Science.gov

Sample records for classroom observation schedule

  1. The Responsive Classroom Observation Schedule--Background and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayder, Nicholas F.; And Others

    This report focuses on the development and implementation of a 1-day classroom observation schedule designed to evaluate the Responsive Education Program, a compensatory program of formal education for children, ages 3-9, and their families. The program is an effort to create Head Start and Follow Through programs for children who are ethnically…

  2. Observational Findings Regarding Independent Learning Behavior. The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldupp, Ocea

    The Classroom Attitude Observational Schedule (CAOS) is designed to detect pattern shifts in a classroom during the absence of controlling adults. It is concerned with the independent learner who will continue school related tasks in a socially acceptable manner without supervision. The CAOS recording form notes activities and inappropriate…

  3. The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC): Evaluation of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Hudry, Kristelle; Brown, Laura; Pasco, Greg; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC) was developed as an ecologically valid measure of social-communication behaviour, delineating forms, functions, and intended partners of children's spontaneous communication acts. Forty-one children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 48-73 months were…

  4. How Block Scheduling Reform Effects Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Flinders, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices. This paper reports on…

  5. Observing Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  6. Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

    Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

  7. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  8. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  9. Observation scheduling scheme for the Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki; Koura, Norikazu; Hawkins, Robert; Kramer, Laurence; Krueger, Anthony P.; Miller, Glenn E.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We are now implementing scheduling software into the observation software system for Subaru telescope. The scheduling engine, SPIKE, developed at STScI is used with some modification for the Subaru telescope. An observation target list prepared by observers is converted to SPIKE Lisp codes. SPIKE output is inversely converted to Subaru commands to be executed with the observation software system. Real-time scheduling is planned to re-schedule observations by judging the weather and satisfaction conditions with the help of observation history. The scheduling software can be also used as support tools for observers to indicate an object good for the next observation.

  10. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  11. Observed Classroom Quality Profiles of Kindergarten Classrooms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to examine classroom quality profiles of kindergarten classrooms using a person-centered approach and to analyze these patterns in regard to teacher and classroom characteristics. Observations of the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support were conducted in…

  12. Observation scheduling tools for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Hawkins, Robert; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki

    2004-09-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have implemented scheduling software in the Subaru Telescope observatory software system. The scheduling engine, Spike, developed at STScI is used with some modification for Subaru Telescope. Since the last report at SPIE (Munich, 2000), new functions to Spike are implemented on 1) optimized arrangement of an observation dataset, which consists of a target object and related calibrations, and 2) flexible scheduling of standard stars selected out of a standard star list, which is fed to Spike as a part of observation datasets. Observation datasets with some necessary information, prepared by an observer, are input to the scheduling tools to be converted to Spike Lisp input forms. A schedule created by Spike is inversely converted to Subaru observation commands to be executed with the observation control system. These applications are operable with Web-based display. We present an overall structure of the scheduling tools with some samples of Subaru observation commands of target datasets and a resultant schedule.

  13. Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

    2014-06-01

    A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements.

  14. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  15. Evaluations of Classroom Observations (ECO). Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipczak, James

    The Evaluations of Classroom Observations Project had three major purposes, all related to direct observation of classroom behavior. First, the project was meant to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment program in furthering the acquisition of appropriate classroom participation skills by disruptive students. Second, the project was…

  16. A prototype combinatorial scheduler for space-borne observational instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey O.; Botten, Leroy H.; Strang, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler has been developed for observations to be carried out by the NASA Gamma Ray Observatory. The purpose of the scheduling system is to provide an automated method to determine optimized schedules conforming to all scheduling guidelines. Strategies used in creating COMPTEL/EGRET schedules and in scheduling OSSE targets are examined. It is concluded that the hybrid scheduler creates optimal schedules, or very nearly optimal schedules, and reduces the estimated scheduling time by 18 or 19 orders of magnitude, from about 10 to the 14th years to as few as 561 seconds.

  17. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  18. HEAO-A nominal scanning observation schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Stone, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The HEAO-A observatory, scheduled for launch in late June 1977, will spend most of its orbital lifetime in a scanning mode, spining from 0.03 to 0.1 rpm about an axis aligned with the sun. The dates of availability in the scan band are given for a list of 248 X-ray sources. Celestial maps of source locations and scan planes, and examples of the nighttime elevation of available sources are presented. This document is intended to aid ground-based observers in planning coordinated observations with HEAO-A.

  19. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can

  1. Multi-Telescope Observing: the LCOGT Network Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, E.; Lampoudi, S.

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is developing a worldwide network of fully robotic optical telescopes dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Observatory automation, longitudinal spacing of the sites, and a centralised network scheduler enable a range of observing modes impossible with traditional manual observing from a single location. These include continuous coverage of targets across sites, simultaneous observing with multiple resources, and cadenced time-series monitoring without diurnal gaps. The network also provides resource redundancy, with the potential for observations to be rescheduled in response to changing weather conditions. The scheduling model supports a wide variety of observing programs, which typically have very different constraints, goals, contingencies and timescales. Heterogeneous requests in a networked observing environment present specific, unusual challenges for telescope scheduling that do not arise with single-resource schedulers. Here, we discuss the design of the LCOGT network scheduler. We outline the scheduler's modular architecture, describe the implementation of its components, and highlight its current and planned capabilities.

  2. Seeing the Invisible: Classroom Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne, Mary Helen

    1997-01-01

    Presents results from a study investigating the effects of professional training on teachers' use of observations to assess elementary students. Describes the training program and its focus on professional empowerment, strategy development for observation-based assessment, and learning the value of peer support. Reports that participants'…

  3. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  4. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling observations by coordinated fleets of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) involves large search spaces, complex constraints and poorly understood bottlenecks, conditions where evolutionary and related algorithms are often effective. However, there are many such algorithms and the best one to use is not clear. Here we compare multiple variants of the genetic algorithm: stochastic hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on ten realistically-sized EOS scheduling problems. Schedules are represented by a permutation (non-temperal ordering) of the observation requests. A simple deterministic scheduler assigns times and resources to each observation request in the order indicated by the permutation, discarding those that violate the constraints created by previously scheduled observations. Simulated annealing performs best. Random mutation outperform a more 'intelligent' mutator. Furthermore, the best mutator, by a small margin, was a novel approach we call temperature dependent random sampling that makes large changes in the early stages of evolution and smaller changes towards the end of search.

  5. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: The Observers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, J.; Balser, D. A.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Harnett, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    To make the most efficient use of telescope time, the NRAO is implementing a Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DSS aims to match observing projects to the weather and other observing conditions, without sacrificing observers' interactive control of their experiments. To meet this goal, the DSS schedules people, not observing scripts. Each observer can then attend to the observation, control the telescope, and modify the observing program, if necessary, in real time. Observing under the DSS is often done remotely, by necessity. Every day, the DSS generates a new schedule for the 24-hour period beginning one day hence. Observers therefore must be prepared to run observations with 24 to 48 hours notice. Being available and ready to observe on short notice requires that observers adopt a new mindset, unlike their experiences with other telescopes. While it may be an inconvenience for some, the benefits of the DSS are substantial, the primary one being that astronomers are almost assured of observing in appropriate weather and getting high quality data. The DSS gives observers the opportunity to black out time ranges to avoid for scheduling, so the telescope schedule can fit around other demands. In addition to the scheduling algorithms, the DSS team has developed a set of software tools to help observers manage their projects, to notify observers of scheduling news, and to help observers anticipate when their projects will get scheduled. In this contribution we will report observers' experiences from the first tests of the GBT DSS, which took place from June 1 to September 30, 2008.

