Science.gov

Sample records for class iii dentofacial

  1. Masticatory muscle function three years after surgical correction of class III dentofacial deformity.

    PubMed

    Trawitzki, L V V; Dantas, R O; Mello-Filho, F V; Marques, W

    2010-09-01

    Individuals with dentofacial deformities have masticatory muscle changes. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of interdisciplinary treatment in patients with dentofacial deformities regarding electromyographic activity (EMG) of masticatory muscles three years after surgical correction. Thirteen patients with class III dentofacial deformities were studied, considered as group P1 (before surgery) and group P3 (3 years to 3 years and 8 months after surgery). Fifteen individuals with no changes in facial morphology or dental occlusion were studied as controls. The participants underwent EMG examination of the temporal and masseter muscles during mastication and biting. Evaluation of the amplitude interval of EMG activity revealed a difference between P1 and P3 and no difference between P3 and the control group. In contrast, evaluation of root mean square revealed that, in general, P3 values were higher only when compared with P1 and differed from the control group. There was an improvement in the EMG activity of the masticatory muscles, mainly observed in the masseter muscle, with values close to those of the control group in one of the analyses.

  2. The reliability of a surgery-first orthognathic approach without presurgical orthodontic treatment for skeletal class III dentofacial deformity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2015-03-01

    Orthognathic surgery with presurgical and postsurgical orthodontic treatment is the most widely accepted method for the correction of skeletal or dentoalveolar malocclusion. However, recent advancements in presurgical orthodontic simulations and postsurgical orthodontic treatments using miniscrews have shown remarkable stability and control of the occlusion after orthognathic surgery. Thus, we have adopted a surgery-first orthognathic approach without presurgical orthodontic treatment, based on a novel presurgical simulation process using a dental model. We hypothesized that this treatment modality will be feasible for skeletal class III dentofacial deformity patients. This prospective study investigated intervention outcomes in 24 standard and 32 surgery-first approaches for patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity. The patients underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and July 2010. In the surgery-first approach, a dental model was created and a novel preoperative orthodontic simulation of the standard presurgical orthodontic treatment was performed to determine the final occlusion between the maxilla and mandible. Changes in cephalometric landmarks were compared between the standard and surgery-first groups in the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and postoperative periods. The Student t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and a linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months (average, 20.5 months). The average age of the patients was 22.4 years, with 16 male and 40 female patients. We found that a surgery-first approach without presurgical orthodontic treatment is possible and can give similar results to standard orthognathic surgery. The statistical analysis showed that changes in skeletal cephalometric landmarks were similar between the surgery-first and standard approach groups, according to each period. However, the cephalometric landmarks relating to the dental component showed

  3. Facial anthropometrics versus cephalometry as predictors for surgical treatment in patients with Class III dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, A E; Stella, J P; Epker, B N

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine statistically the relative importance of facial anthropometrics and cephalometry in diagnosing the specific jaw deformity in patients with Class III relationships, ie, the contribution that maxillary deficiency and/or mandibular prognathism made to the Class III deformity. Frontal and right profile photographic views and pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 20 randomly selected Class III patients were analyzed. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were utilized to determine the relative importance of clinical diagnosis and cephalometric diagnosis in determining the actual surgery performed. In addition, these analyses determined the relative importance of the various facial anthropometrics and cephalometric parameters critical to making the specific diagnosis of maxillary deficiency and/ or mandibular prognathism. It was concluded that a jaw-specific diagnosis of the Class III population studied was best made with facial anthropometrics rather than cephalometry, and the most important predictive facial features on which to based this diagnosis were paranasal configuration and chin projection. Although the overall cephalometric diagnosis had no statistically significant correlation to the actual surgery preformed, two individual cephalometric parameters, maxillary first molar to pterygoid vertical and mandibular plane angle, were found to statistically correlate to the actual surgery performed. These cephalometric parameters should be scrutinized along with the facial anthropometric data when the jaw-specific surgery is selected.

  4. Cone-beam computed tomography based evaluation of rotational patterns of dentofacial structures in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeong-Seok; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess rotational patterns of dentofacial structures according to different vertical skeletal patterns by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analyze their influence on menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry. Methods The control group consisted of 30 young adults (15 men, 15 women) without any severe skeletal deformity. The asymmetry group included 55 adults (28 men, 27 women) with skeletal Class III deformity and at least 3-mm menton deviation from the midsagittal plane; it was divided into the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subgroups using a mandibular plane angle cutoff of 35°. Fourteen rotational variables of the dental arches and mandible were measured and compared among the groups. Correlations between menton deviation and the other variables were evaluated. Results The asymmetry group showed significantly larger measurements of roll and yaw in the mandible than the control group. The hypodivergent subgroup showed significant differences in maxillary posterior measurements of yaw (p < 0.01) and maxillary anterior shift (p < 0.05) compared with the hyperdivergent subgroup. All the mandibular measurements had significant correlations with menton deviation (p < 0.01). Most measurements of roll were positively correlated with one another (p < 0.01). Measurements of yaw and roll in the posterior regions were also positively correlated (p < 0.05). Conclusions Menton deviation in skeletal Class III deformity with mandibular asymmetry is influenced by rotation of mandibular posterior dentofacial structures. The rotational patterns vary slightly according to the vertical skeletal pattern. PMID:26258061

  5. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  6. Effects of a novel magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III) on the dentofacial complex in mild to moderate skeletal class III children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Feng, Jing; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rongjing; Shen, Gang

    2015-10-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of skeletal and dental structures in mild to moderate skeletal Class III children following the use of a new magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III). A total of 36 patients (14 boys and 22 girls, mean age 9 years and 5 months) who presented with a mild to moderate skeletal Class III jaw discrepancy were treated with MOA-III. Another group of 20 untreated patients (9 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9 years and 2 months) with the same level of deformity served as the control group. The average treatment time was 6.6 months. Radiographs were taken at the same time intervals for both groups. A paired t test was used to determine the significant differences before and after treatment, and a two-sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and control groups. The anterior crossbite in all subjects was corrected after MOA-III therapy. The maxillomandibular relationship showed favorable changes (ANB, Wits, overjet increased significantly, P < 0.001). The maxilla was anteriorly positioned (SNA, ptm-A, ptm-S increased significantly, P < 0.001) with clockwise rotation (PP-FH increased, P < 0.001). The mandible showed a slight downward and backward rotation (SNB decreased, P < 0.05, MP-SN, Y-axis increased, P < 0.05). The length of the mandibular body showed no significant changes (Go-Pg, P > 0.05). Significant upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination were observed (UI-NA increased, P < 0.001, LI-NB, FMIA decreased, P < 0.001). The upper lip moved forward, and the lower lip moved backward (UL-EP increased, P < 0.001, LL-EP decreased, P < 0.05). In the control group, most of the parameters showed normal growth, except for some unfavorable mandibular skeletal and soft tissue changes (Go-Pg, Go-Co, MP-SN, N'-SN-Pg' increased, P < 0.001). Significant positive changes were induced with the MOA-III appliance compared to the untreated group. The MOA-III was effective for

  7. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  8. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25715726

  9. Early treatment of patient with Class III skeletal and dental patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Class III skeletal pattern is characterized by disharmony between maxillary and mandibular basal bones anteroposteriorly, and might or might not be associated with dental changes. In general, facial esthetics is hindered significantly, which most of times is the reason why patients or patient's guardians seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate recertification and revalidation. PMID:26691976

  10. Dentofacial and upper airway characteristics of mild and severe class II division 1 subjects.

    PubMed

    Bollhalder, Julia; Hänggi, Michael P; Schätzle, Marc; Markic, Goran; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to assess whether mild and severe Class II division 1 subjects have craniofacial and upper airway characteristics, which relate to the severity of Class II as judged by overjet or ANB angle. The sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts of 131 males and 115 females (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6). Inclusion criteria were: healthy Caucasian subjects, at least ¾ Class II first molar relationship on both sides and overjet ≥ 4 mm. The cephalograms were traced and digitized. Distances and angular values were computed. Mild and severe Class II was defined by overjet (<10 mm/≥ 10 mm) or by ANB angle (<7 degrees/≥7 degrees). Statistics were performed with two-sample t-test and Pearson's correlation analysis. In the two overjet groups, significant differences were mainly found for incisor inclination while the two ANB groups differed significantly in SNA, WITS, Go-Pg, SpaSpp/MGo, SN/MGo, and Ar-Gn. The shortest airway distance between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall was significantly correlated to the NS/Ar angle. Statistical analysis revealed several significant correlations. Patients with a large overjet or ANB angle differed significantly from patients with a small overjet or ANB angle mainly in their incisor inclination. In the present sample, the overjet and to some extent also the ANB angle is determined by soft tissue or individual tooth position rather than by skeletal background. In retrognathic patients, a tendency towards smaller airway dimensions was found. However, statistical analysis did not reveal a strong connection between upper airway and dentoskeletal parameters, but a large interindividual variation.

  11. Speech Articulatory Characteristics of Individuals With Dentofacial Deformity.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Prado, Daniela Galvão; Filho, Hugo Nary; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the speech articulatory characteristics of individuals with dentofacial deformities (DFD) and assess differences compared to individuals with dentofacial balance. Sixty individuals participated, being 30 presenting DFD (19 with class III and 11 class II skeletal malocclusion, 18 women and 12 men, age group 18-40 years) and 30 individuals from a control group matched for gender and age. The assessment of the diadochokinesis (DDK) was evaluated using the emissions /pa/, /ta/, /ka/, /pataka/, and /i/. The individuals with DFD produced fewer emissions per second: at syllable "ka" and sequence "pataka" for the total of individuals; syllable "pa" and sequence "pataka" for women, individuals with class II and class III malocclusion. The parameters related to the irregularity of the cycles were higher for the group with DFD than for the control, as well as emission of the syllable "pa" for the total of individuals, group of class III malocclusion and women, during production of the syllables "ta" and "ka" for all individuals and group of class III and during emission of the vowel "ï" for women. Differences regarding speed and stability of oral and laryngeal DDK were found among individuals with DFD compared with the control group.

  12. Satisfaction of skeletal class III patients treated with different types of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Dantas, J F C; Neto, J N N; de Carvalho, S H G; Martins, I M C L deB; de Souza, R F; Sarmento, V A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the satisfaction of skeletal class III patients following treatment with three different methods of orthognathic surgery. Eighty-two patients were divided into three groups according to the surgical procedure performed to correct their class III dentofacial deformity, and answered a questionnaire designed to determine the patient's opinion of the aesthetic and functional treatment outcomes. Differences in the patterns of responses to questions in the questionnaire related to satisfaction between the three clinical groups were evaluated by χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests (α=5%). Eighty patients (97.6%) reported being satisfied with the treatment received. There was no significant difference in response patterns among clinical groups when assessing the improvement in facial appearance, chewing, speech, and socialization. Maxillary advancement led to higher levels of improvement in breathing (P<0.0003). Class III patients treated by orthognathic surgery had high levels of satisfaction with the aesthetic and functional outcomes of their treatment.

  13. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condylar morphology relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Class III dentofacial deformities (DF-III) are classified as a severe functional and esthetic anomaly. This work aims to describe the condylar morphology of subjects with DF-III and indication of correction through orthognatic surgery. A descriptive study was designed in the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile, where 14 patients were examined with conventional cephalometric studies to determine the surgical indication; then, cone beam CT images were recorded for the morphometric analyses on the coronal and axial slices, considering linear measurements in the middle, basal and anteroposterior areas. The data were analyzed with the student’s t-test, considering p < 0.05 statistically significant. The results revealed condylar size differences of less than 1 mm between the left and right condyles, considering average widths of 17.03 mm in the right condyle and 17.86 mm in the left condyle. Vertically, the observed averages were 17.17 mm in the right condyle and 17.04 mm in the left condyle; no statistical differences were observed. It can be concluded that there are no differences in the measurements when the two condyles are compared in this type of subject. PMID:25356190

  14. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Brunetto, Ademir R.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25741833

  15. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Ademir R

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  16. Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Guilherme de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reports the clinical case of a female patient with history of unsuccessful orthodontic treatment. She presented with Class III malocclusion, mandibular and maxillary constriction, anterior crossbite and facial asymmetry resulting from laterognathism triggered by hyperactivity of the condyle revealed by vertical elongation of the right mandibular ramus. Patient's treatment consisted of orthodontic mechanics and two orthognathic surgical interventions with satisfactory and stable outcomes. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title. PMID:27901236

  17. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  18. The social impact of children's dentofacial appearance.

    PubMed

    Fonte, P P; Colares, V; Santos, F; Caraciolo, G

    2008-06-01

    To assess the influence of dentofacial appearance of 10-year-old children on interpersonal attractiveness. Survey. Four sets of photographs were prepared, having as their initial models facial portraits of four boys and four girls. In each set facial portraits were presented in four situations: the original, harmonic face and three versions produced by a graphic computing program, classified as the class II, class III and long face syndromes. These photographs were shown to 802 schoolchildren so that they could choose which one they would most and which one they would least, want to have as a friend. Also they were asked which one they considered the most and the least aggressive, the most and least intelligent and the most and the least good-looking. The harmonic face was the predominant choice in the friendship dimension (68.9%), as for intelligence (46.8%), and regarding attractiveness for males (55.4%) and females (61.7%); as regards aggressiveness, class III was the predominant choice (57.9%). There is an association between harmonic and unharmonic facial appearances and interpersonal attractiveness in 10-year-old Brazilian children.

  19. Spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ming Tak

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian community. Over a period of 3 years (2001 to 2003), 212 patients with dentofacial deformities who had undergone orthognathic surgery in a national tertiary specialist center in Singapore were reviewed. Patients with cleft lip and palate or syndromes were excluded. The mean age (range: 16 to 58 years) of the patients was 24.0 years (SD 6.4) and the ratio of female to male was 1.3:1. The predominant ethnic group was Chinese (91.5%). The majority of the patients had skeletal Class III pattern (68%). Asymmetry was diagnosed in 36% of all cases and in 48% of skeletal Class III cases. Vertical maxillary excess was diagnosed in 21% of all cases and in 47% of skeletal Class II cases. Bimaxillary surgery involving LeFort and bilateral sagittal split osteotomies was performed in 84% of skeletal Class III cases and in 73% of all cases. Segmental osteotomy and genioplasty were performed in 41% of the cases. The findings suggest that the majority of the patients were young Chinese adults with two-jaw deformities requiring bimaxillary surgeries with genioplasty or segmental osteotomy. This finding may reflect the greater severity of dentofacial deformities in patients in the Asian community.

  20. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; Del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student's t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature.

  1. TMJ in facial class III deformity. Condyle/fossa relations

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Olate, Sergio; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano; Fariña, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the joint space present in the TMJ of subjects diagnosed with Class III dentofacial deformity with an indication for orthognathic surgery. Fourteen subjects were recruited from the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. All subjects were admitted to the study after signing an informed consent and undergoing cephalometric analyses to define the severity of the deformity. Then, the joint space was analyzed, studying a cone beam CT image of the TMJ, which was evaluated in the coronal and sagittal views, defining the most anterior, median and posterior joint space (sagittal view), as well as the lateral, median and medial joint space (coronal view). The data were recorded in millimeters by an observer and data were analyzed after measuring the same parameter at three different times. A student’s t-test was used for the analyses. Differences observed in both joints were not greater than 0.2 mm with spaces between 2 mm and 1.5 mm, thereby establishing the homogeneity of the sample, which presented no significant differences between the two joint spaces (right and left). It can be concluded that the joint space is symmetrical in both condyles and that no important changes are present compared to the results indicated in the international literature. PMID:25356133

  2. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  3. Tongue Size and Posterior Airway Space Changes in Class III Malocclusion After Maxillomandibular Surgery: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge; Gokalp, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the airway space after surgical correction of Class III skeletal dentofacial deformity and to determine if orthognathic surgery alters the airway space and improves obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four Class III adults treated with orthognathic surgery were divided into two groups as Mandibular set-back (Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy-BSSO, 10 patients) and two jaw surgery (Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy combined with Le Fort I maxillary advancement, 14 patients). Lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced before (T0) and 6 months after surgery (T1). Steiner and McNamara analysis, linear pharyngeal airway measurements (PNS-PPW1, SPT-PPW2, E-PPW3, PNS-SPT), tongue volume measurements (TH, Tt-Eb) and pharyngeal area measurements (nasopharyngeal, upper oropharyngeal, lower oropharyngeal, epiglottis area) were performed. The data obtained was analyzed statistically by repeated measurement ANOVA and Duncan's test. The increase of PNS-PPW1 was important in two jaw surgery group (p < 0.05). The nasopharyngeal area was statistically different between T0 and T1 (p < 0.01), and the lower oropharyngeal area was statistically significant between BSSO and two jaw surgery groups (p < 0.05). Surgical correction of Class III skeletal dentofacial deformity alters posterior airway dimensions. Two jaw surgery is advantageous considering the risk for obstructive sleep apnea, because it evokes an increase in the upper pharyngeal airway dimensions. Keywords: Tongue size, posterior airway space, maxillomandibular surgery.

  4. Combined prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment of a patient with a Class III skeletal malocclusion: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Sakar, Olcay; Beyli, Mehmet; Marsan, Gulnaz

    2004-09-01

    This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of a patient with Angle Class III skeletal malocclusion and decreased occlusal vertical dimension. An overlay removable partial denture (ORPD) was used to reestablish the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). After the trial and adjustment period, the reduced lower anterior dentofacial height was orthodontically increased and the negative horizontal overlap was corrected. A maxillary precision attachment RPD and a mandibular fixed partial denture and metal ceramic crowns were fabricated to satisfy esthetic and functional requirements.

  5. Aspects of orthodontic-prosthetic rehabilitation of dentofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ajduković, Zorica; Janošević, Mirjana; Filipović, Gordana; Arsić, Stojanka; Janošević, Predrag; Petrović, Nenad

    2014-04-01

    Skeletal class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult dentofacial anomalies, characterized by deviation in the development of the mandible and maxilla in the sagittal plane, where the mandible is dominant in relation to the maxilla. In patients with class III malocclusion, anomalies in the dentoalveolar level and esthetic discrepancies are also frequent. The etiology of class III malocclusion is multifactorial due to the interaction of hereditary and environmental factors. Rehabilitation and treatment of malocclusion is one of the major goals of modern dentistry. This article presents the orthodontic-prosthetic therapy and rehabilitation of a 45-year-old patient with an abnormal occlusal vertical dimension and a skeletal class III malocclusion. The patient came to the clinic complaining about degraded esthetics and disordered functions of the orofacial region (functions of eating, swallowing, speech) and also pain in the temporomandibular joint. After the diagnosis was made, the patient was first referred to orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances (self-ligating brackets system Rot 0.22). Upon completion of the orthodontic treatment, the patient was sent for further prosthetic treatment. Fixed prosthetic restorations were made in the upper and lower jaw, thus achieving a satisfactory result in terms of esthetics and function of the stomatognathic system.

  6. Surgical treatment of class II dento-facial deformity during adolescence: Long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Sara; Van de Casteele, Elke; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Fusetti, Stefano; Nadjmi, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term stability of patients operated during adolescence on the base of clinical measurements and cephalometric analysis. Although, the potential benefits of early orthognathic surgery are known to be a reduction in treatment times and a greater healing potential leading to a better adaptation and stability of the occlusion, muscles, bones and joints, no consensus can be found in literature on the minimum age for surgical correction. In this study, thirty patients (age ≤ 15) with a class II dento-skeletal malocclusion were selected, of which 11 having a hyperdivergent (II,1) and 19 a hypodivergent (II,2) growth pattern, representing 2 distinct groups with a different treatment plan and long-term behavior. Observing the performance of all parameters over-time, it is seen that subjects belonging to division II,2 have a modification of the growth vectors maintaining the harmonious development between the jaws and the facial aesthetics. Less predictable is the trend in hyperdivergent patients, which are more prone to relapse in the long-term. Early surgery in these patients should be considered in the light of the degree of deformity and its influence felt by the patient on his development of self-image and interpersonal relationship. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  8. 46 CFR 50.30-20 - Class III pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III pressure vessels. 50.30-20 Section 50.30-20... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-20 Class III pressure vessels. (a) Class III pressure vessels shall be subject... specifically exempted by other regulations in this subchapter. (b) For Class III welded pressure vessels,...

  9. Chracterization of class III peroxidases from switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specifici...

  10. Lip closing force of Class III patients with mandibular prognathism: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To compare the lip closing force of patients with mandibular prognathism to that of patients without dentofacial anomalies. Methods The subject group included 62 female patients of Class III relationship with mandibular prognathism. The control group been comprised of 71 patients of Class I relationships without skeletal deformities. Maximum lip closing force and average lip closing force were measured using a Y-meter. Student’s t-test was carried out to analyse the differences between the groups. Correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to analyse the relationship between lip closing force and craniofacial morphology. Results The lower lip closing force of subjects with mandibular prognathism was significantly greater than that of patients in the control group (P < 0.001), while the upper lip closing force showed no difference (P > 0.05). The lower lip closing force of patients with mandibular prognathism was strongly correlated with IMPA (Lower Incisor - Mandibular Plane angle, P < 0.001) and FMA (Frankfort Plane-Mandibular Plane angle, P < 0.001). Multiple regression equations: (MaxLL) = 12.192 - 0.125 * (IMPA) + 0.082 (FMA); (AveLL) = 9.112 - 0.091 * (IMPA) + 0.054 (FMA). Conclusions The lower lip closing force was markedly increased in Class III patients with mandibular prognathism and was strongly correlated with lower incisor position and mandibular plane angle. PMID:25159036

  11. Using Networks To Understand Medical Data: The Case of Class III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Antonio; Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Caldarelli, Guido; McNamara, James A.; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    A system of elements that interact or regulate each other can be represented by a mathematical object called a network. While network analysis has been successfully applied to high-throughput biological systems, less has been done regarding their application in more applied fields of medicine; here we show an application based on standard medical diagnostic data. We apply network analysis to Class III malocclusion, one of the most difficult to understand and treat orofacial anomaly. We hypothesize that different interactions of the skeletal components can contribute to pathological disequilibrium; in order to test this hypothesis, we apply network analysis to 532 Class III young female patients. The topology of the Class III malocclusion obtained by network analysis shows a strong co-occurrence of abnormal skeletal features. The pattern of these occurrences influences the vertical and horizontal balance of disharmony in skeletal form and position. Patients with more unbalanced orthodontic phenotypes show preponderance of the pathological skeletal nodes and minor relevance of adaptive dentoalveolar equilibrating nodes. Furthermore, by applying Power Graphs analysis we identify some functional modules among orthodontic nodes. These modules correspond to groups of tightly inter-related features and presumably constitute the key regulators of plasticity and the sites of unbalance of the growing dentofacial Class III system. The data of the present study show that, in their most basic abstraction level, the orofacial characteristics can be represented as graphs using nodes to represent orthodontic characteristics, and edges to represent their various types of interactions. The applications of this mathematical model could improve the interpretation of the quantitative, patient-specific information, and help to better targeting therapy. Last but not least, the methodology we have applied in analyzing orthodontic features can be applied easily to other fields of the

  12. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class III...

  13. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.

  14. Treatment of Class III with Facemask Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Snigdha; Mishra, Sumita

    2016-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is one of the most difficult problems to treat in the mixed dentition. It has a multifactorial etiology involving both genetic and environmental causes. The dental and skeletal effects of maxillary protraction with a facemask are well documented in several studies. Although treatment in the late mixed or early permanent dentition can be successful, results are generally better in the deciduous or early mixed dentition. The following case shows early treatment of a young patient with severe sagittal and transverse discrepancy of the maxilla and mandible, using a facemask. PMID:26925273

  15. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  16. AUTOCLASS III - AUTOMATIC CLASS DISCOVERY FROM DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    The program AUTOCLASS III, Automatic Class Discovery from Data, uses Bayesian probability theory to provide a simple and extensible approach to problems such as classification and general mixture separation. Its theoretical basis is free from ad hoc quantities, and in particular free of any measures which alter the data to suit the needs of the program. As a result, the elementary classification model used lends itself easily to extensions. The standard approach to classification in much of artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition research involves partitioning of the data into separate subsets, known as classes. AUTOCLASS III uses the Bayesian approach in which classes are described by probability distributions over the attributes of the objects, specified by a model function and its parameters. The calculation of the probability of each object's membership in each class provides a more intuitive classification than absolute partitioning techniques. AUTOCLASS III is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or omitted. The user specifies a class probability distribution function by associating attribute sets with supplied likelihood function terms. AUTOCLASS then searches in the space of class numbers and parameters for the maximally probable combination. It returns the set of class probability function parameters, and the class membership probabilities for each data instance. AUTOCLASS III is written in Common Lisp, and is designed to be platform independent. This program has been successfully run on Symbolics and Explorer Lisp machines. It has been successfully used with the following implementations of Common LISP on the Sun: Franz Allegro CL, Lucid Common Lisp, and Austin Kyoto Common Lisp and similar UNIX platforms; under the Lucid Common Lisp implementations on VAX/VMS v5

  17. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  18. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  19. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  20. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  1. Evolution and expression of class III peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Mathé, Catherine; Barre, Annick; Jourda, Cyril; Dunand, Christophe

    2010-08-01

    Class III peroxidases are members of a large multigenic family, only detected in the plant kingdom and absent from green algae sensu stricto (chlorophyte algae or Chlorophyta). Their evolution is thought to be related to the emergence of the land plants. However class III peroxidases are present in a lower copy number in some basal Streptophytes (Charapyceae), which predate land colonization. Gene structures are variable among organisms and within species with respect to the number of introns, but their positions are highly conserved. Their high copy number, as well as their conservation could be related to plant complexity and adaptation to increasing stresses. No specific function has been assigned to respective isoforms, but in large multigenic families, particular structure-function relations can be expected. Plant peroxidase sequences contain highly conserved residues and motifs, variable domains surrounded by conserved residues and present a low identity level among their promoter regions, further suggesting the existence of sub-functionalization of the different isoforms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of weight histories in women with class III vs. class I-II obesity.

    PubMed

    Crerand, Canice E; Wadden, Thomas A; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Kuehnel, Robert H; Gibbons, Lauren M; Brock, Johanna R; Williams, Noel N

    2006-03-01

    To describe the weight histories of women with extreme or class III obesity (BMI >or= 40 kg/m(2)) in comparison with a sample of women with class I-II obesity (BMI < 40 kg/m(2)) and to provide reliability data for a clinical instrument that assesses weight history. Female patients (N = 149) with extreme obesity seeking bariatric surgery and 90 class I-II obese women seeking behavioral treatment completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI), a self-report instrument that assesses age of onset of obesity, maximum weight at different ages, family weight history, and weight changes related to pregnancy. Test-retest reliability data were obtained by administering the WALI to a subsample (n = 58) of class I-II obese participants at their initial visit and at another pretreatment visit 1 to 2 weeks later. Patients with extreme obesity had a significantly younger age of onset of obesity, were significantly heavier at all age ranges, reported significantly more weight gain with their first pregnancy, and had significantly heavier parents and siblings as compared with less obese patients. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to weight gain during second pregnancies or postpartum weight retention. Robust test-retest correlations were obtained for the weight history items on the WALI. Patients with extreme obesity report more indicators of a genetic predisposition to obesity as compared with less obese patients. The WALI appears to be a reliable instrument for the assessment of weight history in obese patients.

  3. Bullying, its effects on attitude towards class attendance and the contribution of physical and dentofacial features among adolescents in Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chikaodi, Oguchi; Abdulmanan, Yahaya; Emmanuel, Adeyemi Tope; Muhammad, Jibril; Mohammed, Modu Adam; Izegboya, Akpasa; Donald, Otuyemi Olayinka; Balarabe, Sani

    2017-07-21

    Background Bullying is a worldwide problem with varying consequences. Victims of school bullying may be targeted for many reasons including their appearance. They may also fear school and have difficulties in concentration. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of bullying amongst adolescents in Kano, Northern Nigeria, the contribution of physical features and the perceived effect of bullying on their academic performance and school attendance. Subjects and methods Eight hundred and thirty-five students aged between 12 years and 17 years from eight randomly selected secondary schools in Kano, Nigeria took part in this study. Data collection was by self-administered questionnaires and analysis was by SPSS version 17. Results The pupils' mean age and standard deviation was 14.79 + 1.53 years. There were more male and private school pupils with 55.1% and 62%, respectively. About 43% of respondents reported being victims of bullying while about 32% had bullied someone else. There was more bullying in public schools than in private schools (p-value = 0.003). However, there was no significant gender difference (p > 0.05). More bullied pupils hated being in or outside the classroom (p < 0.05). Similarly, significantly higher number of bullied pupils played truant than non-bullied (p < 0.001). One-fifth of the victims of bullying felt it had consequences on their academic performance. Bullies frequently targeted general physical and dento-facial appearance. Conclusion The prevalence of bullying was high among the sampled population especially within public schools. This also had a significant negative effect on the students' academic performance.

  4. Dentofacial and Cranial Changes in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Deepika; Bablani, Deepika; Chowdhry, Aman; Thapar, Raveena; Gupta, Puneet; Mishra, Shashwat

    2014-01-01

    % predominantly of Class III malocclusions. Further 14% presented with fractured anterior teeth primarily central incisor. The percentage means of cephalic index was 84.6% in the study population. The brachycephalic and hyperbrachycephalic type of head shape was dominant in the Down syndrome individuals (90%). Conclusion The most common dentofacial anomaly seen in these individuals was fissured tongue followed by macroglossia. PMID:25562042

  5. Class III peroxidases in plant defence reactions.

    PubMed

    Almagro, L; Gómez Ros, L V; Belchi-Navarro, S; Bru, R; Ros Barceló, A; Pedreño, M A

    2009-01-01

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, they defend themselves with an arsenal of defence mechanisms, both passive and active. The active defence responses, which require de novo protein synthesis, are regulated through a complex and interconnected network of signalling pathways that mainly involve three molecules, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), and which results in the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Microbe or elicitor-induced signal transduction pathways lead to (i) the reinforcement of cell walls and lignification, (ii) the production of antimicrobial metabolites (phytoalexins), and (iii) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Among the proteins induced during the host plant defence, class III plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; hydrogen donor: H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase, Prxs) are well known. They belong to a large multigene family, and participate in a broad range of physiological processes, such as lignin and suberin formation, cross-linking of cell wall components, and synthesis of phytoalexins, or participate in the metabolism of ROS and RNS, both switching on the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed host cell death at the infection site associated with limited pathogen development. The present review focuses on these plant defence reactions in which Prxs are directly or indirectly involved, and ends with the signalling pathways, which regulate Prx gene expression during plant defence. How they are integrated within the complex network of defence responses of any host plant cell will be the cornerstone of future research.

  6. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  7. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5 mm and an overbite of 5 mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return the correct function. The surgical procedures included a Le Fort I osteotomy for expansion, advancement, impaction, and rotation of the maxilla to correct the occlusal plane inclination. There was 2 mm of impaction of the anterior portion of the maxilla and 5 mm of extrusion in the posterior region. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed in order to allow counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and anterior projection of the chin, accompanying the maxillary occlusal plane. Rigid internal fixation was used without any intermaxillary fixation. It was concluded that these procedures were very effective in producing a pleasing facial esthetic result, showing stability 7 years posttreatment. PMID:25431691

  8. Occlusal rehabilitation of pseudo-class III patient.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; Oderich, Elisa; Pedroso, Moira Leão; Wicks, Russell

    2015-01-01

    To treat a patient with anterior crossbite, the clinician should first assess if it is a genuine class III or a pseudo-class III malocclusion. Cephalometric analysis is important; however, registering a patient's centric relation (CR) is simple, quick, and costless and can play a decisive role in a differential diagnosis for this type of patient profile. This clinical report depicts a patient clinically diagnosed as class III. After mandible manipulation in CR, it was noted that the patient in question was a pseudo-class III. The treatment was based on the pseudo-class III diagnosis. Therefore, the patient was rehabilitated by occlusal adjustments and conventional and implant-supported prostheses and without the need for invasive orthognathic surgery.

  9. Presence of third molar germs in orthodontic patients with class II/2 and class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Mady Maricić, Barbara; Legović, Mario; Slaj, Martina; Lapter Varga, Marina; Zuvić Butorac, Marta; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of third molar germs in patients with Class II/2 and Class III malocclusions. The study comprised 146 examinees from Zagreb and Istria. Examinees with Class II/2 malocclusions amounted to 77 and those with Class III 69. With regard to development of dentition the examinees were divided into two groups: Group I subjects with early mixed dentition (23 subjects with Class II/2 and 21 subjects with Class III), and Group II subjects with late mixed dentition (54 subjects with Class II/2 and 48 subjects with Class III). Assessments were made from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms. The Pearson chi2-test and Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance in differences. Assessments showed that third molar germs were present significantly more often in the upper jaw in Class II/2 (58% vs. 44%) and in the lower jaw in Class III (83% vs. 69%). In subjects with Class II/2 all third molar germs were present statistically more often in late mixed dentition, which was also determined for maxillary third molar germs in Class III. The presence of mandibular third molar germs in Class III examinees was almost equal in both periods of mixed dentitions. The study confirmed correlation between the presence of third molar germs and sagital maxillomandibular relationship and encourages investigation of the differences in calcifications of all permanent teeth in such malocclusions.

