Science.gov

Sample records for classroom observation schedule

  1. A Behaviorist's Interaction Analysis: The Classroom Observation Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, A. Dan

    The presentation was given at a Pupil Personnel Service seminar to familiarize the conference participants with the techniques used by a behaviorist when he consults with a teacher using a classroom observational schedule. The report is divided into three parts: (1) method employed (subjects and setting apparatus, training children, instruction to…

  2. The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): an observational measure of the intentional communication of children with autism in an unstructured classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Greg; Gordon, Rosanna K; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2008-11-01

    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play activities. Inter-rater reliability was high and relevant items showed significant associations with comparable items from concurrent Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (Lord et al. 2000, J Autism Dev Disord 30(3):205-223) assessments. In a subsample of 28 children initial differences in rates of initiations, initiated speech/vocalisation and commenting were predictive of language and communication competence 15 months later. Results suggest that the use of observational measures of intentional communication in natural settings is a valuable assessment strategy for research and clinical practice.

  3. Observation Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  4. Observing Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  5. Classroom Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Nine scales were developed to measure a series of classroom behavior variables derived from a factor analytic study of five observation systems. The scales are multipoint check lists which are behaviorally referenced by different amounts and types of classroom behaviors. The scales measure such aspects of classroom behavior as teacher-initiated…

  6. Optimizing Observation Scheduling Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Morris, Robert A.; Edgington, William R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that enables the automatic generation of high quality schedules, with respect to a given objective function. The approach involves the combination of two techniques: GenH, which automatically generates a search heuristic specialized to the given problem instance, and HBSS, which employs the generated heuristic as a bias within a stochastic sampling method.

  7. Classroom Observation Criteria and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Classroom observation is an integral part of teacher preparation. The observer must enter the classroom with a frame-of-reference: knowledge of the teacher's goals and objectives, awareness of the climate of the classroom, and knowledge of the discipline. Observation forms to objectively record classroom interaction, assess the learning climate,…

  8. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  9. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  10. The Dependability of Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Diana Buell; Keesling, J. Ward

    A generalizability study of timed observations was conducted in 25 primary grade classes to observe teachers' use of time--for instruction, evaluation of instruction, and classroom management--according to the hour and day observed. Observational methods used by on-site researchers included videotape, checklists, running documentaries, frequency…

  11. Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

    2014-06-01

    A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements.

  12. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  13. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  14. Block scheduling: Instructional practices in high school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richelsoph, Barry

    Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners, engaged in a variety of activities involving them individually and collaboratively in their education (Canady & Rettig, 1995). Block scheduling changes the formal structure of the school day, but does it really change pedagogical practices in high school science classrooms? Fraser's Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) the instrument used in this study of science classes in five block-scheduled high schools in Connecticut, incorporates the tenets for an enriched classroom environment in its five scales or constructs: Participation---Extent to which students are encouraged to participate rather than be passive learners; Personalization---Emphasis on opportunities for individual students to interact with the teacher and on concern for the personal welfare and social growth of the individual; Investigation---Emphasis on the skills and processes of inquiry and their use in problem solving and investigation. Independence---Extent to which students are allowed to make decisions and have control over their own learning environment and behavior; Differentiation---Emphasis on the selective treatment of students on the basis of ability, learning style, interests, and rate of working (Fraser, 1990). The results and conclusions from this research study suggested that the block-scheduled high school science classes that participated in this research do promote, to varying degrees, those tenets that define an enriched classroom environment. Both the teachers and their classes of students perceived opportunities for Participation, Personalization, and Investigation constructs as

  15. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  16. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  17. HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

  18. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Classroom Observation of Potential Special Education Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.

    The present study is a portion of a larger study dealing with early identification of children with potential learning or behavioral difficulties. Specifically, the purpose of this phase of the project was (1) to refine classroom observation techniques and procedures and (2) to collect classroom observation data on children in regular classes who…

  20. Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Keith A.

    Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

  1. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can

  2. Observing the Use of Tactile Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Gro; Naerland, Terje

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the use of tactile schedules in a heterogeneous sample of children with congenital blindness and varying degrees of additional disabilities. Basic conditions for the use of tactile schedules are proposed and discussed. Child behaviour indicative of some particular functions that can be attained with the use of tactile…

  3. Scheduling observations of celestial objects for Earth observing sensor calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Truman; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-10-01

    Radiometric calibration of Earth-observing satellite sensors is critical for tracking on-orbit gain changes throughout the satellite's mission. The Moon, being a stable, well-characterized radiometric target, has been used effectively for tracking the relative gain changes of the reflective solar bands for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board EOS AM-1 (Terra) and PM-1 (Aqua). The Moon is viewed through the MODIS space-view port, and the relative phase of the Moon is restricted to within 0.5 degrees of a chosen target phase to increase the accuracy of the calibration. These geometric restrictions require spacecraft maneuvers in order to bring space-view port into proper alignment with the position of the Moon when the phase requirement is met. In this paper, we describe a versatile tool for scheduling such maneuvers based on the required geometry and lunar phase restrictions for a general spacecraft bound instrument. The results of the scheduling tool have been verified using lunar images from Aqua and Terra MODIS after a scheduled roll maneuver was performed. This tool has also been tested for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder on-board the Suomi-NPP spacecraft. As an extension of this work, we have also developed a tool for scheduling views of bright stars. These stars provide another well-characterized radiometric source that can be used for sensor calibration. This tool has been implemented to determine the times in which a chosen star can be viewed by the high gain stages of the day/night band for the VIIRS instrument.

  4. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  5. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  6. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  7. Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS): A System for Analyzing Teacher-Pupil Interaction in the Affective Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Katherine A.; Liberty, Paul G.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Interaction Observation Schedule (SCIOS) is a classroom observation instrument designed to record pupil-teacher interaction. The classification of pupil behavior is based on Krathwohl's (1964) theory of the three lowest levels of the affective domain. The levels are (1) receiving: the learner should be sensitized to…

  8. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  9. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  10. SOFIA's Choice: Scheduling Observations for an Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kurklu, Elif; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne observatory. The problem is more complex than traditional scheduling problems in that it incorporates complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time of a mobile observatory, as well as traditional temporal constraints and optimization criteria. We describe the problem, its proposed solution and the empirical validation of that solution.

  11. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  12. Teaching Stimulus Control via Class-Wide Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement in Public Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torelli, Jessica N.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Diekman, Claire A.; Wehby, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    In elementary school classrooms, students commonly recruit teacher attention at inappropriately high rates or at inappropriate times. Multiple schedule interventions have been used to teach stimulus control by signaling to students when reinforcement is and is not available contingent on an appropriate response. The purpose of the current study…

  13. Effectiveness of Time-Based Attention Schedules on Students in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sazak Pinar, Elif

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules and attention on the problem behaviors and on-task behaviors of students with and without intellectual disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Turkey. Three second-grade students with intellectual disabilities, three students without intellectual…

  14. Increasing Completion of Classroom Routines through the Use of Picture Activity Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kamille J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers spend the first few days of school teaching routines to children that will help transitions in the classroom between different activities. When children have difficulty, they move more slowly and/or require teacher prompting. A picture activity schedule intervention (Breitfelder in Teach Except Child Plus 4(5):2-15, 2008; Bryan and Gast…

  15. SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

  16. Procedures for Classroom Observations: 1973-1974. Technical Report #19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, Alan

    This report describes classroom observation techniques used to record the behavior of educational specialists (teachers) and students in a kindergarten and a first grade classroom of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Classroom behavior was observed and recorded daily during the 1973-1974 school year. Each student was observed three…

  17. An Examination of Teacher-Student Interactions in Inclusive Classrooms: Teacher Interviews and Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Lansing

    2014-01-01

    Teacher-student interactions in 17 inclusive classrooms were examined using a mixed-methods approach that involved quantitative analysis of interactions recorded during classroom observations and follow-up interviews with seven general educators. Observational findings suggest that classrooms were organised along traditional lines with the vast…

  18. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  19. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  20. Applying Squeaky-Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kuerklue, Elif

    2004-01-01

    We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algorithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem requires making discrete choices (e.g. selection and sequencing of observations) and continuous ones (e.g. takeoff time and setting up observations by repositioning the aircraft). The problem also includes optimization criteria such as maximizing observing time while simultaneously minimizing total flight time. Previous approaches to the problem fail to scale when accounting for all constraints. We describe how to customize SWO to solve this problem, and show that it finds better flight plans, often with less computation time, than previous approaches.

  1. Rater Drift and Time Trends in Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom observation protocols, in which observers rate multiple dimensions of teaching according to established protocols (either live in the classroom, or post-hoc from lesson videos), are increasingly being used in both research and policy contexts. However, scores generated from these protocols have many sources of error. Day to day variation…

  2. VLBI observations of GNSS-satellites: from scheduling to analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Lucia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; McCallum, Jamie; Böhm, Johannes; Lovell, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of observing satellites with the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique has been discussed for several years in the geodetic community, with observations of either existing satellites of the global navigation satellite systems or of satellites dedicated to realise a space tie. Such observations were carried out using the Australian telescopes in Hobart and Ceduna which, for the first time, integrated all the necessary steps: planning the observations (automated scheduling), correlation of the data and the generation of a series of time delay observables suitable for a subsequent geodetic analysis. We report on the development of new and the adaptation of existing routines for observing and data processing, focusing on technology development. The aim was to use methods that are routinely used in geodetic VLBI. A series of test experiments of up to six hours duration was performed, allowing to improve the observations from session to session and revealing new problems still to be solved. The newly developed procedures and programs now enable more observations. Further development assumed, this bears the prospect of being directly applied to the observation of dedicated space-tie satellites.

  3. The Contextual Application of Observation Schedules Within Naturalistic Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.

    Fifteen teachers from grades one through twelve and sixty pupils were sampled using a contextual approach to the investigation of teachers' verbal and nonverbal behavior. Pupils were categorized as accepting, concerned, indifferent, or rejecting by their respective teachers, and the student-initiated question frame was selected as a suitable and…

  4. Observing Classroom Engagement in Community College: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alicea, Stacey; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Singh, Sukhmani; Darbes, Tasha; Abrica, Elvira Julia

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research indicating classrooms shape student engagement, learning, and development, there is a dearth of empirically grounded research focusing specifically on observed classroom engagement as a predictor of student outcomes in community colleges. This article describes the development of a qualitatively grounded, quantitative…

  5. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  6. Capturing Classroom Context: The Observation System as Lens for Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertson, Carolyn M.; Burry, Judith A.

    This report describes two different applications of the Classroom Activity Record (CAR), an observational approach to capturing contextual features of classrooms. Subject matter content, instructional format, quantity and quality of teacher-student interaction, sequence of routines and events, and student attention and engagement among other…

  7. Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http

  8. Design and Validation of an Observation Schedule and Self-Report for the Measurement of Self-Concept in an Educational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckard, Pamela J.

    The development of two new rating scales, a classroom observation schedule and a comparable student self-report questionnaire, is described. Both instruments are designed to measure group self-concept, defined as a social structure exhibiting interactions which indicate values, attitudes, and beliefs that determine the self-perception of a group,…

  9. A gain-scheduled observer under transmissions without delivery acknowledgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Daniel; Peñarrocha, Ignacio; Sanchis, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the estimation problem for discrete-time systems where both measurements and control commands are sent to a central station through a lossy network without delivery acknowledgment. The central unit implements the estimation and control algorithms. We propose a jump observer that uses the expected value of the unknown control input at the actuator to run an open loop estimation. Then, the absence of acknowledgment in the control input transmission is dealt with through the introduction of an unknown disturbance. The observer update is performed by means of jumping gains when there are available measurements. We employ an statistic of the control error (new disturbance), i.e., the difference between the control inputs at the plant and at the observer, to schedule the observer gains in real time. The observer is designed to minimize the H∞ norm from disturbances, measurement noises and control input errors, to estimation error. The infinite-dimensional design problem is turn into an optimization problem over polynomials using sum-of-squares decomposition techniques. Benefits of the proposal are shown in a simulation example.

  10. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  11. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  12. (42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling observations for binary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H. F.; Spencer, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971±0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628±29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49±0.52)×10 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526±0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76-16+14 and 42-9+8 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44-0.17+0.44 gcm, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  13. Two Conversations at Once: Making Sense of Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Classroom observations are sometimes a challenging form of data collection. Not only are interpretations of those observations subject to the researcher's theoretical lens, but communication between the researcher and the teacher is often delayed until well after the observed events. This article reports research that focused on the pedagogical…

  14. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children’s psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression. PMID:21643447

  15. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Shapiro, Edward S; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression.

  16. Aspects on Learner-Biased Classroom Observational Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to explore the means in the field of observing classroom teaching/learning from both a general, and an "English as a Foreign Language" (EFL), viewpoint. The aim was to browse the relevant literature, and lead to consider observation tools which might serve to research in EFL. This paper summarizes the reading by…

  17. THE RELIABILITY OF OBSERVATIONS OF TEACHERS' CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, BOB BURTON; AND OTHERS

    THIS PORTION OF AN "INVESTIGATION OF OBSERVER-JUDGE RATINGS OF TEACHER COMPETENCE" WAS PRIMARILY DEVOTED TO STATISTICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF OBSERVATIONS OF TEACHERS' CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR. FROM 67 TO 130 STUDENT TEACHING SUPERVISORS, ACADEMIC PROFESSORS, AND EDUCATION PROFESSORS FROM TWO LARGE MIDWESTERN UNIVERSITIES AND…

  18. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  19. A Critical Examination of Classroom Communication Observation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Roger M.; Scafe, Marla

    More than 100 classroom communication observation instruments are surveyed and assessed from a communication-based perspective in this paper. In an overview, a schema designating three main types of approaches is established; they include behavioral descriptive, message functional, and cognitive/affective inferential observational categories.…

  20. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  1. A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.