  6. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  7. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-09-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  8. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  9. Increasing Completion of Classroom Routines through the Use of Picture Activity Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kamille J.; DiCarlo, Cynthia F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers spend the first few days of school teaching routines to children that will help transitions in the classroom between different activities. When children have difficulty, they move more slowly and/or require teacher prompting. A picture activity schedule intervention (Breitfelder in Teach Except Child Plus 4(5):2-15, 2008; Bryan and Gast…

  10. SOFIA's Choice: Scheduling Observations for an Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kurklu, Elif; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne observatory. The problem is more complex than traditional scheduling problems in that it incorporates complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time of a mobile observatory, as well as traditional temporal constraints and optimization criteria. We describe the problem, its proposed solution and the empirical validation of that solution.

  11. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  12. SOFIA's Choice: Automating the Scheduling of Airborne Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of scheduling observations for an airborne telescope. Given a set of prioritized observations to choose from, and a wide range of complex constraints governing legitimate choices and orderings, how can we efficiently and effectively create a valid flight plan which supports high priority observations? This problem is quite different from scheduling problems which are routinely solved automatically in industry. For instance, the problem requires making choices which lead to other choices later, and contains many interacting complex constraints over both discrete and continuous variables. Furthermore, new types of constraints may be added as the fundamental problem changes. As a result of these features, this problem cannot be solved by traditional scheduling techniques. The problem resembles other problems in NASA and industry, from observation scheduling for rovers and other science instruments to vehicle routing. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In 2 we describe the observatory in order to provide some background. In 3 we describe the problem of scheduling a single flight. In 4 we compare flight planning and other scheduling problems and argue that traditional techniques are not sufficient to solve this problem. We also mention similar complex scheduling problems which may benefit from efforts to solve this problem. In 5 we describe an approach for solving this problem based on research into a similar problem, that of scheduling observations for a space-borne probe. In 6 we discuss extensions of the flight planning problem as well as other problems which are similar to flight planning. In 7 we conclude and discuss future work.

  13. An Examination of Teacher-Student Interactions in Inclusive Classrooms: Teacher Interviews and Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, David Lansing

    2014-01-01

    Teacher-student interactions in 17 inclusive classrooms were examined using a mixed-methods approach that involved quantitative analysis of interactions recorded during classroom observations and follow-up interviews with seven general educators. Observational findings suggest that classrooms were organised along traditional lines with the vast…

  14. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  15. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  16. Learning about Teachers' Literacy Instruction from Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Ben; Carlisle, Joanne F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to efforts to improve methods for gathering and analyzing data from classroom observations in early literacy. The methodological approach addresses current problems of reliability and validity of classroom observations by taking into account differences in teachers' uses of instructional actions…

  17. An Observational Study of Print Literacy in Canadian Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of print literacy in preschool classrooms. There were seven preschool teachers working in central Canada who were observed over three sessions. The process of analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on interviews, classroom observations and documents. The following categories were…

  18. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  19. Applying Squeaky-Wheel Optimization Schedule Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Kuerklue, Elif

    2004-01-01

    We apply the Squeaky Wheel Optimization (SWO) algorithm to the problem of scheduling astronomy observations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, an airborne observatory. The problem contains complex constraints relating the feasibility of an astronomical observation to the position and time at which the observation begins, telescope elevation limits, special use airspace, and available fuel. Solving the problem requires making discrete choices (e.g. selection and sequencing of observations) and continuous ones (e.g. takeoff time and setting up observations by repositioning the aircraft). The problem also includes optimization criteria such as maximizing observing time while simultaneously minimizing total flight time. Previous approaches to the problem fail to scale when accounting for all constraints. We describe how to customize SWO to solve this problem, and show that it finds better flight plans, often with less computation time, than previous approaches.

  20. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying Out Observing Programmes at SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David A. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the manner in which Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) observations are carried out, from the observation proposal process to the final distribution of data to the SALT users. As a background, the general operational model for SALT is also described. In addition I discuss the main top-level design and performance characteristics of both the telescope and instruments, which informs the nature of SALT observing programmes and leads to a natural selection of competitive science projects. Since SALT is a 100% queue-scheduled and service-observing telescope, there is a significant level of flexibility regarding how observations are undertaken. A single observation block can involve different instruments and modes, including calibrations. To support the often complex manner in which observations can be configured, a set of observation proposal and planning tools have been developed for both users and support staff, and these are described in this paper. SALT users can plan their observations using these tools and submit their proposals over the internet in two phases. The Phase~1 proposal contains the scientific and technical justification and target information, but only a basic description of the instrumental and observation configurations. Following approval of the proposals, the Phase~2 proposal is completed which contains all of the details of every observing block, including configurations, exposure times, signal-to-noise requirements, time windows (if applicable), total block observation time and calibration requirements. How SALT observations are undertaken, monitored and reduced is also described.

  1. The Contextual Application of Observation Schedules Within Naturalistic Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.

    Fifteen teachers from grades one through twelve and sixty pupils were sampled using a contextual approach to the investigation of teachers' verbal and nonverbal behavior. Pupils were categorized as accepting, concerned, indifferent, or rejecting by their respective teachers, and the student-initiated question frame was selected as a suitable and…

  2. Student teachers' observations of unfavorable teacher behaviors exhibited in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Dilekmen, Mücahit

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify male and female teachers' misbehaviors in classrooms and determine the variance of those misbehaviors in schools in different socioeconomic areas. The study was conducted in 24 primary schools in Erzurum province with a total of 210 classroom teachers. Data were obtained through observations made by 210 student teachers. The data collected were analysed through descriptive analyses by the researcher. 661 misbehaviors were observed and classified into six different categories, namely, physical aggression, passive (verbal) aggression, constant nervousness, trouble in managing the classroom, class failures pertaining to instruction, and other.

  3. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  4. Observations of AA Tau requested to schedule XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. Hans Moritz Guenther (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has requested nightly observations of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau in order to schedule x-ray observations with XMM-Newton that have been planned for between 2013 August 15 and September 15. The purpose of the AAVSO observations is to determine whether AA Tau is at a suitable magnitude for the satellite observations. Taurus is difficult to observe during this time period but that is exactly why AAVSO assistance is needed! AA Tau is a morning object, and also, many of the professional ground-based telescopes are offline because of the US southwest monsoon season. Since it is critical to know the brightness of AA Tau, AAVSO observations will be truly essential. Nightly visual and snapshot (not more than once per night) observations beginning now and continuing through September 20 are needed. Coverage beginning ahead of the XMM window is requested because there is a one- to two-week lead time for the target to be inserted into the telescope schedule. Continuing the nightly observations a few days beyond the end of the XMM window will give better optical context for the x-ray data. AA Tau ranges between ~12.8V and ~16.1V; since December 2011 or earlier it has been at ~14.5V. The most recent observation in the AAVSO International Database shows it at 14.779V on 2013 Feb 5 (J. Roe, Bourbon, MO). Dr. Guenther writes, "AA Tau is surrounded by a thick accretion disk which is seen nearly edge-on. For decades the light curve of AA Tau showed regular eclipsing events when the accretion funnel rotated through the line of sight. However, earlier this year J. Bouvier and his group found that this behavior changed dramatically: AA Tau now seems to be deeply absorbed all the time (V band 14.5 mag). In collaboration with this group we will perform X-ray observations of AA Tau with the XMM-Newton satellite." Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plo! tter (http

  5. Two Conversations at Once: Making Sense of Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Classroom observations are sometimes a challenging form of data collection. Not only are interpretations of those observations subject to the researcher's theoretical lens, but communication between the researcher and the teacher is often delayed until well after the observed events. This article reports research that focused on the pedagogical…

  6. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12 to 30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages. PMID:25832801

  7. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores.