  10. The early management of Class III malocclusions using protraction headgear.

    PubMed

    Macey-Dare, L V

    2000-12-01

    Class III malocclusions affect approximately 3% of Caucasians. Treatment options include; growth modification, dental camouflage and, once growth has ceased, orthognathic surgery. Originally, Class III malocclusions were thought to arise primarily from an overdevelopment of the mandible, but it is now known that maxillary retrusion contributes in up to 60% of cases. Maxillary retrusion is best treated with a combination of protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion, preferably before the age of 9 years. This article provides an overview of the management of skeletal Class III cases using protraction headgear with particular guidance for the general dental practitioner on when and how to treat.

  11. Improvement of asymmetric stomatognathic functions, unilateral crossbite, and facial esthetics in a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and mandibular asymmetry, treated with orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuo; Ishida, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hisako; Hashimoto, Takashi; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2013-09-01

    Patients with a dentofacial skeletal deformity have not only esthetic and morphologic problems related to facial proportions and dentition, but also problems of stomatognathic functions. Therefore, in addition to morphologic analysis, functional analysis is important for the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment in these patients. However, no reports have described longitudinal simultaneous evaluations of stomatognathic functions, and the comprehensive effects of surgical orthodontics on the stomatognathic functions are unclear. A patient was diagnosed as having a skeletal Class III jaw-base relationship, mandibular asymmetry, unilateral crossbite, asymmetric stomatognathic functions, and a temporomandibular disorder. She was treated with a combination of surgery and orthodontic therapy. As a result, facial proportions and occlusion improved; in particular, asymmetric stomatognathic functions, including masticatory muscle activity, condylar movement, and occlusal force, became symmetric between the left and right sides. Moreover, after 2 years of retention, the activity of the masticatory muscles and the values of occlusal force and occlusal contact area exceeded those at pretreatment. These results suggest that improvement of asymmetric stomatognathic functions can be achieved by correction of dentofacial morphology by surgical orthodontic treatment in patients with mandibular asymmetry. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class III...

  13. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class III...

  14. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  15. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  16. Three-dimensional mandibular motion in skeletal Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Mapelli, Andrea; Segù, Marzia; Zago, Matteo; Codari, Marina; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-03-17

    The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics and changes in mandibular condylar motion in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Using a 3D motion analyzer, mandibular movements were recorded in 9 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 22 control subjects with Angle Class I jaw relationships. Class III patients had a similar interincisor point displacement but a significantly reduced displacement of both condyles on the sagittal and frontal planes, with smaller translation paths than control subjects (right -9.4 mm; left -4.8 mm). The overall condylar rotation component was larger in Class III patients (right +8.8%; left +7.3%). The largest inter-group significant differences were observed in the first 10% of mouth opening, in which Class III patients had a larger rotating component than control subjects (+20%, p < 0.01). Condylar motion was reduced in skeletal Class III patients, in particular in the translational path.

  17. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, João Hélder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate. PMID:26352851

  18. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, João Hélder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  19. Dental archforms in dentoalveolar Class I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Slaj, Martina; Spalj, Stjepan; Pavlin, Dubravko; Illes, Davor; Slaj, Mladen

    2010-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that no differences exist in dental arch dimensions between dentoalveolar Classes I, II, and III, and between male and female subjects, as measured on virtual three-dimensional (3D) models. Samples included randomly selected plaster dental casts of 137 white patients (43 Class I, 50 Class II, and 44 Class III) from the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia. Dental models were scanned and digitized using ATOS II SO ("Small Objects") scanning technology (GOM mbH, Braunschweig, Germany). Eight linear and two proportional measurements were calculated for both upper and lower dental arches. In men, a significant difference in the upper dental arch was present in the incisor region, and in the lower dental arch, differences were found in intercanine and intermolar widths (P < .05). Significant differences were noted between male groups in the upper molar depth dimension (P = .022) and in the lower molar and canine depth dimensions (P < .05). Class III males had the greatest lower molar and canine width/depth ratios and the smallest lower canine depth/molar depth ratio. Class III women had wider and shorter mandibular arches when compared with Class I and Class II females. The hypothesis was rejected. The dimensions of the dental arches are related to gender and to dentoalveolar class. Class I and II subjects have similar dimensions of maxillary dental arch, but Class II subjects have a transverse deficit in the mandible. In Class III subjects, the maxillary dental arch is insufficient in transverse and sagittal dimensions, and the mandibular arch dominates in the transverse but not in the sagittal dimension.

  20. Comparative evaluation of treatment outcomes between temporary anchorage devices and Class III elastics in Class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Murakami, Takashi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Kamioka, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Our objective was to elucidate the differences in treatment outcomes caused by the different mechanics of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusions. Records of 23 patients with Angle Class III malocclusion were selected retrospectively. All had been treated with nonextraction comprehensive orthodontic treatment; 11 were treated with TADs and 12 with Class III elastics. Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were used for evaluation of the treatment outcomes. A paired t test and a Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In both groups, proper overjet and Class I molar relationships were achieved, and the occlusal plane was rotated counterclockwise. In the elastics group, distal tipping of the mandibular molars, extrusion of the mandibular incisors and maxillary molars, clockwise rotation of the mandibular plane angle, and increased ANB angle were observed. In the TADs group, distal tipping and intrusion of the mandibular molars, bodily movement of the mandibular incisors, and reduced mandibular plane angle were observed. In nonextraction treatment for Class III malocclusions, the mandibular plane angle was increased in the elastics group, whereas it was decreased in TADs group. Thus, we suggest that Class III elastics are preferred for low-angle, short-face patients, whereas TADs are preferred for high-angle, long-face patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthodontic and orthognathic surgical correction of Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Poulton, D R

    1996-02-01

    This case was presented as part of the student case displays at the 1994 AAO meeting, sponsored by the College of Diplomates of the American Board of Orthodontics. It was selected to be submitted for publication in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics by a CDABO committee.

  2. The simple class II and class III corrector: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Spary, David John; Little, Rachel Ann

    2015-03-01

    This article illustrates three case reports which describe a very simple appliance that is used to correct both class II and class III buccal segments. A class I molar relationship is achieved within 2-6 months. Hundreds of cases have been treated with these appliances over a number of years at Queen's Hospital, Burton upon Trent with great success.

  3. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  4. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  5. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  6. Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Class III School District Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, John M., Sr.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, a replication of the Pool study was conducted. This study, however, focused on the school systems classified as Class III districts. Nebraska has 252 Class III districts. Compared with Class II (21), Class IV (1), and Class V(1) districts, the Class III districts offer a wide array of school settings, from urban to extremely rural, and…

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ariel; Serret, Luis; Peguero, Marcos; Tanaka, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites. PMID:25525526

  8. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  9. Ortho-surgical management of skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Gupta, Hemant; Srivastava, Kamna; Verma, Sneh Lata

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered to be one of the most difficult problems to treat. Establishment of the treatment plan is based on the efficacy and thoughtful application by the clinician and easy acceptance by the patient. We are presenting a case report of an adult male patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion who was treated by orthosurgical approach in Department of Orthodontics in collaboration with Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. The treatment was complete with a positive overbite and acceptable occlusion and satisfactory facial esthetics using a combination approach. PMID:26668466

  10. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with the...

  11. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  12. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  13. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  14. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  15. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  16. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  17. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  18. 25 CFR 291.5 - Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.5 Where must the proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures be filed? Any proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures must be filed with...

  19. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval. 522.8... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal...

  20. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  1. Genetic polymorphisms underlying the skeletal Class III phenotype.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Christiane Vasconcellos; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Maia, José Calasans; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Reis, Maria Fernanda; Mucha, José Nelson; Vilella, Beatriz; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Costa, Marcelo Castro; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    2017-04-01

    Our goal was to verify the association between candidate polymorphisms and skeletal Class III malocclusion in a well-characterized homogeneous sample set. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were studied from 10 candidate loci in 54 Class III subjects and 120 controls. Skeletal Class III characteristics included ANB angle less than 0°, SNB angle greater than 83° (mandibular prognathism), SNA angle less than 79° (maxillary deficiency), Class III molar relationship, and negative overjet. Inclusion criteria for the controls were ANB angle between 0° and 4°, Class I molar relationship, and normal overjet. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests and principal component (PC) analysis were used to determine overrepresentation of marker alleles with alpha of 0.05. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. MYO1H (rs10850110 AG) (P = 0.001) with PC2 and between FGF10 (rs593307 AClass III malocclusion with mandibular prognathism, and polymorphisms in GHR and FGF were associated with maxillomandibular discrepancies. This study may contribute to improved diagnosis and further research assessing possible differences in treatment responses based on genetic polymorphisms. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dentofacial characteristics of patients with hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Créton, Marijn; Cune, Marco S; de Putter, Cornelis; Ruijter, Jan M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to identify distinctive dentofacial characteristics of hypodontia patients. For this purpose, 189 young hypodontia patients (cases) were divided into subgroups, based on criteria from literature. Normalised differences between cases and controls were calculated for various parameters of dentofacial form. Subsequently, cluster analysis was applied to disclose subsets of hypodontia patients with distinctive dentofacial features. The ANB angle, interincisal angle and lower anterior face height were consistently significantly different amongst the subsets. Four clusters of patients with an increasing number of missing teeth and distinctive dentofacial characteristics could be identified. Patients in cluster 1 display a high-angle facial pattern. Patients in clusters 2 and 3 exhibit markable dentoalveolar characteristics (a relatively small and a large interincisal angle, respectively). Patients in cluster 4 exhibited notable sagittal-skeletal discriminative features predominantly because of a retrognathic maxilla. The smallest nasolabial angle and lower anterior face height were seen in this cluster. It is concluded that the anterior-posterior relationship between the jaws, the interincisal angle and the lower anterior face height are discriminative parameters of dentofacial form in hypodontia patients. Patients with hypodontia can be clustered in four groups, each with distinctive vertical-skeletal, dentoalveolar and sagittal-skeletal characteristics. This categorisation of patients with hypodontia into meaningful groups may be useful for treatment planning, interdisciplinary communication and as a means of identifying groups of patients that qualify for reimbursement of costs. Other dental factors should be appreciated as well during restorative clinical decision making in patients with hypodontia.

  3. Presurgical orthodontics versus no presurgical orthodontics: treatment outcome of surgical-orthodontic correction for skeletal class III open bite.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Fang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Huang, Chiung-Shing; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-12-01

    It has long been claimed that presurgical orthodontics is crucial to the outcome of surgical-orthodontic treatment for dentofacial deformity. However, in the literature, the effect of presurgical orthodontics on the treatment outcome remains controversial. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the effect of presurgical orthodontics on the treatment outcome in terms of facial aesthetics, occlusion, stability, and efficiency. Thirty-three adult patients with skeletal class III open bite corrected by Le Fort I posterior impaction and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: 13 received presurgical orthodontics, and 20 did not. Cephalometric radiographs and study models were used to evaluate the treatment outcome. There were no between-group differences in facial aesthetics, overbite, or Peer Assessment Rating score. Overjet was larger in the no-presurgical orthodontics group than in the presurgical orthodontics group, but both were within normal limits. Both groups had similar maxillary and horizontal mandibular stability. Although the vertical mandibular stability was worse in the no-presurgical orthodontics group than in the presurgical orthodontics group, the direction of instability was favorable for open bite correction. Finally, longer treatment time was required in the presurgical orthodontics group compared with the no-presurgical orthodontics group (512±103 days versus 342±127 days; p<0.001). The results suggest that in surgical-orthodontic correction of skeletal class III open bite, presurgical orthodontics has no clinically significant effects on facial aesthetics, occlusion, or stability. However, presurgical orthodontics has a significant adverse effect on efficiency. Patients receiving presurgical orthodontics undergo longer treatment time than those receiving no presurgical orthodontics.

  4. Early orthopedic treatment for Class III skeletal pattern.

    PubMed

    Kocadereli, I

    1998-01-01

    An eight-year-old female, Class III due to maxillary retrusion with brachyfacial growth pattern was treated with a functional regulator appliance (FR-3). By initiating treatment at an early age, developing skeletal imbalances were corrected. At postretention six years she had balanced profile and stable functional occlusion.

  5. Class III correction of a non-growing patient.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Thomas Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest that the previously held postulation that we cannot functionally treat non-growing individuals may not be entirely true. It contains a class III case treated after stage 5 growth and possibly into stage 6.

  6. Prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities in children and adolescents with β-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Arun; Mungara, Jayanthi; Joseph, Elizabeth; Guptha, Vignesh

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassaemia major is a hereditary hemolytic anemia and the patients often experience growth retardation, protrusive maxilla, and depressed nasal bride leading to various degrees of malocclusion. The purpose of this investigation is to find the prevalence of dentofacial abnormalities in β-thalassaemia major patients. Seventy-two patients between 6 and 18 years of age diagnosed with β-thalassaemia major were examined for extraoral abnormalities, malocclusion, oral hygiene, and dental caries. Data obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Chi-square and paired t-test. Thirty-nine (54.2%) were males and 33 (45.8%) were females. Prominent extraoral abnormalities were found in 41 (56.9%) of the individuals. Study population predominantly had class I occlusion (59.7%) followed by class II occlusion (23.6%) and no class III occlusion. Mean oral hygiene index-simplified score was 2.43 ± 1.24, mean decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) score was 7.10 ± 3.92, and deft was 5.68 ± 3.12. Despite starting regular blood transfusion at an early age, β-thalassaemia major patients showed marked facial abnormalities. When compared with individuals with no systemic disease, oral hygiene status was similar, but the caries experience was higher in β-thalassaemia major patients. Therefore, emphasis to educate these patients in the prevention and control of dental caries and maintenance of good oral hygiene should be considered.

  7. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal gaming...

  8. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class III...

  9. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 522.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal...

  10. Prediction of Class III treatment outcomes through orthodontic data mining.

    PubMed

    Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Cozza, Paola; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether it is possible to predict Class III treatment outcomes on the basis of a model derived from a combination of computational analyses derived from complexity science, such as fuzzy clustering repartition and network analysis. Cephalometric data of 54 Class III patients (32 females, 22 males) taken before (T1, mean age 8.2 ± 1.6 years) and after (T2, mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years) early rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances were analysed. Patients were classified at T1 on the basis of high membership grade into three main dentoskeletal fuzzy cluster phenotypes: hyperdivergent (HD), hypermandibular (HM), and balanced (Bal) phenotypes. The prevalence rate of successful and unsuccessful cases at T2 was calculated for the three clusters and compared by means of Fisher's exact test corrected for multiple testing (Holm-Bonferroni method). Unsuccessful cases were 9 out of 54 patients (16.7%). Once patients were framed into their cluster membership, the individualized pre-treatment prediction of unsuccessful cases was largely differentiated: HD and HM patients showed a significantly greater prevalence rate of unsuccessful cases than Bal patients (0% in Bal cluster, 28.6% in HM cluster, and 33.3% in HD cluster). Network analysis captured some noticeable interdependencies of Class III patients, showing a more connected interactive structure of cephalometric data sets in HM and HD patients compared with Bal patients. The results were confirmed after minimizing the geometrical connections between cephalometric variables in the model. Fuzzy clustering repartition can be usefully used to estimate an individualized risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Class III patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Negative Potentials Across Biological Membranes Promote Fusion by Class II and Class III Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Markosyan, Ruben M.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage was investigated as a factor in the fusion of virions. Virions, pseudotyped with a class II, SFV E1 or VEEV E, or a class III protein, VSV G, were prepared with GFP within the core and a fluorescent lipid. This allowed both hemifusion and fusion to be monitored. Voltage clamping the target cell showed that fusion is promoted by a negative potential and hindered by a positive potential. Hemifusion occurred independent of polarity. Lipid dye movement, in the absence of content mixing, ceased before complete transfer for positive potentials, indicating that reversion of hemifused membranes into two distinct membranes is responsible for voltage dependence and inhibition of fusion. Content mixing quickly followed lipid dye transfer for a negative potential, providing a direct demonstration that hemifusion induced by class II and class III viral proteins is a functional intermediate of fusion. In the hemifused state, virions that fused exhibited slower lipid transfer than did nonfusing virions. All viruses with class II or III fusion proteins may utilize voltage to achieve infection. PMID:20427575

  12. 21 CFR 807.94 - Format of a class III certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of a class III certification. 807.94... IMPORTERS OF DEVICES Premarket Notification Procedures § 807.94 Format of a class III certification. (a) A class III certification submitted as part of a premarket notification shall state as follows: I...

  13. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval requirements for class III ordinances. 522.6... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval requirements for class III ordinances. No later than 90 days after the submission to the Chairman under §...

  14. 77 FR 48167 - Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Compact permits the...

  15. 14 CFR 21.333 - Issue of export airworthiness approval tags for Class III products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Class III products. 21.333 Section 21.333 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Approvals § 21.333 Issue of export airworthiness approval tags for Class III products. (a) An applicant is entitled to an export airworthiness approval tag for Class III products if that applicant shows, except...

  16. Morphometric analysis of mandibular growth in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chen, Yi-Jane; Chang, Frank Hsin-Fu; Yao, Jane Chung-Chen; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Han; Lan, Wan-Hong

    2006-04-01

    The craniofacial growth patterns of untreated individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion have rarely been systemically investigated. This study used morphometric techniques to investigate the growth characteristics of the mandible in individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric head films of 294 individuals with untreated skeletal Class III malocclusion (134 males, 160 females) were selected and divided into five triennial age groups (T1-T5) and by gender to identify the morphologic characteristics and sexual dimorphism in changes of mandibular growth. Procrustes, thin-plate spline, and finite element analyses were performed for localization of differences in shape and size changes. Maximum and minimum principal axes were drawn to express the directions of shape changes. From T1 (age 6-8 years) to T4 (age 15-17 years), the distribution of localized size and shape changes of the mandible was very similar between the two genders. From T1 to T2 (age 9-11 years), significant lengthening of the condylar region was noted (23.4-39.7%). From T2 to T3 (age 12-14 years), the greatest size and shape change occurred at the condylar head (27.4-34.9%). From T3 to T4, the greatest size and shape changes occurred in the symphyseal region (23.6-42.1%). From T4 to T5 (age>or=18 years), significant sexual dimorphism was found in the distribution and amount of localized size and shape changes. Females displayed little growth increments during T4. Despite differences in the remodeling process, the whole mandibular configurations of both genders exhibited similarly significant upward and forward deformation from T4 to T5. We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  17. Diverse functions and reactions of class III peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shigeto, Jun; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Higher plants contain plant-specific peroxidases (class III peroxidase; Prxs) that exist as large multigene families. Reverse genetic studies to characterize the function of each Prx have revealed that Prxs are involved in lignification, cell elongation, stress defense and seed germination. However, the underlying mechanisms associated with plant phenotypes following genetic engineering of Prx genes are not fully understood. This is because Prxs can function as catalytic enzymes that oxidize phenolic compounds while consuming hydrogen peroxide and/or as generators of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, biochemical efforts to characterize Prxs responsible for lignin polymerization have revealed specialized activities of Prxs. In conclusion, not only spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression and protein distribution, but also differentiated oxidation properties of each Prx define the function of this class of peroxidases.

  18. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  19. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  20. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  1. Treatment of pseudo Class III malocclusion by modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow.

    PubMed

    Negi, K S; Sharma, K R

    2011-01-01

    Pseudo Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anterior crossbite with functional forward mandibular displacement. Various appliances have been devised for early treatment of a pseudo Class III. The aim of this article is to highlight the method of construction and use a simple removable appliance termed as "Modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow" to treat psuedo class III malocclusion in the mixed dentition period. It also emphasizes the importance of differentiating between true Class III and pseudo Class III. This appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of a dental malocclusion in a few months and therapeutic stability of a mesially positioned mandible encouraging favorable skeletal growth.

  2. Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: Atypical Extraction Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernando Pedrin Carvalho; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Cardoso, Maurício de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion is rather challenging, because the patient's growth pattern determines the success of long-term treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are still highly discussed issues in orthodontic literature. This type of early intervention has been indicated more frequently in order to eliminate primary etiological factors and prevent an already present malocclusion from becoming severe. However, when a patient is diagnosed in adulthood, manipulation of the bone bases becomes extremely limited, as there is no longer any potential for growth. Treatments are restricted to dental compensations when possible or orthognathic surgery. However, owing to the high cost and inherent risk of the surgical procedure, this treatment option is often denied by the patient; in such a case, the orthodontist has little choice but to perform, where possible, compensatory treatments to restore a functional occlusion and improve facial esthetics. This article reports a case of Class III malocclusion in a patient who opted for compensatory treatment with lower molar extraction that allowed for correction of the midline and the overjet. Good facial esthetics and functional normal occlusion were achieved at the end of the treatment. PMID:28265473

  3. Inhibition of Human Class I vs Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3'-Kinases.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Matthew R; Sternberg, Anna R; Roepe, Paul D

    2017-08-22

    Most investigations of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) drug inhibition have been via assays based on ADP appearance or ATP consumption (e.g., Liu, Q., et al. ( 2011 ) J. Med. Chem. 54 , 1473 - 1480 ). However, at least some PI3K isoforms show basal ATPase activity in the absence of PI lipid substrate(s), which may complicate quantification of drug potency, isoform specificity of some drugs, and synergy for drug combinations. In this study, we probe the class I vs class III isoform specificity of a selected set of PI3K inhibitors using a simple, inexpensive, semi high-throughput assay that quantifies production of phosphatidylinositol 3'-phosphate (PI3P) from phosphatidylinositol. Results are compared to previous data largely generated using ATPase activity assays. Good agreement between EC50 values computed via ATPase assays vs the reported PI3P formation assay is found for most drugs, but with a few exceptions. Furthermore, for the first time, drug inhibition of class I vs class III enzymes is compared side-by-side with the same assay for the important class I-specific inhibitors GSK2126458 ("Omipalisib") and NVP-BGT226 ("BGT226") currently in clinical development for advanced solid tumors.

  4. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    PubMed

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P < 0.01). Larger diameter values were present in the skeletal Class III subjects, while smaller diameter sizes were apparent in Class II subjects (multiple comparison tests). When gender, age, and skeletal type were all compared with the size of the sella (regression analyses), age was significantly related to a change of length (P < 0.01) and diameter (P < 0.001). Sella shape and dimensions reported in the current study can be used as reference standards for further investigations involving the sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  5. Sunshine Heart C-Pulse: device for NYHA Class III and ambulatory Class IV heart failure.

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew C; Schumer, Erin M; Rogers, Michael; Trivedi, Jaimin; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) patients not meeting criteria for ventricular assist device or heart transplant with life-limiting symptoms are limited to medical and resynchronization therapy. The Sunshine Heart C-Pulse, based on intra-aortic balloon pump physiology, provides implantable, on-demand, extra-aortic counterpulsation, which reduces afterload and improves cardiac perfusion in New York Heart Association Class III and ambulatory Class IV HF. The C-Pulse reduces New York Heart Association Class, improves 6-min walk distances, inotrope requirements and HF symptom questionnaires. Advantages include shorter operative times without cardiopulmonary bypass, no reported strokes or thrombosis and no need for anticoagulation. Driveline exit site infections, inability to provide full circulatory support and poor function with intractable arrhythmias remain concerns. Current randomized controlled studies will evaluate long-term efficacy and safety compared with medical and resynchronization therapy.

  6. Relationships among nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture and maxillofacial form in Class II and Class III children.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tomonori; Sato, Hideo; Suga, Hokuto; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Kakuno, Eriko; Kanomi, Ryuzo; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between upper airway factors (nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture) and maxillofacial forms in Class II and III children. Sixty-four subjects (mean age, 9.3 years) with malocclusion were divided into Class II and Class III groups by ANB angles. Nasal resistance was calculated using computational fluid dynamics from cone-beam computed tomography data. Adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture were evaluated in the cone-beam computed tomography images. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and Student t tests. The Spearman rank correlations test assessed the relationships between the upper airway factors and maxillofacial form. Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly larger than that of the Class III group (P = 0.005). Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly correlated with inferior tongue posture (P <0.001) and negatively correlated with intermolar width (P = 0.028). Tonsil size of the Class III group was significantly correlated with anterior tongue posture (P <0.001) and mandibular incisor anterior position (P = 0.007). Anterior tongue posture of the Class III group was significantly correlated with mandibular protrusion. The relationships of upper airway factors differ between Class II and Class III children. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Latent Class Analysis of Differential Item Functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-young Lee; Cohen, Allan S.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of latent class analysis for the detection of differences in item functioning on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition (PPVT-III). A two-class solution for a latent class model appeared to be defined in part by ability because Class 1 was lower in ability than Class 2 on both the PPVT-III and the…

  8. Evaluation of Patients’ Satisfaction after Class III Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Magro-Filho, Osvaldo; Oliveira, Derly Tescaro Narcizo; Martins, Lidia Pimenta; Salazar, Marcio; Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio De; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2015-01-01

    Background Well-planned orthognathic surgery improves psychological health, aesthetics and function of patients. Aim The present study aimed to investigate patients’ satisfaction after orthognathic surgery by means of a satisfaction questionnaire before and after surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 29 patients was selected (17 women and 12 men), with a mean age of 28 years, randomly selected from a private clinic at Araçatuba – São Paulo by two investigators. Anamnesis and clinical examination were performed. Subjects with facial deformities submitted to orthodontic treatment before and after orthognathic surgery with a minimum post-surgery period of 6 months, answered a satisfaction questionnaire composed of 10 questions regarding dental and facial aesthetics. In this study, the maximum satisfaction score was 10. Results Regarding aesthetics, two satisfaction parameters were investigated: dental and facial. For all indices, the average satisfaction was up to score 7. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that orthognathic surgery has been an effective treatment for dentofacial deformities, aesthetics and functional problems, what was verified by pre and postoperative questionnaire application. PMID:26557610

  9. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Sanjna; Dinakarsamy, V.; Santhosh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite. PMID:26015764

  10. 76 FR 43701 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0172, which expires November 30, 2011. DATES... guarantee that we will be able to do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0172. Title: Class III Tribal...

  11. Masticatory function and temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    masticatory muscle pain on palpation after orthognathic treatment. There is insufficient scientific evidence for an effect on temporomandibular joint pain on palpation and temporomandibular joint sounds from orthognathic surgery. Further controlled, well-designed studies assessing temporomandibular disorders before and after orthognathic treatment are needed to consolidate strong evidence considering treatment outcomes. Papers II and III are studies comparing frequencies of temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities with a control group. The patients were referred for a combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment to correct their malocclusion. The control group comprised individuals with normal occlusion or minor malocclusion traits not in need of orthodontic treatment. In Paper III, temporomandibular disorders were longitudinally analysed by assessing and comparing frequencies before and after orthognathic treatment. All individuals in the studies were diagnosed according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. CONCLUSIONS IN PAPERS II AND III: Patients due to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and a higher frequency of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders compared with the age- and gender matched control group. Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, had a positive treatment outcome in respect of myofascial pain and arthralgia. After treatment the frequency of temporomandibular disorders . in the treatment group was low and at an equivalent level of that in the control group. Paper IV evaluates the self-estimated masticatory ability and the masticatory performance before and after orthognathic treatment in the same individuals as in Paper II and III. CONCLUSIONS IN PAPER IV: Masticatory ability and performance increased after orthognathic treatment. The number of occlusal contacts

  12. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III gaming...

  13. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  14. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  15. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  16. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  17. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  18. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  19. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  20. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  1. 25 CFR 291.14 - How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.14 How can Class III gaming procedures approved by the Secretary be amended? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to amend approved Class III...

  2. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III... of Class III gaming activities; (b) The State and the Indian tribe failed to negotiate a compact...

  3. Management of pseudo Class III malocclusion--synergistic approach with fixed and functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion has been divided into two subtypes: skeletal and pseudo-Class III. A pseudo Class III malocclusion should be treated as early as possible to reduce the functional shift of the mandible and increase maxillary arch length. A case of pseudo-Class III malocclusion was presented here. A 11-year-old boy came with an anterior cross bite, the treatment was done with Fixed appliance (Roth prescription) and Reverse Twin block therapy. This case demonstrated that an anterior cross bite was corrected after 10 months of treatment.

  4. Cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sanggarnjanavanich, Seetala; Sekiya, Toshiko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to clarify the characteristics of cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion and investigate factors relating to the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Initial lateral cephalograms of women were examined. Subjects with an ANB angle of 0° to 4°, normal overjet and overbite, and a Class I molar relationship were classified as Class I (n = 86). Those with an ANB angle less than -1°, a Wits appraisal less than 2 mm, a negative overjet, and a Class III molar relationship were the Class III group (n = 86) in this study. Angular, linear, and coordinate measurements were made. Multivariate analysis of variance and the Student t test were used to analyze significant differences between the 2 groups. Discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis, and decision analysis were used to identify which cranial-base and maxillomandibular variables influenced the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The Class III group had smaller values for NSBa, SeSBa, FH-SSe, and FH-SBa. Sphenoidale and basion were more inferior and anterior than those of the Class I group. There was no difference in the anterior and posterior cranial-base lengths between the groups. Greater mandibular length was the first major characteristic in the Class III group, followed by smaller values for SeSBa and NSBa. Cranial-base morphology in adults with a skeletal Class III malocclusion is different from that in a skeletal Class I malocclusion. Smaller cranial-base angles, steeper posterior cranial bases, more inferiorly positioned sphenoidale, and more anteriorly positioned basion are major characteristics of skeletal Class III malocclusions. These characteristics play important roles in the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct molecular structures of nuclear class I, II, and III DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Sklar, V E; Schwartz, L B; Roeder, R G

    1975-01-01

    Class III RNA polymerases purified from the murine plasmacytoma MOPC 315 and from Xenopus laevis ovaries were compared. The subunit structures of the chromatographically distinct murine enzymes IIIA and IIIB were indistinguishable and were remarkably similar to that of the amphibian enzyme III. The plasmacytoma class III RNA polymerases were also compared with purified plasmacytoma RNA polymerases I and II. Sedimentation studies indicated that RNA polymerase III si significantly larger than RNA polymerase II, which is slightly larger than RNA polymerase I. Structural analyses showed that the molecular weights of the large subunits present in the class III enzymes (138,000 and 155,000) differ from those of the class II enzymes (140,000 and either 170,000, 205,000, or 240,000) and from those of the class I enzymes (117,000 and 195,000). Some low-molecular-weight subunits are also unique to each enzyme class. These results clearly distinguish the class I, II, and III enzymes on a structural basis. In addition, polypeptides of molecular weight 29,000 and 19,000 were found in all enzyme classes, a polypeptide of molecular weight 52,000 was found only in class I and III enzymes, and a polypeptide of molecular weight 41,000 was found only in class II and III enzymes. These findings are discussed in terms of the function and regulation of the RNA polymerases.

  6. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  7. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton's Analysis: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton's analysis. The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton's analysis done on all the casts. Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton's discrepancy in Class III. Mean Bolton's anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton's overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions.

  8. Determination of Class II and Class III skeletal patterns: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis on various cephalometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Han, U K; Kim, Y H

    1998-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis is an excellent method for evaluating and comparing the performance of diagnostic tests. The purpose of this study was to use the receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the diagnostic ability of several cephalometric measurements in determining the presence of Class II and Class III skeletal patterns. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on 976 cases. Fifteen cephalometric measurements were evaluated. A computer software program ROC ANALYZER was used to tabulate the areas under the curves and to perform the statistical comparison between the curves. The results of this study indicated that the Anteroposterior Dysplasia Indicator had the best diagnostic ability in identifying cases with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns. WITS Appraisal and Overjet were highly effective in diagnosing cases with Class II skeletal pattern. WITS Appraisal, Convexity, AB Plane Angle and Overjet also performed well in diagnosing cases with Class III skeletal pattern.

  9. Improving Clinical Outcomes for Patients With Class III Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Melissa; Bires, Angela Macci; Waterstram-Rich, Kristen; Cline, Thomas W

    Heart failure (HF) is a serious medical problem in the United States and is placing a financial strain on the health care system. It is the leading cause of mortality and as the overall incidence continues to increase, so does the economic impact on the health care system. Innovative treatment options, in the form of disease management programs and implantable cardiac devices, such as the CorVue capable implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) pacemaker, offer the promise of an enhanced quality of life and reduced mortality. Even with these advances, HF continues to be a challenge. Studies reviewing HF management programs have shown promising results. However, more studies are needed to determine which combination of HF management interventions has the greatest financial impact and yields the best patient outcomes. The objective of the research study was to compare 30-day readmission rates of patients implanted with the CorVue capable ICD pacemaker with patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) with no implanted device. The aim of the research focused on the usefulness of intrathoracic impedance monitoring alerts in guiding empirical treatment of patients with CHF to prevent HF readmissions. Methodology included a retrospective medical chart review, comparing 30-day readmission events among patients with class III CHF who received home health intervention with similar patients implanted with the CorVue ICD.

  10. Splint therapy for skeletal Class III malocclusion in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T

    1998-01-01

    An orthopedic appliance for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in the primary dentition is described. The appliance consists of two resin splints with hooks for Class III elastic intraoral traction. Construction features and biomechanical aspects of the device are described along with the clinical evaluation of treatment effects in two case reports.

  11. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  12. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  13. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  14. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  15. 49 CFR 1150.34 - Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caption summary-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.34 Section 1150.34 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to....34 Caption summary—transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. The caption summary...