    PubMed

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

  2. Mirrors for Behavior; An Anthology of Classroom Observation Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Anita, Ed.; And Others

    The 26 classroom observation systems in this anthology were primarily designed to collect data about pupil and teacher behaviors for use in research, teacher training, and supervision. The particular aspect of interaction measured by any one of these instruments reflects the interest of its author, but are generally classifiable as cognitive or…

  3. The Development of Classroom Observation Procedures for Evaluating Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph; And Others

    This report describes the procedures followed in developing classroom observation procedures for use in evaluating the First Year Communication Skills Program (FYCSP) and Instructional Concepts Program (ICP) training systems. The procedures cover the identification of the variables to be measured, development of scales to measure these variables,…

  4. Issues and Concerns about Classroom Observation: Teachers' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wendy; Day, Cathy

    This study investigated 16 K-12 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers' experiences being observed at different stages of their teaching careers. Participants included classroom teachers seeking ESL endorsement in a graduate certificate Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) program and master's level TESOL graduates.…

  5. Teacher's Approaches in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustakim, Siti Salina; Mustapha, Ramlee; Lebar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the approaches employed by teachers in teaching Contemporary Children's Literature Program to upper primary school. Using classroom observations and interview as research instruments, this paper evaluates the approaches of five ESL teachers teaching Year 5 students and examines the various challenges faced by them in…

  6. Teaching the Teachers: Peer Observations in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is facing an unprecedented teacher shortage. With many studies estimating that 17-33% of teachers leave the profession within their first five years of starting a career, something needs to change to keep new teachers in the classroom. This study evaluates the effectiveness of peer observation as a learning tool to supplement the…

  7. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  8. Beyond student ratings: peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Berk, Ronald A; Naumann, Phyllis L; Appling, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching has received increased attention over the past decade in schools of nursing to augment student ratings of teaching effectiveness. One essential ingredient is the scale used to evaluate performance. A five-step systematic procedure for adapting, writing, and building any peer observation scale is described. The differences between the development of a classroom observation scale and an appraisal scale to observe clinical instructors are examined. Psychometric issues peculiar to observation scales are discussed in terms of content validity, eight types of response bias, and interobserver reliability. The applications of the scales in one school of nursing as part of the triangulation of methods with student ratings and the teaching portfolio are illustrated. Copies of the scales are also provided.

  9. Observed Classroom Quality in First Grade: Associations with Teacher, Classroom, and School Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Peixoto, Carla; Leal, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The observation and assessment of quality of teacher--child interactions in elementary school settings are increasingly recognized as important; however, research is still very limited in European countries. In this study, we examined the quality of the interactions between teacher and children in first-grade classrooms in Portugal and the extent…

  10. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  11. Uncovering Multivariate Structure in Classroom Observations in the Presence of Rater Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Savitsky, Terrance D.; Lockwood, J. R.; Edelen, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the factor structure of scores from the CLASS-S protocol obtained from observations of middle school classroom teaching. Factor analysis has been used to support both interpretations of scores from classroom observation protocols, like CLASS-S, and the theories about teaching that underlie them. However, classroom observations contain…

  12. Relationships between Classroom Schedule Types and Performance on the Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gregory V.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    One option for length of individual mathematics class periods is the schedule type selected for Algebra I classes. This study examined the relationship between student achievement, as indicated by Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test scores, and the schedule type for Algebra I classes. Data obtained from the Utah State Office of Education included…

  13. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  14. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized…

  15. Follow Through Classroom Observation Evaluation 1972-1973--Executive Summary. SRI Project URU-7370.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane A.

    Findings from a 607 page report, "Follow Through Classroom Observation Evaluation 1972-1973," are briefly summarized. The report is based upon systematic observation of Follow Through classrooms in action. Two key questions have been asked: (1) How well is each of seven instructional models carried out within the classroom? and (2) Are…

  16. Observation of Classroom Performance Using Therapy Balls as a Substitute for Chairs in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Molly E.; Ketcham, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Many classrooms are beginning to substitute standard chairs with therapy balls, which help to improve students' focus and classroom performance, according to teacher and student reports. Researchers conducted an observational study in a classroom at a local elementary school that implemented therapy balls. For each hour-long observation, three…

  17. The effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in a day-treatment classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Karina; O'Neill, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that social attention was the maintaining reinforcer for their verbally disruptive behavior. Baseline phases were alternated with phases in which attention was provided on fixed-time schedules in the context of an ABAB design. The results indicated that the provision of attention on fixed-time schedules substantially reduced the participants' rate of verbal disruptions. These decreases were maintained during initial thinning of the schedules. The results provide one of the first examples that such an intervention can be successfully implemented in a classroom setting.

  18. Features of Pre-Kindergarten Programs, Classrooms, and Teachers: Do They Predict Observed Classroom Quality and Child-Teacher Interactions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert; Howes, Carollee; Burchinal, Margaret; Bryant, Donna; Clifford, Richard; Early, Diane; Barbarin, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    This study draws from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's Multi-State Pre-Kindergarten Study to examine the extent to which program, classroom, and teacher attributes of the program ecology predict observed quality and teacher-child interactions in a sample of 238 classrooms representing 6 states' pre-kindergarten programs.…

  19. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying out Observing Programmes at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2006-12-01

    From paper proposals and photographic plate observations of the early days to today's submission, CFHT (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) went through many changes. However, a few basic features of the observatory did not change over the years, reflecting the very nature of an international collaboration deeply rooted in the concept of equal role and responsibilities of its two main partners, Canada and France. Nevertheless, the overall role of the observatory strongly evolved over the past years, as demonstrated by a more business-like management emphasizing the services rendered by the observatory to its customers, a move made possible by the Queues Service Observing mode. Together with a careful selection of its new generation of instruments, it allows the observatory to play a significant role in astronomy in spite of the relatively small size of its telescope.

  20. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  1. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom…

  2. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): a new instrument to characterize university STEM classroom practices.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle K; Jones, Francis H M; Gilbert, Sarah L; Wieman, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change.

  3. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): A New Instrument to Characterize University STEM Classroom Practices

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change. PMID:24297289

  4. The Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Schedules on Problem Behavior of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Day-Treatment Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karina; O'Neill, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that…

  5. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  6. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  7. Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

  8. Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

  9. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised Algorithms for Improved Diagnostic Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were…

  10. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  11. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

  12. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

  13. Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of Scores from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal structure, relationships with other variables, and diagnostic accuracy of scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G; Lord et al., 1999) for the purpose of diagnostic decision-making. Participants were 462 children enrolled in a public school district in the southern…

  14. Optimal Scheduling for Geosynchronous Space Object Follow-up Observations Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, A.; Fiedler, H.; Schildknecht, T.

    2016-09-01

    Optical observations for space debris in the geosynchronous region have been performed for many years. During this time, observation strategies, processing techniques and cataloguing approaches were successfully developed. Nevertheless, the importance of protecting this orbit region from space debris requires continuous monitoring in order to support collision avoidance operations. So-called follow-up observations providing information for orbit improvement estimations are necessary to maintain high accuracy of the cataloged objects. Those serve a two-fold: For one, the orbits have to be accurate enough to be able to re-observe the object after a time of no observations, that is keeping it in the catalogue, secondly, the importance of protecting active space assets from space debris requires even higher accuracy of the catalogue orbits. Due to limited observation resources and because a space debris object in the geostationary orbit region may only be observed for a limited period of time per the observation night and telescope, efficient scheduling of follow-up observations is a key element. This paper presents an optimal scheduling algorithm for a robotic optical telescope network using a genetic algorithm that has been applied providing optimal solutions for catalogue maintenance. As optimization parameter the information content of the orbit has been used. It is shown that information content utilizing the orbit's covariance and the information gain in an expected update is a useful optimization measure. Finally, simulations with simulated data of space debris objects are used to study the effectivity of the scheduling algorithm.

  15. Eliminating inappropriate classroom behavior using a DRO schedule: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Taylor, R L; Ziegler, E W

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to eliminate out-of-seat behavior of a 14-yr.-old boy with learning disabilities using a single-subject design. Based on functional analysis, a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior interval schedule was used to eliminate an inappropriate behavior. During baseline, an average of 15 out-of-seat behavior problems were recorded. After 4 wk. of intervention, the inappropriate out-of-seat behavior was eliminated and on-task behavior improved.

  16. Live versus Video Observations: Comparing the Reliability and Validity of Two Methods of Assessing Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Johnson, Price; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Carlis, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    When conducting classroom observations, researchers are often confronted with the decision of whether to conduct observations live or by using pre-recorded video. The present study focuses on comparing and contrasting observations of live and video administrations of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-PreK (CLASS-PreK). Associations between…

  17. Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

    2003-01-01

    We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

  18. Improving Method-in-Use through Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Method-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the method actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…

  19. A Systematic Approach to Classroom Discipline, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Observation of classroom coping behaviors of 1,066 K-12 students and of several hundred effective public school teachers provides discipline strategies for classroom management. Teachers apply one of seven treatment schedules after identifying a student's coping behavior. Tables show eight coping styles and abbreviated treatment schedules. (PB)

  20. Classroom Observation Data: Is It Valid? Is It Generalizable? A Compendium of Methodological Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borich, Gary; And Others

    The issues discussed in these four papers concern the validity and generalizability of classroom observation instruments. These issues have been studied and are reported here in an attempt to better define the limits to which classroom observation instruments can be used in researching relationships between teacher behavior and student outcome.…

  1. Raising the Stakes: Classroom Observation in the Further Education Sector in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Matt; Brooks, Val

    2014-01-01

    Successive governments in England have regarded classroom observation as an essential tool for monitoring and improving teacher performance. Despite its importance in national policy for teacher development, the impact of classroom observation on individual teachers, and on improving quality and standards in teaching and learning, remain…

  2. Evaluating the Validity of Classroom Observations in the Head Start Designation Renewal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom observations are increasingly common in education policies as a means to assess the quality of teachers and/or education programs for purposes of making high-stakes decisions. This article considers one policy, the Head Start Designation Renewal System (DRS), which involves classroom observations to assess the quality of Head Start…

  3. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  4. Mirrors for the Classroom: A Guide to Observation Techniques for Teachers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsakos, Charles L.

    This guide is designed to present a variety of techniques that can be used in conducting classroom observations. Observation techniques are clustered under four major teaching/learning variables: time on task, teacher talk, classroom interaction, and organization and management. Techniques are presented with an overview that details the rationale…

  5. Observed Patterns of Teacher-Pupil Classroom Behavior as Predicators of Student Growth in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    This study examined the relationship between observed classroom behavior (teacher-pupil interactions) and reading achievement. An elementary school reading teacher and six students with different coping styles were observed six times in each of 41 classrooms during the school year. Pretest and posttest reading scores, a measure for socioeconomic…

  6. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations.…

  7. DEEP-South: Automated Observation Scheduling, Data Reduction and Analysis Software Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Hong-Suh; Kim, Myung-Jin; Bae, Young-Ho; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    We started `DEep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern sky' (DEEP-South, DS) (Moon et al. 2015) in late 2012, and conducted test runs with the first Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) (Park et al. 2012), a 1.6 m telescope with 18k x 18k CCD stationed at CTIO in early 2015. While the primary objective of DEEP-South is the physical characterization of small Solar System bodies, it is also expected to discover a large number of such bodies, many of them previously unknown. An automated observation scheduling, data reduction and analysis software subsystem called `DEEP-South Scheduling and Data reduction System' (DS SDS) is thus being designed and implemented to enable observation planning, data reduction and analysis with minimal human intervention.

  8. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; Mcmahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Objective To replicate the factor structure and predictive validity of revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule algorithms in an independent dataset (N = 1,282). Method Algorithm revisions were replicated using data from children ages 18 months to 16 years collected at 11 North American sites participating in the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism and the Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment. Results Sensitivities and specificities approximated or exceeded those of the old algorithms except for young children with phrase speech and a clinical diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified. Conclusions Revised algorithms increase comparability between modules and improve the predictive validity of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule for autism cases compared to the original algorithms. PMID:18434924

  9. Executive Control Goes to School: Implications of Preschool Executive Performance for Observed Elementary Classroom Learning Engagement.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; James, Tiffany D; Clark, Caron A C; Kidwell, Katherine M; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-03-30

    The transition to elementary school is accompanied by increasing demands for children to regulate their attention and behavior within the classroom setting. Executive control (EC) may be critical for meeting these demands; however, few studies have rigorously examined the association between EC and observed classroom behavior. This study examined EC in preschool (age 5 years 3 months) as a predictor of classroom learning engagement behaviors in first grade, using a battery of performance-based EC tasks and live classroom observations in a longitudinal sample of 313 children. Multilevel modeling results indicated that stronger EC predicted more focused engagement and fewer task management and competing responses, controlling for socioeconomic status, child sex, and age at observations. Results suggest that early EC may support subsequent classroom engagement behaviors that are critical for successful transition to elementary school and long-term learning trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  11. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  12. Informing Teacher Education through the Use of Multiple Classroom Observation Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nancy Dubinski; Waxman, Hersh C.; Brown, Danielle B.; Kelly, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine how first-year secondary teaching interns' classrooms compare to those of more experienced teachers. Through the simultaneous use of three unique observation instruments, the authors addressed the following research questions: (a) How do first-year secondary teachers' classroom behaviors compare to…

  13. Psychometrics and Observations: Issues in a Dual Approach to the Study of Classroom Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.

    Anthropological methods of classroom observation were combined with the results of student responses to three questionnaires in a study of classroom learning environments. The questionnaires were: Learning Environment Inventory, Class Activities Questionnaire, and ALP (Authenticity, Legitimacy, Productivity) Ethos Instrument. Although the…

  14. Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

  15. The Development of a Classroom Observation Instrument Relevant to the Earth Science Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John P.

    A classroom observation instrument was developed for investigating teacher and student behaviors associated with the maintenance of an inquiry atmosphere where Earth Science Curriculum Project materials are used as a course of study. This instrument was later used in ESCP classrooms to determine its reliability and usefulness in describing teacher…

  16. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom…

  17. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  18. The Use of Classroom Observation Techniques in the Evaluation of Educational Programs. TM Report 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bob Burton; Webb, Jeaninne N.

    Systematic observations of classroom behavior of both teachers and pupils are effective measures of process in education. Until a few years ago, the classroom process--what actually does and does not happen as a result of instituting a new program--went unmeasured for want of tools and techniques to do that job. In this article, examples of…

  19. Observers in the Classroom. A Case Study of an Innovative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Marvin D.; And Others

    A study was conducted (as one aspect of an intervention program in Head Start classes) to explore the consequences of the interjection of the observer into the classroom, with particular emphasis on the teacher's reactions to this attempt to supply a dimension of understanding about the classroom to supplement his own perspective. In a case study…

  20. Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

  1. Observational Learning: A Behavioral Approach for Use in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzullo, Mariann C.; Greenberg, Judy I.

    A program for modifying classroom behavior of emotionally disturbed and other children (in grades 3 through 7) based on modeling is described, and specific behaviors and evaluation items for the program are provided along with their rationale. Research is reviewed in Part I and topics are covered, such as: the three effects of modeling…

  2. Student Observations: Introducing iPads into University Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardley, Leslie J.; Mang, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the growing trend of using mobile technology in university classrooms, exploring the use of tablets in particular, to identify learning benefits faced by students. Students, acting on their efficacy beliefs, make decisions regarding technology's influence in improving their education. We construct a theoretical model in which…

  3. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

  4. Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaugris, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

  5. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  6. The 21st Century Physics Classroom: What Students, Teachers, and Classroom Observers Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis W.; Dantzler, John A.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Turner, Donna P.; Harrell, James W.; Simon, Marsha; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2016-01-01

    Before we can effectively apply specific interventions through professional development, it is important to determine what is occurring in our high school physics classrooms. This study investigated common professional practices in physics teaching among a representative sample group of schools and teachers from a diverse, geographically large…

  7. Live Video Classroom Observation: An Effective Approach to Reducing Reactivity in Collecting Observational Information for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of live video classroom observations of teaching practice to reduce reactivity (the observer effect) so as to obtain more credible observational information for teacher professional development in a secondary school in the largest city in southern China. Although much has been discussed regarding the use of…

  8. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  9. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible.