    PubMed

    Esler, Amy N; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12-30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages.

  8. A Handheld Computer System for Classroom Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saudargas, Richard A.; Bunn, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    A handheld computer observation system was developed using Hewlett-Packard HP71B computers for recording and IBM-PCs for storing and analyzing data. Algorithims used in observing interactions between handicapped children and peers or teachers are described. Also described are behavior definitions, observer training and observation procedures, the…

  9. Characterizing Mathematics Classroom Practice: Impact of Observation and Coding Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale observational measures of classroom practice increasingly focus on opportunities for student participation as an indicator of instructional quality. Each observational measure necessitates making design and coding choices on how to best measure student participation. This study investigated variations of coding approaches that may be…

  10. Aspects on Learner-Biased Classroom Observational Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to explore the means in the field of observing classroom teaching/learning from both a general, and an "English as a Foreign Language" (EFL), viewpoint. The aim was to browse the relevant literature, and lead to consider observation tools which might serve to research in EFL. This paper summarizes the reading by…

  11. For the Classroom: Observing the Social Behavior of Guppies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wier, Elizabeth

    1981-01-01

    Guppies serve as a hardy, inexpensive, yet interesting species for classroom observation. Through a series of observations of individual males, groups of males, and males with females, students discover the signals male guppies use to set up social structure and to court females. (Author/DC)

  12. Evaluation of Handheld Computers for Direct Systematic Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Michael W.; Gouwens, Donald A.; Schuh, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Through this study the authors evaluate outcomes associated with the use of handheld computers by interventionists in improving the efficiency of direct systematic classroom observation. Information from observations is used by interventionists for treatment planning and evaluation. In this study, interventionists were trained to use personal…

  13. A Factor Analysis of Selected Classroom Observation Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samph, Thomas; White, Sally A.

    The specific purposes of this study were to identify new and unique dimensions of teaching and to identify the commonalities of several existing classroom observation systems. The objectives or anticipated outcomes were to: (a) increase interpretation and cross validation of research using different observation systems and more efficient…

  14. Spatial Mapping as a Method for Observing Classroom Art Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susi, Frank D.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial mapping is a category system for directly observing instruction in art classrooms. A rationale for studying the spatial dimensions of teaching is presented, how to train observers is explained, procedures involved in a mapping episode are described, methods for analyzing data are suggested, and examples of instruments are presented.…

  15. An Observational Study of Social Processes in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    This observational study examined student and teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors in microcomputer classrooms in a high school where most of the students are Black, Hispanic, or Asian, and almost half of them are classified as economically disadvantaged. A total of 125 students in grades 9 to 12 were observed, with 47 students in marketing, 18…

  16. Professional School Counselors as Process Observers in the Classroom: Collaboration with Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio-Griffith, Laura; Curry, Jennifer R.

    2008-01-01

    This article defines process observation and how it can be used by professional school counselors to assist classroom teachers in enhancing the learning environment for students. Further, this article elucidates the skills used by process observers. A case illustration is provided to demonstrate application of this service. Finally, practical…

  17. (42355) Typhon Echidna: Scheduling observations for binary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S.; Virtanen, J.; Muinonen, K.; Kern, S. D.; Stephens, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Levison, H. F.; Spencer, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a strategy for scheduling astrometric observations to minimize the number required to determine the mutual orbits of binary transneptunian systems. The method is illustrated by application to Hubble Space Telescope observations of (42355) Typhon-Echidna, revealing that Typhon and Echidna orbit one another with a period of 18.971±0.006 days and a semimajor axis of 1628±29 km, implying a system mass of (9.49±0.52)×10 kg. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.526±0.015. Combined with a radiometric size determined from Spitzer Space Telescope data and the assumption that Typhon and Echidna both have the same albedo, we estimate that their radii are 76-16+14 and 42-9+8 km, respectively. These numbers give an average bulk density of only 0.44-0.17+0.44 gcm, consistent with very low bulk densities recently reported for two other small transneptunian binaries.

  18. Classroom Observation: Desirable Conditions Established by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Teacher observation is regarded as an essential procedure in the teacher training process. However, the vast majority of observation experiences have a top-down approach, as they are usually established by experts such as university teaching staff or school inspectors working for the administration. With a bottom-up approach in mind, this paper…

  19. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  20. A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.

    PubMed

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

  1. Uncovering Multivariate Structure in Classroom Observations in the Presence of Rater Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Savitsky, Terrance D.; Lockwood, J. R.; Edelen, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the factor structure of scores from the CLASS-S protocol obtained from observations of middle school classroom teaching. Factor analysis has been used to support both interpretations of scores from classroom observation protocols, like CLASS-S, and the theories about teaching that underlie them. However, classroom observations contain…

  2. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Motivation and Classroom Practice in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesinger, Kevin D.; Crippen, Kent J.; Muis, Krista R.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a mixed-method investigation into the effects of Block Schedule on student self-efficacy, attitude, and instructional practices within the context of mathematics. Students exposed to block schedule showed no change in attitude toward mathematics, whereas those on a traditional schedule demonstrated a significant…

  3. "What Do I Teach for 90 Minutes?" Creating a Successful Block-Scheduled English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Carol

    The story of the process that Mundelein High School (located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois) as it moved from a traditional schedule to a block schedule is described throughout this book as a way to blend theory with practice. The book addresses types of block schedules; key issues for effective preparation; professional development…

  4. Radio observations of the Milky Way from the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyży, Krzysztof T.

    2014-12-01

    We present the project to introduce the first European network of radio telescopes for education. It enables pupils to detect spectral line emission of neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way at a wavelength of 21 cm. Any classroom connected to Internet via any web-browser can remotely control one of the radio-telescopes, observe and analyse obtained spectra: derive the Milky-Way rotation curve and recognise spiral arms in hydrogen distribution. Doing exercises pupils, guided by their teachers, learn the basics of radio astronomy research, use scientific method to explore and interpret the attained spectral data. A range of attractive educational materials are prepared to help in disseminating the scientific knowledge in the classroom and demonstrate the modern information technology.