  16. Early correction of class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy

    PubMed Central

    Karthi, Muthukumar; Anbuselvan, Gobichettipalayam Jagatheeswaran; Kumar, Bhandari Pawan

    2013-01-01

    A case report is presented of a class III malocclusion with a class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Patient, a 10-year-old boy was treated with an orthopedic face mask in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion and standard pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. Treatment was completed after 3 years and proved to be stable following the active treatment. PMID:23956600

  17. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients. PMID:26649209

  18. Pycnodysostosis with Special Emphasis on Dentofacial Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Aisha; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as osteosclerosis of the skeleton due to the defective osteoclasts mediated bone turnover. The diagnosis of this disorder is established on the basis of its characteristic features and must be differentially diagnosed with other bone disorders. Dental surgeons should be aware of the limitations and possible adverse oral complications such as osteomyelitis of bone in these patients. This will guide them in planning realistic treatment goals. This paper reports the clinical and radiographic features of pycnodysostosis with the great emphasis on its dentofacial characteristics. The aim of this case report is to give an insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and differential diagnosis of this disorder and to prepare the dentists and maxillofacial surgeons to overcome the challenges in treating these patients.

  19. Transcriptional activation of Xenopus class III genes in chromatin isolated from sperm and somatic nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffe, A P

    1989-01-01

    Xenopus sperm chromatin lacks class III transcription complexes and somatic histone H1. Inactive class III genes in sperm chromatin are easily programmed with transcription complexes de novo and transcribed in Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. In contrast, repressed class III genes in somatic chromatin are not transcribed in the oocyte nuclear extract. Class III genes that are initially inactive or repressed in both types of chromatin can be efficiently transcribed in a cell free preparation of Xenopus eggs. Chromatin mediated repression of class III genes in somatic nuclei is reversible in Xenopus egg extract, but not in the oocyte nuclear extract. Any inhibition of transcription attributed to chromatin assembly onto a gene, will therefore depend on the extract in which transcription is assayed. Images PMID:2915929

  20. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...

  1. [Class III alcohol dehydrogenase and its role in the human body].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Sani, Tufik Alizade; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    Class III alcohol dehydrogenase is composed of two chi subunits, encoded by the ADH5 gene and existing in all tissues examined. It possesses a great ability to metabolize long-chain alcohols, while its capacity to oxidize ethanol is very limited. The amino-acid sequence homology and identical structural and kinetic properties indicate that class III alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase are identical enzymes. ADH III plays a significant role in the metabolism of formaldehyde in the human body.

  2. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  3. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  4. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. 522.10 Section 522.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN... gaming operations other than those operating on September 1, 1986. For licensing of individually...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Texas § 147.2200 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Texas, except for those wells on Indian lands, Class III brine mining wells, and certain Class V wells, is the program administered by the Texas...

  6. Class I and class III phosphoinositide 3-kinases are required for actin polymerization that propels phagosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bohdanowicz, Michal; Cosío, Gabriela; Backer, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Actin polymerization drives the extension of pseudopods that trap and engulf phagocytic targets. The polymerized actin subsequently dissociates as the phagocytic vacuole seals and detaches from the plasma membrane. We found that phagosomes formed by engagement of integrins that serve as complement receptors (CR3) undergo secondary waves of actin polymerization, leading to the formation of “comet tails” that propel the vacuoles inside the cells. Actin tail formation was accompanied by and required de novo formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 on the phagosomal membrane by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Although the phosphatidylinositide phosphatase Inpp5B was recruited to nascent phagosomes, it rapidly detached from the membrane after phagosomes sealed. Detachment of Inpp5B required the formation of PI(3)P. Thus, class III PI3K activity was also required for the accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 and for actin tail formation. These experiments reveal a new PI(3)P-sensitive pathway leading to PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 formation and signaling in endomembranes. PMID:21115805

  7. Oral Impacts on Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Class I, II and III Malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Javed, Omair; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the social impact of malocclusion on quality of life between adult patients with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion. A total of 222 adult patients (139, 42 and 41 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion, respectively) were recruited voluntarily from those attending the Orthodontic Clinic of Khyber College of Dentistry in Pesh awar, Pakistan. Participants were asked to complete the Urdu version of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which was previously validated for this study. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare the seven OHIP-14 domains scores and the total score between patients with malocclusion Class I, II and III. Adults with Class III malocclusion had a significantly higher OHIP-14 total score than those with Class I malocclusion (a mean difference of 5 units between groups), but there were no differences between other Angle malocclusion groups. In addition, adults with Class III malocclusion reported greater impacts on the three OHIP-14 disability domains (physical, psychological and social) than those with Class I malocclusion. No significant interactions with sex and age were found. These findings suggest that adult patients with Class III malocclusion had a poorer quality of life than those with Class I malocclusion. Differences were mainly found in the physical, psychological and social disability domains of the OHIP-14 instrument.

  8. Civilization III and Whole-Class Play in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John K.; Probert, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined an 11th grade high school class as they played the game Civilization III. Over nine class sessions students played the game in support of other activities related to several predetermined and emergent topics in U. S. history. Gameplay was whole-class oriented and involved students taking turns at the computer controlling…

  9. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1st M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1st M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. Results: One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1st molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. Conclusions: The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1st molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle. PMID:27011741

  10. Rotation of the upper first molar in Class I, II, and III patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Viganó, Cristiane; da Rocha, Viviane Ekerman; Junior, Laerte Ribeiro Menezes; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean rotation of the upper first molar (U1(st) M) in cast models from nontreated patients presenting: Class I, skeletal Class II, dental Class II, and skeletal Class III, comparing with Class I orthodontically treated patients. One hundred cast models were evaluated with five groups, composed of nontreated Class I (n = 20), dental Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class II (n = 20), skeletal Class III (n = 20), and treated Class I (n = 20). Measurements were taken from photocopies of the upper arches. The angle formed between a line crossing the mesiopalatal and the distal-buccalcusps of the U1(st) M and a line traced on mid palatal junction were measured in all samples. One-way variance analysis showed that dental Class II group presented great mean rotation of the 1(st) molar (x = 78.95°, SD = 6.19) (P < 0.05), and in 85% of the patients from this group this angle was higher than 73°. The skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups showed similar mean position of the 1(st) molar, presenting rotation in approximately 50% of the patients. It can be concluded that upper molar rotation occurs mainly in dental Class II patients and shows higher mesial rotation angle.

  11. Cobalt(II)-substituted class III alcohol and sorbitol dehydrogenases from human liver.

    PubMed

    Maret, W

    1989-12-26

    The catalytic zinc atoms in class III (chi) alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from human liver have been specifically removed and replaced by cobalt(II) with a new ultrafiltration technique. The electronic absorption spectrum of class III cobalt ADH (epsiolon 638 = 870 M-1 cm-1) is nearly identical with those of active site substituted horse EE and human class I (beta 1 beta 1) cobalt ADH. Thus, the coordination environment of the catalytic metal is strictly conserved in these enzymes. However, significant differences are noted when the spectra of class III ADH-coenzyme complexes are compared to the corresponding spectra of the horse enzyme. The spectrum of class III ADH.NADH is split into three bands, centered at 680, 638, and 562 nm. The class III ADH.NAD+ species resembles the alkaline form of the corresponding horse enzyme complex but without exhibiting the pH dependence of the latter. These spectral changes underscore the role of the coenzymes in differentially fine tuning the catalytic metal for its particular function in each ADH. The noncatalytic zinc of class III ADH exchanges with cobalt at pH 7.0. While 9 residues out of 15 in the loop surrounding the noncatalytic zinc of class III ADH differ from those of the class I ADH, the electronic absorption spectra of cobalt in the noncatalytic metal site of class III ADH establish that the coordination environment of this site is conserved as well. The spectrum of cobalt SDH differs significantly from those of cobalt ADHs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Non-surgical Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Bilateral Posterior Crossbite: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nayan, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old female patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and bilateral posterior cross bite complaining of difficulty in chewing was treated orthodontically without surgery (camouflage treatment). The treatment comprised of fixed orthodontic treatment with MBT prescription (0.022˝×0.028˝ slot) using quad helix appliance for bilateral expansion of maxillary arch and Class III elastics for occlusal correction. Post-treatment records showed normal overbite and overjet with acceptable occlusion. So with this treatment strategy of expanding the maxillary arch using a quad helix appliance and use of Class III elastics, we achieved a good result with optimal occlusion. PMID:28209011

  13. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  15. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  16. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

  17. Mini-III, a fourth class of RNase III catalyses maturation of the Bacillus subtilis 23S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Gabriela; Guzmán, Plinio

    2008-06-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) type of enzymes are double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific endoribonucleases that have important roles in RNA maturation and mRNA decay. They are involved in processing precursors of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in bacteria as well as precursors of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in eukaryotes. RNase III proteins have been grouped in three major classes according to their domain organization. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Redko et al. identified a novel class of bacterial RNase III, named Mini-III, consisting only of the RNase III catalytic domain and functioning in the maturation of the 23S rRNA in Bacillus subtilis. Its absence from proteobacteria reveals that this step is mechanistically different from the corresponding step in Escherichia coli. The fact that Mini-III orthologues are present in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes and in plants opens new opportunities for functional studies of this type of RNases.

  18. Comparisons of two protocols for the early treatment of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Letizia; Vitale, Maddalena; Masucci, Caterina; D'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Cozza, Paola; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    To assess the short-term outcomes of splints, Class III elastics, and chincup (SEC III) and rapid maxillary expansion and facial mask (RME/FM) protocols. 25 patients with Class III dentoskeletal disharmony (10 males, 15 females) treated with the SEC III protocol were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 7.5±1.4 years) and at the end of treatment (T2, mean age 8.7±1.4 years). The SEC III group was compared to a matched sample of 32 Class III patients (16 males, 16 females) treated with the RME/FM protocol and to a matched control group (CG) consisting of 23 subjects (12 males, 11 females) with untreated Class III dentoskeletal disharmony. The statistical comparisons between the three groups were performed with analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests. With respect to the CG the SEC III and the RME/FM groups showed significantly favourable effects in terms of maxillary advancement (SNA +1.2 and +1.4 degrees, respectively), control of mandibular projection (SNB -1.3 and -1.4 degrees, respectively), and intermaxillary relationships (ANB +2.6 and +2.9 degrees, respectively; WITS +3.7 and +2.6mm, respectively). The RME/FM group showed a significantly greater increase in the intermaxillary divergency than the SEC III group (+1.8 degrees) and the CG (+2.0 degrees). A limitation of this study is its short-term nature. Both SEC III and RME/FM protocols are efficient treatments for Class III dentoskeletal disharmony. The SEC III protocol produces more favourable control in intermaxillary vertical relationships than the RME/FM therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior negative overjet.

    PubMed

    Souza, Paulo Ávila de

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 8-year and 9-month old female patient with Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbite and canine Class III relationship. Orthodontic treatment was carried out in two stages. The first one was orthopedic, while the second one included the use of a fixed appliance and the need for space gain for reshaping of maxillary lateral incisors. The two-stage treatment combined with multidisciplinary Restorative Cosmetic Dentistry allowed excellent esthetic and functional outcomes to be achieved. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  20. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an agreement...

  1. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class...

  2. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class...

  3. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an...

  4. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an...

  5. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an...

  6. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an...

  7. The class III ribonucleotide reductase from Neisseria bacilliformis can utilize thioredoxin as a reductant

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yifeng; Funk, Michael A.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Baek, Jiyeon; Drennan, Catherine L.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. Here we report the cloning and heterologous expression of the Neisseria bacilliformis class III RNR and show that it can catalyze nucleotide reduction using the ubiquitous thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH system. We present a structural model based on a crystal structure of the homologous Thermotoga maritima class III RNR, showing its architecture and the position of conserved residues in the active site. Phylogenetic studies suggest that this form of class III RNR is present in bacteria and archaea that carry out diverse types of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:25157154

  8. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26536144

  9. Reverse twin block for interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Meenu; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Poonam

    2017-01-01

    Early correction of developing class III malocclusions remains a complex challenge. Treatment approaches for these young patients have been directed at growth modification. Encouraging outcomes have been reported with the use of Class III functional appliances including reverse twin block (RTB) appliance. The present paper tries to provide an insight into RTB appliance used for successful interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion in two children. RTBs were fabricated with bite registered in the position of maximum possible retrusion of mandible with interincisal clearance of 2 mm and vertical clearance of 5 mm in the buccal segments. Anterior crossbite was corrected, and there was a marked improvement in facial appearance of the children. RTB can be a viable and effective functional appliance treatment modality for early management of developing class III malocclusion.

  10. Maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition in a Class III patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Potrubacz, Maciej Iancu; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that often represents a challenge for the clinician. The case of a girl with skeletal Class III malocclusion and concomitant maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition, followed from 7 to 17 years of age, is presented. After a first phase of treatment aimed at resolving the Class III malocclusion, the transposition was maintained and the case finalized with a multibracket appliance.

  11. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction

    PubMed Central

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30–40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection. PMID:27144056

  12. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction.

    PubMed

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30-40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection.

  13. Prevalence of class-I, class-II and class-III obesity in Australian adults between 1995 and 2011-12.

    PubMed

    Keating, Catherine; Backholer, Kathryn; Gearon, Emma; Stevenson, Christopher; Swinburn, Boyd; Moodie, Marj; Carter, Rob; Peeters, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of class-I, II and III obesity in Australian adults between 1995, 2007-08 and 2011-12. Prevalence data for adults (aged 18+ years) were sourced from customised data from the nationally representative National Nutrition Survey (1995), the National Health Survey (2007-08), and the Australian Health Survey (2011-12) conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Obesity classifications were based on measured height and weight (class-I body mass index: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), class-II: 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2) and class-III: ≥ 40.0 kg/m(2)). Severe obesity was defined as class-II or class-III obesity. Between 1995 and 2011-12, the prevalence of obesity (all classes combined) increased from 19.1% to 27.2%. During this 17 year period, relative increases in class I, II and III obesity were 1.3, 1.7 and 2.2-fold respectively. In 2011-12, the prevalence of class I, II and III obesity was 19.4, 5.9 and 2.0 per cent respectively in men, and 16.1, 6.9 and 4.2 per cent respectively in women. One in every ten people was severely obese, increasing from one in twenty in 1995, and women were disproportionally represented in this population. Obesity prevalence increased with increasing levels of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, particularly for the more severely obese classes. Severe obesity affected 6.2% and 13.4% in the least and most disadvantaged quintiles respectively. Over the last two decades, there have been substantial increases in the prevalence of obesity, particularly the more severe levels of obesity. This study highlights high risk groups who warrant targeted weight gain prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Mechanical Ventilatory Constraints During Incremental Exercise in Class III Obese Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Temfemo, Abdou; Keochkerian, David; Choquet, Dominique; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the role of mechanical ventilatory constraints in obese class III subjects during incremental exercise. We examined 14 control subjects (body mass index [BMI], 23.6 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)), 15 obese class II subjects (BMI, 37.2 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)), and 17 obese class III subjects (BMI, 53.4 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)). All subjects performed pulmonary function tests and maximal inspiratory pressure at rest, ventilatory parameters, flow-volume loops, and rated perceived exertion and breathlessness during exercise. All subjects had normal pulmonary function. Obesity resulted in increased minute ventilation for a given submaximal work rate, although minute ventilation during peak exercise was lowest in the obese class III subjects. End-expiratory lung volume was significantly lower in the obese subjects at rest and during exercise at the ventilatory threshold but not during peak exercise. During heavy-to-peak exercise, the obese subjects increased their end-expiratory lung volume, whereas the control group continued to decrease this parameter. Compared with controls, end-inspiratory lung volume was significantly lower in obese class II subjects and obese class III subjects at rest and at the ventilatory threshold but not during peak exercise. At maximal exercise, obese class III subjects had a greater end-inspiratory lung volume than obese class II subjects and controls. Obese class III subjects displayed a greater expiratory air flow limitation at rest, at the ventilatory threshold, and during peak exercise than both controls and obese class II subjects. Mechanical ventilatory constraints increase progressively with degrees of obesity, contributing to exercise limitation in obese subjects. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Patient's Satisfaction in Skeletal Class III Cases Treated With Two-Jaw Surgery Using Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire: Conventional Three-Stage Method Versus Surgery-First Approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ki; Choi, Jin-Young; Yang, Il-Hyung; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2015-10-01

    To compare the quality of life (QoL) of Class III patients between conventional three-stage method (CTM) and surgery-first approach (SFA) using Orthognathic QoL Questionnaire (OQLQ). The subjects consisted of 26 Class III patients treated with nonextraction and two-jaw surgery. They were divided into CTM group (N = 15) and SFA group (N = 11). They retrospectively rated the OQLQ scores of 4 domains (social relationship, facial esthetics, function, and awareness of dentofacial deformity) using 0 to 4 scale at initial (T0), just before surgery (T1), 3 month after surgery (T2), and at debonding (T3). Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed for statistical analysis. After total OQLQ score of CTM group was deteriorated at T1 stage compared with T0 stage, it was improved at T2 and T3 stages (T0 = 53.9, T1 = 58.1, T2 = 23.5, and T3 = 11.6). Total OQLQ score of SFA group, however, was improved at T2 and T3 stages compared with T0 stage (T0 = 51.6, T2 =  3.1, and T3 = 11.4; T1 was omitted.). Orthognathic QoL Questionnaire scores and their amounts of change did not show any significant difference in each domain and at each stage between 2 groups (T0, T2, T3, ΔT2 - T0, ΔT3 - T2, ΔT3 - T0; all P > 0.05). Both groups showed large change in effect size (ES) of all domains with descending order during T3 - T0: facial esthetics, oral function, social relationship, and awareness of dentofacial deformity (CTM group: -3.97, -3.40, -2.23, -1.25; SFA group: -2.83, -2.33, -1.76, -1.73) CONCLUSIONS: SFA might have an advantage over CTM group in terms of no deterioration stage of OQLQ score.

  16. Effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in skeletal class III deformities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yuh-Jia; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Yin-An; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-02-01

    Upper airway narrowing has been a concern of mandibular setback. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in patients with skeletal class III deformities, and (2) to compare the preoperative and postoperative upper airways of class III patients with age- and sex-matched class I control subjects. The upper airways of 36 adults who consecutively underwent bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Results were compared with those of age- and sex-matched control subjects with skeletal class I structure. Before surgery, the class III patients had significantly larger velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volumes than did the control subjects (all p < 0.01). The velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharynx volumes decreased significantly after surgery (all p < 0.01). The postoperative airways of class III patients were similar with regard to velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volume (all p > 0.01) compared to control subjects. The postoperative velopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway volumes were associated with the baseline airway volume (p < 0.001) and horizontal movement of the soft palate (p < 0.01). These results suggest that upper airway volume is decreased after bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities, but is not smaller than in normal controls, and the postoperative upper airway volume is related to airway volume at baseline and changes in the surrounding structures. Therapeutic, III.

  17. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval...) The tribe shall have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any gaming...

  18. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 522.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval...) The tribe shall have the sole proprietary interest in and responsibility for the conduct of any...

  19. Dentofacial morphology in Turner syndrome karyotypes.

    PubMed

    Rizell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to study dentofacial morphology in Turner syndrome (TS) versus controls and the influence hereupon from karyotype. One hundred thirty two TS females (5-66 years of age), from Göteborg, Uppsala and Umeå were participating. Cephalometric analysis, cast model analysis concerning palatal height, dental arch morphology and dental crown width were performed. Eighteen primary teeth were analysed in polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microradiography and X-ray microanalysis were performed. The TS females were divided according to karyotype into: 1 45,X; 2 45,X/46,XX; 3 isochromosome; 4 other. Compared to healthy females, TS were found to have a flattened cranial base as well as small and retrognathic jaws with a posterior inclination. The maxillary dentoalveolar arch was narrower and longer, while the mandibular dental arch was wider and longer in TS compared to controls. The palatal height did not differ comparing TS and healthy females. The dental crown width was smaller in TS for both permanent and primary teeth. Aberrant elemental composition, prism pattern and lower mineral density were found in TS primary enamel compared to enamel in primary teeth from healthy girls. Turner syndrome karyotype was found having an impact on craniofacial morphology, with the mosaic 45,X/46,XX exhibiting a milder mandibular retrognathism as well as fewer cephalometric variables differing from controls compared to other karyotypes. Also for the dentoalveolar arch morphology the 45,X/46,XX group had fewer variables differing from healthy females. The isochromosome TS group exhibited the smallest dental crown width for several teeth, while 45,X/46,XX hade the largest dental crown with for some teeth and fewer teeth than both 45,X and isochromosomes that differed from controls. Thus, the mosaic 45,X/46,XX seemed to exhibit a milder phenotype, possibly due to presence of healthy 46,XX cell lines.

  20. Tooth size discrepancies in Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion requiring surgical-orthodontic or orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    McSwiney, Timothy P; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Barry, Mark K; Cronin, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    To compare mean anterior (AR) and mean overall (OR) tooth size ratios, prevalence of clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSDs) and correlation between AR and OR in subjects with Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion treated by surgical-orthodontic or orthodontic means. Retrospective, cross-sectional. State-funded and private clinics. From pre-treatment cohorts of 770 surgical and 610 non-surgical subjects, Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion groups were identified with 60 surgical and 60 non-surgical subjects, comprising 30 males and 30 females, in each. AR and OR were calculated by landmarking digital models. Differences in AR and OR and their relationship were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a correlation coefficient, respectively. The proportions of the surgical and non-surgical groups with a TSD were assessed using logistic regression. Intra-examiner reproducibility involved re-landmarking 30 randomly selected image sets and differences in ARs and ORs were compared using a paired t-test. Random error was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Analyses were performed using SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) at the 5% level of significance. There were no statistically significant differences associated with the measurement of either the mean AR (P = 0·913) or the mean OR (P = 0·874). ICC values were very high (AR = 0·95; OR = 0·90). Differences existed between both Class II and Class III surgical (AR: P<0·001; OR: P<0·001) and non-surgical groups (AR: P = 0·012; OR: P = 0·003). The AR and OR relationship was strong (correlation coefficient = 0·72). The highest percentage of clinically significant TSDs was seen in the AR of both Class II and Class III surgical groups (23·3%). In the cohort examined: AR and OR differed significantly for malocclusion groups. The prevalence of clinically significant TSDs did not differ significantly between

  1. Genetics of the dentofacial variation in human malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, L. M.; Miller, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Malocclusions affect individuals worldwide, resulting in compromised function and esthetics. Understanding the etiological factors contributing to the variation in dentofacial morphology associated with malocclusions is the key to develop novel treatment approaches. Advances in dentofacial phenotyping, which is the comprehensive characterization of hard and soft tissue variation in the craniofacial complex, together with the acquisition of large-scale genomic data have started to unravel genetic mechanisms underlying facial variation. Knowledge on the genetics of human malocclusion is limited even though results attained thus far are encouraging, with promising opportunities for future research. This review summarizes the most common dentofacial variations associated with malocclusions and reviews the current knowledge of the roles of genes in the development of malocclusions. Lastly, this review will describe ways to advance malocclusion research, following examples from the expanding fields of phenomics and genomic medicine, which aim to better patient outcomes. PMID:25865537

  2. Genetics of the dentofacial variation in human malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Moreno Uribe, L M; Miller, S F

    2015-04-01

    Malocclusions affect individuals worldwide, resulting in compromised function and esthetics. Understanding the etiological factors contributing to the variation in dentofacial morphology associated with malocclusions is the key to develop novel treatment approaches. Advances in dentofacial phenotyping, which is the comprehensive characterization of hard and soft tissue variation in the craniofacial complex, together with the acquisition of large-scale genomic data have started to unravel genetic mechanisms underlying facial variation. Knowledge on the genetics of human malocclusion is limited even though results attained thus far are encouraging, with promising opportunities for future research. This review summarizes the most common dentofacial variations associated with malocclusions and reviews the current knowledge of the roles of genes in the development of malocclusions. Lastly, this review will describe ways to advance malocclusion research, following examples from the expanding fields of phenomics and genomic medicine, which aim to better patient outcomes.

  3. [Occlusal planes of Angle's class III malocclusion impact by anterior overbite].

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Xiao, Danna; Cang, Song; Gao, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the correlation between Angle's class III patients' occlusion plane and anterior overbite by controlling the changes in occlusion plane during orthodontic treatment. In total, 90 Angle's class III adult orthodontic patients were selected as the experimental group, and 30 normal adults were selected as the control group. According to the overbite, the class III patients were divided into three groups, and 14 indicators were measured. ANOVA and multiple comparison analysis were used to analyze the difference between class III patients, and linear analysis was used to analyze the correlation between anterior overbite and anterior-posterior occlusion plane. In class Ill patients, posterior occlusion plane and anterior overbite size were negatively correlated (r = -0.24, P < 0.05), whereas anterior occlusal plane and anterior overbite size were positive correlated (r = 0.23, P < 0.05). The shape of the occlusion plane varies in different anterior overbite patients. During orthodontic treatment in different overbite class III patients, the vertical height of the posterior teeth and the rotation of the occlusion plane should be controlled.

  4. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G.

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial–abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets. PMID:27698117

  5. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity.

    PubMed

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets.

  6. The effects of forehead and neck position on esthetics of class I, II and III profiles.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Parisa; Oshagh, Morteza; Aleyasin, Zeinab S; Pakshir, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    All parts of the face, other than jaw relationships, should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. The role of forehead and neck in facial esthetics is well known; however, the majority of conventional facial analysis methods have not considered them. Neck and forehead may confer mutual effects on equilibrium and on esthetics of other facial components, and may change the overall convexity/concavity view of the profile. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of anteroposterior position of the forehead and neck on the esthetics of skeletal class I, II and III jaw relationships using profile silhouettes. Class II and III jaw relationships were constructed on the silhouette of a class I normal profile by altering the mandibular position. Retruded, normal and protruded positions were also applied for the forehead and neck. Three hundred Iranian laypeople (150 men, 150 women) scored the esthetics of profile silhouettes from 1 to 7. Half of the participants were told to consider the profiles as a man, and the other half were told to consider them as a woman. Data were analyzed using non-parametric methods. Class I jaw relation was found to be the most beautiful profile followed by class II and III respectively. Esthetics of different positions of the neck and forehead were significantly different (P < 0.05). In subjects with a normal neck and forehead position, and those with a retruded neck, the best esthetic relationship was class I, and the worst was class III. For protruded foreheads, the best jaw relationship was class II for females and class I for males, and the worst was class III for both. In a retruded forehead position, the most preferred jaw relationship was class I, and the worst was class II. For profiles with a protruded neck, the best esthetics was found to be in class III jaw relationship, and the worst was in class II. There was a small difference in scoring for male and female profiles (P < 0.05); there were also small

  7. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  8. Extracellular assembly and activation principles of oncogenic class III receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-11-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades initiated by class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK-IIIs) and their cytokine ligands contribute to haematopoiesis and mesenchymal tissue development. They are also implicated in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and cancers. Recent snapshots of RTK-III ectodomains in complex with cognate cytokines have revealed timely insights into the structural determinants of RTK-III activation, evolution and pathology. Importantly, candidate 'driver' and 'passenger' mutations that have been identified in RTK-IIIs can now be collectively mapped for the first time to structural scaffolds of the corresponding RTK-III ectodomains. Such insights will generate a renewed interest in dissecting the mechanistic effects of such mutations and their therapeutic relevance.

  9. Statistical analysis of differential lissajous EMG from normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, T; Garetto, L P; Sato, Y; Potter, R H; Roberts, W E

    1995-01-01

    The method of differential lissajous electromyography (DL-EMG) was applied to investigate the relationship among the integrated EMG activity, timing, and coordination of the bilateral superficial anterior temporal and masseter muscle activities in normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion subjects. In both Class III malocclusion and normal occlusion subjects, the working side muscles showed a higher mean cumulative voltage (MCV) and mean maximum peak voltage (MMPV) compared with the balancing side. In addition, a higher MCV and MMPV of the working side masseter was observed in the normal occlusion group compared with that seen in the Class III group during both right and left side chewing (p < 0.01). Discriminant analysis applied to examine the distribution, the size and the shape of DL-EMG pattern further indicated a statistical difference between subject groups (p < 0.01). Finally, there was a significantly higher percentage of clockwise DL-EMG pattern-generation in the normal group compared with that seen for Class III subjects (p < 0.01). These data indicate that, compared with normal subjects, patients with a Class III malocclusion have a demonstrably abnormal masticatory muscle balance which is well characterized by the DL-EMG method.

  10. Influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on masticatory function in skeletal Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Yagi, T; Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Miyawaki, S

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal Class III patients exhibit malocclusion characterised by Angle Class III and anterior crossbite, and their occlusion shows total or partially lateral crossbite of the posterior teeth. Most patients exhibit lower bite force and muscle activity than non-affected subjects. While orthognathic surgery may help improve masticatory function in these patients, its effects have not been fully elucidated. The aims of the study were to evaluate jaw movement and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic treatment in skeletal Class III patients in comparison with control subjects with normal occlusion. Jaw movement variables and EMG data were recorded in 14 female patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 15 female controls with good occlusion. Significant changes in jaw movement, from a chopping to a grinding pattern, were observed after orthognathic treatment (closing angle P < 0.01; cycle width P < 0.01), rendering jaw movement in the patient group similar to that of the control group. However, the grinding pattern in the patient group was not as broad as that of controls. The activity indexes, indicating the relative contributions of the masseter and temporalis muscles (where a negative value corresponds to relatively more temporalis activity and vice versa) changed from negative to positive after treatment (P < 0.05), becoming similar to those of control subjects. Our findings suggest that orthognathic treatment in skeletal Class III patients improves the masticatory chewing pattern and muscle activity. However, the chewing pattern remains incomplete compared with controls.

  11. No differences in morphological characteristics between hyperplastic condyle and class III condyle.

    PubMed

    Goulart, D R; Muñoz, P; Olate, S; de Moraes, M; Fariña, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the condylar morphology of patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) and patients with a class III skeletal relationship using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A prospective study was conducted on patients with facial asymmetry attending the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the study university in Chile. Fifteen patients with UCH and 15 with a class III skeletal relationship were selected. Linear measurements of the condylar processes were obtained at a scale of 1:1 using the software Ez3D Viewer Plus. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the paired t-test were used, considering P<0.05. Patients with UCH presented statistical differences between the hyperplastic condyle and non-hyperplastic condyle for anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters, condylar neck length, and ramus height. Patients with a class III skeletal relationship showed no differences between the right and left sides; the morphology of their condyles was similar to the condyles with hyperplasia and presented statistical differences when compared with the non-hyperplastic condyles (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05). The condylar morphology of UCH patients could be related to the development of a class III skeletal relationship. These findings provide an insight into the possibility of some class III patients presenting bilateral condylar hyperplasia.

  12. Evaluation of arch width among Class I normal occlusion, Class II Division 1, Class II Division 2, and Class III malocclusion in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dolly; Mehta, Falguni; Patel, Nimesh; Mehta, Nishit; Trivedi, Ipist; Mehta, Apexa

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between Class I (CI) normal occlusion, Class II division 1 (CIId1) and CII division 2 (CIId2), and Class III (CIII) malocclusion with respect to arch widths, width of the maxillary and mandibular arches, gender dimorphism within groups, and gender comparisons. Samples of 40 CI subjects, 40 CIId1 subjects, 40 CIId2 subjects, and 34 CIII subjects were studied. All subjects were Indians with no history of orthodontic treatment. An analysis of variance and Duncan's test statistically compared the groups and genders. CIId1 malocclusion showed the narrowest maxillary arch compared with the other types of malocclusions. CIII malocclusion showed largest mandibular arch than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is more commonly seen in CI normal occlusion than other types of malocclusions. Gender dimorphism is not observed in CIId1 group. Gender comparisons revealed arch width differences between different types of malocclusions more pronounced in males than in females. The maxillary/mandibular intermolar width difference is positive for CI normal occlusion and negative for CIId1, CIId2, and CIII malocclusions, which suggested, the presence of crossbite tendency in CII and CIII malocclusions. The hypothesis is rejected by the findings of this study.

  13. Glass ionomer cement as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation defect.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the prognosis of molars that have experienced furcation invasion, is often a frustrating experience to the dental clinician and disappointing report to the patient involved. Although multiple treatment modalities have been attempted to retain teeth with severe furcation invasion, clinical success has not been predictable. A case report involving the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an occlusive barrier in the management of Class III furcation defect involving mandibular first molar is presented. A literature review on the subject matter was conducted using Medline, Google search engines, and manual library search. GIC restoration of Class III furcation invasion gives a satisfactory result. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are available for the management of the condition. GIC as an occlusive barrier in Class III furcation invasion is an economical and less invasive treatment option. It also makes home care easy for the patient.

  14. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  15. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.301 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in Colorado... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute...

  16. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.301 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in Colorado... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute...

  17. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.301 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in Colorado... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute...

  18. 40 CFR 147.301 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Colorado § 147.301 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV, V wells and Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in Colorado... EPA-administered wells in Colorado other than Class II wells on the lands of the Ute Mountain Ute...