  10. Supervisor Use of Observation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Donald M.

    This paper discusses the supervisory use of one observational system -- Observation Schedule and Record, Form 5V (OScAR 5V). OScAR 5V refers to a series of observation schedules to develop techniques for obtaining an objective, quantitative record of observed classroom behavior that could be scored on dimensions of teacher behavior. Under this…

  11. Toward Trustworthy and Transformative Classroom Observations. Progress, Challenges and Lessons in SREB States. Educator Effectiveness Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandha, Tysza; Baxter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This February 2015 report presents an analysis of classroom observation policies and progress in implementation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states. It offers a closer look at how states are framing observations, training observers, ensuring observation quality and building a culture of educator support. The report outlines…

  12. OBSERVING TODDLERS' INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES IN CLASSROOMS: INITIAL USE OF THE PARENTING INTERACTIONS WITH CHILDREN: CHECKLIST OF OBSERVATIONS LINKED TO OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Lippard, Christine N; Riley, Katie L; Hughes-Belding, Kere

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated using the Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO; Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Norman, & Christiansen, 2013a) measure to assess teacher-child interactions experienced by individual toddlers within their childcare classrooms. Forty toddlers were observed, each during three 10-min cycles, and all their interactions with adults in the classroom were coded using the PICCOLO. Results, in terms of psychometric properties, indicate promise for using this measure to observe toddlers' individual experiences of teacher-child interactions in group settings. Furthermore, certain individual teacher-toddler interactions were associated with toddlers' problem behavior. Implications for use of the PICCOLO in early childhood classroom research and particular findings related to toddlers' behavior are discussed.

  13. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  14. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores.

    PubMed

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4 algorithm and calibrates raw overall and domain totals to provide metrics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity. Sensitivity and specificity of the revised Module 4 algorithm exceeded 80 % in the overall sample. Module 4 calibrated severity scores provide quantitative estimates of ASD symptom severity that are relatively independent of participant characteristics. These efforts increase comparability of ADOS scores across modules and should facilitate efforts to examine symptom trajectories from toddler to adulthood.

  15. Commentary on Two Classroom Observation Systems: Moving Toward a Shared Understanding of Effective Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students’ outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to serve a particular purpose and are put to that purpose; four that technology can help; and five, there are policy implications for valid and reliable classroom observation tools. The two observation systems presented in this special issue represent an important step forward and a move toward policy that promises to make a true difference in what is defined as high quality and effective teaching, what it looks like in the classroom, and how these practices can be more widely disseminated so that all children, including those attending under-resourced schools, can experience effective instruction, academic success and the lifelong accomplishment that follows. PMID:24341927

  16. Commentary on two classroom observation systems: moving toward a shared understanding of effective teaching.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-12-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to serve a particular purpose and are put to that purpose; four that technology can help; and five, there are policy implications for valid and reliable classroom observation tools. The two observation systems presented in this special issue represent an important step forward and a move toward policy that promises to make a true difference in what is defined as high quality and effective teaching, what it looks like in the classroom, and how these practices can be more widely disseminated so that all children, including those attending under-resourced schools, can experience effective instruction, academic success and the lifelong accomplishment that follows.

  17. Science, epistemology, and learning: An observational study of teachers' presentation of science in secondary classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darfler, Anne E.

    The way science knowledge is presented has implications for student learning and engagement. The aim of this study was to describe how seven secondary science teachers presented the nature of science during classroom laboratory exercises. Constructs derived from a synthesis of science education literature provided an observational framework for studying and understanding dimensions of epistemic presentation in classrooms. A framework derived from these constructs was applied to ninth-grade lab sessions videotaped in introductory and biological science classes. Results for each construct are presented along with an analysis of their relationships to one another based on evidence from the observations. Suggestions for modifications of the observation framework are also discussed.

  18. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  19. Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kay

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…

  20. The Reliability of Classroom Observations by School Personnel. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Kane, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    For many teachers, the classroom observation has been the only opportunity to receive direct feedback from another school professional. As such, it is an indispensable part of every teacher evaluation system. Yet it also requires a major time commitment from teachers, principals, and peer observers. To justify the investment of time and resources,…

  1. Using Generalizability Theory and Multifacet Designs in the Validation of a Classroom Observation Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. Philip

    The usefulness of generalizability theory in assessing the reliability of classroom observation instruments is illustrated, with a new index of reliability, called the coefficient of generalizability, given as an index of how well one can generalize from the instrument to the universe score according to the conditions of observation. Data from an…

  2. An Observational Method in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at Interaction Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leona G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper analyzes both Flanders' and the Foreign Language Interaction (FLint) methods of classroom observation and concludes that both systems are deficient in accuracy, reliability and practicality. Observing, recording and decision-making difficulties are inherent, and system complexities and teacher biases add to the problems. (CHK)

  3. Screening Kindergarten Children for Early Intervention through Direct Observation of Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.

    The purpose of this study is to determine if children identified as "at risk" on the basis of their observable classroom behavior at the beginning of their kindergarten year are also the same children whom teachers see as having problems much later in the year. Kindergarten children were observed in the fall and spring. Teachers were asked to rate…

  4. Examining Teacher Effectiveness Using Classroom Observation Scores: Evidence from the Randomization of Teachers to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite policy efforts to encourage multiple measures of performance in newly developing teacher evaluation systems, practical constraints often result in evaluations based predominantly on formal classroom observations. Yet there is limited knowledge of how these observational measures relate to student achievement. This article leverages the…

  5. Measuring Reform Practices in Science and Mathematics Classrooms: The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo; Piburn, Michael D.; Judson, Eugene; Turley, Jeff; Falconer, Kathleen; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), a 25-item classroom observation protocol that is standards-based, inquiry-oriented, and student-centered. Provides the definition for reform and the basis for evaluation of the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Concludes that reform, as defined…

  6. Sustained Classroom Observation: What Does It Reveal about Changing Teaching Practices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the tension between classroom observation as a form of empowerment and as an instrument of control, the partnership between three 16-19 colleges and a university School of Education in delivering a programme of sustained observation over eight years is explicated. Drawing on the literature about continuing professional…

  7. Classroom Observation Ability among Pre-Service Music Educators in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androutsos, Polyvios; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom observation ability of pre-service music teachers in Greece (N = 62). Two groups of undergraduates, one near the beginning and one near the end of a two-year course sequence in teaching methods that included in-class and in-school training in observation ("juniors" and…

  8. Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations: The Utility and Application of an Observation Schedule for School-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Taylor, Myra; West, John; List-Kerz, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The present research describes the development and pilot testing of a new instrument, the Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations Schedule (RIPPS), designed to measure the reactivity of students with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in the naturalistic setting of the classroom. For this study, 29…

  9. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  10. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  11. [Polish version of the ADOS (autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic)].

    PubMed

    Chojnicka, Izabela; Płoski, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the Polish version of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS), which together with the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) is cited as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of autism. The ADOS is a standardised, semistructured observation protocol appropriate for children and adults of differing age and language levels. It is linked to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR criteria. The ADOS consists of four modules, ranging from module 1 for nonverbal individuals to module 4 for verbally fluent adults. The adequate inter-rater reliability for items has been established. The protocol has high discriminant validity and distinguishes children with pervasive developmental disorders from children, who are outside of the spectrum. Although it does not enable to distinguish individuals with pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified from individuals with childhood autism. The paper presents subsequent steps of the translation process of the original version into Polish, as well as a chosen adaptation strategy of the Polish version. The ADOS is a very useful tool both for clinical diagnosis and for the scientific purpose diagnosis. In this last case it is extremely important to use a standardised method. Until now, there was no standardised diagnostic tool for autism in Poland.

  12. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  13. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

  14. IRR (Inter-Rater Reliability) of a COP (Classroom Observation Protocol)--A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning; Feldman, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding broad utility of COPs (classroom observation protocols), there has been limited documentation of the psychometric properties of even the most popular COPs. This study attempted to fill this void by closely examining the item and domain-level IRR (inter-rater reliability) of a COP that was used in a federally funded striving readers…

  15. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings.

    PubMed

    Booren, Leslie M; Downer, Jason T; Vitiello, Virginia E

    2012-07-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children's interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children's interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions.

  16. Classroom Composition and Measured Teacher Performance: What Do Teacher Observation Scores Really Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Garrett, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    As states and districts implement more rigorous teacher evaluation systems, measures of teacher performance are increasingly being used to support instruction and inform retention decisions. Classroom observations take a central role in these systems, accounting for the majority of teacher ratings upon which accountability decisions are based.…

  17. Follow Through Classroom Observation Evaluation 1972-1973. SRI Project URU-7370.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane A.; Kaskowitz, David H.

    This fourth report of Follow Through Classroom Observation data, collected in Spring 1973 from 37 sites representing seven sponsors who participated in the planned variation studies, focuses upon the question of whether sponsors can deliver their educational systems to diverse kinds of communities. It is a study of the effects of training…

  18. Observing Students in Classroom Settings: A Review of Seven Coding Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hintze, John M.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of coding schemes are available for direct observational assessment of student classroom behavior. These instruments have been used for a number of assessment tasks including screening children in need of further evaluation for emotional and behavior problems, diagnostic assessment of emotional and behavior problems, assessment of…

  19. Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms: Validating a Direct Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report research focused directly on the validation of the Coding of Academic Teacher-Student interactions (CATS) direct observation instrument. They use classroom information gathered by the CATS instrument to better understand the potential mediating variables hypothesized to influence student achievement. Their study's…

  20. Investigating Middle School Students' Technology Use in Mathematics through Systematic Classroom Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shwu-Yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.

    Since there are many criticisms of self-reported assessments of technology use, it is important to observe the actual extent to which technology is used in classrooms and to look specifically at the technology use of individual students, because it may differentiate the academic success or failure of these students. The present study conducted…

  1. Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation--Checklist: Development and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Christine W.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the validity and factor structure of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist, an instrument used to evaluate school-based programs. The checklist is a cost-effective alternative to the original interview format, and the factor structure is consistent across gender, race, age, and time of administration.…

  2. The Validation of a Classroom Observation Instrument Based on the Construct of Teacher Adaptive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Vlies, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Teacher adaptability is a key disposition for teachers that has been linked to outcomes of interests to schools. The aim of this study was to examine how the broader disposition of teacher adaptability might be observable as classroom-based adaptive practices using an argument-based approach to validation. The findings from the initial phase of…

  3. Factors Associated with Alignment between Teacher Survey Reports and Classroom Observation Ratings of Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Julia Heath; Stein, Mary Kay; Junker, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the alignment between a teacher survey self-report measure and classroom observation measure of ambitious mathematics instructional practice among teachers in two urban school districts using two different standards-based mathematics curricula. Survey reports suggested mild differences in teachers' instructional practices between…

  4. Describing Profiles of Instructional Practice: A New Approach to Analyzing Classroom Observation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Peter F.; Kieffer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors outline the application of latent class analysis (LCA) to classroom observational instruments. LCA offers diagnostic information about teachers' instructional strengths and weaknesses, along with estimates of measurement error for individual teachers, while remaining relatively straightforward to implement and interpret. It is…

  5. Building a More Complete Understanding of Teacher Evaluation Using Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julie; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Improving teacher evaluation is one of the most pressing but also contested areas of educational policy. Value-added measures have received much of the attention in new evaluation systems, but they can only be used to evaluate a fraction of teachers. Classroom observations are almost universally used to assess teachers, yet their statistical…

  6. Theoretical and Methodological Challenges in Measuring Instructional Quality in Mathematics Education Using Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Lena; Jentsch, Armin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze theoretical as well as methodological challenges in measuring instructional quality in mathematics classrooms by examining standardized observational instruments. At the beginning, we describe the results of a systematic literature review for determining subject-specific aspects measured in recent lesson studies in…

  7. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students' externalizing behavior in the…

  8. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  9. Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired.

  10. A Teacher Observation Instrument for PBL Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Linda M.; Morgan, Jim; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching is a complex activity that requires making ongoing multiple decisions and sporadic, responsive actions all while performing preplanned prescribed tasks. Evidence of certain aspects of teaching can be best assessed with a well-designed observation instrument. This instrument was designed to assess the enactment of the essential elements of…

  11. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) for Kindergarten Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Gunn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the technical adequacy and potential uses of an observation system used to measure the quality of literacy instruction in kindergarten classrooms. The Classroom Observations of Student-Teacher Interactions (COSTI) documents the frequency of four student-teacher interactions during beginning reading instruction: explicit…

  13. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  14. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Thomas R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing pressure of meeting the demands of No Child Left Behind, and reducing the achievement gap between subgroups of school populations, school administrators across the nation have implemented a variety of short classroom walk-through observations. A walk-through is defined as a 3-5 minute observation of the classroom teacher by…

  15. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.

  16. Testing gridded NWS 1-Day observed precipitation analysis in a daily irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the inputs required by daily irrigation schedulers is the amount of water supplied by rainfall. In-field measurements of daily precipitation are expensive or laborious, while measurements from gauges within a few kilometers are frequently not representative due to the high spatiotemporal vari...

  17. An Enhanced Method for Scheduling Observations of Large Sky Error Regions for Finding Optical Counterparts to Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Javed; Singhal, Akshat; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bhalerao, Varun; Bose, Sukanta

    2017-04-01

    The discovery and subsequent study of optical counterparts to transient sources is crucial for their complete astrophysical understanding. Various gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors, and more notably the ground-based gravitational wave detectors, typically have large uncertainties in the sky positions of detected sources. Searching these large sky regions spanning hundreds of square degrees is a formidable challenge for most ground-based optical telescopes, which can usually image less than tens of square degrees of the sky in a single night. We present algorithms for better scheduling of such follow-up observations in order to maximize the probability of imaging the optical counterpart, based on the all-sky probability distribution of the source position. We incorporate realistic observing constraints such as the diurnal cycle, telescope pointing limitations, available observing time, and the rising/setting of the target at the observatory’s location. We use simulations to demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the default greedy observing schedule used by many observatories. Our algorithms are applicable for follow-up of other transient sources with large positional uncertainties, such as Fermi-detected GRBs, and can easily be adapted for scheduling radio or space-based X-ray follow-up.