  5. Observation of Classroom Performance Using Therapy Balls as a Substitute for Chairs in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Molly E.; Ketcham, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Many classrooms are beginning to substitute standard chairs with therapy balls, which help to improve students' focus and classroom performance, according to teacher and student reports. Researchers conducted an observational study in a classroom at a local elementary school that implemented therapy balls. For each hour-long observation, three…

  6. A Comparison of Techniques for Scheduling Fleets of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Earth observing satellite (EOS) scheduling is a complex real-world domain representative of a broad class of over-subscription scheduling problems. Over-subscription problems are those where requests for a facility exceed its capacity. These problems arise in a wide variety of NASA and terrestrial domains and are .XI important class of scheduling problems because such facilities often represent large capital investments. We have run experiments comparing multiple variants of the genetic algorithm, hill climbing, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization and iterated sampling on two variants of a realistically-sized model of the EOS scheduling problem. These are implemented as permutation-based methods; methods that search in the space of priority orderings of observation requests and evaluate each permutation by using it to drive a greedy scheduler. Simulated annealing performs best and random mutation operators outperform our squeaky (more intelligent) operator. Furthermore, taking smaller steps towards the end of the search improves performance.

  7. Relationships between Classroom Schedule Types and Performance on the Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gregory V.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    One option for length of individual mathematics class periods is the schedule type selected for Algebra I classes. This study examined the relationship between student achievement, as indicated by Algebra I Criterion-Referenced Test scores, and the schedule type for Algebra I classes. Data obtained from the Utah State Office of Education included…

  8. Scheduling and executing Phase II observing scripts on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Niall I.; Cornell, Mark E.

    1998-07-01

    We describe our scheme for scheduling and observing with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The HET will be operated 85 percent of the time in a queue-scheduled, service observing mode. Principal investigators (PIs) use software planning tools to determine how to make their observations with the HET, and submit proposals for telescope time to local Time Allocation Committees (TACs). Once time has been granted, PIs submit detailed observing scripts which instruct HET operations how, when, and under what conditions data are to be taken. These scripts are compiled into a relational database which is used to schedule the telescope. Observations are scheduled using TAC and PI-assigned priorities to rank plans relative to ne another. Resident astronomers use these priorities plus a set of simple precedence rules to determine which objects are to be observed each night. The execution of observation scripts is mostly automated, with the software commanding the telescope position and building data acquisition macros for each instrument. Aside from building and running the nightly observing queue, the resident astronomers are responsible for identifying targets, starting exposures, and validating data quality. They may also revise the observing queue in real time as conditions change. We discuss our initial experience working with this system, scheduling and executing observations during the commissioning of the HET.

  9. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom…

  10. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  11. The Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS): a new instrument to characterize university STEM classroom practices.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle K; Jones, Francis H M; Gilbert, Sarah L; Wieman, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change.

  12. Refining MARGINS Mini-Lessons Using Classroom Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.; McDaris, J. R.; Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    One of the challenges that we face in developing teaching materials or activities from research findings is testing the materials to determine that they work as intended. Traditionally faculty develop material for their own class, notice what worked and didn’t, and improve them the next year. However, as we move to a community process of creating and sharing teaching materials, a community-based process for testing materials is appropriate. The MARGINS project has piloted such a process for testing teaching materials and activities developed as part of its mini-lesson project (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/index.html). Building on prior work developing mechanisms for community review of teaching resources (e.g. Kastens, 2002; Hancock and Manduca, 2005; Mayhew and Hall, 2007), the MARGINS evaluation team developed a structured classroom observation protocol. The goals of field testing are to a) gather structured, consistent feedback for the lesson authors based on classroom use; b) guide reviewers of these lessons to reflect on research-based educational practice as a framework for their comments; c) collect information on the data and observations that the reviewer used to underpin their review; d) determine which mini-lessons are ready to be made widely available on the website. The protocol guides faculty observations on why they used the activity, the effectiveness of the activity in their classroom, the success of the activity in leading to the desired learning, and what other faculty need to successfully use the activity. Available online (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/protocol.html), the protocol can be downloaded and completed during instruction with the activity. In order to encourage review of mini-lessons using the protocol, a workshop focused on review and revision of activities was held in May 2009. In preparation for the workshop, 13 of the 28 participants chose to field test a mini-lesson prior to the workshop and reported that they found this

  13. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  14. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  15. Selecting, Scheduling and Carrying out Observing Programmes at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2006-12-01

    From paper proposals and photographic plate observations of the early days to today's submission, CFHT (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope) went through many changes. However, a few basic features of the observatory did not change over the years, reflecting the very nature of an international collaboration deeply rooted in the concept of equal role and responsibilities of its two main partners, Canada and France. Nevertheless, the overall role of the observatory strongly evolved over the past years, as demonstrated by a more business-like management emphasizing the services rendered by the observatory to its customers, a move made possible by the Queues Service Observing mode. Together with a careful selection of its new generation of instruments, it allows the observatory to play a significant role in astronomy in spite of the relatively small size of its telescope.

  16. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: ``When do I observe?'' Guiding Users' Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M.; Balser, D.; Sessoms, E.; Bignell, D.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A.; Maddalena, R.

    2009-09-01

    Because of variable local weather in Green Bank, West Virginia, along with the wide frequency coverage of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), substantial improvement in efficient use of telescope time is possible by dynamically scheduling observers within a time range when weather forecasts are reliable; however, using the best forecasts would require observers to be constantly ``on-call.'' During the 2008 summer trimester beta testing, the GBT Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) attempted to mitigate this inherent conflict by 1) compromising between the best weather forecasts vs. short-term observer notification and 2) providing earlier indicators of the likelihood of being selected by the scheduling algorithms. These indicators were derived from simulations based on Green Bank weather forecasts from previous years and from relative project rankings covering the entire time range of available weather forecasts. We report our experience on the generation of the information, its presentation, and its use by observers.

  17. Scheduling Earth Observing Fleets Using Evolutionary Algorithms: Problem Description and Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Morris, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe work in progress concerning multi-instrument, multi-satellite scheduling. Most, although not all, Earth observing instruments currently in orbit are unique. In the relatively near future, however, we expect to see fleets of Earth observing spacecraft, many carrying nearly identical instruments. This presents a substantially new scheduling challenge. Inspired by successful commercial applications of evolutionary algorithms in scheduling domains, this paper presents work in progress regarding the use of evolutionary algorithms to solve a set of Earth observing related model problems. Both the model problems and the software are described. Since the larger problems will require substantial computation and evolutionary algorithms are embarrassingly parallel, we discuss our parallelization techniques using dedicated and cycle-scavenged workstations.

  18. Feedback schedules for motor-skill learning: the similarities and differences between physical and observational practice.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors assessed different knowledge of results (KR) schedules for observational and physical practice. In Experiment 1, participants had to learn a sequence timing task under either a bandwidth (KR being delivered when participants’ performance was outside a predefined bandwidth or range) or yoked (same number of KRs provided as the bandwidth group) KR procedure. The results show that for both practice conditions the bandwidth KR schedule was more effective in promoting learning than the yoked schedule. During Experiment 2, a KR frequency was controlled (100% or 33% KR) and the data indicate that a reduced KR frequency only enhanced the learning of observers. Because a low KR frequency improves the sensory process controlling motor learning, the authors propose that action observation may be perceptual in nature.

  19. Classroom Utilization: Placing Departments on a Scheduling Diet. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John D.; Matt, Joseph J.