  19. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Florida, except for those on Indian lands is... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  20. 40 CFR 147.850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS Kansas § 147.850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Kansas, except those on Indian lands as described in § 147... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  1. 40 CFR 147.700 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Illinois § 147.700 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Illinois, except those on Indian lands, is the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  2. Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/VPS34 and dynamin are critical for apical endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Sarah; N'Kuli, Francisca; Grieco, Giuseppina; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Janssens, Virginie; Emonard, Hervé; Bilanges, Benoît; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Pierreux, Christophe E; Tyteca, Donatienne; Courtoy, Pierre J

    2013-08-01

    Recycling is a limiting step for receptor-mediated endocytosis. We first report three in vitro or in vivo evidences that class III PI3K/VPS34 is the key PI3K isoform regulating apical recycling. A substractive approach, comparing in Opossum Kidney (OK) cells a pan-class I/II/III PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) with a class I/II PI3K inhibitor (ZSTK474), suggested that class III PI3K/VPS34 inhibition induced selective apical endosome swelling and sequestration of the endocytic receptor, megalin/LRP-2, causing surface down-regulation. GFP-(FYVE)x2 overexpression to sequester PI(3)P caused undistinguishable apical endosome swelling. In mouse kidney proximal tubular cells, conditional Vps34 inactivation also led to vacuolation and intracellular megalin redistribution. We next report that removal of LY294002 from LY294002-treated OK cells induced a spectacular burst of recycling tubules and restoration of megalin surface pool. Acute triggering of recycling tubules revealed recruitment of dynamin-GFP and dependence of dynamin-GTPase, guidance directionality by microtubules, and suggested that a microfilamentous net constrained endosomal swelling. We conclude that (i) besides its role in endosome fusion, PI3K-III is essential for endosome fission/recycling; and (ii) besides its role in endocytic entry, dynamin also supports tubulation of recycling endosomes. The unleashing of recycling upon acute reversal of PI3K inhibition may help study its dynamics and associated machineries.

  3. Phylogeny, topology, structure and functions of membrane-bound class III peroxidases in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Lüthje, Sabine; Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Hopff, David; Möller, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Peroxidases are key player in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. Membrane-bound isoenzymes have been described for peroxidase superfamilies in plants and animals. Recent studies demonstrated a location of peroxidases of the secretory pathway (class III peroxidases) at the tonoplast and the plasma membrane. Proteomic approaches using highly enriched plasma membrane preparations suggest organisation of these peroxidases in microdomains, a developmentally regulation and an induction of isoenzymes by oxidative stress. Phylogenetic relations, topology, putative structures, and physiological function of membrane-bound class III peroxidases will be discussed.

  4. Two-phase treatment of patients with crossbite and tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Bayerl, Maria de Lourdes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an inadequate anteroposterior dental relationship which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, patients are distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect which, when associated with a deficient middle third, encourages patients to seek treatment. This article reports a two-phase treatment carried out in a female patient aged six years and six months with a tendency towards a Class III skeletal pattern. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO). It is representative of the Discrepancy Index (DI) category, and fulfills part of the requirements for obtaining BBO Diploma. PMID:25279531

  5. Severe Angle Class III skeletal malocclusion associated to mandibular prognathism: orthodontic-surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Souki, Marcelo Quiroga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a young adult patient (18y / 1m), Class III skeletal malocclusion, with mandibular prognathism and significant dental compensation. The canine relation was Class III, incisors with tendency to crossbite and open bite, moderate inferior crowding, and concave profile. Skeletal correction of malocclusion, facial profile harmony with satisfactory labial relationship, correction of tooth compensation and normal occlusal relationship were obtained with orthodontic treatment associated to orthognathic surgery. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate. PMID:28125146

  6. New approach of maxillary protraction using modified C-palatal plates in Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastics to a face mask. This method improved skeletal measurements, corrected overjet, and slightly improved the profile. The patients may require definitive treatment in adolescence or adulthood. The modified C-palatal plate enables nonsurgical maxillary advancement with maximal skeletal effects and minimal dental side effects. PMID:26258067

  7. Phenotypic diversity in white adults with moderate to severe Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Vela, Kaci C; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V; Southard, Thomas E

    2013-07-01

    Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dentoskeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the population in the United States and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected persons. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion using multivariate reduction methods. Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from the pretreatment records of 292 white subjects with Class II malocclusion (126 male, 166 female; ages, 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of subjects to reduce genetic heterogeneity. Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first 3 components represented variation in mandibular horizontal and vertical positions, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of the genetic and environmental etiologies of Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

    PubMed Central

    Garry, Courtney E; Garry, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP) encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), were established for Thogoto virus (THOV) GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV) GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes. PMID:18282283

  9. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  10. 76 FR 71600 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0172, which expires November 30, 2011. DATES... do so. III. Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0172. Title: Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process...

  11. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N. M.; Sainath, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  12. Class I versus Class III radical hysterectomy in stage IB1 (tumor ≤ 2 cm) cervical cancer: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Shang, Chun-liang; Du, Qi-qiao; Wu, Di; Liang, Yan-chun; Liu, Tian-yu; Huang, Jia-ming; Yao, Shu-zhong

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims: The long-term oncological outcome of Class I hysterectomy to treat stage IB1 cervical cancer is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the surgical and long-term oncological outcomes of Class I hysterectomy and Class III radical hysterectomy for treatment of stage IB1 cervical cancer (tumor ≤ 2 cm). Methods: Seventy stage IB1 cervical cancer patients (tumor ≤ 2 cm) underwent Class I hysterectomy and 577 stage IB1 cervical cancer patients (tumor ≤ 2 cm) underwent Class III radical hysterectomy were matched with known risk factors for recurrence by greedy algorithm. Clinical, pathologic and follow-up data were retrospectively collected. Five-year survival outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier model. Results: After matching, a total of 70 patient pairs (Class I - Class III) were included. The median follow-up times were 75 (range, 26-170) months in the Class III group and 75 (range, 27-168) months in the Class I group. The Class I and Class III group had similar 5-year recurrence-free survival rates (RFS) (98.6% vs. 97.1%, P = 0.56) and overall survival rates (OS) (100.0% vs. 98.5%, P = 0.32). Compared with the Class III group, the Class I group resulted in significantly shorter operating time, less intra-operative blood loss, less intraoperative complications, less postoperative complications, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Class I hysterectomy is an oncological safe alternative to Class III radical hysterectomy in treatment of stage IB1 cervical cancer (tumor ≤ 2 cm) and Class I hysterectomy is associated with fewer perioperative complication and earlier recovery.

  13. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. Results At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Conclusions Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing. PMID:23112950

  14. Evaluation of upper airways depth among patients with skeletal Class I and III.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolska-Zarzycka, M; Dunin-Wilczyńska, I; Mitura, I; Dąbała, M

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of upper and lower pharyngeal depth among patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion on lateral cephalograms, as well as to examine the relationship between SNA, SNB, and ANB angles, along with Wits appraisal and the cross-sectional value of upper airway space at the level of the soft palate and tongue base among patients with skeletal Class I and III. The material consisted of lateral cephalograms taken from 80 patients living in the Lubelskie voivodeship. The study group consisted of cephalograms of 50 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion (17 male and 33 female), whereas the control group consisted of 30 roentgenograms of patients with Class I malocclusion with proper jaw to mandible relation (14 maleand 16 female). The study and the control group shared no statistically significant differences considering basic sociographic data such as gender (chi = 1.267, p = 0.26)and age (U = 727.5, p = 0.82). The upper and lower pharyngeal depths were assessed with the use of McNamara's method. Spearman's rho test, Mann--Whitney's U test, and chi test were used for statistical analysis. Among both males and females the pharyngeal depths were greater considering patients with skeletal Class III in comparison to patients with Class Imalocclusion (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it was determined that the lower as well as the upper pharyngeal width is statistically significantly dependent on ANB and SNB angles and Wits appraisal (p < 0.001). Pharyngeal width at the level of the soft palate and tongue base depends on skeletal class, namely ANB angle and Wits appraisal; it increases with the increase of SNB angle (forward movement of the mandible). The SNA angle (position of the maxilla) does not influence the anterior-posterior nasopharyngeal dimension.

  15. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General... of drinking water. The Director may allow Class III wells to use other plugging materials if the... sources of drinking water. (2) Placement of the cement plugs shall be accomplished by one of the following...

  16. 40 CFR 146.10 - Plugging and abandoning Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General... of drinking water. The Director may allow Class III wells to use other plugging materials if the... sources of drinking water. (2) Placement of the cement plugs shall be accomplished by one of the following...

  17. 40 CFR 147.3108 - Plugging Class I, II, and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plugging Class I, II, and III wells. 147.3108 Section 147.3108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... section mud shall be defined as: mud of not less than thirty-six (36) viscosity (API Full Funnel...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3108 - Plugging Class I, II, and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging Class I, II, and III wells. 147.3108 Section 147.3108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... section mud shall be defined as: mud of not less than thirty-six (36) viscosity (API Full Funnel...

  19. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  20. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  1. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs....

  2. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... pressure at the wellhead in pounds per square inch Sg=specific gravity of injected fluid (unitless)...

  3. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... pressure at the wellhead in pounds per square inch Sg=specific gravity of injected fluid (unitless)...

  4. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... pressure at the wellhead in pounds per square inch Sg=specific gravity of injected fluid (unitless)...

  5. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... pressure at the wellhead in pounds per square inch Sg=specific gravity of injected fluid (unitless)...

  6. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyo-Kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage.

  7. Evolution of Class III Homeodomain–Leucine Zipper Genes in Streptophytes

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Sandra K.; Zalewski, Christopher S.; Bowman, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Land plants underwent tremendous evolutionary change following the divergence of the ancestral lineage from algal relatives. Several important developmental innovations appeared as the embryophyte clade diversified, leading to the appearance of new organs and tissue types. To understand how these changes came about, we need to identify the fundamental genetic developmental programs that are responsible for growth, patterning, and differentiation and describe how these programs were modified and elaborated through time to produce novel morphologies. Class III homeodomain–leucine zipper (class III HD–Zip) genes, identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, provide good candidates for basic land plant patterning genes. We show that these genes may have evolved in a common ancestor of land plants and their algal sister group and that the gene family has diversified as land plant lineages have diversified. Phylogenetic analysis, expression data from nonflowering lineages, and evidence from Arabidopsis and other flowering plants indicate that class III HD–Zip genes acquired new functions in sporophyte apical growth, vascular patterning and differentiation, and leaf development. Modification of expression patterns that accompanied diversification of class III HD–Zip genes likely played an important role in the evolution of land plant form. PMID:16489224

  8. Zygomatic miniplates for skeletal anchorage in orthopedic correction of Class III malocclusion: A controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Alime Sema; Bozkaya, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of facemask therapy, which was anchored from the zygomatic buttresses of the maxilla by using two miniplates, in skeletal Class III patients with maxillary deficiency. Methods Eighteen skeletal Class III patients (10 girls and 8 boys; mean age, 11.4 ± 1.28 years) with maxillary deficiency were treated using miniplate-anchored facemasks, and their outcomes were compared with those of a Class III control group (9 girls and 9 boys; mean age, 10.6 ± 1.12 years). Two I-shaped miniplates were placed on the right and left zygomatic buttresses of the maxilla, and a facemask was applied with a 400 g force per side. Intragroup comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon test, and intergroup comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.05). Results In the treatment group, the maxilla moved 3.3 mm forward, the mandible showed posterior rotation by 1.5°, and the lower incisors were retroclined after treatment. These results were significantly different from those in the control group (p < 0.05). No significant anterior rotation of the palatal plane was observed after treatment. Moreover, changes in the sagittal positions of the maxillary incisors and molars were similar between the treatment and control groups. Conclusions Skeletally anchored facemask therapy is an effective method for correcting Class III malocclusions, which also minimizes the undesired dental side effects of conventional methods in the maxilla. PMID:28337421

  9. Lateral open bite and crossbite correction in a Class III patient with missing maxillary first premolars.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Yu, Joseph; Chae, Jong-Moon

    2017-07-01

    Posterior and Class III elastics were used to correct lateral open bite and anterior crossbite in a 29-year-old man. His occlusion, smile esthetics, and soft tissue profile were significantly improved after 25 months of active orthodontic treatment combined with 4 anterior restorations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 50663 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Three Class III Preamendments Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for the following three class III preamendments devices: Ventricular bypass (assist... current (2010) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect this final...

  11. 40 CFR 147.753 - Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized by rule. 147.753 Section 147.753 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.753 Existing Class I and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner or operator shall limit injection pressure to the lessor of: (a) A value which will not...

  12. 40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Class III uranium projects underlying or in aquifers containing up to 5,000 mg/l TDS which have... plan a plan for aquifer clean-up and monitoring which demonstrates adequate protection of surrounding... concentrations of contaminants to which aquifers must be cleaned up in order to protect surrounding USDWs. (2...

  13. Short-term and long-term treatment outcomes with Class III activator

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyo-kyung; Chong, Hyun-Jeong; An, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate short-term and long-term skeletodental outcomes of Class III activator treatment. Methods A Class III activator treatment group (AG) comprised of 22 patients (9 boys, 13 girls) was compared with a Class III control group (CG) comprised of 17 patients (6 boys, 11 girls). The total treatment period was divided into three stages; the initial stage (T1), the post-activator treatment or post-mandibular growth peak stage (T2), and the long-term follow-up stage (T3). Cephalometric changes were evaluated statistically via the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Friedman test. Results The AG exhibited significant increases in the SNA angle, ANB angle, Wits appraisal, A point-N perpendicular, Convexity of A point, and proclination of the maxillary incisors, from T1 to T2. In the long-term follow-up (T1-T3), the AG exhibited significantly greater increases in the ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and Convexity of A point than the CG. Conclusions Favorable skeletal outcomes induced during the Class III activator treatment period were generally maintained until the long-term follow-up period of the post-mandibular growth peak stage. PMID:26445717

  14. 40 CFR 147.3015 - Information to be considered for Class III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information to be considered for Class III wells. 147.3015 Section 147.3015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Lands of the Navajo, Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3015 Information to...

  15. 77 FR 45370 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Gaming; Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... 1076-0149, Tribal Revenue Allocation Plans authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0152, and Gaming on Trust Lands Acquired After October 17, 1988 authorized by OMB Control Number 1076- 0158. These.... Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0149. Title: Class III Gaming Procedures, 25 CFR Part 291. Brief...

  16. Prevalence of class III malocclusion and crossbite among children and adolescents with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nenad; Drinkuth, Nicole; Toll, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been devoted to the causes of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This investigation addressed the effect of class III malocclusion and crossbite on CMD based on a sample of 115 prepubertal and adolescent patients of both sexes. Although class III malocclusion only accounted for 12.2% of the total sample, thus, being the smallest group, the percentage of crossbite (71.4%) among these patients was disproportionately higher than among the other classes. Of the total sample, the prevalence of crossbite was 30.4%. We compared these findings to a large-scale (n=4727) study by Thilander et al. (2002), who reported a strikingly high percentage of class I patients compared to our findings (72.7% versus 27.8%) and a lower percentage of crossbite cases (8.0% versus 30.4%). In accordance with the "orthodontic risk child" concept by Grabowski et al. (2007) and Stahl et al. (2007), we conclude that class III malocclusion and crossbite are keys in the pathogenesis of CMD.

  17. Suspension cell culture as a tool for the characterization of class III peroxidases in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Creste, Silvana; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Secreted class III peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) are implicated in a broad range of physiological processes throughout the plant life cycle. However, the unambiguous determination of the precise biological role of an individual class III peroxidase isoenzyme is still a difficult task due to genetic redundancy and broad substrate specificity in vitro. In addition, many difficulties are encountered during extraction and analysis of cell wall proteins. Since class III peroxidases are also secreted into the apoplast, the use of suspension cell cultures can facilitate isolation and functional characterization of individual isoforms. Here, we report on the characterization of class III peroxidases secreted in the spent medium of sugarcane suspension cell cultures. After treatment with specific inducers of cell wall lignification, peroxidases were isolated and activities assayed with guaiacol, syringaldazine and coniferyl alcohol. Enzymatic activity was not significantly different after treatments, regardless of the substrate, with the exception of methyl-jasmonate treatment, which led to a decreased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Remarkably, peroxidases isolated from the medium were capable of oxidizing syringaldazine, an analog to sinapyl alcohol, suggesting that sugarcane cultures can produce peroxidases putatively correlated to lignification. A proteomic approach using activity staining of 2-DE gels revealed a complex isoperoxidase profile, composed predominantly of cationic isoforms. Individual spots were excised and analyzed by LC-ESI-Q-TOF and homology-based search against the Sugarcane EST Database resulted in the identification of several proteins. Spatio-temporal expression pattern of selected genes was determined for validation of identified class III peroxidases that were preferentially expressed during sugarcane stem development.

  18. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. Method: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results: The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. Conclusion: There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions. PMID:28077971

  19. Guide to preemption of state-law claims against Class III PMA medical devices.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    There is a perception that the express preemption holding of the Supreme Court in Riegel v. Medtronic, 552 U.S. 312(2008), immunizes medical device manufacturers from common law personal injury actions involving Class III devices that received FDA clearance under a premarket approval application (PMA). In the aftermath of Riegel, many lawsuits involving Class III PMA devices have been dismissed by district courts applying the new heightened pleading standard of Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544 (2007). Other lawsuits involving Class III PMA devices premised on fraud-on-FDA have been dismissed based on the implied preemption holding of the Supreme Court in Buckman v. Plaintiffs' Legal Comm., 531 U.S. 341 (2001). When these decisions are carefully analyzed together with Medtronic, Inc. v. Lohr, 518 U.S. 470 (1996), which found no preemption regarding a Class III device receiving FDA clearance through the 510(k) mechanism, it is apparent that the preemption defense does not apply universally to Class III PMA devices. The overall methodology for framing a non-preempted claim is to first identify conduct which violated the PMA or other specific requirements related to safety or efficacy. If such conduct can also be stated in terms of a breach of a parallel common law duty (e.g, failure to warn under strict liability or negligence, manufacturing defect or breach of warranty), then it would appear the claim is not preempted. Alternatively, regardless of a specific violation, common law remedies are not preempted by general CGMP requirements.

  20. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. Objective: To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. Methods: The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodontic camouflage treatment with the aid of miniplates placed on the mandibular arch was proposed. Results: After 18 months of treatment, a Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved, while anterior crossbite was corrected by retraction of mandibular teeth. The consequent decrease in lower lip fullness and increased exposure of maxillary incisors at smiling resulted in a remarkable improvement of patient's facial profile, in addition to an esthetically pleasing smile, respectively. One year later, follow-up revealed good stability of results. PMID:27653269

  1. Management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Haryani, Jitesh; Nagar, Amit; Mehrotra, Divya; Ranabhatt, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with fixed orthodontics is a common indication for interdisciplinary management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A thorough analysis of pretreatment investigations and development of a surgical visual treatment objective is essential to plan the type of surgical technique required. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is the most common type of surgical procedure for severe skeletal discrepancies. The present case report is a combined ortho-surgical team management of a skeletally Class III patient. The severity of the case required bilateral upper first premolar extraction for dentoalveolar decompensation and simultaneous "Two-jaw surgery" with maxillary advancement of 4 mm and mandibular setback of 7 mm. Postsurgery, a pleasing good facial profile was achieved with Class II molar relation and positive overjet.

  2. Management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haryani, Jitesh; Nagar, Amit; Mehrotra, Divya; Ranabhatt, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with fixed orthodontics is a common indication for interdisciplinary management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A thorough analysis of pretreatment investigations and development of a surgical visual treatment objective is essential to plan the type of surgical technique required. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is the most common type of surgical procedure for severe skeletal discrepancies. The present case report is a combined ortho-surgical team management of a skeletally Class III patient. The severity of the case required bilateral upper first premolar extraction for dentoalveolar decompensation and simultaneous “Two-jaw surgery” with maxillary advancement of 4 mm and mandibular setback of 7 mm. Postsurgery, a pleasing good facial profile was achieved with Class II molar relation and positive overjet. PMID:27994433

  3. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Florida, except for those on Indian lands is administered by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations, approved by EPA pursuant to section 1422...

  4. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Florida, except for those on Indian lands is administered by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations, approved by EPA pursuant to section 1422...

  5. 40 CFR 147.650 - State-administrative program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Idaho § 147.650 State-administrative program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Idaho, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, approved by EPA pursuant to...

  6. 40 CFR 147.650 - State-administrative program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Idaho § 147.650 State-administrative program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Idaho, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, approved by EPA pursuant to...

  7. 40 CFR 147.650 - State-administrative program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Idaho § 147.650 State-administrative program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Idaho, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, approved by EPA pursuant to...

  8. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  9. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  10. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  11. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  12. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  13. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems

    Treesearch

    Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Marcel Robischon; Ciera Martinez; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, ...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1801 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Ohio § 147.1801 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Ohio, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources and the Ohio Environmental...

  15. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  16. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  17. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  18. 49 CFR 1150.32 - Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures and relevant dates-transactions that involve creation of Class III carriers. 1150.32 Section 1150.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating.... 10901 § 1150.32 Procedures and relevant dates—transactions that involve creation of Class III...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources approved by EPA pursuant...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources approved by EPA pursuant...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources approved by EPA pursuant...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources approved by EPA pursuant...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources approved by EPA pursuant...

  4. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS California § 147.251 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells...

  5. Two-Step Extraction of the Lower First Molar for Class III Treatment in Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Ricardo Fabris; Raveli, Taísa Barnabé; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a case report of Class III malocclusion treatment with lower first molar extraction. The 27-year-old Caucasian male patient presented a symmetric face with a straight profile, hyperdivergent growth pattern, molar and cuspid Class III relation, and an anterior crossbite as well as a mild crowding on cuspids area, in both upper and lower arches and a tendency to posterior crossbite. The treatment was performed by the use of Haas expansion appliance followed by an initial alignment and leveling of the upper and lower arches with a fixed edgewise appliance, extraction of lower teeth aiming the correction of the incisors proclination and end the treatment with a Class I molar relationship. It resulted in a significant change in the patient's profile, dentoalveolar Class III correction, upper arch expansion, leveling and alignment of the upper and lower arches, and improvement of tipping of the upper and lowers incisors. In cases of a dentoalveolar compensation in well positioned bone bases the treatment with fixed appliances is an alternative and extraction of lower teeth is considered. PMID:27699072

  6. Two-Step Extraction of the Lower First Molar for Class III Treatment in Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; Paulin, Ricardo Fabris; Raveli, Taísa Barnabé; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé; Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a case report of Class III malocclusion treatment with lower first molar extraction. The 27-year-old Caucasian male patient presented a symmetric face with a straight profile, hyperdivergent growth pattern, molar and cuspid Class III relation, and an anterior crossbite as well as a mild crowding on cuspids area, in both upper and lower arches and a tendency to posterior crossbite. The treatment was performed by the use of Haas expansion appliance followed by an initial alignment and leveling of the upper and lower arches with a fixed edgewise appliance, extraction of lower teeth aiming the correction of the incisors proclination and end the treatment with a Class I molar relationship. It resulted in a significant change in the patient's profile, dentoalveolar Class III correction, upper arch expansion, leveling and alignment of the upper and lower arches, and improvement of tipping of the upper and lowers incisors. In cases of a dentoalveolar compensation in well positioned bone bases the treatment with fixed appliances is an alternative and extraction of lower teeth is considered.

  7. Interobserver agreement on histopathological lesions in class III or IV lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Cook, H Terence; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Ferrario, Franco; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2015-01-07

    To treat lupus nephritis effectively, proper identification of the histologic class is essential. Although the classification system for lupus nephritis is nearly 40 years old, remarkably few studies have investigated interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement among nephropathologists was studied, particularly with respect to the recognition of class III/IV lupus nephritis lesions, and possible causes of disagreement were determined. A link to a survey containing pictures of 30 glomeruli was provided to all 360 members of the Renal Pathology Society; 34 responses were received from 12 countries (a response rate of 9.4%). The nephropathologist was asked whether glomerular lesions were present that would categorize the biopsy as class III/IV. If so, additional parameters were scored. To determine the interobserver agreement among the participants, κ or intraclass correlation values were calculated. The intraclass correlation or κ-value was also calculated for two separate levels of experience (specifically, nephropathologists who were new to the field or moderately experienced [less experienced] and nephropathologists who were highly experienced). Intraclass correlation for the presence of a class III/IV lesion was 0.39 (poor). The κ/intraclass correlation values for the additional parameters were as follows: active, chronic, or both: 0.36; segmental versus global: 0.39; endocapillary proliferation: 0.46; influx of inflammatory cells: 0.32; swelling of endothelial cells: 0.46; extracapillary proliferation: 0.57; type of crescent: 0.46; and wire loops: 0.35. The highly experienced nephropathologists had significantly less interobserver variability compared with the less experienced nephropathologists (P=0.004). There is generally poor agreement in terms of recognizing class III/IV lesions. Because experience clearly increases interobserver agreement, this agreement may be improved by training nephropathologists. These results also underscore the importance of

  8. Orthodontists' and laypersons' aesthetic assessment of Class III subjects referred for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabré, M; Mossaz, C; Christou, P; Kiliaridis, S

    2009-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare laypersons' and professionals' perception of soft tissue profiles of Class III adults, and to evaluate which cephalometric variables are likely to influence the profile assessment score (PAS). Lateral headfilms and coloured profile photographs of 18 skeletal Class III Caucasian adult patients (10 males, 8 females with a mean age of 24.5 years) prior to surgery, and nine adult Caucasian patients (four males, five females with a mean age of 27.4 years) with a dental Class I occlusion and no major skeletal discrepancy were included in the study. The headfilms were hand traced and digitized. Various cephalometric variables were calculated by computer software. Each printed profile photograph was evaluated aesthetically by 18 laypersons and 18 orthodontists using a 10-graded visual analogue scale (VAS) and a standard profile for calibration. Intra-observer reliability was tested and no significant error was found. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the scores. The association between various cephalometric variables and the PAS was tested. In general, compared with orthodontists, laypersons were less critical in their evaluation of the Class III profiles (+0.3 grade on the VAS) as well as the reference profiles (+0.7). The reference profiles were found to be more attractive than the Class III profiles by both laypersons and orthodontists (+2.3 grades). The degree of facial concavity had a negatively predictive value for the orthodontists' and laypersons' evaluations. The degree of facial concavity together with the steepness of the mandibular plane were negatively predictive factors for the PAS given by the orthodontists.

  9. A study of Class III treatment: orthodontic camouflage vs orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Georgalis, Katherine; Woods, Michael G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the differences in pretreatment and post-treatment characteristics of Class III patients treated with orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the range of skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that are likely to occur with treatment, with particular reference to the influence of extractions on the resultant incisor angulations. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalograms of 31 Class III orthodontically-camouflaged patients and 36 Class III surgical patients (without genioplasty) were obtained from one specialist practice. From the surgical group, 26 pre-surgical lateral cephalograms were also obtained. Inclusion criteria for the two groups were at least three of the following: (1) an ANB angle of 1 degree or less, (2) a Wits appraisal less than -4 mm, (3) an incisal overjet ≤ 0 mm, and (14) a Class III molar relationship. All lateral cephalograms were traced and digitised and a number of skeletal, dental and soft tissue variables were measured. The camouflage and surgical groups were also divided into premolar extraction and non-extraction subgroups to allow for a specific analysis of extraction effects. Before treatment, the surgical group demonstrated, on average, a more severe skeletal discrepancy and increased dental compensations, compared with the orthodontically camouflaged group. After treatment, the mean SNA angle was greater, the ANB angle was more positive, the Wits appraisal was closer to ideal and the lower incisors were less retroclined in the surgery group. There was a small mean reduction in horizontal chin projection in the surgery group compared with a small increase in the camouflage group. The mentolabial fold and the lower lip curve were deeper, on average, and the lips less retrusive after surgery. There was a mean increase in upper incisor proclination during treatment in both the surgical and camouflage groups with a greater increase in the camouflage group. There was a significant reduction in upper

  10. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion samples. Thirty subjects from 12 to 38 years of age with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and 16 subjects from 13 to 41 years of age with Class III malocclusion had computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from the axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with these malocclusions. The images obtained from the sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles associated with these malocclusions. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. In the Class II Division 1 sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane (P = 0.019) and posterior joint space (P = 0.049) showed statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Statistically significant (P <0.05) anterior positioning of the condyles was observed (nonconcentric positioning) in both the Class II Division 1 group and the Class III group. In the Class II Division 1 malocclusion sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane and posterior articular space had statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the right and left sides in both the Class II and Class III malocclusion groups.

  11. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future. PMID:24403800

  12. Gap junctions enhancer combined with Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs, a promising antiarrhythmic method?

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-dong; Zhang, Cun-tai; Ruan, Lei; Ni, Ming-ke; Quan, Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Arrhythmias is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Current antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and adverse effects such as proarrhythmias. Reentry mechanism plays an important role in persistence of arrhythmias. Reentry can only continue when reentry path-length is longer than cardiac wavelength which is equal to the product of conduction velocity (CV) and effective refractory period (ERP). Gap junctions uncoupling is associated with proarrhythmic CV slowing and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) increasing in many cardiac diseases. Vaughan Williams class III antiarrhythmic drugs prolong ERP with an augmented TDR which is the main mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects. Gap junctions enhancer can augment CV and diminish TDR. As a result, gap junctions enhancer combined with class III drugs may be a promising antiarrhythmic method.

  13. Cell wall lignin is polymerised by class III secretable plant peroxidases in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Kukkola, Eija M; Koistinen, Ville V T; Takahashi, Junko; Marjamaa, Kaisa

    2010-02-01

    Class III secretable plant peroxidases occur as a large family of genes in plants with many functions and probable redundancy. In this review we are concentrating on the evidence we have on the catalysis of lignin polymerization by class III plant peroxidases present in the apoplastic space in the xylem of trees. Some evidence exists on the specificity of peroxidase isozymes in lignin polymerization through substrate specificity studies, from antisense mutants in tobacco and poplar and from tissue and cell culture lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Zinnia elegans. In addition, real time (RT-)PCR results have pointed out that many peroxidases have tissue specific expression patterns in Norway spruce. Through combining information on catalytic properties of the enzymes, on the expression patterns of the corresponding genes, and on the presence of monolignols and hydrogen peroxide in the apoplastic space, we can show that specific peroxidases catalyze lignin polymerization in the apoplastic space of Norway spruce xylem.

  14. Orofacial functions and quality of life in oral health in subjects with dentofacial deformity.

    PubMed

    Migliorucci, Renata Resina; Sovinski, Silmara Regina Pavani; Passos, Dannyelle Christinny Bezerra de Oliveira Freitas; Bucci, Ana Carolina; Salgado, Manoel Henrique; Nary Filho, Hugo; Abramides, Dagma Venturini Marques; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the facial pattern in orofacial functions (OFFs) and quality of life (QoL), and their relationship in individuals with dentofacial deformities (DFD). As approved by the Research Ethics Committee, 36 subjects, aged between 18 and 40 years, divided into three groups of seven female and five male participants, i.e., facial pattern I (n=12), pattern II (n=12) and pattern III (n=12), participated in this study. The OFFs were assessed using the MBGR protocol and QoL by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Comparisons between OFFs and facial patterns were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the correlation between the facial pattern and QoL by means of Spearman's test, considering a 5% significance level. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed when comparing patterns I and II, and patterns I and III, with no difference between patterns II and III, neither in the OHIP-14 nor in the MBGR. A significant linear correlation (r=0.666; p<0.05) was verified between the MBGR and the OHIP-14, showing that the worse the OFFs, the worse the QoL. The facial pattern influenced the performance of the OFFs and the QoL in individuals presenting DFD, with a greater occurrence of changes for patterns II and III, and the worse the OFFs, the worse the QoL in cases with DFD.

  15. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro de; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients' records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  16. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; de Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients. PMID:27812612

  17. Properties of the ANB angle and the Wits appraisal in the skeletal estimation of Angle's Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Chowdhury, Lamiya; Nakamura, Shinji; Iida, Junichiro

    2002-10-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to investigate the statistical differences in jaw relationship assessments with the ANB angle and the Wits appraisal in Angle Class III children, and (2) to suggest guidelines for the use of these two parameters in this group of children. Seventy-five Angle Class I children with anterior crowding (male, 37; female, 38) and 96 Angle Class III children with anterior crossbite (male, 38; female, 58) were examined. All had undergone treatment that started at 8 or 9 years of age. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms were used cross-sectionally for the analysis. The mean age was 8 years 7 months +/- 9 months in the Class I subjects, and 9 years 0 month +/- 7 months in the Class III subjects. To compare the assessments using ANB angle and the Wits appraisal in the Angle's Class III subjects, nine measured values from each individual subject were converted into Z scores in relation to the means and standard deviations of the two parameters in the Angle Class I subjects. The jaw discrepancy is assessed more severely using the ANB angle than by the Wits appraisal in these Angle Class III subjects. The paired t-test showed that the Z score of the ANB angle was significantly smaller than that of the Wits appraisal (P < 0.001). In Angle Class III subjects with a counter-clockwise mandibular rotation and a flattened occlusal plane, the ANB angle is a more critical cephalometric parameter than the Wits appraisal.