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Observed and Reported Use of a Cappella Singing in the Elementary General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Valerie Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between observed and reported use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' practical perspectives influencing the use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. From a total of 50…

  19. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  20. Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S; Arnold, L L Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Pollack, Simcha; Martin, Diane; Alvir, Jose; March, John S; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Greiner, Andrew; Cantwell, Dennis P; Conners, C Keith; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kraemer, Helena; Pelham, William E; Severe, Joanne B; Swanson, James M; Wells, Karen; Wigal, Tim

    2002-08-01

    Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15/16 and 13/16 categories, respectively. Compared to comparison girls, girls with ADHD had relatively high rates of verbal aggression to children. Boys with ADHD engaged in more rule-breaking and externalizing behaviors than did girls with ADHD, but the sexes did not differ on more "neutral," unobtrusive behaviors. The sex differences are consistent with notions of why girls with ADHD are identified and referred later than boys. Contrary to hypothesis, the presence of comorbid anxiety disorder (ANX) was not associated with behavioral suppression; yet, as hypothesized, children with a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) had higher rates of rule-breaking, and impulsive and aggressive behavior, than did children with ADHD alone and those with ADHD+ANX. Elevated rates of ADHD behaviors were also observed in children with comorbid DBD, indicating that these behaviors are truly present and suggesting that reports of higher ADHD ratings in this subgroup are not simply a consequence of negative halo effects and rater biases.

  1. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  2. Using Multiple Perspectives in Observations of Diverse Classrooms: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.

    This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…

  3. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  4. The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

  5. Predictive Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form on Statewide Testing Scores: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management…

  6. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  7. Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?

    PubMed

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B; Clarke-Stewart, K Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J; Kelly, Jean F; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M; Robeson, Wendy W; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

    2004-09-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade.

  8. [The BASYS observation system for the analysis of aggressive behavior in classroom-settings].

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Educational or therapeutic measures of aggressive student behavior are often based on the judgments of teachers. However, empirical studies show that the objectivity of these judgments is generally low. In order to assess aggressive behavior in classroom settings, we developed a context-sensitive observational system. The observation system exists in a version for teachers in action as well as a version for the uninvolved observer. The teacher version allows categorizing aggressive behavior while teaching. The aim is to differentiate the perception and the judgments of teachers, so that the judgments can serve as trustable diagnostic information. The version for an independent observer, in addition, contains categories to collect information about the context in which aggressions take place. The behavior observation system was tested in four field-studies in regular and special classes. The empirical results show that, after training, teachers were able to make objective observations, and that aggressive behavior depends to a large extent on situational factors. The system allows identification of problematic people-environment relationships and the derivation of intervention measures.

  9. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  10. Initial Validation of the Prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and Goal Setting System for Data-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, April D.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based…

  11. Observations of Academic Instruction for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability: Three States, Thirty-Nine Classrooms, One View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restorff, Diane E.; Abery, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the validation process for alternate assessments, 39 classroom observations were conducted to gather data about current practices in providing academic instruction to students with significant intellectual disability. Using a standardized protocol, data were gathered using direct instructional observation, an Individualized Education…

  12. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Toddler Module: A new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., 2000) is widely accepted as a “gold standard” diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the ADOS Toddler Module (or Module T), was used in 360 evaluations. Participants included 182 children with best estimate diagnoses of ASD, non-spectrum developmental delay or typical development. A final set of protocol and algorithm items was selected based on their ability to discriminate the diagnostic groups. The traditional algorithm “cutoffs” approach yielded high sensitivity and specificity, and a new range of concern approach was proposed. PMID:19415479

  13. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the ADOS Toddler Module (or Module T), was used in 360 evaluations. Participants included 182 children with best estimate diagnoses of ASD, non-spectrum developmental delay or typical development. A final set of protocol and algorithm items was selected based on their ability to discriminate the diagnostic groups. The traditional algorithm "cutoffs" approach yielded high sensitivity and specificity, and a new range of concern approach was proposed.

  14. Expository Teaching Styles of Nigerian Science Teachers. Part I: The Science Teaching Observation Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Iolo Wyn; Buseri, John Cecil

    1988-01-01

    Reports a classification of expository teaching styles of biology, chemistry and integrated science teachers in Nigeria. No evidence was found of pupil-pupil interaction in any of the lessons observed. Compares results with other studies from Britain, Canada, and Indonesia and indicates significant differences. (CW)

  15. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  16. Vehicle rollover avoidance by application of gain-scheduled LQR controllers using state observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poggetto, Vinicius F.; Serpa, Alberto L.

    2016-02-01

    Many researches have been conducted in the area of control applied to vehicle dynamics, aiming at reducing the possibility of the occurrence of the type of accident known as rollover. In this research, based on a common nonlinear model and its linearisation, a method for properly selecting matrices for solving the Riccati equation considering different speeds was proposed. The method showed in which ways speed really influences the choice of controller gains. By developing the dynamic equations for the yaw- and roll-coupled motions and modelling of controllers and state observers, it is possible to compare the efficacy of this control strategy using both linear and nonlinear simulations using Matlab. Significant results were obtained regarding the reduction of the rollover coefficient for a double-lane change manoeuvre at different speeds, thus indicating advantages of using this controller in practical cases.

  17. Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict Observe Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-08-01

    This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.

  18. Reinforcement Practices of Black and White Teachers in Integrated Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byalick, Robert; Bersoff, Donald N.

    1974-01-01

    The Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule was used to obtain data concerning expressed preference for and observed use of positive reinforcement in integrated classrooms taught by 30 black and 30 white female elementary school teachers. The results are related to previous research and implications are drawn. (Author/SE)

  19. Observing Emotional Interactions between Teachers and Students in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.

    2011-01-01

    Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…

  20. Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms: Insights Revealed through Systematic Observation and Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…

  1. The Reciprocal Category System (RCS): An Observational System Designed To Assess Teacher-Student Classroom Verbal Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Richard L.

    The Reciprocal Category System (RCS) is an observational system used to record and assess teacher-student classroom verbal interaction. The RCS is composed of nine verbal categories which are applicable to either the student or teacher (and as such are numbered differently, thus producing 18 categories) and one additional category--silence or…

  2. A Study of the Relationships Between Perceived and Observed Science Teaching Strategies and Selected Classroom and Teacher Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H., Jr.; Cosgriff, Stephen J.

    Described is a study to determine the degree of relationship between selected classroom and teacher variables and science teaching strategies. The perceived strategies were recorded and measured by the Class Activity Checklist (CAC) which is a modification of the Science Class Activities Checklist (SCAC), (Yeany, 1974). The observed teacher…

  3. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  4. Exploring Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language Pronunciation Techniques: Teacher Cognitions, Observed Classroom Practices, and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated…

  5. Using Systematic Classroom Observation to Explore Student Engagement as a Function of Teachers' Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) in Ethnically Diverse Pre-Kindergarten through Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Beverly L.; Rollins, Kayla B.; Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers observed pre-kindergarten through second-grade public school classrooms, specifically noting child-centered and teacher-directed pedagogical approaches, by simultaneously examining: (a) student behavior and activities, (b) teacher instructional orientation and rationale, and (c) overall classroom environment. Dissimilar to previous…

  6. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  7. INTRODUCTION TO THE USE OF THE COPING ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS (CASES) AND THE SPAULDING TEACHER ACTIVITY RATING SCHEDULE (STARS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPAULDING, ROBERT L.

    THIS BOOKLET INTRODUCES TWO MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS FOCUSING ON CLASS MANAGEMENT. THE COPING ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS PERMITS THE CODIFICATION OF ALL OPERANT BEHAVIOR OBSERVED IN THE CLASSROOM, INTO ONE OF THIRTEEN CATEGORIES. ALL BUT ONE OF THE THIRTEEN CATEGORIES ARE DESIGNED TO CHARACTERIZE THE CHILD'S ECONOMY WITH THE…

  8. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  9. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  10. Usability and Reliability of a Remotely Administered Adult Autism Assessment, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Michael P.; Parmanto, Bambang; McGonigle, John; Handen, Benjamin; Lewis, Allen; Pulantara, I. Wayan; Saptono, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4 is an autism assessment designed for verbally fluent adolescents and adults. Because of a shortage of available clinical expertise, it can be difficult for adults to receive a proper autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessment. A potential option to address this shortage is remote assessment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, usability, and reliability of administering the ADOS Module 4 remotely using the Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER). Materials and Methods: VISYTER consists of computer stations at the client site and clinician site for video communication and a Web portal for managing and coordinating the assessment process. Twenty-three adults with an ASD diagnosis participated in a within-subject crossover design study in which both a remote ADOS and a face-to-face ADOS were administered. After completing the remote ADOS, participants completed a satisfaction survey. Results: Participant satisfaction with the remote ADOS delivery system was high. The kappa value was greater than 0.61 on 21 of 31 ADOS items. There was substantial agreement on ADOS classification (i.e., diagnosis) between assessments delivered face-to-face versus assessments delivered remotely (interclass coefficient=0.92). Non-agreement may have been due to outside factors or practice effect despite a washout period. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an autism assessment designed to be delivered face to face can be administered remotely using an integrated Web-based system with high levels of usability and reliability. PMID:25569603

  11. New Directions in Open Classroom Evaluation: Situational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.

    The material reported here was developed as part of a systematic effort to develop techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of a nationally implemented early childhood program. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule technique has been implemented in a number of school districts as a means of assessing program implementation of the Tucson…

  12. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  13. Differentiated Instruction at Work. Reinforcing the Art of Classroom Observation through the Creation of a Checklist for Beginning and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subban, Pearl; Round, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Professional experience is viewed as integral to shaping philosophy and acquiring skills in the area of classroom teaching. Classrooms are complex places, with educators implementing differentiated strategies to cater for student diversity. Pre-service teachers who observe these lessons often miss the intuitive practices, as there is much to…

  14. Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

  15. Teacher Behavior in PLAN and Control Classrooms Using the PLAN Teacher Observation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Margaret T.; Lipe, Dewey

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the PLAN teacher training program in changing teacher classroom behavior. The program, to train teachers in skills specific to the use of the PLAN system of individualized education, included a 2-day spring 1969 session, a 3-day summer conference, a fall minicourse, and inservice consultant…

  16. Are Handheld Computers Dependable? A New Data Collection System for Classroom-Based Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Very little research exists on the dependability of handheld computers used in public school classrooms. This study addresses four dependability criteria--reliability, maintainability, availability, and safety--to evaluate a data collection tool on a handheld computer. Data were collected from five sources: (1) time-use estimations by 19 special…

  17. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  18. The Classroom Lives of Teachers: Issues, Observations, and Recommendations. MEDARP Seminar Series, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Susan Riemer

    This report looks at the classroom lives of teachers, examining ways in which teachers influence and are influenced by others and impediments to their effectiveness in decision making, lesson planning, and other instructional responsibilities. Conditions and characteristics particular to public school teachers in New York City are considered. Six…

  19. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  20. Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

  1. Inside the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  3. Composite Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

    2005-01-01

    In education, there is no one best way to do anything. There are compelling reasons why some courses should be taught in longer segments of time, which the block schedule provides. There are also compelling reasons why some classes should be taught in shorter segments. At Watauga High School in Boone, North Carolina, an alternative schedule that…

  4. Scheduling Supercomputers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    no task is scheduled with overlap. Let numpi be the total number of preemptions and idle slots of size at most to that are introduced. We see that if...no usable block remains on Qm-*, then numpi < m-k. Otherwise, numpi ! m-k-1. If j>n when this procedure terminates, then all tasks have been scheduled

  5. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  6. Applied Behavior Analysis and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS): a Symbiotic Relationship for Advancements in Services for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).

    PubMed

    Guercio, John M; Hahs, Adam D

    2015-05-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a widely used diagnostic tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders. We compared interobserver reliability scores for observers using the existing guidelines for administration of the ADOS with those of the same observers using modified guidelines that included operational definitions for each area of observation. The results indicated increased mean interobserver reliability scores from 55.83 % using the existing guidelines to 84 % when using the modified guidelines and enhanced reliability scores for 3 of 3 clients with whom the ADOS was used. The guidelines are the following: integration of a highly effective diagnostic tool with ABA, the inclusion of a diagnostic tool may promote more comprehensive ABA services, more clearly define and identify areas of concern in autism, and impact implementation efficacy and reliability of assessments for individuals with autism.

  7. Initial validation of the prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and goal setting system for data-based coaching.

    PubMed

    Crawford, April D; Zucker, Tricia A; Williams, Jeffrey M; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H

    2013-12-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based coaching model. We examined psychometric characteristics of the COT and explored how coaches and teachers used the COT goal-setting system. The study included 193 coaches working with 3,909 pre-k teachers in a statewide professional development program. Classrooms served 3 and 4 year olds (n = 56,390) enrolled mostly in Title I, Head Start, and other need-based pre-k programs. Coaches used the COT during a 2-hr observation at the beginning of the academic year. Teachers collected progress-monitoring data on children's language, literacy, and math outcomes three times during the year. Results indicated a theoretically supported eight-factor structure of the COT across language, literacy, and math instructional domains. Overall interrater reliability among coaches was good (.75). Although correlations with an established teacher observation measure were small, significant positive relations between COT scores and children's literacy outcomes indicate promising predictive validity. Patterns of goal-setting behaviors indicate teachers and coaches set an average of 43.17 goals during the academic year, and coaches reported that 80.62% of goals were met. Both coaches and teachers reported the COT was a helpful measure for enhancing quality of Tier 1 instruction. Limitations of the current study and implications for research and data-based coaching efforts are discussed.

  8. Developing Expertise: Using Video to Hone Teacher Candidates' Classroom Observation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Steadman, Sharilyn C.; Stapleton, Joy; Hodge, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the impact of a video observation model developed for teacher candidates in an early experiences course. Video Grand Rounds (VGR) combines a structured observation protocol, videos, and directed debriefing to enhance teacher candidates' observations skills within nonstructured and field-based observations. A comparative…

  9. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  10. The Identification of Children with Behavioural Manifestations of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity, in Mainstream School: The Development of the Scope Classroom Observation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scope, Alison; Empson, Janet; McHale, Sue; Nabuzoka, Dabie

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the development and use of an observation checklist to identify typically developing children with behavioural manifestations associated with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. This measure is termed the Scope Classroom Observation Checklist (SCOC). The SCOC was developed, assessed for reliability…

  11. Does Use of ICT-Based Teaching Encourage Innovative Interactions in the Classroom? Presentation of the CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manny-Ikan, Edith; Tikochinski, Tal Berger; Bashan, Zipi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observations analysis tool (CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation tool). The CLI-O tool enables the collection of various data regarding the use of ICT tools, organization of learning, and teacher-student interactions in the lesson. Several examples demonstrating the use of CLI-O and some preliminary…

  12. The Future of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the teaching methods shaping the classroom of tomorrow, where sixth graders carry laptops and teachers work in teams. Space requirements for departmentalized vs. interdisciplinary education are examined as are the types of materials and furniture used in design classrooms for block scheduling, and differing instruction methods changing…

  13. Collaborative Observation. Putting Classroom Instruction at the Center of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Karen H.; March, Judith K.