    The distribution of course start times throughout the day at Arizona State University was analyzed to improve classroom utilization at a large urban university. Departments responsible for peak period utilization were also identified, and students were surveyed to determine interest in taking courses outside the peak period. It was found that…

  20. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is well-known to be a difficult problem the more resources are involved (a NP-hard problem). This is about to become an issue in Radio astronomy as observatories consisting of hundreds to thousands of telescopes are planned and operated. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which Australia and New Zealand bid to host, is aiming for scales where current approaches -- in construction, operation but also scheduling -- are insufficent. Although manual scheduling is common today, the problem is becoming complicated by the demand for (1) independent sub-arrays doing simultaneous observations, which requires the scheduler to plan parallel observations and (2) dynamic re-scheduling on changed conditions. Both of these requirements apply to the SKA, especially in the construction phase. We review the scheduling approaches taken in the astronomy literature, as well as investigate techniques from human schedulers and today's observatories. The scheduling problem is specified in general for scientific observations and in particular on radio telescope arrays. Also taken into account is the fact that the observatory may be oversubscribed, requiring the scheduling problem to be integrated with a planning process. We solve this long-term scheduling problem using a time-based encoding that works in the very general case of observation scheduling. This research then compares algorithms from various approaches, including fast heuristics from CPU scheduling, Linear Integer Programming and Genetic algorithms, Branch-and-Bound enumeration schemes. Measures include not only goodness of the solution, but also scalability and re-scheduling capabilities. In conclusion, we have identified a fast and good scheduling approach that allows (re-)scheduling difficult and changing problems by combining heuristics with a Genetic algorithm using block-wise mutation operations. We are able to explain and eradicate two problems in the

  1. Functional Communication Training without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Gama, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders…

  2. Evaluation of DRO Schedules To Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Romaniuk, Cathryn; Kopp, Brandon; Himle, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of momentary Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors DRO (mDRO) and whole interval DRO (wDRO) schedules on high rates of disruptive behavior in children. In both procedures, children earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior and exchanged tokens for tangible or edible reinforcers. mDRO and…

  3. Improving Method-in-Use through Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Method-in-use (Nunn, Describing classroom interaction in intercultural curricular research and development, University of Reading, 1996, International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 37: 23-42, 1999) is a description of the method actually being enacted through classroom interaction in a particular context. The description is…

  4. The System for Teaching and Learning Assessment Review (STAR): A Holistic, Classroom Observation Alternative to Measures of Student Perceptions for Research on Classroom Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Karen S.; And Others

    A conceptual and empirical analysis of findings from the development of a comprehensive classroom-based, direct observational measure of classroom environment is presented in this paper. The System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) differs from traditional instruments of direct, systematic classroom observation in that it…

  5. The Potential of General Classroom Observation: Turkish EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Sentiments, and Readiness for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merç, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish EFL teachers' attitudes towards classroom observation. 204 teachers from different school settings responded to an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed according to three types of attitudes towards classroom observation: perceptions, sentiments, and readiness for action. The findings revealed…

  6. Classroom Observation Data: Is It Valid? Is It Generalizable? A Compendium of Methodological Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borich, Gary; And Others

    The issues discussed in these four papers concern the validity and generalizability of classroom observation instruments. These issues have been studied and are reported here in an attempt to better define the limits to which classroom observation instruments can be used in researching relationships between teacher behavior and student outcome.…

  7. Raising the Stakes: Classroom Observation in the Further Education Sector in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Matt; Brooks, Val

    2014-01-01

    Successive governments in England have regarded classroom observation as an essential tool for monitoring and improving teacher performance. Despite its importance in national policy for teacher development, the impact of classroom observation on individual teachers, and on improving quality and standards in teaching and learning, remain…

  8. Observation Scales of Classroom Atmosphere and Student Behavior: A Replication and Refinement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Carolie; And Others

    The purpose of this document is to describe two process-oriented classroom observation scales and to report a research study which offers further support for the validity of these instruments. The two observation scales, developed by Harvey, et al., are (1) Teaching Rating Scale, devised specifically as a measure of classroom atmosphere, and (2)…

  9. Early Language & Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) Toolkit, Research Edition [with] User's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Miriam W.; Dickinson, David K.

    The document is comprised of the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) Toolkit, a field-tested observation packet to examine literacy and language practices and materials in prekindergarten through third grade classrooms, and a user's guide providing technical information and instructions for administration and scoring the…

  10. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  11. A Validation of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure in Finnish and Estonian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Trossmann, Kaili; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the study was to examine the applicability and psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM; D. J. Stipek & P. Byler, 2005) outside the United States. The ECCOM was used to observe 83 kindergarten teachers (49 in Finland and 34 in Estonia) in classroom situations. Self-ratings…

  12. Observed Patterns of Teacher-Pupil Classroom Behavior as Predicators of Student Growth in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    This study examined the relationship between observed classroom behavior (teacher-pupil interactions) and reading achievement. An elementary school reading teacher and six students with different coping styles were observed six times in each of 41 classrooms during the school year. Pretest and posttest reading scores, a measure for socioeconomic…

  13. Watching Children Watch "The Electric Company": An Observational Study in Ten Classrooms. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    Observational instruments were developed for measuring the visual attention and verbal reactions of children watching "The Electric Company." Using the instruments, ten primary school classrooms, representing a broad range of classroom structures, were observed five or six times. The measures of attention proved to be reliable, and results showed…

  14. Eliminating inappropriate classroom behavior using a DRO schedule: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Taylor, R L; Ziegler, E W

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to eliminate out-of-seat behavior of a 14-yr.-old boy with learning disabilities using a single-subject design. Based on functional analysis, a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior interval schedule was used to eliminate an inappropriate behavior. During baseline, an average of 15 out-of-seat behavior problems were recorded. After 4 wk. of intervention, the inappropriate out-of-seat behavior was eliminated and on-task behavior improved.

  15. Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of Scores from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the internal structure, relationships with other variables, and diagnostic accuracy of scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G; Lord et al., 1999) for the purpose of diagnostic decision-making. Participants were 462 children enrolled in a public school district in the southern…

  16. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Revised Algorithms for Improved Diagnostic Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Modules 1-3 item and domain total distributions were reviewed for 1,630 assessments of children aged 14 months to 16 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or with heterogeneous non-spectrum disorders. Children were divided by language level and age to yield more homogeneous cells. Items were…

  18. Use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Murray, Donna S.; Akers, Rachel; Mitchell, Terry; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as it is commonly used in clinical practice. ADOS classifications were compared to final diagnoses given by a multidisciplinary team to 584 children referred for evaluation for possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical…

  19. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Revised Algorithm and Standardized Severity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4…

  20. A Replication of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Revised Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Risi, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Joseph, Robert; Carter, Alice; Hepburn, Susan; McMahon, William; Rodier, Patricia; Hyman, Susan L.; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally; Landa, Rebecca; Spence, M. Anne; Osann, Kathryn; Flodman, Pamela; Volkmar, Fred; Hollander, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A study replicated the module comparability and predictive ability of the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in an independent dataset of children with autism. Results indicated that the revised ADOS algorithms improved module comparability and predictive validity for autistic children than the earlier…

  1. Bringing Real-time Astronomical Observations into the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sonoma State University Education and Public Outreach group (SSU E/PO) coordinates the Global Telescope Network (GTN) - an informal association of scientists, students, individuals and observatories interested in supporting NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) and Swift missions, as well as the joint ESA/NASA XMM-Newton mission. Partners and associates in the GTN obtain and reduce ground based observations for objects related to the primary science goals for these missions and work together with NASA mission scientists to conduct multi-wavelength studies of exotic objects such as monstrous black holes, and highly-magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs. The Global Telescope Network provides hands-on classroom activities and engaging instructional materials for a range of levels and interests, including Cookie Cutter Photometry and Jelly Bean Spectroscopy. We also provide mentoring in research practices, telescope use, data analysis and other educational resources. Examples of ongoing research projects will be presented, and the educational resources available through the GTN will be discussed.