  18. Management of an Adult with Spaced Dentition, Class III Malocclusion and Open-bite Tendency

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Demet; Taner, Tulin Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the orthodontic treatment of an adult with spaced dentition, Class III malocclusion, and open-bite tendency. A 28.4-year-old adult woman was concerned about the unesthetic appearance of her spaced dentition localized at both upper and lower arches while smiling. She had a mild tongue thrust, hypertropic upper frenum, and mild speech difficulty while pronouncing “s”. Her profile was straight with prominent lips. Molar relationship was Class III on both sides. Anterior teeth were in an end-to-end relationship. Lower dental midline was deviated to the left side. Cephalometric analysis revealed a skeletal Class III relationship with hyperdivergent facial pattern. The treatment plan included myotherapeutic exercises for the tongue thrust habit and a diagnostic set-up for closure of diastemas. A strict retention protocol was followed combined with gingivoplasty, fiberotomy, and frenectomy procedures. All spaces were closed successfully, adequate overbite and overjet relationships were obtained, and tongue thrust habit and speech difficulty while pronouncing “s” were eliminated. Clinical and cephalometric results indicated the maintenance of the treatment outcome at 6-months post-retention period. PMID:21228963

  19. Nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of an adolescent girl with Class III malocclusion and asymmetric maxillary narrowing.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Nihal; Başaran, Güvenç; Tümen, E Caner; Ozdemir, Eylem

    2008-08-01

    Class III malocclusion is a difficult anomaly to understand. Because not all Class III patients are candidates for surgical correction, patient assessment and selection are especially important in diagnosis and treatment planning. In this article, we report the orthopedic treatment of a teenage girl with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. Her ANB angle was -4.5 degrees, and she had a 2-mm anterior crossbite, a 1-mm overbite, and a posterior asymmetric crossbite (greater on the left side). The patient refused surgery. We used a rapid palatal expansion appliance to expand the maxilla, standard edgewise brackets to align the teeth, and reverse headgear to bring the maxilla forward. We performed symmetric expansion, but, because of the asymmetric crossbite in the maxilla, we designed a modified apparatus that permitted greater relapse on 1 side. In this way, the posterior crossbite was ideally corrected by the end of treatment, and ideal overjet and overbite relationships, functional occlusion, and an esthetic facial appearance were all achieved.

  20. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P < 0.05). Reduced symptoms were observed in the Delaire group; however, this reduction was not statistically significant. An increase, not considered to be statistically significant, was observed in the control group. The Delaire-type facemask and modified JJ used in the early phase of Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  1. Surgical and orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III featuring severe transversal and sagittal discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Derton, Nicola; Gracco, Antonio; Procopio, Olindo

    2012-06-01

    Anterior cross-bite is a difficult malocclusion to treat in adult patients, especially if compounded by skeletal discrepancy. The present study describes a dentoskeletal Class III case and aims to provide the clinician with rational guidelines for presurgical orthodontic preparation and postsurgical finishing. In this case, a 20-year-old male patient, R.M, was treated for severe dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion on both the transversal and anteroposterior planes via combined orthodontics and surgery. Initially, the treatment involved surgically-assisted expansion of the upper jaw (total 1 month), followed by a fixed-orthodontics phase to decompensate for the malocclusion in preparation for movement of the osseous bases with the aim of achieving maximum coordination of the dental arches. After 19 months of orthodontic preparation, the patient underwent combined orthognathic surgery (upper and lower jaws). In the subsequent 4 months, orthodontic stabilization and finishing were performed, and debonding was carried out 24 months after the start of active treatment. The combined orthodontic and surgical treatment adequately corrected the severe Class III over a period of 2 years, leading to a satisfactory occlusal, functional and aesthetic result. Thorough diagnosis and close communication between the orthodontist and maxillofacial surgeon, operating as an interdisciplinary team, ensures good outcomes, even in complex orthodontic and surgical cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  3. Gravidas with class III obesity: evaluating the abdominal skin microbiota above and below the panniculus (.).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rodney K; Kumar, Ranjit; Zhi, Degui; Szychowski, Jeffrey; Subramaniam, Akila; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey

    2016-10-01

    We sought to compare the skin microbiota above and below the panniculus of third-trimester pregnant women with class III obesity. We collected swabs from the anterior panniculus and from the intertriginous area under the panniculus of women with class III obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) carrying a live singleton at ≥28 weeks. DNA was extracted. PCR with primers targeting the 16S rDNA V4 region were used to prepare an amplicon library. PCR products were sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). The 16S rDNA sequences were processed, integrated, analyzed and reported using QIIME and in-house developed scripts. Taxonomy was assigned using RDP Classifier (threshold 0.8) against the Greengenes 16S rDNA database. Twenty women were enrolled. One sample pair was excluded for low sequence depth. Using permutation testing, there was significantly less bacterial diversity in the samples above compared to below the panniculus (beta diversity using weighted UniFrac metrics; p < 0.001). In pregnant women with class III obesity, the skin microbiota in the subpannicular fold differs from and is more diverse than that on the anterior panniculus.

  4. [Distal movement of the mandibular dentition in the treatment of patients with Class III skeletal pattern].

    PubMed

    Mou, Lan; Xu, Gengchi; Han, Yaohui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. Fifteen patients (mean age 24.0 ± 5.8) with skeletal Class III malocclusion were selected. The mandibular third molars were extracted and the mandibular molars were moved distally using implant combined with MBT appliance. Cephalometric analysis was carried out before and after treatment. After active treatment, ANB, Wits distance, AB-NP and the distance between upper and lower lip position to SnPg' increased by 1.65° ± 1.04°, (4.39 ± 1.93) mm, 3.20° ± 1.61° and (1.13 ± 0.99) mm, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The skeletal Class III patients in the permanent dentition could be treated successfully with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of mandibular molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. The soft-tissue profile was improved.

  5. Treatment in Borderline Class III Malocclusion: Orthodontic Camouflage (Extraction) Versus Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rabie, A-Bakr M.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Min, G.U.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the differences in morphological characteristics of borderline class III patients who had undergone camouflage orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the treatment effects between these two modalities. Materials and Methods: Cephalograms of 25 patients (13 orthodontic, 12 surgical) with class III malocclusion were analyzed. All had a pretreatment ANB angle greater than -5º. Results: Using discriminant analysis, only Holdaway angle was selected to differentiate patients in the pretreatment stage. Seventy-two per cent patients were correctly classified. In the orthodontic group, reverse overjet was corrected by retraction of the lower incisors and downward and backward rotation of the mandible. The surgical group was corrected by setback of the lower anterior dentoalveolus and uprighting of the lower incisors. No difference was found in posttreatment soft tissue measurements between the two groups. Conclusions: Twelve degree for the Holdaway angle can be a guideline in determining the treatment modalities for borderline class III patients, but the preferences of operators and patients are also important. (2) Both therapeutic options should highlight changes in the lower dentoalveolus and lower incisors. (3) Both treatment modalities can achieve satisfactory improvements to the people. PMID:19088881

  6. Modern trends in Class III orthognathic treatment: A time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Shin-Jae

    2017-03-01

    To examine the current trends in surgical-orthodontic treatment for patients with Class III malocclusion using time-series analysis. The records of 2994 consecutive patients who underwent orthognathic surgery from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015, at Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were reviewed. Clinical data from each surgical and orthodontic treatment record included patient's sex, age at the time of surgery, malocclusion classification, type of orthognathic surgical procedure, place where the orthodontic treatment was performed, orthodontic treatment modality, and time elapsed for pre- and postoperative orthodontic treatment. Out of the orthognathic surgery patients, 86% had Class III malocclusion. Among them, two-jaw surgeries have become by far the most common orthognathic surgical treatment these days. The age at the time of surgery and the number of new patients had seasonal variations, which demonstrated opposing patterns. There was neither positive nor negative correlation between pre- and postoperative orthodontic treatment time. Elapsed orthodontic treatment time for both before and after Class III orthognathic surgeries has been decreasing over the years. Results of the time series analysis might provide clinicians with some insights into current surgical and orthodontic management.

  7. Modern trends in Class III orthognathic treatment: A time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Lee, Shin-Jae

    2016-07-19

    To examine the current trends in surgical-orthodontic treatment for patients with Class III malocclusion using time-series analysis. The records of 2994 consecutive patients who underwent orthognathic surgery from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015, at Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea, were reviewed. Clinical data from each surgical and orthodontic treatment record included patient's sex, age at the time of surgery, malocclusion classification, type of orthognathic surgical procedure, place where the orthodontic treatment was performed, orthodontic treatment modality, and time elapsed for pre- and postoperative orthodontic treatment. Out of the orthognathic surgery patients, 86% had Class III malocclusion. Among them, two-jaw surgeries have become by far the most common orthognathic surgical treatment these days. The age at the time of surgery and the number of new patients had seasonal variations, which demonstrated opposing patterns. There was neither positive nor negative correlation between pre- and postoperative orthodontic treatment time. Elapsed orthodontic treatment time for both before and after Class III orthognathic surgeries has been decreasing over the years. Results of the time series analysis might provide clinicians with some insights into current surgical and orthodontic management.

  8. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Otero, L; Quintero, L; Champsaur, D; Simanca, E

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported. Patients and methods The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives. Results The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families. Conclusion Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion. PMID:23776347

  9. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Toraj; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Eshghpour, Majid; Kermani, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space.

  10. Evaluation of long-term soft tissue changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Halise; Efendiyeva, Ruchengiz; Karasu, Hakan; Toygar-Memikoğlu, Ufuk

    2015-07-01

    To assess soft tissues in the short and long term after bimaxillary surgery in Class III patients by comparing the hard tissue changes and results between time periods. Twenty-six Class III adult patients treated with bimaxillary surgery were included in the study. Cephalometric records were taken before surgery (T1) and 5 months (T2), 1.4 years (T3), 3 years (T4), and 5 years (T5) after surgery. There was no significant relapse in skeletal parameters. Overjet was significantly reduced between T4-T3 time intervals (P < .01). There were significant increases in Sn-HR, ULA-HR, LLA-HR, B-B(∧) (P < .01), and B(∧)-HR (P < .05) between T4-T3 time intervals. There was no significant change in the soft tissue parameters between T5-T4 time intervals. Soft tissue vertical relapse occurs in skeletally stabile Class III bimaxillary surgery patients in the first 3 years after surgery.

  11. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. Results The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Conclusion Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space. PMID:28462192

  12. Transparent aligners: An invisible approach to correct mild skeletal class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, A. Arif

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the treatment of a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with an invisible thermoplastic retainer. A 15-year-old female patient presented with a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with a retrognathic maxilla, orthognathic mandible, a low mandibular plane angle with Angle's class III malocclusion with maxillary lateral incisors in anterior cross-bite with crowding of maxillary anteriors, imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors and deep bite. Accurate upper and lower impressions and a bite registration were taken with polyvinyl siloxane rubber base impression material. This was then sent to the lab for the processing of a series of ClearPath aligners. The ClearPath virtual set-up sent from the lab provided the treatment plan and interproximal reduction estimation complete with posttreatment results. This enabled the clinician to actively participate in the treatment plan and provide the necessary suggestions. The ClearPath three-dimensional aligner was found to have effectively corrected the anterior cross-bite and crowding of the maxillary anteriors. PMID:26015738

  13. Class III homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins regulate xylem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Kubo, Minoru; Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2005-10-01

    Although it has been suggested that class III homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins (HD-Zip III) are involved in vascular development, details of the function of individual HD-Zip III proteins in vascular differentiation have not been resolved. To understand the function of each HD-Zip III protein in vascular differentiation precisely, we analyzed the in vitro transcriptional activity and in vivo function of Zinnia HD-Zip III genes, ZeHB-10, ZeHB-11 and ZeHB-12, which show xylem-related expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-driven ZeHB-10 and ZeHB-12 with a mutation in the START domain (mtZeHB-10, mtZeHB-12) showed a higher production of tracheary elements (TEs) and xylem precursor cells, respectively. A systematic analysis with Genechip arrays revealed that overexpression of mtZeHB-12 rapidly induced various genes, including brassinosteroid-signaling pathway-related genes and genes for transcription factors that are expressed specifically in vascular tissues in situ. Furthermore, mtZeHB-12 overexpression did not induce TE-specific genes, including genes related to programmed cell death and lignin polymerization, but did induce lignin monomer synthesis-related genes, which are expressed in xylem parenchyma cells. These results suggest that ZeHB-12 is involved in the differentiation of xylem parenchyma cells, but not of TEs.

  14. Three-dimensional evaluation of facial morphology in children aged 5-6 years with a Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Krneta, Bojana; Primožič, Jasmina; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in 25 Class III and 46 non-Class III children aged 5-6 years using three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging; 3D facial images were obtained, two average facial templates were constructed for the non-Class III male and female groups, each individual face was superimposed on the corresponding average template and group comparisons were evaluated (facial height, facial convexity, mandibular position and facial surface morphology). Differences between parameters were evaluated by using an analysis of variance and colour deviation maps. The results showed that Class III children had less mid-face prominence and a concave facial profile when compared to non-Class III children (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018). The position of the pg point in the z-axis just failed to reach statistical significance when comparing the two groups (P = 0.051). A vertical analysis showed no statistical significance between the groups, when evaluating middle (n-sn) and lower (sn-pg) facial height. Coincidence of the Class III faces to normal templates with a tolerance set as 0.5 mm was low (less than 30%). The soft tissue characteristics of a Class III face differ significantly from the non-Class III face in the mid-face region and in the facial profile. A 3D laser imaging method evaluated and identified morphological characteristics of Class III children in deciduous dentition, which could in the future become an important diagnostic tool in small children. The most important clinical advantage of this study is the non-invasiveness of the method.

  15. Early orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Woon, See Choong; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri

    2017-01-01

    Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthopedic methods used in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion in the short and long terms. Several sources were used to identify all relevant studies independently of language. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (Ovid), and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched to June 2016. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years on early treatment with any type of orthodontic/orthopedic appliance compared with another appliance to correct Class III malocclusion or with an untreated control group. The primary outcome measure was correction of reverse overjet, and the secondary outcomes included skeletal changes, soft tissue changes, quality of life, patient compliance, adverse effect, Peer Assessment Rating score, and treatment time. The search results were screened for inclusion, and the data extracted by 2 independent authors. The data were analyzed using software (version 5.1, Review Manager; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; Copenhagen, Denmark). The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were expressed for the continuous data. Random effects were carried out with high levels of clinical or statistical heterogeneity and fixed affects when the heterogeneity was low

  16. Interdisciplinary dentofacial therapy (IDT): a comprehensive team approach.

    PubMed

    Roblee, R D

    1998-10-01

    Modern dentistry, with its various disciplines, has an exciting and unmatched potential to enhance the overall quality of life for our patients. In this environment one of the greatest challenges for clinicians is to properly utilize this vast potential. It can be very difficult to consistently establish health and physiological occlusal relationships in patients with significant dental, periodontal, dentoalveolar, temporomandibular, and/or skeletal problems. This task is further complicated by ever-increasing patient and provider demands for results with optimal dentofacial aesthetics and long-term stability. Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy (IDT) is a proven diagnostic and clinical pathway for consistently maximizing patient outcomes in these complicated areas. Within a climate of increasing scientific and technological advances in dentistry, today's dental professional must study continuously to stay abreast in one area, let alone in all of them. The responsibility to the patient, however, is to utilize fully the extensive options that the profession can provide. As stated above, a proven treatment philosophy for accomplishing this is called Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy, or IDT. When properly performed, IDT can produce unparalleled professional satisfaction and camaraderie by reaching higher levels of patient care through optimal coordination of knowledge and skills in the various disciplines. In addition, IDT can consistently produce optimal treatment results while simultaneously producing profound practice management, time management and marketing benefits for practitioners. This paper briefly describes these benefits while defining the philosophies and hallmarks of IDT. It will also give insight into the implementation of IDT and why it will be even more necessary and valuable in the future than it is today.

  17. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT...

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. Non-surgical treatment of an Angle Class III malocclusion in adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Li, Jian-Xue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the application of a modified fixed reverse twin-block appliance (TBA) in adults with an Angle Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. Participants: Thirty-two adults with an Angle III malocclusion were recruited. An associated temporomandibular disorder (TMD) was found in 18 patients, laterognathism in 21, and both conditions in the remaining 12 patients. Methods: A modified fixed reverse TBA was used to posture the mandible back, divert bite force and centre the dentition. The malocclusion, laterognathism and temporomandibular disorders were concurrently treated. The outcome was evaluated radiographically and the findings were analyzed via Electronic Measurement Scale software. Results: Treatment was shown to be effective and could significantly shorten the course of treatment and avoid orthognathic surgery. The average course of treatment was 14 months, during which time, the mandible was postured back and the dentition was successfully aligned and levelled. Most patients achieved an edge-to-edge occlusion of the anterior teeth after 7-10 days of appliance wear. Most symptoms of TMD were relieved after 1 month and the laterognathism resolved in 4-5 months. Conclusion: A modified fixed reverse TBA was an effective non-surgical strategy for the treatment of selected Angle Class III malocclusions with an anterior crossbite in adults. PMID:24179566

  20. Cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates-a new exceptional class of the electrochemiluminescent luminophores.

    PubMed

    Kapturkiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Recent development of the phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates has enabled, due to their advantageous electrochemical and photo-physical properties, important breakthroughs in many photonic applications. This particular class of 5d(6) ion complexes has attracted increasing interest because of their potential application in electroluminescence devices with a nearly 100 % internal quantum efficiency for the conversion of electric energy to photons. Similar to electroluminescence, the cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates have been successfully applied in the electricity-to-light conversion by means of the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) processes. The already reported ECL systems utilizing the title compounds exhibit extremely large ECL efficiencies that allow one to envisage many potential application for them, especially in further development of ECL-based analytical techniques. This review, based on recently published papers, focuses on the ECL properties of this very exciting class of organometallic luminophores. The reported work, describing results from fundamental as well as application-oriented investigations, will be surveyed and briefly discussed. Graphical abstract Depending on the chemical nature of the cyclometalated irdium(III) chelate different colours of the emitted light can be produced during electrochemical excitation.

  1. Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase Is a Dimanganese(III)-Tyrosyl Radical Enzyme†

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides, providing the building blocks for DNA replication and repair. It is composed of two proteins: α (NrdE) and β (NrdF). β contains the metallo-cofactor, essential for the initiation of the reduction process. The RNR genes are organized within the nrdI-nrdE-nrdF-ymaB operon. Each protein has been cloned, expressed, and purified from E. coli. As isolated, recombinant (r) rNrdF contained a diferric-tyrosyl radical (Fe(III)2-Y•) cofactor. Alternatively, this cluster could be self-assembled from apo-rNrdF, Fe(II), and O2. Apo-rNrdF loaded using 4 Mn(II)/β2, O2 and reduced NrdI (a flavodoxin), can form a dimanganese(III)-Y• (Mn(III)2-Y•) cofactor. In the presence of rNrdE/ATP/CDP, Mn(III)2-Y• and Fe(III)2-Y• rNrdF generate dCDP at 132 and 10 nmol min-1 mg-1 respectively (both normalized for 1 Y•/β2). To determine the endogenous cofactor of NrdF in B. subtilis, the entire operon was placed behind a Pspank(hy) promoter and integrated into the B. subtilis genome at the amyE site. All four genes were induced in cells grown in LB medium, with levels of NrdE and NrdF elevated 35 fold relative to the wild type (wt) strain. NrdE and NrdF co-purified in a 1:1 ratio from this engineered B. subtilis. The visible, EPR, and atomic absorption spectra of the purified NrdENrdF complex (eNrdF) exhibited characteristics of a Mn(III)2-Y• center with 2 Mn and 0.5 Y•/β2 and activity of 318-363 nmol min-1 mg-1 (normalized for 1 Y•/β2). These data strongly suggest that the B. subtilis class Ib RNR is a Mn(III)2-Y• enzyme. PMID:21561096

  2. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3.

  3. An evaluation of the condylar position of the temporomandibular joint by computerized tomography in Class III malocclusions: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Seren, E; Akan, H; Toller, M O; Akyar, S

    1994-05-01

    The position of the condyle within the glenoid fossa was investigated in 21 adult patients with untreated skeletal Class III relationships and 18 adult patients with normal occlusions as controls. Axial computerized tomography (CT) was used for precise measurements of the bony structures of the temporamandibular joints. In horizontal sections, the mediolateral dimensions of the condyles of the patient group were found to be statistically higher in the fossa. The anteroposterior glenoid fossa dimensions were found to be smaller in Class III malocclusions. The smaller anterior joint space dimensions in the Class III relationships were also found to be statistically significant. The analysis of the measurements suggests that relative condylar protrusion with a relative mediolateral elongation of the condyle within a relatively smaller glenoid fossa are correlated with the anterior mandibular displacement in skeletal Class III malocclusions.

  4. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Class III Obesity Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, A.; Pereira, S. E.; Saboya, C. J.; Ramalho, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is represented mainly by abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR), both present in most individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS). IR is the key risk factor in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective. To relate NAFLD to MS in class III obese individuals. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study with class III obese individuals, aged ≥ 20–60 years. Blood pressure measurement, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides data were obtained. HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance) calculation was carried out with a cutoff value of 2.71 for IR evaluation. The diagnosis of NAFLD was performed by liver biopsy and the diagnosis of MS was performed in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III). Results. Of the 50 individuals evaluated, 86% were women and BMI means were 45.4 ± 3.6 Kg/m2. The overall individuals had NAFLD, 70% steatosis, and 30% steatohepatitis. The diagnosis of MS occurred in 56% but showed no significant association with NAFLD (P = 0.254). Triglycerides (178 ± 65.5 mg/dL) and insulin (28.2 ± 22.6 mcU/mL) mean values were significantly higher in steatohepatitis (P = 0.002 and P = 0.042, resp.) compared to individuals with steatosis. IR was confirmed in 76% and showed a relationship with NAFLD severity. Conclusion. NAFLD was not related to MS; however, MS components, evaluated in isolation, as well as IR, were related to the presence and severity of NAFLD. PMID:26120587

  5. Long-term outcome of surgical Class III correction as a function of age at surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, L'Tanya J.; Phillips, Ceib; Proffit, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we assessed whether the likelihood of a positive overjet 5 to 10 years after Class III surgery was affected by age at the surgery or the type of surgery and evaluated the amount and pattern of postsurgical growth. Methods Cephalometric measurements including overjet were evaluated from immediately postsurgery and long-term recall cephalograms of 104 patients who had had surgical Class III correction and at least 5-year recalls. The patients were classified as younger (Class III surgery in younger patients. PMID:18331934

  6. Dynamic changes in morphometric analysis in patients following Class III bimaxillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Downarowicz, Patrycja; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Kawala, Beata; Drohomyretska, Myroslava

    2012-01-01

    Prognathism of the mandible is a skeletal Class III abnormality, caused either by excessive forward growth of the mandible or maxillary underdevelopment. The aim of the study was to assess dynamic changes in morphometric analysis on subjects presenting with Class III malocclusions before orthodontic treatment, before bimaxillary surgery and after surgery. The sample consisted of 30 non-growing patients, at the age of 18 to 30, treated with mandibular set-back sagittal split osteotomy and maxillary Le Fort I advancement. Cephalometric analysis by Segner and Hasund was performed. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of orthodontic treatment (T0), immediately before surgery (T1) and at least 3-6 months after surgery (T2). The results showed that there was normalization of the cephalometric variables after surgery. In the sagittal plane the following skeletal changes were observed: preoperative anterior mandibular growth confirmed by SNB increased angle was significantly reduced after surgery; preoperative decreased SNA angle largely increased after surgery. Statistically significant GntgoAr mandible angle decreased after surgery in relation to the beginning state. Also, the H angle was increased as a result of orthodontic-surgical treatment which influenced positively on face esthetics. The results of our study indicate that there was a significant improvement in the correlation between soft and hard tissue change in the facial profiles of the Class III bimaxillary surgery patients, which was improved by the H angle. The face's photographs and cephalometric analysis indicate, after the operation there is a decrease of total face length, but the lower part still remains longer than a middle part of the face.

  7. Correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with clockwise rotation of the maxillomandibular complex.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ming; Lin, Chen-Hui; Wang, Yu-Ching

    2012-02-01

    A 19-year-old woman with skeletal Class III malocclusion, paranasal depression, and a low mandibular plane angle was treated with orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. Dental decompensation and protraction of maxillary right third molar to replace maxillary right second molar were performed before surgery. Clockwise rotation of maxillo-mandibular complex was applied by Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomies to achieve facial balance. The active treatment period was 12 months. The stable occlusion and skeletal relationship were observed after a 10-month follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified maxillary protraction headgear for the correction of class III skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Haroon Shahid; Amjad, Al-Taki

    2005-12-01

    This is a case report of a 10-year-old girl with a hyper divergent class III skeletal malocclusion caused primarily due to maxillary retrognathism. Treatment involved the use of a modified maxillary protraction face mask that carries the point of force application extra orally to pass through the centre of resistance of the maxillary dentoalveolar complex. After 8 months, the maxilla was displaced anteriorly without rotation. Maxillary occlusal plane showed a clockwise rotation. Maxillary incisors were extruded and retroclined. Mandible was displaced downward and backward. Another 18 months were required for fixed orthodontic treatment to achieve perfect interdigitation.

  9. The association of tongue posture with the dentoalveolar maxillary and mandibular morphology in Class III malocclusion: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Primozic, Jasmina; Farcnik, Franc; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of tongue posture with the dentoalveolar maxillary and mandibular morphology in a group of Class III subjects in comparison to a group of Class I subjects. Twenty Class III subjects (9 males, 11 females, 19.2 ± 4.6 years) and 20 Class I subjects (6 males, 14 females, 17.4 ± 1.7 years) were included in the present study. Maxillary and mandibular morphology was defined by the intermolar and intercanine distances, at both the cusps and gingival levels, and by measuring surface area and volume of the palatal vault and mouth floor assessed on three-dimensional digital models. Tongue-to-palate distances were measured on lateral cephalograms. The groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test and correlations between each morphological parameter and the tongue-to-palate distances were calculated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The mandibular intermolar width at the gingival level was significantly greater in the Class III group (P < 0.01), while the maxillary intercanine widths were significantly smaller in the Class III group (P < 0.05). The mouth floor area and volume and the respective ratios between the mouth floor and palate were significantly greater in the Class III group (P = 0.01). The tongue-to-palate distances were generally greater, i.e. lower tongue posture, for the Class III subjects. Significant correlations were seen between tongue-to-palate distances in the posterior region with the area ratio (rho = 0.44, P < 0.05). Tongue posture is significantly lower in Class III subjects and is associated with the dentoalveolar characteristics of the maxilla and mandible.

  10. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  12. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  16. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  3. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  4. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  6. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  8. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  10. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  13. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  16. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  17. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  20. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  1. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  4. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  6. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  8. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  13. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  14. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  17. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  18. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The owner...

  20. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically.

  1. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    PubMed

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  2. Wear-time recording during early Class III facemask treatment using TheraMon chip technology.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Bruce; Willmann, Jan H; Wilmes, Benedict; Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Drescher, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Successful intervention in a developing Class III malocclusion with facemask protraction therapy depends on a patient's ability to adhere to the recommendations for duration of appliance wear. In this article, we report the introduction of a novel approach for tracking of the duration of application of a protraction facemask, with the incorporation of a "FaceMon" sensor (TheraMon, microelectronic system; MC Technology GmbH, Hargelsberg, Austria) to track wear time. A 9-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion was successfully treated with a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocol and intermittent application of a hybrid hyrax-protraction facemask combination. The average duration of wear of the facemask was measured at 10.8 hours per day. The use of an objective measuring device may have implications for the development of treatment strategies, since patient responses may be able to calibrated in relation to compliance. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of Class III malocclusion with mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, Ana Zilda Nazar; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2011-01-01

    Class III skeletal malocclusion may present several etiologies, among which maxillary deficiency is the most frequent. Bone discrepancy may have an unfavorable impact on esthetics, which is frequently aggravated by the presence of accentuated facial asymmetries. This type of malocclusion is usually treated with association of Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery for correction of occlusion and facial esthetics. This report presents the treatment of a patient aged 15 years and 1 month with Class III skeletal malocclusion, having narrow maxilla, posterior open bite on the left side, anterior crossbite and unilateral posterior crossbite, accentuated negative dentoalveolar discrepancy in the maxillary arch, and maxillary and mandibular midline shift. Clinical examination also revealed maxillary hypoplasia, increased lower one third of the face, concave bone and facial profiles and facial asymmetry with mandibular deviation to the left side. The treatment was performed in three phases: presurgical orthodontic preparation, orthognathic surgery and orthodontic finishing. In reviewing the patient's final records, the major goals set at the beginning of treatment were successfully achieved, providing the patient with adequate masticatory function and pleasant facial esthetics.

  4. EGIS-7229, the new combined class III antiarrhythmic agent: lack of EAD inducing effect.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Magyar, J; Varró, A; Kovács, A; Gyönös, I; Szénási, G; Nánási, P P

    1999-03-01

    EGIS-7229 is a novel antiarrhythmic candidate having multiple mechanisms of action with class III predominance. In this study, the effects of EGIS-7229 and sotalol on action potential duration (APD) and incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were studied and compared in rabbit papillary muscle by using conventional microelectrode techniques. In control bathing solution, both drugs increased APD in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the prolongation of APD was greater with sotalol than with EGIS-7229 when the same drug concentrations were compared. EAD developed in 3 of the 11 preparations (27%) bathed with a solution containing 3.6 mmol/l CsCl + 2 mmol/l KCl within the first 120 min of superfusion. The addition of 100 micromol/l sotalol to this superfusate increased the incidence of EAD to 83% (10 from 12), whereas the addition of the same concentration of EGIS-7229 prevented the development of EAD in all of the 9 preparations studied. These differences in incidence of EAD are likely attributable to differences in drug-induced increases of APD-50 in the presence of CsCl. Prolongation of APD-90 showed less correlation with incidence of EAD than changes in APD-50. On the basis of these in vitro results, high concentrations of EGIS-7229 cannot be expected to be torsadogenic in vivo--in contrast with sotalol--presumably owing to the combined class III + IV activity of the compound.

  5. Enzymatic activity and proteomic profile of class III peroxidases during sugarcane stem development.

    PubMed

    Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Sampaio Mayer, Juliana Lischka; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Class III peroxidases are present as large multigene families in all land plants. This large number of genes together with the diversity of processes catalyzed by peroxidases suggests possible functional specialization of each isoform. However, assigning a precise role for each individual peroxidase gene has continued to be a major bottleneck. Here we investigated the enzyme activity and translational profile of class III peroxidases during stem development of sugarcane as a first step in the estimation of physiological functions of individual isoenzymes. Internodes at three different developmental stages (young, developing and mature) were divided into pith (inner tissue) and rind (outer tissue) fractions. The rind of mature internodes presented the highest enzymatic activity and thus could be considered the ideal tissue for the discovery of peroxidase gene function. In addition, activity staining of 2DE gels revealed different isoperoxidase profiles and protein expression regulation among different tissue fractions. In-gel tryptic digestion of excised spots followed by peptide sequencing by LC-MS/MS positively matched uncharacterized peroxidases in the sugarcane database SUCEST. Multiple spots matching the same peroxidase gene were found, which reflects the generation of more than one isoform from a particular gene by post-translational modifications. The identified sugarcane peroxidases appear to be monocot-specific sequences with no clear ortholog in dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  6. Comparative evaluation of slot versus dovetail design in class III composite restorations in primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Rathnam, Arun; Nidhi, Madan; Shigli, Anand L; Indushekar, K R

    2010-01-01

    The esthetic restorations of primary anterior teeth have always occupied an important part of the pediatric dentist's armamentarium. Various materials have been tried for this purpose and ample materials have been researched in an attempt to fulfill the prerequisites for an ideal esthetic restorative material.Composite resins have been traditionally noted to have decreased bonding ability to primary teeth and the use of secondary retentive features has been advocated to increase bonding. Fifty pairs of anterior class III carious teeth were selected having mirror image lesions on their contralateral proximal surfaces. These teeth were prepared with either a slot or a modified dovetail type of cavity preparation. The patients were then kept on recall to check the clinical characteristics of the restorations at 3, 6, and 12 months. The criteria for evaluation included marginal adaptation, anatomic form, surface discoloration and secondary caries. It was concluded from the results that the both slot and dovetail types of cavity preparations were equally effacious when clinically reviewed for a period of 12 months. Hence the use of slot type of cavity preparation with reduced loss of the tooth structure is indicated for class III cavities in primary anterior teeth.

  7. Comparative evaluation of slot versus dovetail design in class III composite restorations in primary anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rathnam, Arun; Nidhi, Madan; Shigli, Anand L.; Indushekar, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The esthetic restorations of primary anterior teeth have always occupied an important part of the pediatric dentist's armamentarium. Various materials have been tried for this purpose and ample materials have been researched in an attempt to fulfill the prerequisites for an ideal esthetic restorative material. Composite resins have been traditionally noted to have decreased bonding ability to primary teeth and the use of secondary retentive features has been advocated to increase bonding. Fifty pairs of anterior class III carious teeth were selected having mirror image lesions on their contralateral proximal surfaces. These teeth were prepared with either a slot or a modified dovetail type of cavity preparation. The patients were then kept on recall to check the clinical characteristics of the restorations at 3, 6, and 12 months. The criteria for evaluation included marginal adaptation, anatomic form, surface discoloration and secondary caries. It was concluded from the results that the both slot and dovetail types of cavity preparations were equally effacious when clinically reviewed for a period of 12 months. Hence the use of slot type of cavity preparation with reduced loss of the tooth structure is indicated for class III cavities in primary anterior teeth. PMID:22114369

  8. Upper airway asymmetry in skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular deviation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, De-Hua; Wang, Xu-Xia; Ma, Dan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bilateral differences of upper airway and mandibular morphologic patterns in subjects with skeletal Class III mandibular deviation. 47 skeletal Class III (ANB < 0°) adult patients with and without mandibular deviation were divided into 2 groups. Bilateral differences of minimum cross-sectional area, mean cross-sectional area, volume of subdivisions (nasopharynx, palatopharynx, glossopharynx, hypopharynx) were assessed paired t test. Stepwise linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between a significant pair of upper airway variables and a pair of mandibular deviation variables to examine the quantitative relationship between the upper airway asymmetry and mandibular deviation. The mean cross-sectional area and the volume of palatopharynx on the deviated side in mandibular deviated group was significantly smaller than non-deviated side. The asymmetry index of the palatopharyngeal volume showed significant correlations with CRA asymmetry (r = 0.49) and Ramus asymmetry (r = 0.54). However, in the glossopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal segment, the mandibular deviated group showed significant asymmetry, characterized by larger mean cross-sectional area and volume in deviated side. The asymmetry index of the glossopharyngeal volume and hypopharyngeal volume showed significant correlations with CRA asymmetry (r = 0.42), Me-s (r = 0.72) and Me-s (r = 0.67) respectively.