    This book joins instructional design as the axis of school reform with collaborative observation as the proven method to sustain teacher growth and renewal. The acronym COMPASS (Collaborative Observation for Monitoring Practices to Achieve Sustained School reform) is used. The book details a four-part observation process, each component of which…

  14. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes.

  15. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  16. Design Evolution of a Fighter Training Scheduling Decision Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Holloman schedule includes classroom lecture, simulator training, and flying sorties. Second, cyclical scheduling literature does not consider leave...produces - a road map from blank paper to com- pleted schedule. It outlines the scheduling decision pro- cess using words or concepts and linking words or...questionnaire of multiple - choice, short statement, or open-ended questions should be used throughout the DSS implementation and development. Rating and

  17. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved.

  18. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  19. Observations from Secondary School Classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Science Teachers' Use of Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj-Sharma, R.; Sharma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine and interpret how science teachers in Trinidad and Tobago used analogies in their science teaching. A total of 30 lessons taught by five different teachers were observed and analysed using an interpretative research methodology to develop generalized observations. The findings revealed that in general science…

  20. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  1. Scheduling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, William J.; Wood, David; Sorensen, Stephen E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses automated scheduling as it applies to complex domains such as factories, transportation, and communications systems. The window-constrained-packing problem is introduced as an ideal model of the scheduling trade offs. Specific algorithms are compared in terms of simplicity, speed, and accuracy. In particular, dispatch, look-ahead, and genetic algorithms are statistically compared on randomly generated job sets. The conclusion is that dispatch methods are fast and fairly accurate; while modern algorithms, such as genetic and simulate annealing, have excessive run times, and are too complex to be practical.

  2. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (n = 93).

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in J Autism Dev Disord 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off resembled the original algorithm ASD cut-off: highly specific for psychopathy and controls, lower sensitivity than Hus and Lord (2014; i.e. ASD .61, AD .53). The revised algorithm AD cut-off improved sensitivity over the original algorithm. Discriminating ASD from schizophrenia was still challenging, but the better-balanced sensitivity (.53) and specificity (.78) of the revised algorithm AD cut-off may aide clinicians' differential diagnosis. Findings support using the revised algorithm, being conceptually conform the other modules, thus improving comparability across the lifespan.

  3. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  4. Impact of a Sustained Three-Year Program of In-Service on Teacher Effectiveness Using Knowledge of Teaching and Learning Styles, Classroom Environments and Observational Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Leverne A.; Kepler, Sheila J.

    This study was conducted in order to determine the impact of a 3-year, theory based, inservice training program on teaching effectiveness for classroom teachers. Feedback on observed teaching effectiveness competencies was provided for each teacher in the study sample, along with a profile of student learning styles and data on student perceptions…

  5. The Effect upon the Behavior and Attitudes of Student Teachers of Training Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers in the Use of Interaction Analysis as a Classroom Observational Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Edmund

    In a 2 1/2-year study of the application of interaction analysis (a method of classroom observation) to preservice teacher education, approximately 40 secondary student teachers were involved in an experiment during each of 3 semesters. A 2 by 2 factorial design made it possible to test the influence of 2 independent variables (student teacher…

  6. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  7. Using Generalizability Theory to Examine Sources of Variance in Observed Behaviors within High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Cash, Anne H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizability theory (GT) offers a useful framework for estimating the reliability of a measure while accounting for multiple sources of error variance. The purpose of this study was to use GT to examine multiple sources of variance in and the reliability of school-level teacher and high school student behaviors as observed using the tool,…

  8. Stability of Teachers' Classroom Instruction across Classes and Time of Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shwu-yong Liou; Waxman, Hersholt C.

    The stability of teacher behavior has been one of the most important areas of process-product research. This study was designed to investigate teacher stability in the context of math instruction across classes and times of observation in order to assess the relationship between teaching styles and student learning outcomes. Specifically the study…

  9. Developing Indicators for a Classroom Observation Tool on Pedagogy and Technology Integration: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Douglas C.; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in technology and increased access to technology tools have created new instructional demands and expectations on teachers. Due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in K-12 schools, teachers are being observed on both their pedagogical and technology integration practices. Applying the technological pedagogical and content…

  10. Tale of the Tape: International Teaching Assistant Noticing during Videotaped Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.; Case, Rod E.

    2015-01-01

    International teaching assistants face challenges in learning the norms for teaching in American universities. In order to address this learning curve this article describes a qualitative study of twenty international teaching assistants that examined how these participants viewed observations as part of their professional development. The study…

  11. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  12. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schöffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

  13. Evaluation Report 1-C-2: Observations of CSMP First Grade Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Alan; And Others

    This evaluation report is one of 17 planned for the longitudinal pilot study of the implementation in kindergarten and grade 1 of the Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP). In this report, the purpose and design of the classroom observation phase of evaluation are described; schedules of observation and a sample observation form are…

  14. ASTER Scheduling Prioritization Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ron

    1996-01-01

    ASTER schedules are generated by an automated scheduling system. This scheduler will generate psuedo-optimal schedules based on a priority scheme. This priority scheme is controlled by the Science Team.

  15. Getting Classroom Observations Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover; Chingos, Matthew M.; Lindquist, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the body of knowledge on teacher evaluation systems by examining the actual design and performance of new teacher-evaluation systems in four school districts that are at the forefront of the effort to evaluate teachers meaningfully. The authors find first that the ratings assigned teachers by the districts'…

  16. Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

  17. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  18. Deep Learning Experiences within a Fixed Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Julie; Olmstead, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Two and a half years ago, elementary school librarians in the Birmingham Public School district (Troy, Michigan) had to change to a fixed schedule for half the day with kindergarten through second grade students. This change was due to cutbacks and the need for common planning time among classroom teachers. School librarians found themselves…

  19. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  20. Measurement of Child Behavior via Classroom Observations in the Good Behavior Game Professional Development Models Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Anja; Wang, Wei; Li, Yibing; Poduska, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom-based behavior management strategy aimed at reducing aggressive/disruptive behavior and socializing children into the role of student. GBG, delivered in first and second grades, has been shown to reduce rates of substance abuse and other deleterious outcomes into young adulthood (Brown, C.H. et al 2007,…

  1. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  2. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  3. Pinpointing Chinese Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Development Needs through Self-Evaluation and External Observation of Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    This study compared Chinese kindergarten teachers' values and perceptions of program quality with trained raters' assessments of quality in order to gain insights into effective professional development for improving teacher quality. A total of 284 Chinese kindergarten teachers self-assessed the quality of their classroom teaching and rated their…

  4. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  5. Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faia, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

  6. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  7. Getting It Together: Organising the Reading-Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVitty, Walter, Ed.; And Others

    Emphasizing the importance of developing a social classroom climate, this book addresses the organization of the reading/writing classroom. Nine sections: (1) present a statement of principles based on this concept of classroom organization (J. Steinle); (2) discuss scheduling the school day as an important area of teacher planning (P. Sloan and…

  8. DSIF station schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flarity, L. D.; Hanson, R. J.; Thom, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    System manages Deep Space Instrumentation Facilities /DSIF/ equipment construction and modification planning. Versatile program applies to such tasks as employee time and task schedules, pay schedules, operations schedules, and plant and equipment procurement, construction, modification or service.

  9. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  10. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  11. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  12. A Comparative Assessment of Student Classroom Behaviors and Learning Environment in Classes of a High Control and a Low Control Teacher through Student Perceptions and Class Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Adem Sultan; Yildirim, Ali

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between teachers' orientations to classroom management and their students' classroom behaviors and the learning environment. Two teachers with different orientations (non-interventionist and interventionist) to classroom management were selected, and their 91 students were administered the…

  13. A Comparative Assessment of Classroom Management of a High Control and a Low Control Teacher through Student Perceptions and Class Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Adem Sultan; Yildirim, Ali

    This study investigated the relationship between teachers' orientations to classroom management and their classroom behaviors. Participants were teachers and students at an English Preparatory School at Erciyes University in Turkey. Two teachers with different orientations (noninterventionist and interventionist) to classroom management were…

  14. Craters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

  15. Noncontingent reinforcement: a further examination of schedule effects during treatment.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Michele D; Iwata, Brian A; Hanley, Gregory P; Thompson, Rachel H; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects of 2 NCR schedules in multielement designs, one with and the other without an extinction (EXT) component, while both schedules were thinned. Problem behavior remained low as the NCR schedule with EXT was thinned, but either (a) did not decrease initially or (b) subsequently increased as the NCR schedule without EXT was thinned. These results suggest that dense schedules of NCR decrease behavior by altering its motivating operation but that extinction occurs as the NCR schedule is thinned. The benefits and limitations of using dense or thin NCR schedules are discussed.

  16. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  17. Classroom Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankney, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

  18. Class Schedules Need Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  19. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  20. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  1. School Construction Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Explains that favorable market and working conditions influence the scheduling of school construction projects. Facility planners, architects, and contractors are advised to develop a realistic time schedule for the entire project. (MLF)

  2. An Application of Course Scheduling in the Brazilian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    activities, and frequently overtime and dissatisfaction among the personnel impacted. The schedule of the courses for one year is prepared between...in the classroom or the sharing of computers between two students in the lab. These possible solutions results in student dissatisfaction with the...of Operational Research Society, 56, pp 426-438. Drezet L.-E. and Billaut J. C. (2008) “A project scheduling problem with labour constraints and

  3. Schedule Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Schedule Risk Assessment needs to determine the probability of finishing on or before a given point in time. Task in a schedule should reflect the "most likely" duration for each task. IN reality, each task is different and has a varying degree of probability of finishing within or after the duration specified. Schedule risk assessment attempt to quantify these probabilities by assigning values to each task. Bridges the gap between CPM scheduling and the project's need to know the likelihood of "when".

  4. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  5. Scheduling Nonconsumable Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porta, Harry J.

    1990-01-01

    Users manual describes computer program SWITCH that schedules use of resources - by appliances switched on and off and use resources while they are on. Plans schedules according to predetermined goals; revises schedules when new goals imposed. Program works by depth-first searching with strict chronological back-tracking. Proceeds to evaluate alternatives as necessary, sometimes interacting with user.

  6. Web Publishing Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  7. Classroom Behaviors of Asian American Students in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.

    This study examines Asian American middle school students' classroom behaviors in mathematics using systematic classroom observation techniques. The study explores questions related to classroom behaviors in terms of interactions with teachers, classroom settings, activities, and manners; differences in classroom behaviors between boys and girls…

  8. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  9. Classroom Characters (in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom technique used to creatively involve first grade students in reading and writing through the use of classroom characters who talk to the class via a paper cartoon-type balloon attached to the characters picture. Provides examples of classroom characters and how they help children develop their writing skills. (MG)

  10. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  12. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  13. NASA scheduling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  14. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities to…

  15. The Test Matters: The Relationship between Classroom Observation Scores and Teacher Value Added on Multiple Types of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Cohen, Julie; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Brown, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined how the relationships between one observation protocol, the Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observation (PLATO), and value-added measures shift when different tests are used to assess student achievement. Using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project, we found that PLATO was more strongly related to the…

  16. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  17. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  18. The Classroom Experiences of Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools--1976 to 2012. What Do Data from Systematic Observation Studies Reveal about Pupils' Educational Experiences over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an analysis of primary-aged pupils' educational experiences over a 35 year period. Data drawn from a set of large-scale systematic observation studies, conducted in the UK between 1976 and 2012, are used to describe pupils' average classroom experiences at six points in time over this period. These data are then used…

  19. Scheduling Scholarship: Promoting Faculty Engagement in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, Robin; Sipple, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Campuses can reinvigorate faculty by helping them make time for sustained, in-depth professional development. Scheduling scholarship in the form of on-going, long-term faculty learning communities (FLCs) link work in the classroom with research and reflection. The benefits of FLCs to two-year colleges include decreased isolation, intellectual…

  20. Rethinking Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Lessons Learned from Classroom Observations, Principal-Teacher Conferences, and District Implementation. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartain, Lauren; Stoelinga, Sara Ray; Brown, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a two-year study of Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Pilot, which was designed to drive instructional improvement by providing teachers with evidence-based feedback on their strengths and weaknesses. The pilot consisted of training and support for principals and teachers, principal observations of teaching…

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Symons, Frank J; Tervo, Raymond C; Kim, Ockjean; Hoch, John

    2007-01-01

    High- and low-dose methylphenidate administration was evaluated prospectively for 3 elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using single-case, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. An observational time sampling protocol was used to directly measure and quantify classroom behavior. Summary level analysis showed that (1) low-dose (0.3 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with clinically significant (>50%) reductions in stereotyped and disruptive behavior relative to baseline and placebo conditions, (2) high-dose (0.5 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with exacerbated amounts of stereotyped and disruptive behavior, and (3) no changes were directly observed for task-related behavior at either dose. Results are discussed with respect to previous research with methylphenidate administration and cerebral palsy, and the suggestion is made that further work using larger, randomly selected study samples with complementary measures of behavior and performance appears warranted.

  2. Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

  3. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  4. Classroom Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…

  5. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  6. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  7. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  8. Classroom Management and Organization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Elda H.