  2. Observations on SOFIA Observation Scheduling: Search and Inference in the Face of Discrete and Continuous Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Gross, Michael; Kuerklu, Elif

    2003-01-01

    We did cool stuff to reduce the number of IVPs and BVPs needed to schedule SOFIA by restricting the problem. The restriction costs us little in terms of the value of the flight plans we can build. The restriction allowed us to reformulate part of the search problem as a zero-finding problem. The result is a simplified planning model and significant savings in computation time.

  3. Eliminating inappropriate classroom behavior using a DRO schedule: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Taylor, R L; Ziegler, E W

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to eliminate out-of-seat behavior of a 14-yr.-old boy with learning disabilities using a single-subject design. Based on functional analysis, a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior interval schedule was used to eliminate an inappropriate behavior. During baseline, an average of 15 out-of-seat behavior problems were recorded. After 4 wk. of intervention, the inappropriate out-of-seat behavior was eliminated and on-task behavior improved. PMID:8711030

  4. Observations of Effective Teacher-Student Interactions in Secondary School Classrooms: Predicting Student Achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori; Lun, Janetta; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling techniques were used with a sample of 643 students enrolled in 37 secondary school classrooms to predict future student achievement (controlling for baseline achievement) from observed teacher interactions with students in the classroom, coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System--Secondary. After accounting for prior…

  5. Constructivist Teaching and Student Achievement: The Results of a School-Level Classroom Observation Study in Washington. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Martin L.; Fouts, Jeffrey T.

    This study built on a 2001-02 classroom observation study of Washington K-12 and technical schools that identified the extent of constructivist teaching activity. Results from classroom observations found that strong constructivist teaching was observable in 17 percent of the classroom lessons. The other 83 percent of the lessons observed may have…

  6. PRODUCTION AND USE OF CLASSROOMS ON FILM VERSUS TRADITIONAL OBSERVATIONS IN TEACHER EDUCATION, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAINTER, WILLIAM I.

    THIS PROJECT WAS DESIGNED TO EVALUATE THE POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF AUTHENTIC AND UNREHEARSED CLASSROOM FILMS IN LIEU OF DIRECT CLASSROOM OBSERVATION. TWO CONTROL AND TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS WERE ARRANGED WITHIN AN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY COURSE, AND A NEW SYLLABUS WAS PRODUCED. NEW TESTS WERE DEVISED TO MEASURE MORE ACCURATELY ANY DIFFERENCES…

  7. Informing Teacher Education through the Use of Multiple Classroom Observation Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nancy Dubinski; Waxman, Hersh C.; Brown, Danielle B.; Kelly, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine how first-year secondary teaching interns' classrooms compare to those of more experienced teachers. Through the simultaneous use of three unique observation instruments, the authors addressed the following research questions: (a) How do first-year secondary teachers' classroom behaviors compare to…

  8. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom…

  9. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  10. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  11. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  12. Self-Observation Model Employing an Instinctive Interface for Classroom Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Nurkhamid; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Yang, Shu-Han; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In a classroom, obtaining active, whole-focused, and engaging learning results from a design is often difficult. In this study, we propose a self-observation model that employs an instinctive interface for classroom active learning. Students can communicate with virtual avatars in the vertical screen and can react naturally according to the…

  13. Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper addresses classroom design trends and the key issues schools should consider for better classroom space flexibility and adaptability. Classroom space design issues when schools embrace technology are discussed, as are design considerations when rooms must accommodate different grade levels, the importance of lighting, furniture…

  14. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  15. Research for the Classroom: Analyzing Classroom Literacy Events--What Observing Classroom Conversations about Popular Culture Can Reveal about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Ms. Mayer, a recently retired English language arts teacher, frequently used strategies described in John Golden's book "Reading in the Dark: Using Film as a Tool in the English Classroom." In this book, Golden suggests that ELA teachers "reverse the order: use a film clip to practice the reading and analytical skills that we want our students to…

  16. DEEP-South: Automated Observation Scheduling, Data Reduction and Analysis Software Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Hong-Suh; Kim, Myung-Jin; Bae, Young-Ho; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    We started `DEep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern sky' (DEEP-South, DS) (Moon et al. 2015) in late 2012, and conducted test runs with the first Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) (Park et al. 2012), a 1.6 m telescope with 18k x 18k CCD stationed at CTIO in early 2015. While the primary objective of DEEP-South is the physical characterization of small Solar System bodies, it is also expected to discover a large number of such bodies, many of them previously unknown. An automated observation scheduling, data reduction and analysis software subsystem called `DEEP-South Scheduling and Data reduction System' (DS SDS) is thus being designed and implemented to enable observation planning, data reduction and analysis with minimal human intervention.

  17. Mathematical Observations: The Genesis of Mathematical Discovery in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaugris, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    In his "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos identifies the "Primitive Conjecture" as the first stage in the pattern of mathematical discovery. In this article, I am interested in ways of reaching the "Primitive Conjecture" stage in an undergraduate classroom. I adapted Realistic Mathematics Education methods in an…

  18. Student Observations: Introducing iPads into University Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardley, Leslie J.; Mang, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the growing trend of using mobile technology in university classrooms, exploring the use of tablets in particular, to identify learning benefits faced by students. Students, acting on their efficacy beliefs, make decisions regarding technology's influence in improving their education. We construct a theoretical model in which…

  19. The 21st Century Physics Classroom: What Students, Teachers, and Classroom Observers Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis W.; Dantzler, John A.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Turner, Donna P.; Harrell, James W.; Simon, Marsha; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2016-01-01

    Before we can effectively apply specific interventions through professional development, it is important to determine what is occurring in our high school physics classrooms. This study investigated common professional practices in physics teaching among a representative sample group of schools and teachers from a diverse, geographically large…

  20. Live Video Classroom Observation: An Effective Approach to Reducing Reactivity in Collecting Observational Information for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of live video classroom observations of teaching practice to reduce reactivity (the observer effect) so as to obtain more credible observational information for teacher professional development in a secondary school in the largest city in southern China. Although much has been discussed regarding the use of…

  1. Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

  2. Looking for attributes of powerful teaching for numeracy in tasmanian K-7 classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beswick, Kim; Swabey, Karen; Andrew, Rob

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of a classroom observation reflection tool designed to measure the extent to which pedagogies acknowledged in the literature as contributing to effective teaching of mathematics for numeracy are present in classrooms. The observation schedule was used in conjunction with a record of classroom activity to examine numeracy pedagogies in a sample of Tasmanian classrooms from Kindergarten to Year 7. Low levels of intellectual challenge in highly socially supportive classrooms were typical.