  9. Class III peroxidases are activated in proanthocyanidin-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liguo; Xu, Weifeng; Li, Wenrao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Rui; Shi, Lu; Bin Rahman, A N M Rubaiyath; Fan, Mingshou; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    It has previously been shown that proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana have the ability to scavenge superoxide radicals (O2(-)). However, the physiological processess in PA-deficit seeds are not clear. It is hypothesized that there exist alternative ways in PA-deficient seeds to cope with oxidative stress. The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its relevance to the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidases was investigated in both wild-type and PA-deficit mutant seeds. A biochemical staining approach was used to detect tissue localizations of peroxidase activities in PA-deficit mutant seeds. PA-deficient mutants possess significantly lower levels of H2O2 than the wild-type, despite their higher accumulation of superoxide radicals. Screening of the key antioxidant enzymes revealed that peroxidase activity was significantly over-activated in mutant seeds. This high peroxidase activity was mainly confined to the seed coat zone. Interestingly, neither ascorbate peroxidase nor glutathione peroxidase, just the guaiacol peroxidases (class III peroxidases), was specifically activated in the seed coat. However, no significant difference in peroxidase activity was observed in embryos of either mutants or the wild-type, although gene expressions of several candidate peroxidases were down-regulated in the embryos of PA-deficient seeds. The results suggest that enhanced class III peroxidase activity in the seed coat of PA-deficient mutants is an adaptive strategy for seed development and survival.

  10. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Puerto Rico § 147.2650 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by Puerto Rico's Environmental Quality Board (EQB...

  11. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Puerto Rico § 147.2650 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by Puerto Rico's Environmental Quality Board (EQB...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Puerto Rico § 147.2650 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by Puerto Rico's Environmental Quality Board (EQB...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Puerto Rico § 147.2650 State-administered program—Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. The Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by Puerto Rico's Environmental Quality Board (EQB...

  14. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Matheis, N; Alt, T; Weinstock, C; Bux, J; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the genetics of the adult APS types. SITE: The study was conducted at a university referral center. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were determined in a large cohort of patients with APS, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls by the consistent application of high-resolution typing at a four-digit level. Comparison of the allele and haplotype frequencies significantly discriminated patients with APS vs AITD and controls. The HLA class II alleles DRB1*03:01 *04:01, DQA1*03:01, *05:01, DQB1*02:01, and *03:02 were observed more frequently (P<.001) in APS than in AITD and controls, whereas the alleles DRB1*15:01, DQB1*03:01, and *06:02 were underrepresented in APS vs AITD (Pc<.001) and controls (Pc<.01), respectively. The DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DR3-DQ2) and DRB1*04:01-DQA1*03:01:DQB1*03:02 (DRB1*04:01-DQ8) haplotypes were overrepresented in APS (Pc<.001). Combination of both haplotypes to a genotype was highly prevalent in APS vs AITD and controls (Pc<.001). Dividing the APS collective into those with Addison's disease (APS type II) and those without Addison's disease but including type 1 diabetes and AITD (APS type III) demonstrated DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:01-DQ8 as a susceptibility genotype in APS III (Pc<.001), whereas the DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:04-DQ8 genotype correlated with APS II (Pc<.001). The haplotypes DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:05-DQB1*03:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 are protective in APS III but not in type II (Pc<.01). HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult APS types II and III. Susceptible haplotypes favor the development of polyglandular autoimmunity in patients with AITD.

  15. Exploration of the new class of layered III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarek, Thomas; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    We have explored a new class of quasi-two-dimensional III-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) exhibiting a wide range of magnetic behavior. Several are good candidates for potential device applications. In In1-xMnxSe, we found a remarkably large thermal hysteresis (Delta T is approximately 200 K) extending up to room temperature. This is an important material because a typical thermal hysteresis in most materials has a Delta T approximately 20 K occurring well below room temperature. The thermal hysteresis is also seen in transport measurements for In1-xMnxSe. To date, we have found good agreement between experiment and theory for the 1st three III-VI DMS systems (In1-xMnxSe, In1-xMnxS, and Ga1-xMnxS). Ga1-xFexSe is unique amount the III-VI DMS exhibiting substantial magnetic anisotropy. In Ga1-xMnxS, we have found a spin glass transition and critical exponents (γ = 4.0, β = 0.8, and δ = 5.5) that are in agreement with the theory. We surprisingly found that the spin glass transition in the 2-D IIIVI DMS similar to spin glass in 3-D II-VI DMS. [This research was supported by the UNF Terry Presidential Professorship, a Purdue University Academic Reinvestment Program and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Nos. DMR-07-06593 and DMR-04-05082.

  16. Reaction of the pterygomaxillary fissure and the condylar cartilage to intermaxillary Class III magnetic mechanics.

    PubMed

    Vardimon, A D; Graber, T M; Stutzmann, J; Voss, L; Petrovic, A G

    1994-04-01

    The skeletal reaction to Class III intermaxillary magnetic mechanics was previously found to affect two target areas, the pterygomaxillary fissure (PMF) and the condylar cartilage. The objectives of this study were to analyze, radiographically and histologically, the response of these tissues to Class III intermaxillary functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA III), and to postulate possible models of their dichotomous biomechanism. Nine Macaca fascicularis monkeys received periodic administration of vital bone procion dye and were treated for 4 months with FOMA III (6 subjects) and sham appliance (3 subjects). The PMF (the target area of the midfacial complex) demonstrated a decreased skeletal reaction in inferosuperior and lateromedial directions. Cephalometrically, the lowermost PMF point was displaced inferiorly 1.98 +/- 1.74 mm and 0.42 +/- 0.38 mm and anteriorly 1.42 +/- 0.96 mm and 0.58 +/- 0.38 mm in the treated and control groups, respectively. The displacement of the uppermost PMF point, compared with the lowermost point, was three to five times lower. Histologically, two modes of response were found; first, a sutural response (disarticulation and osteogenesis) of the palatomaxillary and pterygopalatine sutures, which was distinctive of the lateral PMF aspect, and second, a dentosutural response, which was characteristic of the medial PMF aspect (bony microfractures between the third molar germ and the maxillary tuberosity in conjunction with mild sutural response). In the mandible, a discrepancy was found between the histologic and the cephalometric findings. Radiographically, mandibular length was unaffected after 4 months of treatment, and the distance condylion-pogonion was equally increased in the treated (0.75 +/- 0.78 mm) and the control animals (0.77 +/- 0.32 mm). Histologically, however, the condylar cartilage demonstrated increased osteoclastic activity at the zone of endochondral ossification and a decreased apposition rate at the

  17. Renal outcomes in mixed proliferative and membranous lupus nephritis (Class III/IV + V): A long-term observational study.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Hidekazu; Hiromura, Keiju; Kayakabe, Ken; Tshilela, Kadiombo Anastasie; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Hamatani, Hiroko; Sakairi, Toru; Kaneko, Yoriaki; Maeshima, Akito; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of combination of proliferative and membranous lesions (Class III + V or IV + V) on renal outcomes as an independent category distinct from Class III and IV. We retrospectively analyzed 103 Japanese patients (14 male and 89 female) with Class III/IV LN, with or without Class V, who underwent renal biopsy and were treated at our institution. Renal endpoint was defined as doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The number of patients in each group was as follows: pure Class III/IV, 81 patients and mixed Class III/IV + V, 22 patients. During a median follow-up period of 125.0 months, 10 patients developed renal endpoint: five had Class III/IV LN and five had a combination of Class III/IV + V. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that patients with mixed Class III/IV + V LN had significantly poorer renal outcomes than patients with Class III/IV LN. Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified serum creatinine, active and chronic lesions (A/C), and mixed Class III/IV + V) as independent risk factors for poor renal outcomes. This study demonstrated a combination of proliferative and membranous LN (ISN/RPS Class III/IV + V) predicts poor renal outcomes.

  18. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    PubMed

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (p<0.05). The maxillary lengths in Class II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  19. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  20. Class I to III histone deacetylases differentially regulate inflammation-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in primary amnion cells.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Marin; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 plays an important role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix in fetal membranes, and pathological activation of MMP-9 can lead to preterm birth. In nongestational tissues, modulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulates MMP-9 expression. The aim of this study was to determine whether class I to III HDACs regulate MMP-9 expression and activity in primary amnion cells. Class I and II HDAC regulation of MMP-9 was assessed using the general class I and II HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the class I HDACi MS-275, and the class II HDACi MC1568. Class III HDAC regulation of MMP-9 was assessed using the SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRT1720 as well as SIRT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Primary amnion epithelial cells were incubated with 1 ng/mL interleukin (IL) 1β in the absence or presence of 0.3 μmol/L TSA, 5 μmol/L SAHA, 2.5 μmol/L MS-275, 2.5 μmol/L MC1568, 50 μmol/L resveratrol, or 10 μmol/L SRT1720 for 20 hours. We found that the class I and II HDACi TSA and SAHA and the class II HDACi MC1568 significantly decreased IL-β-induced MMP-9 gene and pro-MMP-9 expression in primary amnion cells. There was, however, no effect of the class I HDACi MS-275 on IL-β-induced MMP-9 expression. On the other hand, inhibition of class III HDAC SIRT1 using siRNA significantly augmented IL-1β-induced MMP-9, and SIRT1 activation using resveratrol and SRT1720 inhibited IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. In summary, class I to III HDACs differentially regulate inflammation-induced MMP-9 expression in primary amnion cells.

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  2. Effects of maxillary protraction for early correction of class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Oktay, Hüsamettin

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study investigated the skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue effects of a mini maxillary protractor appliance in class III subjects with maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion and compared these changes with those of untreated, well matched control sample with normal occlusions. Twenty patients with class III malocclusion (mean age 11.1 ± 0.8 years) and 20 subjects with normal occlusion (mean age 10.9 ± 0.4 years) were included to this study. The class III subjects were treated with the mini maxillary protractor appliance, and the others were used as control subjects. Paired t-test and Student's t-test were used to determine the within- and between-group differences, respectively. In the study group, the maxilla moved forward (SNA, 2.0 degrees and A-Y, 2.4mm) (P < 0.001) with a slight rotation of palatal and occlusal planes (SN-PP, -0.8 degree and SN-OP, -0.7 degree) (P > 0.05). The mandible displaced backwards and downwards (SNB, -1.1 degrees; SND, -0.9 degree; B-Y, -0.9 mm and Pog-Y, -0.3mm; P < 0.001). These movements in the maxilla and mandible caused a significant improvement in intermaxillary sagittal relationship (ANB, 3.0 degrees; Convexity, 6.3 degrees; Wits, 4.6mm; P < 0.001). The maxillary incisors moved forward (2.2 degrees) while the mandibular ones backward (-1.9 degrees). The improvement in overjet was 5.0mm, and 66.1 per cent of this change (3.3mm) was skeletal (A-Y; 2.4mm and B-Y; -0.9 mm), and the remaining (1.7 mm) dentoalveolar (U1-NA; 0.9 mm and L1-NB; -0.8mm). The change in Ls-E measurement was more in the study group (2.1mm), and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

  3. Comparison between dental and basal arch forms in normal occlusion and Class III malocclusions utilizing cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Kyung Eun; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Nam, Young-Ok; Sameshima, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in subjects with normal occlusion and compare them with those of Class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods CBCT images of 32 normal occlusion (19 males, 13 females; 24.3 years) and 33 Class III malocclusion subjects (20 males, 13 females, 22.2 years) were selected. Facial axis and root center points were identified from the left to right mandibular first molars. Distances between the facial axis and root center points for each tooth were calculated, and 4 linear and 2 ratio variables were measured and calculated for each arch form. The variables were compared between groups by independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationships between dental and basal variables within each group. Results The mandibular dental and basal intercanine widths were significantly greater in the Class III group than in normal occlusion subjects (p < 0.05). The dental and basal intercanine widths as well as the dental and basal intermolar widths were strongly correlated in normal occlusion and moderately correlated in Class III malocclusion. Conclusions The dental arch form demon strated a strong positive correlation with the basal arch form in the normal occlusion group and moderate correlation in the Class III malocclusion group. These results might be helpful for clinicians to have a better understanding of the importance of basal arch form in the alveolar bone. PMID:23504406

  4. Changes in the lip closing force of patients with class III malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ueki, K; Mukozawa, A; Okabe, K; Miyazaki, M; Moroi, A; Marukawa, K; Nakagawa, K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in lip pressure before and after orthognathic surgery for skeletal class III patients. The subject groups were 32 female and 31 male patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism and/or maxillary retrognathism who underwent orthognathic surgery. Control groups consisted of 20 women and 20 men with normal occlusion without dento-alveolar deformity. Maximum and minimum lip closing force was measured with Lip De Cum® for the control groups and subject groups preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The difference between the pre- and postoperative values of the groups was examined statistically. The maximum lip closing force in men was significantly larger than that in women in both the preoperative class III group (p=0.0330) and the control group (p=0.0097). The preoperative class III group was significantly smaller than the control group in maximum lip closing force in both men (p<0.0001) and women (p<0.0001). The postoperative maximum lip closing force was significantly larger than the preoperative value in both men (p=0.0037) and women (p=0.0273) in the Class III group. This study suggested that the maximum lip closing force increases after orthognathic surgery in Class III patients.

  5. Growth modification of the face: A current perspective with emphasis on Class III treatment.

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Hugo J; Proffit, William R

    2015-07-01

    A summary of the current status of modification of jaw growth indicates the following. 1. Transverse expansion of the maxilla is easy before adolescence, requires heavy forces to create microfractures during adolescence, and can be accomplished only with partial or complete surgical osteotomy after adolescence. Transverse expansion of the mandible or constriction of either jaw requires surgery. 2. Acceleration of mandibular growth in preadolescent or adolescent patients can be achieved, but slower than normal growth afterward reduces or eliminates a long-term increase in size of the mandible. Restraint of maxillary growth occurs with all types of appliances to correct skeletal Class II problems. For short-face Class II patients, increasing the face height during preadolescent or adolescent orthodontic treatment is possible, but it may make the Class II problem worse unless favorable anteroposterior growth occurs. For those with a long face, controlling excessive vertical growth during adolescence is rarely successful. 3. Attempts to restrain mandibular growth in Class III patients with external forces largely result in downward and backward rotation of the mandible. Moving the maxilla forward with external force is possible before adolescence; moving it forward and simultaneously restricting forward mandibular growth without rotating the jaw is possible during adolescence with intermaxillary traction to bone anchors. The amount of skeletal change with this therapy often extends to the midface, and the short-term effects on both jaws are greater than with previous approaches, but individual variations in the amount of maxillary vs mandibular response occur, and it still is not possible to accurately predict the outcome for a patient. For all types of growth modification, 3-dimensional imaging to distinguish skeletal changes and better biomarkers or genetic identification of patient types to indicate likely treatment responses are needed.

  6. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  7. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, A.; Auconi, P.; Scazzocchio, M.; Caldarelli, G.; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis.

  8. Surgery first orthognathic approach for skeletal Class III malocclusion corrections--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Leelasinjaroen, Pornnapha; Godfrey, Keith; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Surakunprapha, Palakorn; Pisek, Poonsak

    2012-11-01

    Management for patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion is orthognathic surgery which involves both orthodontics and surgery. Nowadays, there are two approaches for orthognathic surgery: orthodontics-first and surgery-first approaches. The orthodontics-first approach, or presurgical orthodontics treatment, causes longer treatment time and worsens facial appearance before surgery compared with a surgery-first approach. Conversely, with the surgery-first approach or the surgery-first-orthognathic-approach (SFOA), correction can be resolved more rapidly. SFOA needs high level skill of orthodontist and surgeon and also needs good cooperation between them to accomplish best results. The purpose of this article is to review the concept, indications, contraindications, the stages of treatment and advantages, and disadvantages of SFOA.

  9. Surgery-first approach in correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Oh, Min-Hee; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Oh, Heesoo

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes a surgical orthodontic case that used the recently introduced surgery-first approach to correct a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A 19-year-old woman presented with severe mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry; she had been waiting for growth completion in order to pursue surgical correction. After prediction of the postsurgical tooth movement and surgical simulation, 2-jaw surgery that included maxillary advancement and differential mandibular setback was performed using a surgery-first approach. Immediate facial improvement was achieved and postsurgical orthodontic treatment was efficiently carried out. The total treatment time was 16 months. The patient's facial appearance improved significantly and a stable surgical orthodontic outcome was obtained. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interdisciplinary treatment of a class III patient with congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Bruno Franco; da Mata Cid Pinto, Larissa Salgado; Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Seraidarian, Paulo Isaías

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a case report of an adult Class III patient presenting bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors that compromised occlusal function as well as smile and facial esthetics. After the interdisciplinary diagnosis, spaces for prosthetic substitution were opened with the help of miniscrews. The orthodontic therapy achieved a better dental relationship, and the final interdisciplinary treatment results represented a significant improvement in function and both dental and facial esthetics. The interdisciplinary treatment of orthodontics and restorative dentistry is very important because the two complement each other in search of the best for the patient. This case demonstrates very well that where orthodontics provided the best tooth position prior to implant placement and restorations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Localisation of deformations of the midfacial complex in subjects with class III malocclusions employing thin-plate spline analysis

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, G. D.; McNAMARA JR, J. A.; LOZANOFF, S.

    1997-01-01

    This study determines deformations of the midface that contribute to a class III appearance, employing thin-plate spline analysis. A total of 135 lateral cephalographs of prepubertal children of European-American descent with either class III malocclusions or a class I molar occlusion were compared. The cephalographs were traced and checked, and 7 homologous landmarks of the midface were identified and digitised. The data sets were scaled to an equivalent size and subjected to Procrustes analysis. These statistical tests indicated significant differences (P<0.05) between the averaged class I and class III morphologies. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine and nonaffine transformations contribute towards the total spline for the averaged midfacial configuration. For nonaffine transformations, partial warp 3 had the highest magnitude, indicating the large scale deformations of the midfacial configuration. These deformations affected the palatal landmarks, and were associated with compression of the midfacial complex in the anteroposterior plane predominantly. Partial warp 4 produced some vertical compression of the posterior aspect of the midfacial complex whereas partial warps 1 and 2 indicated localised shape changes of the maxillary alveolus region. Large spatial-scale deformations therefore affect the midfacial complex in an anteroposterior axis, in combination with vertical compression and localised distortions. These deformations may represent a developmental diminution of the palatal complex anteroposteriorly that, allied with vertical shortening of midfacial height posteriorly, results in class III malocclusions with a retrusive midfacial profile. PMID:9449078

  12. Class III peroxidases are activated in proanthocyanidin-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Liguo; Xu, Weifeng; Li, Wenrao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Rui; Shi, Lu; Bin Rahman, A. N. M. Rubaiyath; Fan, Mingshou; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims It has previously been shown that proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana have the ability to scavenge superoxide radicals (O2−). However, the physiological processess in PA-deficit seeds are not clear. It is hypothesized that there exist alternative ways in PA-deficient seeds to cope with oxidative stress. Methods The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and its relevance to the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidases was investigated in both wild-type and PA-deficit mutant seeds. A biochemical staining approach was used to detect tissue localizations of peroxidase activities in PA-deficit mutant seeds. Key Results PA-deficient mutants possess significantly lower levels of H2O2 than the wild-type, despite their higher accumulation of superoxide radicals. Screening of the key antioxidant enzymes revealed that peroxidase activity was significantly over-activated in mutant seeds. This high peroxidase activity was mainly confined to the seed coat zone. Interestingly, neither ascorbate peroxidase nor glutathione peroxidase, just the guaiacol peroxidases (class III peroxidases), was specifically activated in the seed coat. However, no significant difference in peroxidase activity was observed in embryos of either mutants or the wild-type, although gene expressions of several candidate peroxidases were down-regulated in the embryos of PA-deficient seeds. Conclusions The results suggest that enhanced class III peroxidase activity in the seed coat of PA-deficient mutants is an adaptive strategy for seed development and survival. PMID:23448691

  13. Developmental toxicity in the pregnant rabbit by the class III antiarrhythmic drug sotalol.

    PubMed

    Sköld, A C; Danielsson, B R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of sotalol to cause developmental toxicity in the pregnant rabbit. Sotalol is a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug which also has class III antiarrhythmic properties via Ikr channel blockade. EXPERIMENT 1: Nine pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were given doses of either 300, 225, or 150 mg/kg of sotalol during gestational days, called Days, 13-16 which resulted in total litter loss. EXPERIMENT 2: A single dose of sotalol, 100 or 150 mg/kg was administered during Days 8-17 to 15 rabbits. Dosing on Day 8, 9, or 10 resulted in a slightly higher incidence of embryonic death compared to historical controls. There was marked increased embryonic death of 55-90% (four does with total litter loss), decreased number of live foetuses per litter, and elevated mean foetal weight after dosing during Days 12-16. EXPERIMENT 3: 16 pregnant rabbits were administered single doses of sotalol of either 100, 85, 75, 60 or 50 mg/kg on Day 14. The main finding was increased embryonic death, which ranged from total litter loss to approximately 30% at 50 mg/kg. At 50 mg/kg, the maternal Cmax, AUC(1-24 hr), and t1/2 were approximately 45 microM, 340 micromol x hr/l, and 6 hr, respectively. In conclusion, sotalol treatment resulted in embryonic death in the rabbit in early pregnancy in the same way as has been seen for other drugs with Ikr blocking properties (class III antiarrhythmics) in rodents. The observed developmental toxicity in the rabbit is most likely secondary to embryonic arrhythmia as has been shown in rodent studies. The results may indicate that Ikr blocking agents are developmental toxicants across species including man.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a class of mitochondrially-targeted gadolinium(III) agents.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Daniel E; Aitken, Jade B; de Jonge, Martin D; Issa, Fatiah; Harris, Hugh H; Rendina, Louis M

    2014-12-08

    A structure-activity relationship study of a library of novel bifunctional Gd(III) complexes covalently linked to arylphosphonium cations is reported. Such complexes have been designed for potential application in binary cancer therapies such as neutron capture therapy and photon activation therapy. A positive correlation was found between lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of the complexes. Mitochondria uptake was determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Gd uptake was determined by means of quantification using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. A negative correlation between lipophilicity and tumour selectivity of the Gd(III) complexes was demonstrated. This study highlights the delicate balance required to minimise in vitro cytotoxicity and optimise in vitro tumour selectivity and mitochondrial localisation for this new class of mitochondrially-targeted binary therapy agents. We also report the highest in vitro tumour selectivity for any Gd agent reported to date, with a T/N (tumour/normal cell) ratio of up to 23.5±6.6.

  15. Compensation of skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth: Part 2: Skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue parameters in comparison with nonextraction Class III therapies.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Bernd; Gaida, Sarah; Dathe, Henning

    2016-03-01

    To retrospectively compare two compensatory approaches taken in skeletal Class III patients during the main treatment stage, including a study group of multiband treatment plus isolated extraction of mandibular teeth and a control group of multiband treatment without extraction of teeth. The extraction group included 22 (12 female, 10 male) patients receiving compensatory multiband treatment for a mean of 3.47 ± 1.14 years and 16.22 ± 1.92 years old at debonding. The nonextraction group included 24 (14 female, 10 male) patients undergoing multiband treatment for 2.76 ± 1.28 years and 15.38 ± 1.46 years old at debonding. Lateral cephalograms obtained at baseline and upon completion of active treatment were traced for skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue parameters. Welch and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze intergroup differences (initial values, final values, initial-to-final changes) and within-group differences (p < 0.05). Upon completion of active treatment, the only significant intergroup differences were noted for U1NA and L1ML. Significant within-group changes over the courses of treatment were seen for SNB, MLNL, U1NA, U1NL, L1NB, L1ML, H-angle, ULipEL, and LLipEL (extraction group) or for SNB, ANB, individual ANB, Wits appraisal, U1NA, U1NL, H-angle, Naslab-a, ULipEL, and LLipEL (nonextraction group). Parameters that changed by significantly different amounts in both groups included Wits appraisal, L1NB, L1ML, and LLipEL. The added value of isolated extraction therapy basically lies in increasing the potential for retruding the lower incisor inclinations, so that compensatory treatment becomes an option even in selected patients presenting with adverse occlusal situations that would otherwise require orthognathic surgery. Given the successful outcomes in both groups, which had been established by Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores, it was possible to define the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue characteristics of successful treatment more

  16. Accounts of bullying on Twitter in relation to dentofacial features and orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Antoun, J S; Morgaine, K C; Farella, M

    2017-04-01

    Social media offers an accessible resource for gaining valuable insights into the social culture of bullying. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyse Twitter posts for common themes relating to dentofacial features, braces and bullying. Twitter's database was searched from 2010 to 2014 using keywords relevant to bullying, teeth and orthodontics. Two investigators assessed the Twitter posts, and selected those that conveyed the experiences or opinions of bullying victims. The posts were qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis. Of the 548 posts screened, 321 were included in the final sample. Four primary categories relating to 'dental-related bullying' were identified: (i) morphological features, (ii) psychological and psychosocial impact, (iii) coping mechanisms and (iv) the role of family. Bullied individuals reported a diverse range of psychological impacts and coping mechanisms. Secondary categories were also identified. Family members, for example, were found to play both a contributory and mediatory role in bullying. In summary, social media can provide new and valuable information about the causal factors and social issues associated with oral health-related bullying. Importantly, some coping mechanisms may mitigate the negative effects of bullying. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Apelin-13 impedes foam cell formation by activating Class III PI3K/Beclin-1-mediated autophagic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Xie, Wei; Tan, Yu-Lin; Gong, Duo; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Liu, Dan; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-10-30

    Apelin-13, an adipokine, promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages with antiatherosclerotic effect. Autophagy, an evolutionarily ancient response to cellular stress, has been involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin-13 regulates macrophage foam cell cholesterol metabolism through autophagy, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that apelin-13 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux. Our study further demonstrated that apelin-13 induced autophagy via activation of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Beclin-1. Inhibition of Class III PI3K and Beclin-1 suppressed the stimulatory effects of apelin-13 on autophagy activity. The present study concluded that apelin-13 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cells by activating autophagy via Class III PI3K/Beclin-1 pathway. Therefore, our results provide brand new insight about apelin-13 inhibiting foam cell formation and highlight autophagy as a promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

  18. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior negative overjet

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paulo Ávila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This clinical case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 8-year and 9-month old female patient with Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbite and canine Class III relationship. Orthodontic treatment was carried out in two stages. The first one was orthopedic, while the second one included the use of a fixed appliance and the need for space gain for reshaping of maxillary lateral incisors. The two-stage treatment combined with multidisciplinary Restorative Cosmetic Dentistry allowed excellent esthetic and functional outcomes to be achieved. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27275622

  19. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and for...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and for...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and for...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V..., including those on Indian lands, and for Class II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands, and for...

  3. The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

    1999-01-01

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

  4. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  5. Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A retrospective study was conducted to determine the cephalometric changes in a group of Class III patients treated with the inter-arch spring-loaded module (CS2000®, Dynaflex, St. Ann, MO, USA). Methods Thirty Caucasian patients (15 males, 15 females) with an average pre-treatment age of 9.6 years were treated consecutively with this appliance and compared with a control group of subjects from the Bolton-Brush Study who were matched in age, gender, and craniofacial morphology to the treatment group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after removal of the CS2000® appliance. The treatment effects of the CS2000® appliance were calculated by subtracting the changes due to growth (control group) from the treatment changes. Results All patients were improved to a Class I dental arch relationship with a positive overjet. Significant sagittal, vertical, and angular changes were found between the pre- and post-treatment radiographs. With an average treatment time of 1.3 years, the maxillary base moved forward by 0.8 mm, while the mandibular base moved backward by 2.8 mm together with improvements in the ANB and Wits measurements. The maxillary incisor moved forward by 1.3 mm and the mandibular incisor moved forward by 1.0 mm. The maxillary molar moved forward by 1.0 mm while the mandibular molar moved backward by 0.6 mm. The average overjet correction was 3.9 mm and 92% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 8% was due to dental contribution. The average molar correction was 5.2 mm and 69% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 31% was due to dental contribution. Conclusions Mild to moderate Class III malocclusion can be corrected using the inter-arch spring-loaded appliance with minimal patient compliance. The overjet correction was contributed by forward movement of the maxilla, backward and downward movement of the mandible, and proclination of the maxillary incisors. The molar relationship was

  6. Long Maximal Incremental Tests Accurately Assess Aerobic Fitness in Class II and III Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake V˙O2peak and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in V˙O2peak (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between V˙O2peak (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. V˙O2peak and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity. PMID:25875746

  7. Class III correction using an inter-arch spring-loaded module.

    PubMed

    Vanlaecken, Robert; Williams, Michael O; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Martin, Chris; Ngan, Peter

    2014-05-02

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the cephalometric changes in a group of Class III patients treated with the inter-arch spring-loaded module (CS2000®, Dynaflex, St. Ann, MO, USA). Thirty Caucasian patients (15 males, 15 females) with an average pre-treatment age of 9.6 years were treated consecutively with this appliance and compared with a control group of subjects from the Bolton-Brush Study who were matched in age, gender, and craniofacial morphology to the treatment group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after removal of the CS2000® appliance. The treatment effects of the CS2000® appliance were calculated by subtracting the changes due to growth (control group) from the treatment changes. All patients were improved to a Class I dental arch relationship with a positive overjet. Significant sagittal, vertical, and angular changes were found between the pre- and post-treatment radiographs. With an average treatment time of 1.3 years, the maxillary base moved forward by 0.8 mm, while the mandibular base moved backward by 2.8 mm together with improvements in the ANB and Wits measurements. The maxillary incisor moved forward by 1.3 mm and the mandibular incisor moved forward by 1.0 mm. The maxillary molar moved forward by 1.0 mm while the mandibular molar moved backward by 0.6 mm. The average overjet correction was 3.9 mm and 92% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 8% was due to dental contribution. The average molar correction was 5.2 mm and 69% of the correction was due to skeletal contribution and 31% was due to dental contribution. Mild to moderate Class III malocclusion can be corrected using the inter-arch spring-loaded appliance with minimal patient compliance. The overjet correction was contributed by forward movement of the maxilla, backward and downward movement of the mandible, and proclination of the maxillary incisors. The molar relationship was corrected by mesialization of the

  8. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    PubMed

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  9. Amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase, the major frog liver enzyme. Relationships to other forms and assessment of an early gene duplication separating vertebrate class I and class III alcohol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, E.; Joernvall, H. ); Peralba, J.M.; Pares, X. )

    1991-03-19

    Submammalian alcohol dehydrogenase structures can be used to evaluate the origins and functions of different types of the mammalian enzyme. Two avian forms were recently reported, and the authors now define the major amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme from the liver of the Green frog Rana perezi was purified, carboxymethylated, and submitted to amino acid sequence determination by peptide analysis of six different digest. The protein has a 375-residue subunit and is a class I alcohol dehydrogenase, bridging the gap toward the original separation of the classes that are observable in the human alcohol dehydrogenase system. In relation to the human class I enzyme, the amphibian protein has residue identities exactly halfway (68%) between those for the corresponding avian enzyme (74%) and the human class III enzyme (62%), suggesting an origin of the alcohol dehnydrogenase classes very early in or close to the evolution of the vertebrate line. This conclusion suggests that these enzyme classes are more universal among animals than previously realized and constitutes the first real assessment of the origin of the duplications leading to the alcohol dehydrogenase classes. In conclusion, the amphibian enzyme allows a rough positioning of the divergence of the alcohol dehydrogenase classes, shows that the class I type is widesprread in vertebrates, and functionally conforms with greater variations at the substrate-binding than the coenzyme-binding site.

  10. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    PubMed Central

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J. Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted. PMID:27275616

  11. Exploring the Feasibility of Biowaiver Extension of BCS Class III Drugs with Site-Specific Absorption Using Gastrointestinal Simulation Technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Le; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization and European Medicines Agency have allowed biowaiver for some BCS class III drugs, but shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs from 30 to 15 min, considering their site-specific absorption and others risk. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of site-specific absorption, low absorbed fraction (F a) and gastric emptying rate on the biowaiver extension of BCS class III drugs. The oral absorption of BCS class III drugs nadolol, acebutolol and atenolol which were P-gp substrates, was simulated using GastroPlus software with physiological parameters reflecting site-specific and site-independent absorption. Then, the simulation results were compared with the experimental data in literature. Simulation with different dissolution rates (>85 % solubility, T 85 % = 15-180 min) was performed to predict absorption (maximum concentration, C max and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, AUC0-inf) of the above model/virtual drugs (F a 3.81-80.14 %). The results of this study indicated that the site-specific absorption and low F a magnified the effect of dissolution rate on C max and AUC0-inf. However, the oral absorption of model drugs was not sensitive to the change of gastric emptying rate from 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 to 1 h. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that for BCS class III drug with high F a (about >80 %), the biowaiver should extend to rapid dissolution (T 85 % = 30 min), and 30 % of F a as the boundary of intermediate permeability class (30 % < F a < 85 %).