    Informal and formal observations of a second grade classroom of 25 students indicated that students did not remain on task for any substantial length of time when given an assignment, had poor work habits, and were lacking in discipline. The classroom teacher spent most of her time disciplining students in a negative manner for lack of on-task…

  9. The Classroom Manager. Hands-on Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Nancy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four teachers discuss how they help students create hands-on, multimedia reports and presentations. Ideas include using hypertext programs on classroom computers to make computerized notecards of data on study topics, using CD-ROM disks for research, creating storyboards of videotaped reports, and setting up schedules for videotaping. (SM)

  10. Self-Contained Classrooms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Determining the ideal academic setting in which students can be successful continues to be one of the primary goals of educators. Is there a best classroom structure in which students can be successful? Although there is research on the academic gains in the block schedule and in traditional departmentalized settings, both of which are common in…

  11. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. February 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of February, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to related World Wide Web sites, and lists of related news terms. Topics include: Monica Lewinsky scheduled to be deposed for the Senate,…

  12. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom…

  13. Classroom Amplification To Enhance Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSarno, Neil J.; Schowalter, Melissa; Grassa, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of classroom amplification systems to improve the performance of students with hearing loss or learning disabilities addresses the auditory challenges of inclusive classrooms, changing the classroom environment to reduce noise, types of amplification systems, and what teachers observe about amplification. (Contains references.) (DB)

  14. Bridging Theory to Practice with Classroom Rounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Connie L.; Herrelko, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service candidates' perceptions of how to teach were challenged after going through the process of Classroom Rounds, the process that was used in this study. Classroom Rounds consisted of a pre-conference meeting with an inservice teacher, followed by a classroom observation of that teacher, and finally a discussion focusing on proven…

  15. Sociology of the Classroom Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Raymond L.

    This project formed small seminar groups of behavioral scientists and educators to study the sociology of the classroom. The groups observed classrooms in elementary schools, high schools, and universities in Montana. Library research and discussion were other methods of investigation used. It was concluded that the classroom is part of society's…

  16. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  17. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  18. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  19. Classroom Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Daryl

    1984-01-01

    A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)

  20. Observational Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Charles W., Ed.; Brandt, Richard M., Ed.

    The ASCD Supervision Council established three regional conferences to (1) assure that supervisors in elementary and secondary education would have the opportunity for self-renewal through a wide variety of meaningful experiences, and (2) help supervisors and curriculum workers develop skills and competencies that could be shared with teachers.…

  1. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  2. Culture Orientation and Sociometry of the Classroom: A Possible Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Hajnal, Vivian

    Findings of a study that examined the relationship between classroom orientation and sociometric patterns within the classroom are presented in this paper. Methodology involved observation of 12 classrooms in Ontario and administration of two survey instruments to 20 fourth-year students. Classroom orientations were categorized as cooperative,…

  3. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  4. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  5. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  6. Distributed network scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Network Scheduling is the scheduling of future communications of a network by nodes in the network. This report details software for doing this onboard spacecraft in a remote network. While prior work on distributed scheduling has been applied to remote spacecraft networks, the software reported here focuses on modeling communication activities in greater detail and including quality of service constraints. Our main results are based on a Mars network of spacecraft and include identifying a maximum opportunity of improving traverse exploration rate a factor of three; a simulation showing reduction in one-way delivery times from a rover to Earth from as much as 5 to 1.5 hours; simulated response to unexpected events averaging under an hour onboard; and ground schedule generation ranging from seconds to 50 minutes for 15 to 100 communication goals.

  7. Initial Hardware Development Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, William X.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware development schedule for the Common Lunar Lander's (CLLs) tracking system is presented. Among the topics covered are the following: historical perspective, solution options, industry contacts, and the rationale for selection.

  8. Fundamentals of Shiftwork Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    works non-standard shifts that include evenings, nights and/or weekends. Sleep hygiene . Healthful time management with respect to sleep quality. Work...This report is designed for use by managers , supervisors, shiftwork schedulers and employees. It defines the principles and components of a method of...contributions are gratefully acknowledged vLi SUMMARY This report is designed for use by managers , supervisors, shifiwork schedulers and employees. It

  9. Affirmative Action: The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaramayya, B.

    This paper considers Indian affirmative action policies that provide reservations (quotas) in favor of two disadvantaged groups, the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes. First, definitions and background are presented. The scheduled castes ("untouchables") are said to suffer from social segregation, and the scheduled tribes from…

  10. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  11. Connellys' Classroom Cutaway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, John; Connelly, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to help classroom teachers use the educational tool of student-produced media to meet their curriculum objectives. It has been the authors' experience in three decades of utilizing this tool personally and observing other teachers utilizing this tool, across nearly all grades and course content areas, that it is very effective.…

  12. The Structured Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the organisation of the remedial classroom. The data were collected from observations and semi-structured interviews with 10 teachers in remedial classes for children seen and treated as having concentration deficits. The teachers use primarily compensatory language that places the deficits in the pupils.…

  13. Computers and Classroom Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward

    This book explores the meaning of computer technology in schools. The book is based on data gathered from a two-year observation of more than 30 different classrooms in an urban high school: geometry classes in which students used artificially intelligent tutors; business classes in which students learned word processing; and computer science…

  14. Toward Better Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grew, James H.

    1964-01-01

    Designed for the inexperienced language teacher, this summary of effective language teaching techniques is based on observations made in high school French classes, but is applicable also to elementary school and beginning college language programs. Consideration is given to maintaining interest and classroom control, using realia, and giving each…

  15. Classroom Social Signal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raca, Mirko; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present our efforts towards building an observational system for measuring classroom activity. The goal is to explore visual cues which can be acquired with a system of video cameras and automatically processed to enrich the teacher's perception of the audience. The paper will give a brief overview of our methodology, explored features, and…

  16. The Effects of Classroom Management on the Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Sazak-Pinar, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the behaviors of the students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms differed according to the classroom management level of the teachers. The classroom management strategies of the 44 teachers were assessed by using The Proactive Classroom Management Observation Form. The…

  17. Teacher Organization of Time and Space in the Classroom as an Aspect of the Construction of Classroom Power Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manke, Mary Phillips

    An ethnographic study of three public elementary school classrooms explored how teachers organized time and space and through this organization attempted to construct classroom power relationships. The study involved intensive observation of classroom interactions in two fifth-grade classes and one first-grade classroom and close analysis of…

  18. The Classroom Animal: Daddy Longlegs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of the common harvestmen, or daddy longlegs, and the true spider. Provides information on harvestmen's habitats and life cycles and includes tips on housing and observing these organisms in science classrooms. (TW)

  19. A Zebra in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Devin; Morvillo, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the care and breeding of zebra fish, suggests various experiments and observations easily performed in a classroom setting, and provides some ideas to further student interest and exploration of these organisms. (DDR)

  20. Classroom Size & Number of Students Per Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Discusses what size classrooms should be and what research is revealing on the concept of social distance and its influence on classroom size considerations. A standard classroom size chart is provided. (GR)

  1. The Stanford School Scheduling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Dept. of Industrial Engineering.

    This booklet gives a general overview of the computerized Stanford School Scheduling System (SSSS) which is designed to make scheduling less difficult for individualized programs in secondary education. Topics covered include new flexible scheduling and variable course structure designs in secondary education, the school scheduling problem,…

  2. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  3. Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA

    2016-01-01

    MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.

  4. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times

  5. Schedule-Tracker Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Fernando F.

    1990-01-01

    Schedule Tracker provides effective method for tracking tasks "past due" and/or "near term". Generates reports for each responsible staff member having one or more assigned tasks falling within two listed categories. Schedule Organizer (SO) (COSMIC program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker (ST), and Schedule Report Generator (SRG) (COSMIC program MSC-21527) computer programs manipulating data-base files in ways advantageous in scheduling. Written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL).

  6. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  7. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  8. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  9. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  10. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  11. Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Van Huele, Christophe; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Integrated Physician and Surgery Scheduling Problem (IPSSP) as a new approach for solving operating room scheduling problems where staff rosters for the physicians are integrated in the optimization. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is created based on the most frequently observed objective and restrictions of the surgery scheduling and the physician rostering problem in the literature. We analyze schedules by relaxing both surgery and physician related constraints. We then measure the implications of setting these physician preferences on the surgery schedule. Our experiments show two main interesting insights for physician roster schedulers as well as operating theatre scheduling managers.

  12. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  13. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development.

  14. Classroom Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

  15. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  16. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  17. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  18. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  19. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  20. Round Robin Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a computer program written in BASIC that covers round-robin schedules for team matches in competitions. The program was originally created to help teams in a tennis league play one match against every other team. Part of the creation of the program involved use of modulo arithmetic. (MP)

  1. Schedule-Induced Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Howard, Denise

    1992-01-01

    The phenomena of the induction and entrainment of adjunctive behaviors was investigated in 8 people (ages 5-51) with severe or profound mental retardation who exhibited stereotypic behaviors. Seven of the eight demonstrated evidence of schedule-induced stereotypic behavior, whereas five also showed evidence of the entrainment of these behaviors by…

  2. Scheduling THE Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Martin D.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on how to schedule the use of a single computer so that all students are represented and given equal access. Suggests that a computer management team be selected from within the class; discusses the teacher's role and student role definition and responsibility assignments. (AEF)

  3. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  4. Block Schedule and Traditional Schedule Achievement: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    Block scheduling constitutes one of the major types of restructuring considered by school administrators seeking to improve student performance. The relationship between two school schedules--the seven-period A/B block and the seven-period traditional schedule--and achievement of students in grade 11 was examined. Comparisons showed no significant…

  5. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  6. Registration Review Docket Opening Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dockets are opened on a fiscal year schedule for reevaluation of all pesticides. They are subdivided into conventional pesticides, antimicrobials, biochemicals, and microbials. The schedules for 2014 to 2017 are attached.

  7. Explanation of Registration Review Schedule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated information on EPA's schedule for opening dockets to begin pesticide registration reviews during the next several years. The schedule is subdivided into conventional pesticides, antimicrobials, biochemicals, and microbials. \

  8. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike

  9. An integrated scheduling and program management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

  10. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only…

  11. Conflict-Aware Scheduling Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester

    2006-01-01

    conflict-aware scheduling algorithm is being developed to help automate the allocation of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and equipment that are used to communicate with interplanetary scientific spacecraft. The current approach for scheduling DSN ground resources seeks to provide an equitable distribution of tracking services among the multiple scientific missions and is very labor intensive. Due to the large (and increasing) number of mission requests for DSN services, combined with technical and geometric constraints, the DSN is highly oversubscribed. To help automate the process, and reduce the DSN and spaceflight project labor effort required for initiating, maintaining, and negotiating schedules, a new scheduling algorithm is being developed. The scheduling algorithm generates a "conflict-aware" schedule, where all requests are scheduled based on a dynamic priority scheme. The conflict-aware scheduling algorithm allocates all requests for DSN tracking services while identifying and maintaining the conflicts to facilitate collaboration and negotiation between spaceflight missions. These contrast with traditional "conflict-free" scheduling algorithms that assign tracks that are not in conflict and mark the remainder as unscheduled. In the case where full schedule automation is desired (based on mission/event priorities, fairness, allocation rules, geometric constraints, and ground system capabilities/ constraints), a conflict-free schedule can easily be created from the conflict-aware schedule by removing lower priority items that are in conflict.

  12. Rural Inservice Using Alternate Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmet, James L.

    Three small rural school districts in Montana and Wyoming used alternate school day scheduling to make time for staff and curriculum development inservice programs. The schedule of one short and four long days delivered the instructional time of 175 6-hour days each year. Benefits of alternate scheduling included time for regular inservice…

  13. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  14. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  15. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  16. Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Apthorp, Helen; Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. Researchers randomly assigned 67 elementary schools to receive CASL materials or continue with regularly scheduled professional development. Teachers in CASL schools formed…

  17. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  18. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  19. SARDA Surface Schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Waqar

    2016-01-01

    Provide an overview of algorithms used in SARDA (Spot and Runway Departure Advisor) HITL (Human-in-the-Loop) simulation for Dallas Fort-Worth International Airport and Charlotte Douglas International airport. Outline a multi-objective dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that finds the exact solution to the single runway scheduling (SRS) problem, and discuss heuristics to restrict the search space for the DP based algorithm and provide improvements.

  20. Automation Improves Schedule Quality and Increases Scheduling Efficiency for Residents

    PubMed Central

    Perelstein, Elizabeth; Rose, Ariella; Hong, Young-Chae; Cohn, Amy; Long, Micah T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical resident scheduling is difficult due to multiple rules, competing educational goals, and ever-evolving graduate medical education requirements. Despite this, schedules are typically created manually, consuming hours of work, producing schedules of varying quality, and yielding negative consequences for resident morale and learning. Objective To determine whether computerized decision support can improve the construction of residency schedules, saving time and improving schedule quality. Methods The Optimized Residency Scheduling Assistant was designed by a team from the University of Michigan Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering. It was implemented in the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital Pediatric Emergency Department in the 2012–2013 academic year. The 4 metrics of schedule quality that were compared between the 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 academic years were the incidence of challenging shift transitions, the incidence of shifts following continuity clinics, the total shift inequity, and the night shift inequity. Results All scheduling rules were successfully incorporated. Average schedule creation time fell from 22 to 28 hours to 4 to 6 hours per month, and 3 of 4 metrics of schedule quality significantly improved. For the implementation year, the incidence of challenging shift transitions decreased from 83 to 14 (P < .01); the incidence of postclinic shifts decreased from 72 to 32 (P < .01); and the SD of night shifts dropped by 55.6% (P < .01). Conclusions This automated shift scheduling system improves the current manual scheduling process, reducing time spent and improving schedule quality. Embracing such automated tools can benefit residency programs with shift-based scheduling needs. PMID:26913102

  1. MESA: Mercator scheduler and archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, Florian; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an observing scheduling and archive system for the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The goal was to optimize the specific niche of this modern small telescope in observational astrophysics: the building-up of long-term time series of photometric or high-resolution spectroscopic data with appropriate sampling for any given scientific program. This system allows PIs to easily submit their technical requirements and keep track of the progress of the observing programmes. The scheduling system provides the observer with an optimal schedule for the night which takes into account the current observing conditions as well as the priorities and requirements of the programmes in the queue. The observer can conveniently plan an observing night but also quickly adapt it to changing conditions. The archiving system automatically processes new files as they are created, including reduced data. It extracts the metadata and performs the normalization. A user can query, inspect and retrieve observing data. The progress of individual programmes, including timeline and reduced data plots can be seen at any time. Our MESA project is based on free and open source software (FOSS) using the Python programming language. The system is fully integrated with the Mercator Observing Control System1 (MOCS).