  3. Minimizing the expenditure of energy when scheduling the sequence of observations of astronomical objects from spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Legostaev, V. P.; Rulev, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to solving the problem of optimal scheduling of the sequence of spacecraft reorientations during observations of astronomical objects is discussed. The approach is based on problem formalization within the framework of graph theory and reduction of the problem to routing. Examples of constructing optimal observational programs for chosen stars are given. These examples show that the proposed approach offers the possibility of a significant reduction in energy expenditures for spacecraft reorientation. The applicability of the mentioned approach to optimizing traffic routes in various subnational entities is noted.

  4. A knowledge-based expert system for scheduling of airborne astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Gevarter, W. B.; Stutz, J. C.; Banda, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory Scheduler (KAOS) is a knowledge-based expert system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to assist in route planning of a C-141 flying astronomical observatory. This program determines a sequence of flight legs that enables sequential observations of a set of heavenly bodies derived from a list of desirable objects. The possible flight legs are constrained by problems of observability, avoiding flyovers of warning and restricted military zones, and running out of fuel. A significant contribution of the KAOS program is that it couples computational capability with a reasoning system.

  5. OBSERVING TODDLERS' INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES IN CLASSROOMS: INITIAL USE OF THE PARENTING INTERACTIONS WITH CHILDREN: CHECKLIST OF OBSERVATIONS LINKED TO OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Lippard, Christine N; Riley, Katie L; Hughes-Belding, Kere

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated using the Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO; Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Norman, & Christiansen, 2013a) measure to assess teacher-child interactions experienced by individual toddlers within their childcare classrooms. Forty toddlers were observed, each during three 10-min cycles, and all their interactions with adults in the classroom were coded using the PICCOLO. Results, in terms of psychometric properties, indicate promise for using this measure to observe toddlers' individual experiences of teacher-child interactions in group settings. Furthermore, certain individual teacher-toddler interactions were associated with toddlers' problem behavior. Implications for use of the PICCOLO in early childhood classroom research and particular findings related to toddlers' behavior are discussed.

  6. OBSERVING TODDLERS' INDIVIDUAL EXPERIENCES IN CLASSROOMS: INITIAL USE OF THE PARENTING INTERACTIONS WITH CHILDREN: CHECKLIST OF OBSERVATIONS LINKED TO OUTCOMES.

    PubMed

    Lippard, Christine N; Riley, Katie L; Hughes-Belding, Kere

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated using the Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO; Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Norman, & Christiansen, 2013a) measure to assess teacher-child interactions experienced by individual toddlers within their childcare classrooms. Forty toddlers were observed, each during three 10-min cycles, and all their interactions with adults in the classroom were coded using the PICCOLO. Results, in terms of psychometric properties, indicate promise for using this measure to observe toddlers' individual experiences of teacher-child interactions in group settings. Furthermore, certain individual teacher-toddler interactions were associated with toddlers' problem behavior. Implications for use of the PICCOLO in early childhood classroom research and particular findings related to toddlers' behavior are discussed. PMID:27554914

  7. An examination of the effects of a classroom activity schedule on levels of self-injury and engagement for a child with severe autism.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Andrews, Alonzo

    2005-06-01

    We examined the effects of an individualized schedule on levels of engagement and self-injury for a student with severe autism. We first conducted a series of functional analyses to identify contexts in which self-injury occurred in his classroom. Results of the functional analyses suggested that self-injury was associated with academic demands. Self-injury rarely occurred during the play and no interaction conditions (i.e., when the teacher was present but did not attend to him) of the functional analysis. Furthermore, when the functional analysis conditions were organized according to a specific schedule (no interaction-play-demand) self-injury did not occur. This schedule of activities was then evaluated within the context of his regular curriculum and produced substantial reductions in self-injury and increases in engagement. Positive results maintained for up to five months following the assessment. These findings seem to indicate that functional analysis methodologies might provide helpful information when developing individualized schedules for students who may not have the skills to comprehend and follow a schedule.

  8. Occasions and the Reliability of Classroom Observations: Alternative Conceptualizations and Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Cash, Anne H.; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Student-teacher interactions are dynamic relationships that change and evolve over the course of a school year. Measuring classroom quality through observations that focus on these interactions presents challenges when observations are conducted throughout the school year. Variability in observed scores could reflect true changes in the quality of…

  9. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  10. Teacher cognitive functioning as a factor in observed variety and level of classroom teaching behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia

    A review of the literature suggests a relationship between life-long development of formal reasoning schema and performance in professional education careers. The study investigated implications of cognitive development of preservice teachers as it relates to their classroom teaching performance. Ninety-one seniors involved in a field-oriented teacher education program were given classroom responsibilities which included teaching a science unit. Formal thinking abilities were assessed using two types of developmental level tasks, performance on traditional type Piagetian tasks and recognition of formal thought approaches in solving educational tasks. Professional behaviors were assessed using observational ratings of classroom instructional and planning activities. Subjects assessed as formal operational, 30% of sample, using Piagetian performance tasks, had significantly higher facility in performing model classroom teaching behaviors than transitional or concrete subjects. Higher recognition ability of formal thought approaches to teaching was not related to facility in performing classroom teaching when compared to performance on Piagetian tasks. The relationship held up in seven of eight broad teaching behavior categories observed in classroom instruction. The results supported a general portrait of teaching behavior specifically related to teachers of differing cognitive functional levels. Implications for professional training programs are discussed.

  11. Commentary on two classroom observation systems: moving toward a shared understanding of effective teaching.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2013-12-01

    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to serve a particular purpose and are put to that purpose; four that technology can help; and five, there are policy implications for valid and reliable classroom observation tools. The two observation systems presented in this special issue represent an important step forward and a move toward policy that promises to make a true difference in what is defined as high quality and effective teaching, what it looks like in the classroom, and how these practices can be more widely disseminated so that all children, including those attending under-resourced schools, can experience effective instruction, academic success and the lifelong accomplishment that follows.

  12. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  13. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  14. Study and Demonstration of Planning and Scheduling Concepts for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randal; Thalman, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (CU/LASP) along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) designed, implemented, tested, and demonstrated a prototype of the distributed, hierarchical planning and scheduling system comtemplated for the Earth Observing System (EOS) project. The planning and scheduling prototype made use of existing systems: CU/LASP's Operations and Science Instrument Support Planning and Scheduling (OASIS-PS) software package; GSFC's Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE); and JPL's Plan Integrated Timeliner 2 (Plan-It-2). Using these tools, four scheduling nodes were implemented and tied together using a new communications protocol for scheduling applications called the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL). An extensive and realistic scenario of EOS satellite operations was then developed and the prototype scheduling system was tested and demonstrated using the scenario. Two demonstrations of the system were given to NASA personnel and EOS core system (ECS) contractor personnel. A comprehensive volume of lessons learned was generated and a meeting was held with NASA and ECS representatives to review these lessons learned. A paper and presentation on the project's final results was given at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Computing in Aerospace 9 conference.