  12. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  13. Involvement of a membrane-bound class III adenylate cyclase in regulation of anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Charania, M A; Brockman, K L; Zhang, Y; Banerjee, A; Pinchuk, G E; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S; Saffarini, D A

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  14. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  15. Class III Pistil-Specific Extensin-Like Proteins from Tobacco Have Characteristics of Arabinogalactan Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Maurice; Knudsen, Jens Sommer; Derksen, Jan; Mariani, Celestina

    2001-01-01

    Class III pistil-specific extensin-like proteins (PELPIII) are specifically localized in the intercellular matrix of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) styles. After pollination the majority of PELPIII are translocated into the callosic layer and the callose plugs of the pollen tubes, which could suggest a function of PELPIII in pollen tube growth. PELPIII may represent one of the chemical and/or physical factors from the female sporophytic tissue that contributes to the difference between in vivo and in vitro pollen tube growth. PELPIII glycoproteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Because of their high proline (Pro) and hydroxy-Pro (Hyp) content, PELPIII proteins belong to the class of Pro/Hyp-rich glycoproteins. The carbohydrate moiety of PELPIII is attached through O-glycosidic linkages and comprises more than one-half the total glycoprotein. Deglycosylation of PELPIII revealed two backbones, both reacting with PELPIII-specific antibodies. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of these backbones showed that PELPIII is encoded by the MG14 and MG15 genes. Two heterogeneous N-terminal sequences of MG14 and MG15, both starting downstream of the predicted signal peptide cleavage site, seem to be present, which indicates a novel N-terminal processing. Monosaccharide analysis showed that the carbohydrate moiety of PELPIII almost completely consists of arabinose and galactose in an equal molar ratio. Carbohydrate linkage analysis showed terminal and 2-linked arabinofuranosyl residues, as well as terminal and 6-, 3-, and 3,6-linked galactopyranosyl residues to be present, indicating the presence of both extensin-like and Type II arabinogalactan oligosaccharide units. The ability of β-glucosyl Yariv reagent to bind with PELPIII confirmed the arabinogalactan protein-like characteristics of these proteins. PMID:11299397

  16. Class III PI3K regulates organismal glucose homeostasis by providing negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Montagnac, Guillaume; Russell, Ryan C.; Morzyglod, Lucille; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Guan, Kun-Liang; Pende, Mario; Panasyuk, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    Defective hepatic insulin receptor (IR) signalling is a pathogenic manifestation of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The endo/lysosomal trafficking system may coordinate insulin action and nutrient homeostasis by endocytosis of IR and the autophagic control of intracellular nutrient levels. Here we show that class III PI3K—a master regulator of endocytosis, endosomal sorting and autophagy—provides negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. The ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene protein (UVRAG)-associated class III PI3K complex interacts with IR and is stimulated by insulin treatment. Acute and chronic depletion of hepatic Vps15, the regulatory subunit of class III PI3K, increases insulin sensitivity and Akt signalling, an effect that requires functional IR. This is reflected by FoxO1-dependent transcriptional defects and blunted gluconeogenesis in Vps15 mutant cells. On depletion of Vps15, the metabolic syndrome in genetic and diet-induced models of insulin resistance and diabetes is alleviated. Thus, feedback regulation of IR trafficking and function by class III PI3K may be a therapeutic target in metabolic conditions of insulin resistance. PMID:26387534

  17. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS California § 147.251 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells and... remainder of this subpart. Injection well owners and operators, and EPA shall comply with these requirements..., IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS California § 147.251 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells and... remainder of this subpart. Injection well owners and operators, and EPA shall comply with these requirements..., IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS California § 147.251 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells and... remainder of this subpart. Injection well owners and operators, and EPA shall comply with these requirements..., IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS California § 147.251 EPA-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells and... remainder of this subpart. Injection well owners and operators, and EPA shall comply with these requirements..., IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems

    Treesearch

    Marcel Robischon; Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2550 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. 147.2550 Section 147.2550 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming §...

  3. The lived experience of middle-aged women with New York Heart Association class III heart failure: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer Wayment; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Lynch-Sauer, Judith

    2009-09-01

    Although heart failure (HF) is equally prevalent in men and women, women with HF are more likely to report decreased quality of life and are more likely to die of the disease compared with men. Moreover, HF has been studied less extensively in women and no study has specifically addressed women with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III HF using a qualitative method. This pilot study sought to gain insight into the lived experience of women with NYHA class III HF. Using a phenomenological approach, interviews obtained from 4 middle-aged women with NYHA class III HF were analyzed using the Giorgi method of data analysis. Five themes emerged: (1) developing a new conception of self, (2) conceding physical limitations, (3) enduring emotional heartache, (4) accepting support, and (5) rejuvenating through rest. This study provides a beginning to our understanding of the lived experience of women with NYHA class III HF. However, further exploration is needed to increase our knowledge of HF in women, particularly among diverse populations.

  4. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... action in Federal district court against the State alleging that the State did not respond, or did not... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 40 CFR 147.200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Arkansas, except those wells on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology approved by EPA... on June 25, 1984. (1) Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act, Act 472 of 1949 as amended...

  6. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the program... Water Pollution Control Act, Code of Alabama 1975, sections 22-22-1 through 22-22-14 (1980 and Supp... the EPA Regional Administrator on May 24, 1983. (c) Statement of legal authority. (1) “Water Pollution...

  7. 40 CFR 147.200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Arkansas, except those wells on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology approved by EPA... on June 25, 1984. (1) Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act, Act 472 of 1949 as amended...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Utah, except those on Indian lands, is administered... of the Federal Register on June 25, 1984. (1) Utah Water Pollution Control Act, Utah Code Annotated... Executive Secretary of Utah Water Pollution Control Committee on August 16, 1990). (b) Other laws. The...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Utah, except those on Indian lands, is administered... of the Federal Register on June 25, 1984. (1) Utah Water Pollution Control Act, Utah Code Annotated... Executive Secretary of Utah Water Pollution Control Committee on August 16, 1990). (b) Other laws. The...

  10. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate Equivalent...

  11. [Limiting factors in the class III camouflage treatment: a potential protocol].

    PubMed

    Chaques Asensi, José

    2016-06-01

    The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other. Furthermore, the quantification of some of these factors, for practical purposes, is practically missing or very seldom suggested. Therefore, the decision making process remains a subjective reflection based on the "good clinical sense" of the orthodontist or just reduced to an "educated guess". In order to add some information, hopefully useful in deciding the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient, we propose a clinical protocol based on four different factors. Namely: the skeletal discrepancy, the occlusal discrepancy, the periodontal condition and facial aesthetics. For each one of these factors several parameters will be evaluated and, for some of them, an attempt to provide some reference numerical values will be made. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to illustrate the concepts discussed and the treatment alternatives, final treatment plan and treatment outcome will be analyzed for each one of them. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  12. The abundant 31-kilodalton banana pulp protein is homologous to class-III acidic chitinases.

    PubMed

    Clendennen, S K; López-Gómez, R; Gómez-Lim, M; Arntzen, C J; May, G D

    1998-02-01

    We have identified and characterized the abundant protein from the pulp of banana fruit (Musa acuminata cv. Grand Nain), and have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this protein. Comparison of the amino terminal sequence of the purified 31 kDa protein (P31) suggests that it is related to plant chitinases. Western analyses utilizing rabbit anti-P31 antiserum demonstrate that this protein is pulp-specific in banana. A full-length cDNA clone homologous to class III acidic chitinase genes has been isolated from a pulp cDNA library by differential screening. The identity of this clone as encoding P31 was verified by comparisons between the amino-terminal peptide sequence and the cDNA sequence and cross-hybridization of the translation product of the cDNA clone with P31 antiserum. Northern and western blot analyses of RNA and protein isolated from banana pulp at different stages of ripening indicate that the cDNA and protein are expressed at high levels in the pulp of unripe fruit, and that their abundance decreases as the fruit ripens. Based on its expression pattern and deduced amino acid sequence and composition, we hypothesize that the physiological role of P31 is not for plant protection, but as a storage protein in banana pulp.

  13. Alterations in Soluble Class III Peroxidases of Maize Shoots by Flooding Stress

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Buck, Friedrich; Lüthje, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Due to changing climate, flooding (waterlogged soils and submergence) becomes a major problem in agriculture and crop production. In the present study, the effect of waterlogging was investigated on peroxidases of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. The plants showed typical adaptations to flooding stress, i.e., alterations in chlorophyll a/b ratios and increased basal shoot diameter. Seven peroxidase bands could be detected by first dimension modified SDS-PAGE and 10 bands by first dimension high resolution Clear Native Electrophoresis that altered in dependence on plant development and time of waterlogging. Native isoelectric focusing revealed three acidic to neutral and four alkaline guaiacol peroxidases that could be further separated by high resolution Clear Native Electrophorese in the second dimension. One neutral peroxidase (pI 7.0) appeared to be down-regulated within four hours after flooding, whereas alkaline peroxidases (pI 9.2, 8.0 and 7.8) were up-regulated after 28 or 52 h. Second dimensions revealed molecular masses of 133 kDa and 85 kDa for peroxidases at pI 8.0 and 7.8, respectively. Size exclusion chromatography revealed native molecular masses of 30–58 kDa for peroxidases identified as class III peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidases by mass spectrometry. Possible functions of these peroxidases in flooding stress will be discussed. PMID:28250383

  14. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Challenging the paradigms of leaf evolution: Class III HD-Zips in ferns and lycophytes.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Alejandra; Smalls, Tynisha L; Graham, Sean W; Cooper, Endymion D; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Stevenson, Dennis W; Moran, Robbin C; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary significance leaves have for life on Earth, their origin and development remain vigorously debated. More than a century of paleobotanical, morphological, and phylogenetic research has still not resolved fundamental questions about leaves. Developmental genetic data are sparse in ferns, and comparative studies of lycophytes and seed plants have reached opposing conclusions on the conservation of a leaf developmental program. We performed phylogenetic and expression analyses of a leaf developmental regulator (Class III HD-Zip genes; C3HDZs) spanning lycophytes and ferns. We show that a duplication and neofunctionalization of C3HDZs probably occurred in the ancestor of euphyllophytes, and that there is a common leaf developmental mechanism conserved between ferns and seed plants. We show C3HDZ expression in lycophyte and fern sporangia and show that C3HDZs have conserved expression patterns during initiation of lateral primordia (leaves or sporangia). This expression is maintained throughout sporangium development in lycophytes and ferns and indicates an ancestral role of C3HDZs in sporangium development. We hypothesize that there is a deep homology of all leaves and that a sporangium-specific developmental program was coopted independently for the development of lycophyte and euphyllophyte leaves. This provides molecular genetic support for a paradigm shift in theories of lycophyte leaf evolution.

  16. Class III myosins shape the auditory hair bundles by limiting microvilli and stereocilia growth

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Andrea; Michel, Vincent; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Cortese, Matteo; Bosch-Grau, Montserrat; Aghaie, Asadollah; Perfettini, Isabelle; Dupont, Typhaine; Avan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The precise architecture of hair bundles, the arrays of mechanosensitive microvilli-like stereocilia crowning the auditory hair cells, is essential to hearing. Myosin IIIa, defective in the late-onset deafness form DFNB30, has been proposed to transport espin-1 to the tips of stereocilia, thereby promoting their elongation. We show that Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb are profoundly deaf, whereas Myo3a-cKO Myo3b−/− mice lacking myosin IIIb and losing myosin IIIa postnatally have normal hearing. Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− cochlear hair bundles display robust mechanoelectrical transduction currents with normal kinetics but show severe embryonic abnormalities whose features rapidly change. These include abnormally tall and numerous microvilli or stereocilia, ungraded stereocilia bundles, and bundle rounding and closure. Surprisingly, espin-1 is properly targeted to Myo3a−/−Myo3b−/− stereocilia tips. Our results uncover the critical role that class III myosins play redundantly in hair-bundle morphogenesis; they unexpectedly limit the elongation of stereocilia and of subsequently regressing microvilli, thus contributing to the early hair bundle shaping. PMID:26754646

  17. Phenotyping of human complement component C4, a class-III HLA antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, E; Cross, S J

    1986-01-01

    The plasma complement protein C4 is encoded at two highly polymorphic loci, A and B, within the class-III region of the major histocompatibility complex. At least 34 different polymorphic variants of human C4 have been identified, including non-expressed or 'null' alleles. The main method of identification of C4 polymorphic allotypes is separation on the basis of charge by agarose-gel electrophoresis of plasma. On staining by immunofixation with anti-C4 antibodies, each C4 type gives three major bands, but, since individuals can have up to five allotypes, the overlapping banding pattern is difficult to interpret. We show that digestion of plasma samples with carboxypeptidase B, which removes C-terminal basic amino acids, before electrophoresis, produces a single, sharp, distinct band for each allotype and allows identification of the biochemical basis of the multiple banding pattern previously observed in C4 phenotype determination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3103606

  18. Nonsurgical and nonextraction treatment of skeletal Class III open bite: its long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Aoba, T J

    2000-03-01

    Two female patients, aged 14 years 5 months and 17 years 3 months with skeletal Class III open bite and temporomandibular dysfunction are presented. They had previously been classified as orthognathic surgical cases, involving first premolar removal. The primary treatment objective was to eliminate those skeletal and neuromuscular factors that were dominant in establishing their malocclusions. These included abnormal behavior of the tongue with short labial and lingual frenula, bilateral imbalance of chewing muscles, a partially blocked nasopharyngeal airway causing extrusion of the molars, with rotation of the mandible and narrowing of the maxillary arch. Resultant occlusal interference caused the mandible to shift to one side, which in turn produced the abnormal occlusal plane and curve of Spee. As a result, the form and function of the joints were adversely affected by the structural and functional asymmetry. These cases were treated by expanding the maxillary arch, which brought the maxilla downward and forward. The mandible moved downward and backward, with a slight increase in anterior facial height. Intruding and uprighting the posterior teeth, combined with a maxillary protraction, reconstructed the occlusal plane. A favorable perioral environment was created with widened tongue space in order to produce an adequate airway. Myofunctional therapy after lingual and labial frenectomy was assisted by vigorous gum chewing during and after treatment, together with a tooth positioner. Normal nasal breathing was achieved.

  19. Soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in Japanese class III asymmetric patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gunaid, Talat; Yamaki, Masaki; Takagi, Ritsuo; Saito, Isao

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of bimaxillary surgery on Class III subjects with mandibular asymmetry, and to compare the effects of the type of surgery performed in the mandible on the facial profile especially in the presence of facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in whom imbalance between the maxilla and the mandible were corrected by Le Fort I osteotomy combined with bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (BIVRO group, n=9), bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO group, n=14), or a combination of intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) (IVRO + SSRO group, n=13). Cephalograms were taken before surgery (T1), and 1 year after surgery (T2). Hard and soft-tissue changes were compared. Results: The postsurgical findings showed that greater mandibular backward displacement and greater upper lip forward movement were more pronounced among BIVRO group when compared with BSSRO group. Upper lip relation to E-line showed greater improvement in BIVRO group than BSSRO and IVRO + SSRO groups. The ratios of corresponding mandibular soft to hard tissue movements were higher than that of maxillary movements and were more pronounced in IVRO + SSRO and BSSRO groups when compared with BIVRO group. Conclusion: IVRO surgical technique appears to be more effective in positioning the mandible more posteriorly and improving upper and lower lips position and competence. PMID:24987630

  20. Resorptive remodeling in maxillary anterior region after bimaxillary surgery for skeletal Class III deformities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate bony remodelling in the anterior region of the maxilla after bimaxillary surgery for skeletal Class III deformities preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and 6 months postoperatively. For accurate analysis, cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images of 29 patients (12 men and 17 women; mean age 22 (range 19 to 44) years) were used. The nasopalatine canal, unaffected by the maxillary Le Fort I osteotomy, was used for the reference points (posterosuperior, midpoint, and posteroinferior). The changes in the distance from each of the points on the nasopalatine canal to the corresponding anterior border of the maxilla were measured and analysed at the 3 stages (p<0.05). Bony resorption was apparent during the postoperative period, and the mean resorption was -1.13 (1.53) mm at the posterosuperior level, -0.92 (0.83) mm at the midpoint, and -0.83 (0.88) mm at the posteroinferior level (p<0.01). These findings show that there had been resorptive remodelling postoperatively in the anterior maxillary region after bimaxillary surgery with superior maxillary movement, which suggests that the postoperative change in the position of point A is affected by operative movement as well as by postoperative relapse and bony remodelling. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soft tissue changes after a mandibular osteotomy for symmetric skeletal class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Seigo; Kohara, Haruka; Koga, Takamitsu; Kawasaki, Takako; Miura, Kei-Ichirou; Yoshida, Noriaki; Asahina, Izumi

    2016-10-31

    The soft tissue profile is crucial to esthetics after orthognathic surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the soft tissue changes of the subnasal and submental regions more than 1 year after a sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. A total of 22 patients with mandibular prognathism were included in this study. Patients had lateral cephalograms before and more than 1 year after they underwent an isolated SSRO. Soft and hard tissue changes were assessed using the lateral cephalograms. The lower lip, labiomenton, and soft tissue menton moved posteriorly by 85, 89, and 88% compared with the corresponding hard tissue, and the movement of the soft tissue B point and the top of the chin nearly reflected the displacement of the hard tissues, at 96 and 99%, respectively. The labiomenton, stomions, and naso-labial angles were changed after the mandibular set-back and the changes in these angles correlated with either the width of the soft tissue or skeletal displacement. The naso-labial angle could be altered even if an isolated mandibular osteotomy is performed. Changes to the stomions and naso-labial angles were affected by hard tissue movement, while changes to the labiomental angle were affected by the width of the soft tissue after the mandibular osteotomy. It is important to create an accurate preoperative prediction of the esthetic outcomes after a mandibular osteotomy by considering the interrelations between the hard and soft tissues.

  2. Self-esteem and depression in patients presenting angle class III malocclusion submitted for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nicodemo, Denise; Pereira, Max Domingues; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2008-01-01

    To assess self-esteem and depression in patients submitted for orthognathic surgery. Assessment was realized on 29 patients, male and female, aged 17 to 46, presenting Angle Class III malocclusion and referred for surgical treatment, during the preoperative (orthodontic preparation) and postoperative (six-month postoperative) periods. Either maxillomandibular or isolated procedures were performed. Two previously validated standardized measurement instruments for this area were used: the UNIFESP-EPM Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance and the Bonferroni test) verified possible interactions between the pre and postoperative periods, genders and types of surgery. Significance was determined at 5%. Females showed improved self-esteem, presenting lower mean values after surgery (8.9 to 6.3). Regarding depression, a significant reduction in the number of depressive symptoms (p=0.002) occurred for female patients. Female patients presented improved self-esteem and diminished depressive symptoms due to surgical intervention; whereas male patients showed no alteration in self-esteem and depression with surgical intervention.

  3. Diagnosis of Class III malocclusion in 7- to 8-year-old children--a 3D evaluation.

    PubMed

    Krneta, Bojana; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize facial and jaw morphology of children with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition. This study was conducted on 7- to 8-year-old Caucasian children, 48 children with Class III malocclusion and 91 children with normal occlusion. Surface images of faces and study casts were obtained using laser scanning. Two average facial templates were constructed for the males and females in the control group. The facial images were superimposed on the corresponding average templates. Facial parameters, palatal volumes, and gingival surface areas were measured and group differences were quantified. The analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation of the measured parameters. The results revealed shorter lower face height (P < 0.001), concave facial profile (P < 0.001), retruded maxilla (P < 0.001), protruded mandible (P < 0.001), retrusive mid-face restricted area (P < 0.001), reduced gingival surface area of the maxilla (P = 0.013), and reduced maxilla/mandible gingival surface area ratio (P < 0.001) in the Class III group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in upper face height, restricted areas of the upper and lower face, palatal volume, and gingival surface area of the mandible (P > 0.05). Regardless of the fact that the prevalence of Class III malocclusion is rather small, the sample size could be larger. Class III subjects show clinically relevant facial and jaws characteristics in pre-pubertal growth period. A comprehensive diagnosis should include transverse dimension analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Results Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, −0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, −1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. Conclusions This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. PMID:22748987

  5. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery. A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery. The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m2 and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients. Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery. PMID:28562535

  6. Change in lip closing force in Classes II and III malocclusion before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Hotta, Asami; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuki; Iguchi, Ran; Kosaka, Akihiko; Ikawa, Hiroumi; Ueki, Koichiro

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lip closing force in Class II and III patients before and after orthognathic surgery. The subjects were 45 patients (15 Class II women, 15 Class III men and 15 Class III women) diagnosed with jaw deformity who underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy and 30 controls with normal skeleton and occlusion (15 men, 15 women). Maximum and minimum lip closing forces were measured using Lip De Cum(®) before and after surgery, and compared statistically. In the Class II women, maximum and minimum lip closing forces did not change after surgery. However, maximum and minimum lip pressure increased significantly in the Class III men (P = 0.0116, P = 0.0295) and maximum lip closing force increased significantly in the Class III women (P = 0.0082). After 6 months, maximum lip closing force was significantly lower in both Classes II and III women than in the control women (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0045). This study suggested that maximum postoperative lip pressure did not improve in the Class II women, although maximum lip closing force increased in the Class III men and women after sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Class of Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Robert Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The source protons of Solar Energetic particle Proton events (defined as "SEP" events for this research) not associated with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) shock front are thought to come from either the flare site or the reconnection region beneath the CME. The Type III-L, a new class of solar radio burst has been defined by Cane et al. (2002) and MacDowall et al. (2003) as a sub-set of the Type III burst, beginning after the onset of the soft X-ray (SXR) flare, is long lasting and extends down to at least 1 MHz. The emission source region of Type III-Ls is believed to be at the reconnection region beneath the CME or on the flanks of the CME. Past association studies between SEP events and Type III-Ls began with a biased SEP-selected sample set to see if there can be found support for the emission source region of Type III-Ls and SEPs to come from the same accelerator site at the reconnection region beneath the CME. Unlike previous studies using an SEP-selected sample, I find that when using a radio-selected sample for well-connected SEP events with a solar source in the western hemisphere, the majority of the Type III-L events are associated with SEP events, but not all, and that Type III-L events associated with M- and X- class SXR flares, do not appear to be better predictors of SEP events than do Type II bursts which are associated with the CME shock. Also, I find that the occurrence of Type II events in the radio spectra of SEPs is just as common as the occurrence of Type III-Ls. This indicates that Type III-Ls should not be used as a predictor for SEP events, that the emission source region of Type III-Ls might not be at the reconnection region beneath the CME and reduces the strength of the support found by previous SEP-Type III-L association studies, that the source protons for SEP events necessarily come from the reconnection region beneath the CME. I found that Type III-L events have no strong longitude preference, but SEP events do have a 60

  8. 40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands. 147.2101 Section 147.2101 Protection of Environment... wells and all wells on Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all Class I, III, IV, and V...

  9. Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, p<0.001). After combined orthodontic-orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MS-551 and KCB-328, two class III drugs aggravated adrenaline-induced arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Yamada, C; Aye, N N; Hashimoto, K

    1998-08-01

    We investigated the proarrhythmic effects of MS-551 and KCB-328, class III antiarrhythmic drugs using adrenaline-induced arrhythmia models in halothane anaesthetized, closed-chest dogs. In the control period, adrenaline, starting from a low dose of 0.25 to up to 1.0 microg/kg/50 s i.v., was injected to determine the arrhythmia inducing dose and the non-inducing dose. After MS-551 or KCB-328 administration, the adrenaline injection was repeated and the interval between the injection and the occurrence of arrhythmia (latent interval), the changes in arrhythmic ratio (as calculated by dividing the number of ventricular premature contraction by the number of the total heart rate) and the severity of arrhythmia were observed. MS-551 infusion, 1 mg/kg/30 min, decreased the heart rate (HR) by 16% (P<0.01) and prolonged the QTc interval by 20% (P<0.01). During the 30 min of MS-551 infusion, arrhythmias occurred in three out of seven dogs (torsades de pointes (TdP) type VT in one dog). After these arrhythmias disappeared, MS-551 decreased the latent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing dose (30+/-2 s compared with 43+/-3 s of the control interval, P < 0.05), increased the arrhythmic ratio (P<0.05) and induced arrhythmias by non-inducing adrenaline doses (P<0.05). Effect of a new class III drug KCB-328 infusion, 0.3 mg/kg/30 min, was compared witih MS-551 using the same model. KCB-328 decreased the HR by 21% (P<0.01) and prolonged the QTc interval by 25% (P<0.01). During the 30 min of infusion, arrhythmias occurred in five out of seven dogs (TdP in two dogs). KCB-328 also decreased the latent interval of the adrenaline arrhythmias produced by the inducing doses (31+/-3 s compared with 49+/-7 s of the control period, P<0.05), but did not significantly alter the arrhythmic ratio. Adrenaline induced TdP only after MS-551 or KCB-328 was administered, i.e. after MS-551, 1 mg/kg/30 min, 3/7 versus 0/7 in the control; KCB, 0.3 mg/kg/30 min, 3/7 versus 0

  11. Role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase during programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Akematsu, Takahiko; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Attiq, Rizwan; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2014-02-01

    Programmed nuclear death (PND) in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a novel type of autophagy that occurs during conjugation, in which only the parental somatic macronucleus is destined to die and is then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm. Other coexisting nuclei, however, such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND starts with condensation in the nucleus followed by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, lysosomal acidification, and final resorption. Because of the peculiarity in the process and the absence of some ATG genes in this organism, the mechanism of PND has remained unclear. In this study, we focus on the role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K, corresponding to yeast Vps34) in order to identify central regulators of PND. We identified the sole Tetrahymena thermophila ortholog (TtVPS34) to yeast Vps34 and human PIK3C3 (the catalytic subunit of PtdIns3K), through phylogenetic analysis, and generated the gene knockdown mutant for functional analysis. Loss of TtVPS34 activity prevents autophagosome formation on the parental macronucleus, and this nucleus escapes from the lysosomal pathway. In turn, DNA fragmentation and final resorption of the nucleus are drastically impaired. These phenotypes are similar to the situation in the ATG8Δ mutants of Tetrahymena, implying an inextricable link between TtVPS34 and TtATG8s in controlling PND as well as general macroautophagy. On the other hand, TtVPS34 does not appear responsible for the nuclear condensation and does not affect the progeny nuclear development. These results demonstrate that TtVPS34 is critically involved in the nuclear degradation events of PND in autophagosome formation rather than with an involvement in commitment to the death program.

  12. Role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase during programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Akematsu, Takahiko; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Attiq, Rizwan; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    Programmed nuclear death (PND) in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a novel type of autophagy that occurs during conjugation, in which only the parental somatic macronucleus is destined to die and is then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm. Other coexisting nuclei, however, such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND starts with condensation in the nucleus followed by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, lysosomal acidification, and final resorption. Because of the peculiarity in the process and the absence of some ATG genes in this organism, the mechanism of PND has remained unclear. In this study, we focus on the role of class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K, corresponding to yeast Vps34) in order to identify central regulators of PND. We identified the sole Tetrahymena thermophila ortholog (TtVPS34) to yeast Vps34 and human PIK3C3 (the catalytic subunit of PtdIns3K), through phylogenetic analysis, and generated the gene knockdown mutant for functional analysis. Loss of TtVPS34 activity prevents autophagosome formation on the parental macronucleus, and this nucleus escapes from the lysosomal pathway. In turn, DNA fragmentation and final resorption of the nucleus are drastically impaired. These phenotypes are similar to the situation in the ATG8Δ mutants of Tetrahymena, implying an inextricable link between TtVPS34 and TtATG8s in controlling PND as well as general macroautophagy. On the other hand, TtVPS34 does not appear responsible for the nuclear condensation and does not affect the progeny nuclear development. These results demonstrate that TtVPS34 is critically involved in the nuclear degradation events of PND in autophagosome formation rather than with an involvement in commitment to the death program. PMID:24280724

  13. Class III Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Acute Leukemia – Biological Functions and Modern Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Rimma

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex disease caused by deregulation of multiple signaling pathways. Mutations in class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated in alteration of cell signals concerning the growth and differentiation of leukemic cells. Point mutations, insertions, or deletions of RTKs as well as chromosomal translocations induce constitutive activation of the receptor, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid blasts. Aberrations can occur in all domains of RTKs causing either the ligand-independent activation or mimicking the activated conformation. The World Health Organization recommended including RTK mutations in the AML classification since their detection in routine laboratory diagnostics is a major factor for prognostic stratification of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods are well-validated for the detection of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations and can easily be applied for other RTKs. However, when methodological limitations are reached, accessory techniques can be applied. For a higher resolution and more quantitative approach compared to agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR fragments can be separated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, high-resolution melting and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography are reliable presequencing screening methods that reduce the sample amount for Sanger sequencing. Because traditional DNA sequencing is time-consuming, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an innovative modern possibility to analyze a high amount of samples simultaneously in a short period of time. At present, standardized procedures for NGS are not established, but when this barrier is resolved, it will provide a new platform for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnostic of RTK mutations in patients with AML. In this article, the biological and physiological role of RTK mutations in AML as well as possible laboratory methods for their detection will be

  14. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits.

  15. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  16. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthognathic surgery for class III deformity: comparative cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, P; Bellot-Arcís, C; Llamas, J M; Cibrian, R; Gandia, J L; Paredes-Gallardo, V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare different cephalometric variables in adult patients with class III malocclusions before and after treatment, in order to determine which variables are indicative of orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery. The cases of 156 adult patients were assessed: 77 treated with orthodontic camouflage and 79 treated with orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. The following cephalometric variables were measured on pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) lateral cephalograms: sella-nasion-A-point (SNA), sella-nasion-B-point (SNB), and A-point-nasion-B-point (ANB) angles, Wits appraisal, facial axis angle, mandibular plane angle, upper and lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle. There were statistically significant differences in cephalometric variables before and after treatment between the two groups. The percentage of normal pre-treatment measurements in the camouflage orthodontics group was 30.7%, which worsened slightly to 28.4% post-treatment. However in the group receiving surgery, this was 24.5% pre-treatment, improving to 33.5% after surgery. SNA, SNB, Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle showed differences between the two groups before and after treatment. Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle were indicative of one or other treatment. Upper and lower incisor decompensation in both groups did not reach ideal values, which impeded complete skeletal correction in 52% of surgical cases. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dentoalveolar compensation according to skeletal discrepancy and overjet in skeletal Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Baik, Hyoung-Seon

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate dentoalveolar compensation in untreated skeletal Class III patients with either positive or negative overjet. The positive overjet groups consisted of 104 adults, divided into group 1 (angle between sella-nasion to mandibular plane (SN-MP) > 38°, n = 30), group 2 (30° < SN-MP < 38°, n = 43), and group 3 (SN-MP <30°, n = 31). The negative overjet groups (groups 4-6) consisted of 90 adults who were closely matched to the positive overjet groups with regard to the ANB and SN-MP angles. Twenty-two cephalometric measurements were compared between the matched groups. In the positive overjet groups, correlation analysis was performed between the skeletal and dental measurements, and regression analysis was performed to determine the incisor-mandibular plane angle. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the occlusal plane was more flattened in the positive overjet groups than in the negative overjet groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them with regard to mandibular incisor inclination. The inclinations of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were correlated with both the sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements. Eight regression equations for the incisor-mandibular plane angle were calculated with the highest coefficient of determination of 0.547. Proclination of the maxillary incisors and flattening of the occlusal plane contributed to a positive overjet. Mandibular incisor inclination was more closely associated with sagittal and vertical skeletal discrepancies and was not affected by the incisal relationship. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in dentofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Kuroda, Shingo; Horiuchi, Shinya; Tabata, Akira; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    Oral and maxillofacial diseases affect millions of people worldwide and hence tissue engineering can be considered an interesting and clinically relevant approach to regenerate orofacial tissues after being affected by different diseases. Among several innovations for tissue regeneration, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used extensively in medicine as a therapeutic, operative, and diagnostic tool. LIPUS is accepted to promote bone fracture repair and regeneration. Furthermore, the effect of LIPUS on soft tissues regeneration has been paid much attention, and many studies have performed to evaluate the potential use of LIPUS to tissue engineering soft tissues. The present article provides an overview about the status of LIPUS stimulation as a tool to be used to enhance regeneration/tissue engineering. This review consists of five parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction of the acoustic description of LIPUS and mechanical action. In Part 2, biological problems in dentofacial tissue engineering are proposed. Part 3 explores biologic mechanisms of LIPUS to cells and tissues in living body. In Part 4, the effectiveness of LIPUS on cell metabolism and tissue regeneration in dentistry are summarized. Finally, Part 5 relates the possibility of clinical application of LIPUS in orthodontics. The present review brings out better understanding of the bioeffect of LIPUS therapy on orofacial tissues which is essential to the successful integration of management remedies for tissue regeneration/engineering. To develop an evidence-based approach to clinical management and treatment of orofacial degenerative diseases using LIPUS, we would like to be in full pursuit of LIPUS biotherapy. Still, there are many challenges for this relatively new strategy, but the up to date achievements using it promises to go far beyond the present possibilities.