  2. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  3. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  4. SO - SCHEDULE ORGANIZER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer SO, Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SO contains the following primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds twenty-five groups of up to twenty-five names for each group. The other file holds twenty-five records, each of which may hold a task schedule title. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout; there is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the last schedule title deleted by

  5. Conjoint schedules of timeout deletion in pigeons.

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, T D

    1992-01-01

    This experiment attempted to bring behavior under joint control of two distinct contingencies, one that provided food and a second that extended the periods during which that food was available. Pigeons' responses on each of two keys were reinforced according to a single random-interval schedule of food presentation except during signaled timeout periods during which the schedule was temporarily disabled. By means of a conjoint schedule, responses on the initially less preferred key not only produced food but also canceled impending timeouts. When behavior came to predominate on this conjoint alternative, the consequences of responding on the two keys were reversed. Responding in 3 of 4 pigeons proved sensitive to the conjoint scheduled consequences, as evidenced by systematic shifts in response rates favoring the conjoint key. In 2 of these 3 pigeons, sensitivity to the conjoint contingency was evident under time-in:timeout ratios of 2:1 (time-in = 120 s, timeout = 60 s) and 1:5 (time-in = 30 s, timeout = 150 s), whereas for the other pigeon preference for the conjoint key was observed only under the latter sequence of conditions. There was only weak evidence of control by the conjoint scheduled consequences in the 4th subject, despite extended training and forced exposure to the conjoint alternative. The overall pattern of results is consistent with studies of timeout avoidance but also shares features in common with positively reinforced behavior. PMID:1402605

  6. The effect of mathematical games on on-task behaviours in the primary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge for primary classroom teachers is to maintain students' engagement with learning tasks while catering for their diverse needs, capabilities and interests. Multiple pedagogical approaches are employed to promote on-task behaviours in the mathematics classroom. There is a general assumption by educators that games ignite children's on-task behaviours, but there is little systemically researched empirical data to support this claim. This paper compares students' on-task behaviours during non-digital game-playing lessons compared with non-game-playing lessons. Six randomly selected grade 5 and 6 students (9-12 year olds) were observed during ten mathematics lessons. A total of 2,100 observations were recorded via an observational schedule and analysed by comparing the percentage of exhibited behaviours. The study found the children spent 93 % of the class-time exhibiting on-task engagement during the game-playing lessons compared with 72 % during the non-game-playing lessons. The game-playing lessons also promoted greater incidents of student talk related to the mathematical task (34 %) compared with the non-game-playing lessons (11 %). These results support the argument that games serve to increase students' time-on-task in mathematics lessons. Therefore, it is contended that use of games explicitly addressing the mathematical content being taught in a classroom is one way to increase engagement and, in turn, potential for learning.

  7. Parallel job-scheduling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Rodger, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider solving job scheduling problems on the CREW PRAM model. We show how to adapt Cole's pipeline merge technique to yield several efficient parallel algorithms for a number of job scheduling problems and one optimal parallel algorithm for the following job scheduling problem: Given a set of n jobs defined by release times, deadlines and processing times, find a schedule that minimizes the maximum lateness of the jobs and allows preemption when the jobs are scheduled to run on one machine. In addition, we present the first NC algorithm for the following job scheduling problem: Given a set of n jobs defined by release times, deadlines and unit processing times, determine if there is a schedule of jobs on one machine, and calculate the schedule if it exists. We identify the notion of a canonical schedule, which is the type of schedule our algorithm computes if there is a schedule. Our algorithm runs in O((log n){sup 2}) time and uses O(n{sup 2}k{sup 2}) processors, where k is the minimum number of distinct offsets of release times or deadlines.

  8. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  9. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  10. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  11. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  12. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  13. SMM Observations of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  14. Inside the Pre-Kindergarten Door: Classroom Climate and Instructional Time Allocation in Tulsa's Pre-K Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Gormley, William T.; Lowenstein, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This observational study of 106 pre-K classrooms in Tulsa, Oklahoma provides descriptive data on children's classroom experiences--classroom climate and exposure to academic instruction--and comparisons of Tulsa classrooms with a multi-state sample of pre-K and Head Start classrooms led by comparably educated teachers. We also examined teacher and…

  15. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…

  16. Should Supervisors Intervene during Classroom Visits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Real-time coaching has become the go-to supervisory model in some schools (especially charters), with supervisors routinely jumping in during teacher observations and sometimes taking over the class to model a more effective approach. The author sets out goals and guidelines for impromptu classroom visits that include visiting each classroom at…

  17. Exclusively Visual Analysis of Classroom Group Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Laura; Scherr, Rachel E.; Zickler, Todd; Mazur, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale audiovisual data that measure group learning are time consuming to collect and analyze. As an initial step towards scaling qualitative classroom observation, we qualitatively coded classroom video using an established coding scheme with and without its audio cues. We find that interrater reliability is as high when using visual data…

  18. Second Language Writing in the Mainstream Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lyn

    The case study of a Bulgarian immigrant child's literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. Focus is on the boy's literacy development within the context of a mainstream kindergarten/first grade classroom in Australia. The report details the teacher's observations in the classroom and particularly in the child's writing…

  19. Waiting for Godot in the EFL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, David

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes some examples of classroom interaction from observation of English as a second language (ESL) teachers in Japanese classrooms. Analysis of the data shows that lessons often seem to pass from meaningless activity to silence and that ESL teachers continue to emphasize form over meaning and accuracy over communication. (SED)

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  1. Research on schedulers for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colome, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Guàrdia, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; Gesa, Lluis; Martínez, Francesc; Rodler, Florian

    2012-09-01

    The main task of a scheduler applied to astronomical observatories is the time optimization of the facility and the maximization of the scientific return. Scheduling of astronomical observations is an example of the classical task allocation problem known as the job-shop problem (JSP), where N ideal tasks are assigned to M identical resources, while minimizing the total execution time. A problem of higher complexity, called the Flexible-JSP (FJSP), arises when the tasks can be executed by different resources, i.e. by different telescopes, and it focuses on determining a routing policy (i.e., which machine to assign for each operation) other than the traditional scheduling decisions (i.e., to determine the starting time of each operation). In most cases there is no single best approach to solve the planning system and, therefore, various mathematical algorithms (Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, Multi-Objective Evolutionary algorithms, etc.) are usually considered to adapt the application to the system configuration and task execution constraints. The scheduling time-cycle is also an important ingredient to determine the best approach. A shortterm scheduler, for instance, has to find a good solution with the minimum computation time, providing the system with the capability to adapt the selected task to varying execution constraints (i.e., environment conditions). We present in this contribution an analysis of the task allocation problem and the solutions currently in use at different astronomical facilities. We also describe the schedulers for three different projects (CTA, CARMENES and TJO) where the conclusions of this analysis are applied to develop a suitable routine.

  2. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  3. Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; McClay, Jill Kedersha; Main, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of interview research examining writing instruction and assessment practices in 216 Grades 4-8 classrooms across the 10 Canadian provinces and 2 (of 3) territories. Researchers found that participating teachers scheduled daily time for writing, either in language arts classes or through integrating writing…

  4. A Descriptive Assessment of Instruction-Based Interactions in the Preschool Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Ndoro, Virginia W; Hanley, Gregory P; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Heal, Nicole A

    2006-01-01

    The current study describes preschool teacher–child interactions during several commonly scheduled classroom activities in which teachers deliver instructions. An observation system was developed that incorporated measurement of evidence-based compliance strategies and included the types of instructions delivered (e.g., integral or deficient directives, embedded directives, “do” or “don't” commands), the children's behavior with respect to the instructions (e.g., compliance, noncompliance, active avoidance, problem behavior), and the differential responses of the teacher to the child's behavior following an instruction (e.g., appropriate or inappropriate provision of attention and escape). After 4 classroom teachers were observed at least five times in each of five target activities, simple and conditional probabilities were calculated. Results indicated that (a) the frequency of instruction and probability of compliance varied as a function of activity type, (b) “do” commands and directive prompts were delivered almost to the exclusion of “don't” commands and nondirective prompts, (c) the likelihood of compliance was highest following an embedded or an integral directive prompt, and (d) although putative social reinforcers were more likely to follow noncompliance than compliance and were highly likely following problem behavior, compliance occurred over twice as much as noncompliance, and problem behavior during instructions was very low. Implications for using descriptive assessments for understanding and improving teacher–child interactions in the preschool classroom are discussed. PMID:16602387

  5. The Effect of Immersion Scheduling on Academic Performance and Students' Ratings of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…

  6. Personalized Education; Solving a Group Formation and Scheduling Problem for Educational Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahargam, Sanaz; Erdos, Dóra; Bestavros, Azer; Terzi, Evimaria

    2015-01-01

    Whether teaching in a classroom or a Massive Online Open Course it is crucial to present the material in a way that benefits the audience as a whole. We identify two important tasks to solve towards this objective; (1) group students so that they can maximally benefit from peer interaction and (2) find an optimal schedule of the educational…

  7. Course Scheduling to Find the Minimum Cost Set of Facilities Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccatore, Luis A.

    The problem of determining the quantity of classroom, laboratories and instructors to train sections of students attending numerous distinct courses in a school such as the Fleet Ballistic Missile School is considered. A procedure is developed for determining feasible schedules in order to graduate a fixed number of trainees over time while…

  8. Classroom Process Differences in Inner-City Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.; Anderson, Lascelle; Weinstein, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Examined classroom processes in urban elementary schools identified as effective/efficient (E/E) and ineffective/inefficient (I/I), noting differences regarding students' behavior, motivation, and perception of classroom learning environment. Data from observations and student surveys indicated several classroom process differences between E/E and…

  9. Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachur, Donald; And Others

    The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

  10. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and cultural…

  11. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  12. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  13. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  14. Effective Scheduling Using Sacred Time.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Doctors need to become more efficient in order to become more productive. One of the best ways to enhance efficiency is effective scheduling. Every practice has several urgencies or emergencies every day that have to be worked into the schedule, and these few additional patients can wreak havoc with the schedule. This article will discuss.how to use "sacred time" in order to enhance efficiency in the practice.

  15. Typical Classroom Experiences in First Grade: The Role of Classroom Climate and Functional Risk in the Development of Social Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, H. Kent; Pianta, Robert C.; Stuhlman, Megan

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examined the relation between children's social competence and their first-grade classroom environment. Drawing from data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we used cluster analysis to identify 4 types of typical classrooms based on observed classroom emotional and instructional supports. The 4 types…

  16. A Multi-Instrument Examination of Preschool Classroom Quality and the Relationship between Program, Classroom, and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Joanna Hope; Hallam, Rena; Homer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A statewide study of preschool classroom quality was conducted using 3 distinct classroom observation measures in order to inform a statewide quality rating system. Findings suggested that Tennessee preschool classrooms were approaching "good" quality on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R)…

  17. Classroom Re-Design to Facilitate Student Learning: A Case Study of Changes to a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Tom; Orr, Doug; Alomari, Elham

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the physical aspects of a particular university classroom, and what affect specific changes to the classroom had on the perceptions of students, instructors and observers regarding the room as an effective learning space. We compare survey and focus group data collected from students taking courses in the classroom prior…

  18. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  19. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

  20. Recent Improvements to HST Parallel Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Ronald; Butschky, Mike

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has several scientific instruments (SIs) that may be used at any given time. Most primary visits submitted by HST observers only use one SI, leaving the other SIs free to be requested by ``pure parallel'' observing programs. In order to accomplish this, separate scheduling units (SUs) for each parallel SI must be created and then scheduled by the Science Planning and Scheduling System (SPSS), taking into account numerous orbital and scientific constraints. The Parallel Observation Matching System (POMS) has the task of matching parallel visits to primary observations and ``crafting'' appropriate parallel SUs at each opportunity, taking scientific criteria and orbital constraints into account. The process for planning and scheduling parallel observations is thus quite different from the process for primary science. In the past, custom crafting rules for each parallel program were necessary, requiring full-time support from a software developer. In addition, because POMS ran as a standalone system, its ability to model how long parallel SUs would take was limited, especially with the flexible buffer-management schemes used for the second-generation SIs. A new version of POMS was developed in 1997. This version uses a formal proposal syntax (the same used for primary observations) for parallels, so that different proposals can be handled uniformly and without the need for customized ``crafting rules.'' In addition, POMS is integrated with the Transformation (TRANS) planning system in order to give it full knowledge of overheads within an SU, eliminating the need for ad hoc modeling. The power and versatility of this approach has paid off in improved utilization of parallel opportunities, greatly reduced maintenance costs, and an ability to gracefully handle new parallel proposals and new SIs with minimal software effort. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and operational results of the new POMS.

  1. Scheduling IT staff at a bank: a mathematical programming approach.

    PubMed

    Labidi, M; Mrad, M; Gharbi, A; Louly, M A

    2014-01-01

    We address a real-world optimization problem: the scheduling of a Bank Information Technologies (IT) staff. This problem can be defined as the process of constructing optimized work schedules for staff. In a general sense, it requires the allocation of suitably qualified staff to specific shifts to meet the demands for services of an organization while observing workplace regulations and attempting to satisfy individual work preferences. A monthly shift schedule is prepared to determine the shift duties of each staff considering shift coverage requirements, seniority-based workload rules, and staff work preferences. Due to the large number of conflicting constraints, a multiobjective programming model has been proposed to automate the schedule generation process. The suggested mathematical model has been implemented using Lingo software. The results indicate that high quality solutions can be obtained within a few seconds compared to the manually prepared schedules.

  2. Scheduling IT Staff at a Bank: A Mathematical Programming Approach

    PubMed Central

    Labidi, M.; Mrad, M.; Gharbi, A.; Louly, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We address a real-world optimization problem: the scheduling of a Bank Information Technologies (IT) staff. This problem can be defined as the process of constructing optimized work schedules for staff. In a general sense, it requires the allocation of suitably qualified staff to specific shifts to meet the demands for services of an organization while observing workplace regulations and attempting to satisfy individual work preferences. A monthly shift schedule is prepared to determine the shift duties of each staff considering shift coverage requirements, seniority-based workload rules, and staff work preferences. Due to the large number of conflicting constraints, a multiobjective programming model has been proposed to automate the schedule generation process. The suggested mathematical model has been implemented using Lingo software. The results indicate that high quality solutions can be obtained within a few seconds compared to the manually prepared schedules. PMID:24772032

  3. Job scheduling on a hypercube

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yahui.

    1990-01-01

    The author studies the scheduling of independent jobs on hypercube multiprocessors. He assumes that the hypercube system supports space-sharing for multiprogramming, i.e., a hypercube is partitioned into subcubes and each job is assigned to a dedicated subcube and many jobs can be running simultaneously without interfering with each other. Then the problem of how to schedule a set of jobs so that they can be finished as early as possible becomes important. He investigates two kinds of scheduling algorithms for the problem. The first one is nonpreemptive scheduling, i.e., no job is allowed to be interrupted during its execution. In this case, the problem is NP-Complete. He proposes an approximation algorithm called LDF, which generates a schedule with a finish time less than twice that of an optimal schedule. Compared with the earlier proposed algorithm, his algorithm is simpler and has almost the same performance. More importantly, his LDF algorithm can achieve this performance without knowing the job processing times, which may be hard to obtain in practice. Also he proves a lower bound result which implies that it is unlikely to find simple heuristic algorithms that can perform much better than the existing algorithms including LDF. The second kind is preemptive scheduling, i.e., a job can be preempted during its execution and rescheduled later. He develops a feasibility algorithm that runs in O (n log n) time and generates a schedule with at most min{l brace}n-2, 2{sup m}-1{r brace} preemptions. It can generate a feasible schedule for the given job set if there exists one. This improvement is important because many scheduling algorithms depend on a feasibility algorithm as a building block. Furthermore, based on an advanced search technique, he presents an algorithm that can find the optimal schedule in O(n{sup 2} log {sup 2}n) time.

