-01

    We present a systematic study of the radial brightness profiles in H alpha of a set of H ii\\ regions in 6 late-type spiral galaxies, complete down to stated limiting luminosities. We have sufficient linear resolution in our observations to be able to fit models in which the effects of the radial fall off in density and in mean degree of ionization can be distinguished. We find a sharp break in the plot of internal radial brightness gradient against luminosity at a luminosity in H alpha of 10(38.6) erg/s in all these objects. For lower luminosities the gradients are almost invariant, showing only a slight tendency to steepen with luminosity; at this critical value there is a jump to higher gradients, and at higher luminosities the gradients steepen progressively. This is consistent with the regions showing a transition from ionization-bounded to density-bounded behaviour, in conformity with evidence from H ii\\ region luminosity functions presented in previous studies.

  17. pRB is required for interferon-gamma-induction of the MHC class II abeta gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Pattenden, S; Bremner, R

    1999-09-02

    pRB is required for IFN-gamma-induction of MHC class II in human tumor cell lines, providing a potential link between tumor suppressors and the immune system. However, other genes, such as cyclin D1, show pRB-dependency only in tumor cells, so by analogy, pRB may not be necessary for cII-regulation in normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the mouse MHC class II I-A heterodimer is normal in RB+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but deficient in RB-/- MEFs. Inducibility is restored in RB-/- MEFs stably transfected with wild type RB cDNA or infected with an adenovirus expressing pRB. Thus, involvement of pRB in MHC class II expression is conserved in the mouse and is not an aberrant feature of tumorigenic, aneuploid, human tumor cells. Although cII genes are generally induced in a coordinate fashion, suggesting a common mechanism, we found that pRB was specifically required for induction of the Abeta, but not Aalpha or other MHC cII genes including Ebeta, Ii and H2-Malpha. Finally, IFN-gamma-induction of class II transactivator (CIITA), was pRB-independent, suggesting that pRB works downstream of this master-regulator of MHC class II expression.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729 bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, P; Diez, A; Mourad, W; Parsonnet, J; Geha, R S; Chatila, T

    1989-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, and interferon-gamma induced the expression of class II molecules as well as TSST-1 binding sites on human skin-derived fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR, but not to HLA-DP or HLA-DQ, strongly inhibited TSST-1 binding. Affinity chromatography of 125I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the alpha and beta chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells. Images PMID:2542966

  20. The Class II/1 anomaly of hereditary etiology vs. Thumb-sucking etiology

    PubMed Central

    Pădure, H; Negru, AR; Stanciu, D

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology of class II division 1 Angle anomaly comprises many entities, including heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger. A close connection between the etiology and the clinical features needs to be outlined, in order to have a more appropriate treatment approach. Aim: This study aims to find common clinical features for two groups of Class II division 1 etiological factors (heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger), outlining a characteristic dento-facial pattern for each etiological factor. Materials and methods: 160 orthodontic cases were studied, taken randomly from the Department of Orthodontics in "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, between 2005 and 2011. From a total of 46 diagnosed with Class II/1, the following data were noted for each subject in a table: age, sex, etiology, facial symmetry, profile, size of the lower face, stage lip, labiomentonier ditch, menton, form of arches, palate, occlusion in the three plans, Spee curve, other dental anomalies. Discussions: The facial asymmetry was found in a greater proportion within the finger-sucking group. Subjects in the finger sucking group have 100% pronounced convex profile, with pronounced lip stage and sharp curve of Spee, being known that the thumb-sucking stops the mandible growth and stimulates the upper jaw protrusion. Conclusions: The predominant etiological factor is heredity and the clinical features obvious for II/1 Angle anomaly are present in the highest proportion in the thumb-sucking group, but no significant differences were observed between the groups studied according to etiology. PMID:22802900