  19. [Incidence of dentofacial deformities in the Specialty Hospital of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Delgado Galíndez, Blanca; Villalpaondo Carreón, Mónika

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence and classification of dentofacial deformities from the Maxillofacial Department at the Specialty Hospital at the 21st Century National Medical Center of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. A descriptive, retrospective and transversal study was carried out. Clinical files from 120 patients were reviewed from May 1997 to May 1998 with the purpose of classifying and determining the types of maxillofacial deformities and also to report whether these deformities were corrected by orthognatic surgery. One hundred twenty clinical files were reviewed and dentofacial deformities were found in 47 (39%). All patients were treated with orthognatic surgery. Surgical treatment was often combined (orthodontia and surgery). Regardless of the type of dentofacial deformities, an individualized treatment protocol must be designed for each patient. It is important to list the priorities and needs of the patients in order to find appropriate solutions, in regard to their importance.

  20. Correction of dental Class III with posterior open bite by simple biomechanics using an anterior C-tube miniplate

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kang, Suk-Man; Lin, Lu; Nelson, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In the correction of dental Class III molar relationship in skeletal Class II patients, uprighting of the mandibular posterior segments without opening the mandible is an important treatment objective. In the case reported herein, a C-tube miniplate fixed to the lower labial symphysis and connected with a nickel-titanium reverse-curved archwire provided effective uprighting of the lower molars, without the need of orthodontic appliances on the mandibular anteriors. Using this approach, an appropriate magnitude of force is exerted on the molars while avoiding any negative effect on the mandibular anteriors. PMID:23173121

  1. Class III malocclusion with missing maxillary central incisor and facial asymmetry treated with orthodontics and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kiyoshi; Park, Jae Hyun; Sato, Yasumori

    2012-01-01

    A 28-year-old female with a Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry was treated with orthodontics combined with intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). She had severe skeletal Class III (Wits: -9.7 mm). She was missing her maxillary left central incisor and had a fixed three-unit bridge on her maxillary anterior teeth. The patient presented a concave profile with a protrusive mandible. Her dental and mandibular midline was shifted 3 mm toward the left. After presurgical orthodontic treatment, IVRO was performed. The total active treatment time was 16 months including surgery. Both occlusion and facial appearance were significantly improved by the surgical-orthodontic treatment. Posttreatment records after 2 years showed excellent results with good, stable occlusion, facial balance and harmony, and long-term stability.

  2. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto Dos; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; Paula, Rafael Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  3. Interdisciplinary treatment of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta, a skeletal Class III relationship, and an anterior open bite.

    PubMed

    Marşan, Gülnaz; Aksu, Irem Sakarya; Kurt, Hanefi; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Cura, Nil

    2010-01-01

    An adult woman with amelogenesis imperfecta, a skeletal Class III relationship, long face syndrome, and a severe anterior open bite received interdisciplinary treatment (orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, and prosthodontics). Presurgical orthodontic treatment was followed by a maxillary posterior impaction with anterior advancement and a mandibular setback. After surgery, the patient received ceramic crowns. Function and esthetics were successfully re-established. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  4. Synthesis of N-diisopropyl phosphoryl benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline, a new class of mitochondrial complexes I and III inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andreu, I; Cabedo, N; Tormo, J R; Bermejo, A; Mello, R; Cortes, D

    2000-07-03

    The synthesis of N-(O,O-diisopropylphosphoryl)-benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (3) has been achieved in a 'one pot' procedure from imine (2) and diisopropyl-phosphorochloridate (1) generated in situ (POCl3 + iPrOH). Compound 3 is the first benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline derivative found to be a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complexes I and III, and therefore it opens a new perspective with this series of compounds as they can be considered as new class of antitumor agents.

  5. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; dos Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; de Paula, Rafael Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology. PMID:28125138

  6. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hillenbrand, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

  7. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Robischon, Marcel; Martinez, Ciera; Groover, Andrew

    2011-02-28

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar) trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth.

  8. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results. PMID:28328995

  9. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced. PMID:26550202

  10. Structure of macrophage colony stimulating factor bound to FMS: Diverse signaling assemblies of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; He, Xiaolin

    2009-06-12

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), through binding to its receptor FMS, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), regulates the development and function of mononuclear phagocytes, and plays important roles in innate immunity, cancer and inflammation. We report a 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of M-CSF bound to the first 3 domains (D1-D3) of FMS. The ligand binding mode of FMS is surprisingly different from KIT, another class III RTK, in which the major ligand-binding domain of FMS, D2, uses the CD and EF loops, but not the {beta}-sheet on the opposite side of the Ig domain as in KIT, to bind ligand. Calorimetric data indicate that M-CSF cannot dimerize FMS without receptor-receptor interactions mediated by FMS domains D4 and D5. Consistently, the structure contains only 1 FMS-D1-D3 molecule bound to a M-CSF dimer, due to a weak, hydrophilic M-CSF:FMS interface, and probably a conformational change of the M-CSF dimer in which binding to the second site is rendered unfavorable by FMS binding at the first site. The partial, intermediate complex suggests that FMS may be activated in two steps, with the initial engagement step distinct from the subsequent dimerization/activation step. Hence, the formation of signaling class III RTK complexes can be diverse, engaging various modes of ligand recognition and various mechanistic steps for dimerizing and activating receptors.

  11. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results.

  12. Augmented corticotomy-assisted presurgical orthodontics of class III malocclusions: a cephalometric and cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guofang; Fang, Bing; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yong

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular incisor decompensation and the surrounding periodontal status with augmented corticotomy-assisted presurgical orthodontics of class III patients. Fifty-six surgical class III patients were enrolled in this study, 26 of whom chose augmented corticotomy-assisted presurgical orthodontics (G1), and 30 chose conventional procedures (G2). Cone-beam computed tomography images and lateral cephalograms were obtained from each patient before and after presurgical orthodontics. Measurements of variables were compared using Student t tests and separate variance estimation t tests. The amount of mandibular incisor decompensation and the increase in labial alveolar bone thickness in G1 were greater than those in G2 during presurgical orthodontics (P < 0.001), however, root resorption (P < 0.001), the decrease in lingual alveolar bone thickness (P < 0.001), and vertical alveolar bone loss on both labial (P < 0.05) and lingual sides (P < 0.001) were less in G1 than in G2. Sufficient mandibular incisor decompensation and better periodontal preservation were achieved with augmented corticotomy-assisted presurgical orthodontics for class III patients compared with traditional procedures.

  13. The Populus Class III HD ZIP Transcription Factor POPCORONA Affects Cell Differentiation during Secondary Growth of Woody Stems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Robischon, Marcel; Martinez, Ciera; Groover, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, POPCORONA, during secondary growth of woody stems. Transgenic Populus (poplar) trees expressing either a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA or a synthetic miRNA targeting POPCORONA were used to infer function of POPCORONA during secondary growth. Whole plant, histological, and gene expression changes were compared for transgenic and wild-type control plants. Synthetic miRNA knock down of POPCORONA results in abnormal lignification in cells of the pith, while overexpression of a miRNA-resistant POPCORONA results in delayed lignification of xylem and phloem fibers during secondary growth. POPCORONA misexpression also results in coordinated changes in expression of genes within a previously described transcriptional network regulating cell differentiation and cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone-related genes associated with fiber differentiation. POPCORONA illustrates another function of Class III HD ZIPs: regulating cell differentiation during secondary growth. PMID:21386988

  14. Structure of putrescine aminotransferase from Escherichia coli provides insights into the substrate specificity among class III aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyung Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hee; Rojviriya, Catleya; Kim, Yeon-Gil

    2014-01-01

    YgjG is a putrescine aminotransferase enzyme that transfers amino groups from compounds with terminal primary amines to compounds with an aldehyde group using pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. Previous biochemical data show that the enzyme prefers primary diamines, such as putrescine, over ornithine as a substrate. To better understand the enzyme's substrate specificity, crystal structures of YgjG from Escherichia coli were determined at 2.3 and 2.1 Å resolutions for the free and putrescine-bound enzymes, respectively. Sequence and structural analyses revealed that YgjG forms a dimer that adopts a class III PLP-dependent aminotransferase fold. A structural comparison between YgjG and other class III aminotransferases revealed that their structures are similar. However, YgjG has an additional N-terminal helical structure that partially contributes to a dimeric interaction with the other subunit via a helix-helix interaction. Interestingly, the YgjG substrate-binding site entrance size and charge distribution are smaller and more hydrophobic than other class III aminotransferases, which suggest that YgjG has a unique substrate binding site that could accommodate primary aliphatic diamine substrates, including putrescine. The YgjG crystal structures provide structural clues to putrescine aminotransferase substrate specificity and binding.

  15. Long-term stability of surgical-orthodontic correction of class III malocclusions with long-face syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Romero, David; Llamas-Carrera, José M.; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Paredes, Vanessa; Espinar, Eduardo; Guevara, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In the first place, to evaluate skeletal changes of the maxilla and mandible induced by surgical-orthodontic correction of malocclusions class III with long-face syndrome and secondly, to analyze the stability of these skeletal changes in the long term (more than 6 years). Design of Study: A retrospective, unicentric and longitudinal study of 19 patients who had undergone surgical and orthodontic therapy for class III skeletal malocclusion with long-face syndrome was undertaken. A cephalometric analysis based on 8 angle measurements, and statistical analyses at three different points in time (before orthodontic treatment, after orthognathic surgery and after a retention period of at least 6 years) were carried out. Results: The changes produced following surgery show that, with the exception of the maxillary plane and the facial axis, all other variables presented changes of great statistical difference. Conclusions: Skeletal changes after orthodontic-surgical correction present maxillary advance, mandibular regression and mandibular anterorotation. The angles that represent the mandibular vertical position (ramus angle, goniac angle and mandibular plane angle) showed statistically significant relapses and no stability in contrast to the facial axis. Key words:Long term results, stability, relapse, orthognathic surgery, class III, long face. PMID:22143741

  16. Skeletal stability of surgery-first bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for skeletal class III malocclusion, using standardized criteria.

    PubMed

    Park, K-H; Sandor, G K; Kim, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative stability following bimaxillary surgery performed either with or without preoperative orthodontic treatment, in class III malocclusion patients. These patients were enrolled using standardized inclusion criteria. Forty patients with a class III malocclusion were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were class III malocclusion with and without premolar extraction, <3mm midline deviation, and <5mm arch width discordance. Patients were assigned to the conventional bimaxillary surgery group (n=20) or the surgery-first bimaxillary surgery group (n=20). Serial cephalometric radiographs obtained before surgery (T0), at 2 months after surgery (T1), and at 6 months after surgery (T2) were used to assess the variation in surgical change (T0 to T1) and postsurgical change (T1 to T2). Eight linear and three angular parameters were used to evaluate postoperative stability. With respect to postsurgical changes, significant differences were observed in the changes for the vertical reference plane to the posterior nasal spine, horizontal reference plane to B-point, and occlusal plane angle in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the relapse rates were observed between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the postoperative stability. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheological and molecular weight comparisons of approved hyaluronic acid products - preliminary standards for establishing class III medical device equivalence.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Gavin J C; Daley, Michael J; Toledo-Velasquez, David

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid of various molecular weights has been in use for the treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain for decades. Worldwide, these products are regulated as either as drugs or devices and in some countries as both. In the US, this class of products is regulated as Class III medical devices, which places specific regulatory requirements on developers of these materials under a Pre-Market Approval process, typically requiring data from prospective randomized controlled clinical studies. In 1984 pharmaceutical manufacturers became able to file an Abbreviated New Drug Application for approval of a generic drug, thus establishing standards for demonstrating equivalence to an existing chemical entity. Recently, the first biosimilar, or 'generic biologic', was approved. Biosimilars are biological products that are approved by the FDA because they are 'highly similar' to a reference product, and have been shown to have no clinically meaningful differences from the reference product. For devices, Class II medical devices have a pathway for declaring equivalence to an existing product by filing a 510 k application for FDA clearance. However, until recently no equivalent regulatory pathway was available to Class III devices. In this paper, we consider the critical mechanical performance parameters for intra-articular hyaluronic products to demonstrate indistinguishable characteristics. Analogous to the aforementioned pathways that allow for a demonstration of equivalence, we examine these parameters for an existing, marketed device and compare molecular weight and rheological properties of multiple batches of a similar product. We propose that this establishes a scientific rationale for establishing Class III medical device equivalence.

  18. Frontal-view nasolabial soft tissue alterations after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in Class III patients.

    PubMed

    Hemmatpour, Siamak; Kadkhodaei Oliadarani, Fatemeh; Hasani, Ali; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this before-after clinical trial was to evaluate nasolabial soft tissue changes in the frontal plane after bimaxillary surgery. A total of 20 skeletal Class III Iranian patients needing bimaxillary Le Fort I osteotomy plus mandibular setback surgery were enrolled in this trial. Patients underwent 4.02 ± 1.02 mm of maxillary advancement (Le Fort I osteotomy, 4.33 ± 1.21 mm in men, 3.81 ± 0.86 mm in women) and 7.13 ± 1.74 mm of mandibular setback (intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy, 7.71 ± 2.33 mm in men, and 6.74 ± 1.16 mm in women). Data were acquired via 2D frontal photographs. We compared pretreatment baseline (T 1), preoperative postorthodontic treatment (T 2), and postoperative (T 3) anthropometric measurements using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). The 20 patients (12 men, 8 women) were aged 21.85 ± 1.75 years. Between T 1 and T 2, nasal width, cutaneous upper labial heights increased overall; cutaneous lower labial height decreased (P < 0.05). Between T 2 and T 3, nasal width, widths of the philtrum and mouth, cutaneous upper-lip height, vermilion height of the lower lip, lateral upper-lip height increased; the upper-lip vermilion height and cutaneous lower lip height decreased (P < 0.05). The changes ranged between 0.5 and 5 mm. The applied orthognathic surgery procedures might widen the alar base and mouth width. It might increase the lateral upper-lip height, vermilion height of the lower lip, and cutaneous and overall upper-lip heights while reducing upper-lip vermilion height and shortening the overall lower-lip height.

  19. Mechanistic studies on class I polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: class I and III synthases share a similar catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jia, Y; Yuan, W; Wodzinska, J; Park, C; Sinskey, A J; Stubbe, J

    2001-01-30

    The Class I and III polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthases from Ralstonia eutropha and Chromatium vinosum, respectively, catalyze the polymerization of beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (HBCoA) to generate PHB. These synthases have different molecular weights, subunit composition, and kinetic properties. Recent studies with the C. vinosum synthase suggested that it is structurally homologous to bacterial lipases and allowed identification of active site residues important for catalysis [Jia, Y., Kappock, T. J., Frick, T., Sinskey, A. J., and Stubbe, J. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 3927-3936]. Sequence alignments between the Class I and III synthases revealed similar residues in the R. eutropha synthase. Site-directed mutants of these residues were prepared and examined using HBCoA and a terminally saturated trimer of HBCoA (sT-CoA) as probes. These studies reveal that the R. eutropha synthase possesses an essential catalytic dyad (C319-H508) in which the C319 is involved in covalent catalysis. A conserved Asp, D480, was shown not to be required for acylation of C319 by sT-CoA and is proposed to function as a general base catalyst to activate the hydroxyl of HBCoA for ester formation. Studies of the [(3)H]sT-CoA with wild-type and mutant synthases reveal that 0.5 equiv of radiolabel is covalently bound per monomer of synthase, suggesting that a dimeric form of the enzyme is involved in elongation. These studies, in conjunction with search algorithms for secondary structure, suggest that the Class I and III synthases are mechanistically similar and structurally homologous, despite their physical and kinetic differences.

  20. Energy transfer between terbium (III) and cobalt (II) in thermolysin: a new class of metal--metal distance probes.

    PubMed Central

    Horrocks, W D; Holmquist, B; Vallee, B L

    1975-01-01

    The visible fluorescence of terbium(III) when bound to a calcium binding site of thermolysin is greatly enhanced with an excitation maximum at 280 nm but substitution of cobalt(II) for zinc at the active site decreases the intensity by 89.5%. Treatment with N-bromosuccinimide quenches enzyme tryptophan and Tb(III) fluorescence to a similar extent and suggests the operation of tryptophan vector Tb(III) vector Co(II) energy relay system in the enzyme. Dipoledipole radiationless energy transfer between the Tb(III) donor and the Co(II) acceptor can account for this quenching. The inherent characteristics of the metal pair limits the value of the orientation factor, K2, of the Förster equation, thereby reducing uncertainties in distance measurements by energy transfer compared with other systems. A quantum yield of 0.51 yields a value of R0, the distance for 50% energy transfer, of 19.6 A, and a distance, R, between Tb(III) and Co(II) of 13.7 A, a value identical to that measured for the distance between the active site zinc atom and calcium atom number 1 by x-ray analysis in native thermolysin crystals. The limits of confidence of this measurement are discussed. Energy transfer between two different metal atom sites of a protein provides a new class of probes to measure intramolecular distances of biological macromolecules in solution. PMID:1061067

  1. Orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion) in children.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Simon; Harrison, Jayne E; Furness, Susan; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-30

    Prominent lower front teeth (termed reverse bite; under bite; Class III malocclusion) may be due to a combination of the jaw or tooth positions or both. The upper jaw (maxilla) can be too far back or the lower jaw (mandible) too far forward, or both. Prominent lower front teeth can also occur if the upper front teeth (incisors) are tipped back or the lower front teeth are tipped forwards, or both. Various treatment approaches have been described to correct prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 January 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 January 2013), and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting children or adolescents or both (aged 16 years or less) receiving any type of orthodontic treatment to correct prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion). Orthodontic treatments were compared with control groups who received either no treatment, delayed treatment or a different active intervention. Screening of references, identification of included and excluded studies, data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included studies was performed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Meta-analysis was only undertaken when studies of similar comparisons reported comparable outcome measures. A fixed-effect model was used. The I2 statistic was used as a measure of statistical heterogeneity. Seven RCTs with a total of 339 participants were included in this review. One study was assessed as at low risk of bias, three studies were at high risk of bias, and in the remaining three studies risk of bias

  2. Class III β-tubulin overexpression within the tumor microenvironment is a prognostic biomarker for poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Roque, Dana M; Buza, Natalia; Glasgow, Michelle; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Gasparrini, Sara; Cocco, Emiliano; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    Critics have suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking may select for resistant clones or cancer stem cells when compared to primary cytoreduction. β-tubulins are chemotherapeutic targets of taxanes and epothilones. Class III β-tubulin overexpression has been linked to chemoresistance and hypoxia. Herein, we describe changes in class III β-tubulin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma in response to NACT, in relationship to clinical outcome, and between patients who underwent NACT versus primary debulking; we characterize in vitro chemosensitivity to paclitaxel/patupilone of cell lines established from this patient population, and class III β-tubulin expression following repeated exposure to paclitaxel. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed among 22 paired specimens obtained before/after NACT decreased expression of class III β-tubulin following therapy within stroma (p=0.07), but not tumor (p=0.63). Poor median overall survival was predicted by high levels of class III β-tubulin in both tumor (HR 3.66 [1.11,12.05], p=0.03) and stroma (HR 4.53 [1.28,16.1], p=0.02). Class III β-tubulin expression by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction was higher among patients who received NACT (n=12) compared to primary cytoreduction (n=14) (mean±SD fold-change: 491.2±115.9 vs. 224.1±55.66, p=0.037). In vitro subculture with paclitaxel resulted in class III β-tubulin upregulation, however, cell lines that overexpressed class III β-tubulin remained sensitive to patupilone. Overexpression of class III β-tubulin in patients dispositioned to NACT may thus identify an intrinsically aggressive phenotype, and predict poor overall survival and paclitaxel resistance. Decreases in stromal expression may represent normalization of the tumor microenvironment following therapy. Epothilones warrant study for patients who have received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel.

  3. The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Zdrodowski, Michał; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The metabolism of cancerous cells is in many ways different than in healthy cells. In endometrial cancer, cells exhibit activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which participate in the metabolism of many biological substances. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of endometrial cancer cells and normal endometrial cells by measurement of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activities in these tissues. The study material consists of cancerous endometrial tissues obtained from 34 patients. Total ADH activity was measured using the photometric method and ALDH activity using the fluorometric method. For the measurement of class I and II ADH isoenzyme activity, we employed the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. The activity of class III and IV ADH was measured using the photometric method. The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme was significantly higher in the endometrial cancer tissues when compared with normal endometrial tissues. The other classes of ADH tested did not show significant differences between activity of cancerous cells and healthy endometrium. The activity of total ADH was also significantly higher in endometrial cancer. The increased activity of total ADH in endometrial cancer, especially the class I isoenzyme and normal activity of ALDH, may be the cause of disorders in metabolic pathways that use these isoenzymes and could increase the concentration of acetaldehyde, which is cancerogenic substance. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 24:334-339, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Retrospective 25-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in Angle Class III patients : Success versus failure.

    PubMed

    Wendl, Brigitte; Kamenica, A; Droschl, H; Jakse, N; Weiland, F; Wendl, T; Wendl, M

    2017-03-01

    Despite recommendations for early treatment of hereditary Angle Class III syndrome, late pubertal growth may cause a relapse requiring surgical intervention. This study was performed to identify predictors of successful Class III treatment. Thirty-eight Class III patients treated with a chincup were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected from the data archive, cephalograms, and casts, including pretreatment (T0) and posttreatment (T1) data, as well as long-term follow-up data collected approximately 25 years after treatment (T2). Each patient was assigned to a success or a failure group. Data were analyzed based on time (T0, T1, T2), deviations from normal (Class I), and prognathism types (true mandibular prognathism, maxillary retrognathism, combined pro- and retrognathism). Compared to Class I normal values, the data obtained in both groups yielded 11 significant parameters. The success group showed values closer to normal at all times (T0, T1, T2) and vertical parameters decreased from T0 to T2. The failure group showed higher values for vertical and horizontal mandibular growth, as well as dentally more protrusion of the lower anterior teeth and more negative overjet at all times. In adittion, total gonial and upper gonial angle were higher at T0 and T1. A prognostic score-yet to be evaluated in clinical practice-was developed from the results. The failure group showed greater amounts of horizontal development during the years between T1 and T2. Treatment of true mandibular prognathism achieved better outcomes in female patients. Cases of maxillary retrognathism were treated very successfully without gender difference. Failure was clearly more prevalent, again without gender difference, among the patients with combined mandibular prognathism and maxillary retrognathism. Crossbite situations were observed in 44% of cases at T0. Even though this finding had been resolved by T1, it relapsed in 16% of the cases by T2. The failure rate increased in cases of

  5. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... injection phase of cyclic steam operations. (iii) The owner or operator shall record one observation of... Director a qualitative analysis and ranges in concentrations of all constituents of injected fluids at...

  6. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... injection phase of cyclic steam operations. (iii) The owner or operator shall record one observation of... Director a qualitative analysis and ranges in concentrations of all constituents of injected fluids at...

  7. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  8. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  9. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  10. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  11. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  12. Class III/IV POU transcription factors expressed in small cell lung cancer cells are involved in proneural/neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Sato, Hanako; Yazawa, Takuya; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Hiramatsu, Chie; Nakatani, Yukio; Kamma, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    One-third of lung malignancies demonstrate a proneural/neuroendocrine phenotype or type of differentiation. However, it has not been clearly elucidated how proneural/neuroendocrine differentiation is controlled in lung cancers. We recently demonstrated that the POU3F2 gene plays a significant role in proneural/neuroendocrine differentiation of lung cancers. Because class III POU genes (POU3F1, POU3F2, POU3F3, and POU3F4) and class IV POU genes (POU4F1, POU4F2, and POU4F3) share similar properties in neural development, we analyzed the association between class III/IV POU genes and a proneural/neuroendocrine phenotype in lung cancers using seven small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and twelve non-SCLC (NSCLC) cell lines. Class III/IV POU gene expression was generally restricted to SCLC cells. However, the forced expression of class III/IV POU genes in the NSCLC cell lines induced the expression of neuroendocrine-specific markers (neural call adhesion molecule 1, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A) and proneural transcription factors (achaete-scute homolog-like 1, NeuroD1, and thyroid transcription factor 1) in various degrees. Furthermore, each class III/IV POU gene induced other class III/IV POU genes, suggesting the mutual induction of class III/IV POU genes. These findings suggest that the expression of class III/IV POU genes is important for the proneural/neuroendocrine differentiation of lung cancer cells.

  13. The attitudes and awareness of emergency department (ED) physicians towards the management of common dentofacial emergencies.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, Chetan; Kodate, Naonori; Ross, Alastair; Al-Rawi, Harrith; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan; Harris, Tim; Anderson, Janet E

    2012-04-01

    Dentofacial emergencies are a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) but there is little recent data on physicians' knowledge, confidence and attitudes in handling these cases. A questionnaire was administered to 103 ED physicians. The sample was primarily drawn from London hospitals as well a smaller contribution from around the UK and included physicians with a range of experience and at different grades. The majority of the 102 participants (76.5%) did not receive any formal training in managing dentofacial emergencies. The percentage of participants who were happy to manage common dentofacial emergencies is as follows: dental trauma (20.4%); major facial trauma (39.8%); interpreting facial X-rays (68.0%); and facial suturing (85.4%). When questioned 12.1% of the participants felt that ED physicians should be responsible for managing dental emergencies compared to 22.4% who felt that ED physicians should manage maxillofacial emergencies. Only 3.9% of the participants would opt to be treated by an ED doctor in the event of them presenting to the ED with a dental injury. The remaining 72.5% would prefer to be seen by a maxillofacial surgeon, 23.5% by a dentist and none of the participants opted to be seen by the emergency nurse practitioner. ED physicians do not feel confident in managing some dentofacial emergencies. This may be attributed to a lack of training in this area as well as exposure to these types of emergencies. There is a need for greater awareness, validated guidelines and training resources for ED physicians to treat dentofacial emergencies as well more research in this field of emergency medicine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint after maxillary protraction in children with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunju; Son, Woo-Sung; Kwak, Chun; Kang, Eun-Hee; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 3-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joints of children with skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency after facemask therapy for maxillary protraction. Eighteen children with anterior crossbite and a Class III molar relationship underwent facemask therapy for maxillary protraction, after which they exhibited positive overjet and a Class II molar relationship. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the patients were obtained before (T1) and after (T2) facemask protraction, and the 3-dimensional coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in T1 and T2 images were compared. After facemask therapy, the mandibular condyles of the patients were displaced outside, upward, and backward. Additionally, the anterior and posterior walls of the glenoid fossa had negative values for anteroposterior change. Three-dimensional analysis of the temporomandibular joint showed that facemask therapy resulted in bone apposition (to the anterior wall) and bone resorption (of the posterior wall) in the glenoid fossa. This bone remodeling resulted in upward and backward displacement of the condyle.(J Oral Sci 58, 501-508, 2016).

  15. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Gracco, Antonio; Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results.

  16. Long-term outcomes in patients with ambulatory new york heart association class III and IV heart failure undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Rickard, John; Bassiouny, Mohammed; Tedford, Ryan J; Baranowski, Bryan; Spragg, David; Cantillon, Daniel; Varma, Niraj; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Patients with ambulatory New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure were significantly underrepresented in clinical trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The natural long-term trajectory of survival free of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or heart transplant in patients with ambulatory class IV symptoms who underwent CRT has not been established. We extracted clinical data on 723 consecutive patients with NYHA class III or ambulatory class IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, and a QRS duration ≥120 ms who underwent CRT from September 30, 2003, to August 6, 2007. Chart notes immediately before CRT were reviewed to confirm NYHA class status before CRT. Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were constructed to determine long-term survival free of heart transplant and LVAD based on NYHA class status. Of the 723 patients, 52 had ambulatory class IV symptoms. Over a mean follow-up of 5.0 ± 2.5 years controlling for many possible confounders, ambulatory NYHA class IV status was independently associated with poor long-term outcomes. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival free of LVAD or heart transplant for class III versus ambulatory class IV patients was 92.0%, 84.0%, 75.0%, 68.1%, and 63.2% versus 75.0%, 61.5%, 52.0%, 45%, and 40.4%, respectively. Although patients with ambulatory class IV heart failure receiving CRT have inferior long-term outcomes compared with those with class III symptoms, survival in class IV patients continues to parallel class III patients over an extended follow-up. At 5 years, survival free of LVAD or heart transplant in ambulatory class IV patients receiving CRT is 40%.

  17. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia') III. Latent class analysis of the catatonic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Gabor S; Goggins, William; Leung, Siu-Kau; Lee, Edwin; Gerevich, Jozsef

    2009-02-01

    No reports have yet been published on catatonia using latent class analysis (LCA). This study applied LCA to a large, diagnostically homogenous sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia who also presented with catatonic symptoms. A random sample of 225 Chinese inpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia was selected from the long-stay wards of a psychiatric hospital. Their psychopathology, extrapyramidal motor status and level of functioning were evaluated with standardized rating scales. Catatonia was rated using a modified version of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. LCA was then applied to the 178 patients who presented with at least one catatonic sign. In LCA a four-class solution was found to fit best the statistical model. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 constituted 18%, 39.4%, 20.1% and 22.5% of the whole catatonic sample, respectively. Class 1 included patients with symptoms of 'automatic' phenomena (automatic obedience, Mitgehen, waxy flexibility). Class 2 comprised patients with 'repetitive/echo' phenomena (perseveration, stereotypy, verbigeration, mannerisms and grimacing). Class 3 contained patients with symptoms of 'withdrawal' (immobility, mutism, posturing, staring and withdrawal). Class 4 consisted of 'agitated/resistive' patients, who displayed symptoms of excitement, impulsivity, negativism and combativeness. The symptom composition of these 4 classes was nearly identical with that of the four factors identified by factor analysis in the same cohort of subjects in an earlier study. In multivariate regression analysis, the 'withdrawn' class was associated with higher scores on the Scale of Assessment of Negative Symptoms and lower and higher scores for negative and positive items respectively on the Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation's (NOSIE). The 'automatic' class was associated with lower values on the Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale, and the 'repetitive/echo' class with higher scores on the NOSIE positive items. These

  18. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  19. Pea formaldehyde-active class III alcohol dehydrogenase: common derivation of the plant and animal forms but not of the corresponding ethanol-active forms (classes I and P).

    PubMed Central

    Shafqat, J; El-Ahmad, M; Danielsson, O; Martínez, M C; Persson, B; Parés, X; Jornvall, H

    1996-01-01

    A plant class III alcohol dehydrogenase (or glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase) has been characterized. The enzyme is a typical class III member with enzymatic parameters and substrate specificity closely related to those of already established animal forms. Km values with the pea enzyme are 6.5 microM for NAD+, 2 microM for S-hydroxymethylglutathione, and 840 microM for octanol versus 9, 4, and 1200 microM, respectively, with the human enzyme. Structurally, the pea/human class III enzymes are closely related, exhibiting a residue identity of 69% and with only 3 of 23 residues differing among those often considered in substrate and coenzyme binding. In contrast, the corresponding ethanol-active enzymes, the long-known human liver and pea alcohol dehydrogenases, differ more (47% residue identities) and are also in functionally important active site segments, with 12 of the 23 positions exchanged, including no less than 7 at the usually much conserved coenzyme-binding segment. These differences affect functionally important residues that are often class-distinguishing, such as those at positions 48, 51, and 115, where the plant ethanol-active forms resemble class III (Thr, Tyr, and Arg, respectively) rather than the animal ethanol-active class I forms (typically Ser, His, and Asp, respectively). Calculations of phylogenetic trees support the conclusions from functional residues in subgrouping plant ethanol-active dehydrogenases and the animal ethanol-active enzymes (class I) as separate descendants from the class III line. It appears that the classical plant alcohol dehydrogenases (now called class P) have a duplicatory origin separate from that of the animal class I enzymes and therefore a paralogous relationship with functional convergence of their alcohol substrate specificity. Combined, the results establish the conserved nature of class III also in plants, and contribute to the molecular and functional understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases by

  20. Use of shape correspondence analysis to quantify skeletal changes associated with bone-anchored Class III correction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Paniagua, Beatriz; Zhu, Hongtu; Koerich, Leonardo; De Clerck, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal changes in the mandibles of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction using shape correspondence analysis. Material and Method Twenty-five consecutive patients with skeletal Class III who were between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed for each patient before initial loading (T1) and at 1 year out (T2). From the CBCT scans, 3D models were generated, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed using 3D linear distances and vectors between corresponding point-based surfaces. Results Bone-anchored traction produced anteroposterior and vertical skeletal changes in the mandible. The novel application of Shape correspondence analysis showed vectors of mean (± standard deviation) distal displacement of the posterior ramus of 3.6 ± 1.4 mm, while the chin displaced backward by 0.5 ± 3.92 mm. The lower border of the mandible at the menton region was displaced downward by 2.6 ± 1.2 mm, and the lower border at the gonial region moved downward by 3.6 ± 1.4 mm. There was a downward and backward displacement around the gonial region with a mean closure of the gonial angle by 2.1°. The condyles were displaced distally by a mean of 2.6 ± 1.5 mm, and there were three distinct patterns for displacement: 44% backward, 40% backward and downward, and 16% backward and upward. Conclusion This treatment approach induces favorable control of the mandibular growth pattern and can be used to treat patients with components of mandibular prognathism. PMID:23886012