  4. Dynamics in scheduled networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Lacasa, Lucas; Cea, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    When studying real or virtual systems through complex networks theories, usually time restrictions are neglected, and a static structure is defined to characterize which node is connected to which other. However, this approach is oversimplified, as real networks are indeed dynamically modified by external mechanisms. In order to bridge the gap, in this work we present a scheduled network formalism, which takes into account such dynamical modifications by including generic time restrictions in the structure of an extended adjacency matrix. We present some of its properties and apply this formalism to the specific case of the air transportation network in order to analyze its efficiency. Real data are used at this point. We finally discuss on the applicability of this formalism to other complex systems.

  5. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  6. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  7. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration.

  8. The LSST Scheduler from design to construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Reuter, Michael A.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a highly robotic facility, demanding a very high efficiency during its operation. To achieve this, the LSST Scheduler has been envisioned as an autonomous software component of the Observatory Control System (OCS), that selects the sequence of targets in real time. The Scheduler will drive the survey using optimization of a dynamic cost function of more than 200 parameters. Multiple science programs produce thousands of candidate targets for each observation, and multiple telemetry measurements are received to evaluate the external and the internal conditions of the observatory. The design of the LSST Scheduler started early in the project supported by Model Based Systems Engineering, detailed prototyping and scientific validation of the survey capabilities required. In order to build such a critical component, an agile development path in incremental releases is presented, integrated to the development plan of the Operations Simulator (OpSim) to allow constant testing, integration and validation in a simulated OCS environment. The final product is a Scheduler that is also capable of running 2000 times faster than real time in simulation mode for survey studies and scientific validation during commissioning and operations.

  9. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings.

  10. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  11. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  12. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  13. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  14. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  15. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  16. Scheduling Guide for Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    and val- leys are evened out without scheduling more work than nine people can do. In this ex- ample, this rearrangement can be accom- plished quickly...full advantage of event- driven scheduling. Additional information on the development of IMSs can be found in various sections of the Defense

  17. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  18. 21 CFR 1308.15 - Schedule V.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule V. 1308.15 Section 1308.15 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.15 Schedule V. (a) Schedule V shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by...

  19. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule II. 1308.12 Section 1308.12 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.12 Schedule II. (a) Schedule II shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  20. 21 CFR 1308.15 - Schedule V.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule V. 1308.15 Section 1308.15 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.15 Schedule V. (a) Schedule V shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by...

  1. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  2. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.14 Schedule IV. (a) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  3. Scheduling Software for Complex Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Preparing a vehicle and its payload for a single launch is a complex process that involves thousands of operations. Because the equipment and facilities required to carry out these operations are extremely expensive and limited in number, optimal assignment and efficient use are critically important. Overlapping missions that compete for the same resources, ground rules, safety requirements, and the unique needs of processing vehicles and payloads destined for space impose numerous constraints that, when combined, require advanced scheduling. Traditional scheduling systems use simple algorithms and criteria when selecting activities and assigning resources and times to each activity. Schedules generated by these simple decision rules are, however, frequently far from optimal. To resolve mission-critical scheduling issues and predict possible problem areas, NASA historically relied upon expert human schedulers who used their judgment and experience to determine where things should happen, whether they will happen on time, and whether the requested resources are truly necessary.

  4. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  5. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  6. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALLOWAY, CHARLES

    NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR CONSISTS MAINLY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, GESTURES AND BODY MOVEMENTS, AND VOCAL INTONATIONS AND INFLECTIONS. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A MODEL FOR OBSERVING TEACHER NONVERBAL CLASSROOM ACTIVITY, 12 CATEGORIES WERE DEVELOPED THROUGH THE USE OF TWO DIMENSIONS--ENCOURAGING TO INHIBITING AND TEACHER INITIATED TO TEACHER RESPONSE. THREE…

  7. Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

  8. Writing in the elementary science classroom: Teacher beliefs and practices within a narrowing curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffler, Angela K.

    The narrowed curriculum continues to be challenging for science education as teachers strive to impart content that is on the high-stakes assessments. This Qualitative multiple-case study investigated four experienced, elementary classroom teachers' use of writing in science. It was designed to provide insight into teaching beliefs and practices of how teachers use writing in science opportunities within a narrowing curriculum. Triangulation was achieved through teacher interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Three major findings were evident through careful examination of data which is representative of the teacher participants within this study: 1.) Writing is combined with dialogue, multiple applications, activity and audience, 2.) Writing is used as an assessment and as a means to enhance learning, 3.) Writing is prioritized in science with differing schedule approaches. Although these are the major findings there were exceptions that were unique to each individual participant. The findings of this study can inform pre-service, novice and experienced classroom teachers on how to interconnect the two subject areas of writing and science to promote enhancement of learning. By gaining this information, it could diminish the global achievement gap in science.

  9. Treating Non-Retentive Encopresis with Rewarded Scheduled Toilet Visits

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E; Roberts, Michael C; Vernberg, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rewarded scheduled toilet sits on non-retentive encopretic behavior of an elementary-school student receiving services for serious emotional disturbance. A multidisciplinary team implemented the 8-week intervention using a multiple baseline across settings design. The results showed an increase in sitting on the toilet and a decline in encopretic episodes in both school and home settings. These findings support the use of a behavioral intervention for children with significant behavioral disorders within a classroom setting. PMID:22477690

  10. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  11. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children United States, 2017 ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Schedule for ...

  12. Examining the Validity of Ratings from a Classroom Observation Instrument for Use in a District's Teacher Evaluation System. REL 2016-135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of teacher evaluation scores that are derived from an observation tool, adapted from Danielson's Framework for Teaching, designed to assess 22 teaching components from four teaching domains. The study analyzed principals' observations of 713 elementary, middle, and high school teachers in…

  13. How Can Online Observation Support the Assessment and Feedback, on Classroom Performance, to Trainee Teachers at a Distance and in Real Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Martin; Harding, Alan; Liddon, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the key findings of a project commissioned in 2005 by the UK Department for Education and Skills to consider the use of synchronous digital video for observation, feedback and assessment of teaching practice in post-compulsory education and training. A protocol for the remote observation of teaching is presented that was…

  14. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  15. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  16. Classroom Age Composition and Developmental Change in 70 Urban Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Arlen C.; Forbes-Jones, Emma; Hightower, A. Dirk

    2008-01-01

    A multilevel modeling approach was used to investigate the influence of age composition in 70 urban preschool classrooms. A series of hierarchical linear models demonstrated that greater variance in classroom age composition was negatively related to development on the Child Observation Record (COR) Cognitive, Motor, and Social subscales. This was…

  17. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  18. Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.

    2012-12-01

    Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these

  19. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jim; Ashcraft, Nikki; Clarke, Paul M.; Wolf, Grant S.

    1999-01-01

    Four tips for use in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom are highlighted: Mr. Bean in the Classroom; Defining Your Future; Coin Questions; Our Futures: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. (Author/VWL)

  2. ABCs of Smart Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    Describes issues involved when converting traditional classrooms into smart classrooms that include appropriate educational technology. Highlights include faculty training in advance; flexibility; design considerations; technical support; and an example based on experiences at Virginia Commonwealth University. (LRW)

  3. In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P.; Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1991-01-01

    Presents seven reading activities involving the preschool classroom writing environment, using big books and predictable books, using cereal boxes to foster emergent literacy, using editorials, visual-auditory links, reading outside the classroom, and ownership of writing. (MG)

  4. Adapting Classroom Schemata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses schema theory in relation to the language classroom. Argues that as teachers themselves are former learners, the schemata they have developed both inside and outside the classroom will provide them assumptions about how people learn. (Author/VWL)

  5. Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

  6. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  7. Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

    Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

  8. The TJO-OAdM Robotic Observatory: the scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Casteels, Kevin; Ribas, Ignasi; Francisco, Xavier

    2010-07-01

    The Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (TJO - OAdM) is a small-class observatory working under completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by its reliability in responding to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. But there is another key point when deciding how the system performs as a robot: the capability to adapt the scheduled observation to actual conditions. The scheduler represents a fundamental element to fully achieve an intelligent response at any time. Its main task is the mid- and short-term time optimization and it has a direct effect on the scientific return achieved by the observatory. We present a description of the scheduler developed for the TJO - OAdM, which is separated in two parts. Firstly, a pre-scheduler that makes a temporary selection of objects from the available projects according to their possibility of observation. This process is carried out before the beginning of the night following different selection criteria. Secondly, a dynamic scheduler that is executed any time a target observation is complete and a new one must be scheduled. The latter enables the selection of the best target in real time according to actual environment conditions and the set of priorities.

  9. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  10. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  11. Quick Guide: Democratic Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Service Learning Clearinghouse, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Democratic classrooms are those in which the curriculum actively engages students in collaborative inquiry, decision making is shared between students and staff, and students choose their daily activities. Compared with traditional classrooms, students in democratic classrooms take more ownership of and responsibility for their own learning.…

  12. Discipline in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the principles of classroom management and discipline that can be used in the classroom. Includes avoiding distracting verbal exchanges, a management system, the use of verbal reprimand, room arrangements and isolation. Concludes that planning and attention to classroom management are worth the effort. (CW)

  13. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  14. Dimensions of Classroom Instruction: A Programmatic Approach to the Description of the Classroom Environment. Planning Report No. 5076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, R. O.

    An ongoing research project, Dimensions of Classroom Instruction (DCI) is described. The primary data source is a study of reading in nine second-grade classrooms using such observation techniques as categorical observation, ethnographic observation, and videotaping. Three major objectives for the project are stated: 1) developing methods of…

  15. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  16. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  17. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  18. An Examination of Cooperating Teachers' Observations of Their Student Teachers in the Areas of Personal, Teaching, and Musical Skills in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the observations of elementary school music teachers regarding the level of preparation of their most recent student teachers at the beginning of their student teaching experience. Twenty-seven elementary music teachers participated in a survey rating the preparedness of their student teacher in…

  19. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  20. Designing for the Active Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.

  1. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  2. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  3. An evaluation of a three-component multiple schedule to indicate attention availability.

    PubMed

    Nava, Maria J; Vargo, Kristina K; Babino, Misti M

    2016-09-01

    Students may engage in high rates of social approach responses at inappropriate times throughout the school day. One intervention that has been used to teach students appropriate and inappropriate times to access attention is a multiple schedule of reinforcement. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a multiple schedule that indicated when attention was available or not available in a bilingual preschool classroom during small-group instruction. Results showed that the intervention was effective in bringing students' social approaches under stimulus control.

  4. Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Kathryn

    Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

  5. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  6. Computerized Schedule Effectiveness Technique /SET/ determines present and future schedule position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, D.; Birdsong, J.; Calva, R.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized scheduling system calculates an index of overall schedule-effectiveness. The schedule-effectiveness index is a measurement of actual overall performance against the existing schedule, and a series of schedule-effectiveness values indicates the trend of actual performance. This computer program is written in Fortran 4.

  7. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Children in Full-Day Kindergarten: Comparing Traditional and Balanced Day Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare physical activity and sedentary time among young children whose schools adhere to traditional (i.e. three outdoor playtimes = 70 minutes) versus balanced day (i.e. two outdoor playtimes = ~55 minutes) schedules in Ontario full-day kindergarten classrooms. Design: The project was part of a larger, 2-year cross-sectional study.…

  9. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  10. The sleeping giant: Reinforcement schedules

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Schedule research has been the core of operant conditioning, but it is no longer an active area, at least with respect to its traditional focus of describing and explaining moment-to-moment behavior. Yet schedules are central in psychology: Not only do they establish lawful behavior, but they also play a major role in determining the effects of other variables. The reason for the decline appears to be primarily theoretical, in that the work seems not to have led to meaningful integration. The search for controlling variables brought into play by schedule specification has proven unsuccessful, and a catalog of all possible schedule effects is of limited interest. The paper reviews the reasons for the contemporary state of affairs. One prediction about future developments is that instead of revealing component variables and their modes of interaction, schedule effects will be treated as basic empirical laws. Theory will take the form of abstract statements that integrate these separate laws by reference to higher-order principles rather than by reduction to supposedly simpler component variables. PMID:16812403

  11. Malaysian Primary Teachers' Classroom Practice of Teaching and Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Hashimah Mohd.; Ismail, Zurida; Raper, George

    2004-01-01

    The present study discusses the findings from a research that was conducted involving fourteen teachers in a primary school. In the study, the teachers' classroom practices of teaching and learning science were observed and analysed. The data gathering procedures included 23 classroom observations and analysed by means of qualitative data…

  12. Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule…

  13. State Relocatable Classroom Program Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of General Services, Sacramento. Office of Public School Construction.

    This handbook provides process information on California's relocatable classroom program and contains the application process, information on preparing for delivery of relocatable classroom(s), district responsibilities regarding relocatable classroom(s), and documentation required for reimbursements. It also discusses regulations regarding…

  14. Evaluating Classroom Interaction with the iPad®: An Updated Stalling's Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory; Schep, Lourens; Borden, Lisa Lunney; Murray-Orr, Anne; Orr, Jeff; MacKinnon, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A large study of classrooms in the Caribbean context necessitated the use of a validated classroom observation tool. In practice, the paper-version Stalling's instrument (Stallings & Kaskowitz 1974) presented specific challenges with respect to (a) facile data collection and (b) qualitative observations of classrooms. In response to these…

  15. The Lions Quest Program in Turkey: Teachers' Views and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gol-Guven, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program…

  16. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  18. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  19. Robust stochastic mine production scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    The production scheduling of open pit mines aims to determine the extraction sequence of blocks such that the net present value (NPV) of a mining project is maximized under capacity and access constraints. This sequencing has significant effect on the profitability of the mining venture. However, given that the values of coefficients in the optimization procedure are obtained in a medium of sparse data and unknown future events, implementations based on deterministic models may lead to destructive consequences to the company. In this article, a robust stochastic optimization (RSO) approach is used to deal with mine production scheduling in a manner such that the solution is insensitive to changes in input data. The approach seeks a trade off between optimality and feasibility. The model is demonstrated on a case study. The findings showed that the approach can be used in mine production scheduling problems efficiently.

  20. Feature-based telescope scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghib, Elahesadat; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Feature-based Scheduler offers a sequencing strategy for ground-based telescopes. This scheduler is designed in the framework of Markovian Decision Process (MDP), and consists of a sub-linear online controller, and an offline supervisory control-optimizer. Online control law is computed at the moment of decision for the next visit, and the supervisory optimizer trains the controller by simulation data. Choice of the Differential Evolution (DE) optimizer, and introducing a reduced state space of the telescope system, offer an efficient and parallelizable optimization algorithm. In this study, we applied the proposed scheduler to the problem of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Preliminary results for a simplified model of LSST is promising in terms of both optimality, and computational cost.