  15. An Examination of Observer Bias in a Classroom Behaviour Modification Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study to determine bias of recorders in a typical classroom behavior modification investigation, specifically the effect of observers on pupils' behavior and the effect of induced expectations on the observer's recordings. Results show that neither variables produced bias in recording results. (KC)

  16. The Reliability of Classroom Observations by School Personnel. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Kane, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    For many teachers, the classroom observation has been the only opportunity to receive direct feedback from another school professional. As such, it is an indispensable part of every teacher evaluation system. Yet it also requires a major time commitment from teachers, principals, and peer observers. To justify the investment of time and resources,…

  17. Examining Teacher Effectiveness Using Classroom Observation Scores: Evidence from the Randomization of Teachers to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite policy efforts to encourage multiple measures of performance in newly developing teacher evaluation systems, practical constraints often result in evaluations based predominantly on formal classroom observations. Yet there is limited knowledge of how these observational measures relate to student achievement. This article leverages the…

  18. The Effects of Lesson Study on Classroom Observations and Perceptions of Lesson Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lesson study on participants' classroom observations and perceptions of lesson effectiveness, by investigating the focus of their observations during a mathematics lesson and their ratings of the lesson's effectiveness, both preceding and subsequent to the lesson study experience. Prior to the lesson study,…

  19. An Observational Method in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at Interaction Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leona G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper analyzes both Flanders' and the Foreign Language Interaction (FLint) methods of classroom observation and concludes that both systems are deficient in accuracy, reliability and practicality. Observing, recording and decision-making difficulties are inherent, and system complexities and teacher biases add to the problems. (CHK)

  20. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  1. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in adults: the use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-09-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It can adequately discriminate ASD from psychopathy and typical development, but is less specific with respect to schizophrenia due to behavioral overlap between autistic and negative symptoms. However, these groups differ on some core items and explorative analyses indicate that a revision of the algorithm in line with Gotham et al. (J Autism Dev Disord 37: 613-627, 2007) could be beneficial for discriminating ASD from schizophrenia.

  2. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores.

    PubMed

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    The recently published Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) includes revised diagnostic algorithms and standardized severity scores for modules used to assess younger children. A revised algorithm and severity scores are not yet available for Module 4, used with verbally fluent adults. The current study revises the Module 4 algorithm and calibrates raw overall and domain totals to provide metrics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity. Sensitivity and specificity of the revised Module 4 algorithm exceeded 80 % in the overall sample. Module 4 calibrated severity scores provide quantitative estimates of ASD symptom severity that are relatively independent of participant characteristics. These efforts increase comparability of ADOS scores across modules and should facilitate efforts to examine symptom trajectories from toddler to adulthood.

  3. Clinical use of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-second edition with children who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Mood, Deborah; Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) was administered to eight children who are deaf and who are native American Sign Language (ASL) users with previous autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Classification on two different module selection criteria was compared based on: (1) standardized administration rules (signs not counted as equivalent to words) and (2) commonly utilized clinical administration (sign language complexity treated equivalently to spoken language complexity). Differential module selection resulted in discrepant classification in five of the eight cases (63%) and suggests that ADOS-2 via standardized test administration may result in a failure to identify autism among children who are deaf with primary communication in ASL. Two of the eight children (25%) did not exceed the cutoff for an ASD classification on either module administered despite previous ASD diagnosis. Overall results suggest that caution should be used when utilizing the ADOS-2 with children who are deaf who primarily communicate using ASL. PMID:25321853

  4. Observing Teaching Practice: Assessing Competence in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Ray

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my experiences as a Teaching Practice Observer for various Colleges of Further Education and Adult Education establishments across South West England from 1994-2002. I discuss the essential lesson components that observers need to attend to when evaluating candidates. These include the candidate's diversity of…

  5. Parent Involvement in Day Care: Its Impact on Staff and Classroom Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Sylvia

    In this large scale study, the extent of parent involvement in preschool day care and its impact on staff and on classroom environments in child-centered and adult-centered situations were assessed. Subjects were 15 directors, 30 teachers, 524 children in 30 classrooms. Interview schedules and a classroom observation scale were the two instruments…

  6. Development of Situational Task Methodology for the Evaluation of Process Outcomes in the Open Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to develop an evaluation technique to assess how effectively children develop as independent learners within classrooms implementing the Tucson Early Education Model. A situational task was chosen in order to gather information about the ongoing open classroom. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule was…

  7. Satellite scheduling considering maximum observation coverage time and minimum orbital transfer fuel cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kai-Jian; Li, Jun-Feng; Baoyin, He-Xi

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency like the Wenchuan earthquake, it is impossible to observe a given target on earth by immediately launching new satellites. There is an urgent need for efficient satellite scheduling within a limited time period, so we must find a way to reasonably utilize the existing satellites to rapidly image the affected area during a short time period. Generally, the main consideration in orbit design is satellite coverage with the subsatellite nadir point as a standard of reference. Two factors must be taken into consideration simultaneously in orbit design, i.e., the maximum observation coverage time and the minimum orbital transfer fuel cost. The local time of visiting the given observation sites must satisfy the solar radiation requirement. When calculating the operational orbit elements as optimal parameters to be evaluated, we obtain the minimum objective function by comparing the results derived from the primer vector theory with those derived from the Hohmann transfer because the operational orbit for observing the disaster area with impulse maneuvers is considered in this paper. The primer vector theory is utilized to optimize the transfer trajectory with three impulses and the Hohmann transfer is utilized for coplanar and small inclination of non-coplanar cases. Finally, we applied this method in a simulation of the rescue mission at Wenchuan city. The results of optimizing orbit design with a hybrid PSO and DE algorithm show that the primer vector and Hohmann transfer theory proved to be effective methods for multi-object orbit optimization.

  8. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  9. Factors Associated with Alignment between Teacher Survey Reports and Classroom Observation Ratings of Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Julia Heath; Stein, Mary Kay; Junker, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the alignment between a teacher survey self-report measure and classroom observation measure of ambitious mathematics instructional practice among teachers in two urban school districts using two different standards-based mathematics curricula. Survey reports suggested mild differences in teachers' instructional practices between…

  10. Teacher Interviews, Student Interviews, and Classroom Observations in Combinatorics: Four Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caddle, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    This research consists of teacher interviews, student interviews, and classroom observations, all based around the mathematical content area of combinatorics. Combinatorics is a part of discrete mathematics concerning the ordering and grouping of distinct elements. The data are used in four separate analyses. The first provides evidence that…

  11. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  12. Assessing Social Communication in the Classroom: Observing Manner and Duration of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Coggins, Truman E.; Svensson, Liselotte

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a new construct for coding the social communicative performance of school-aged children as they interact with peers and teachers in the classroom. The Social Communication Coding System (SCCS) allows clinicians a way of describing how children actually spend their time during the school day by observing ongoing behaviors…

  13. IRR (Inter-Rater Reliability) of a COP (Classroom Observation Protocol)--A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning; Feldman, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding broad utility of COPs (classroom observation protocols), there has been limited documentation of the psychometric properties of even the most popular COPs. This study attempted to fill this void by closely examining the item and domain-level IRR (inter-rater reliability) of a COP that was used in a federally funded striving readers…

  14. Classroom Composition and Measured Teacher Performance: What Do Teacher Observation Scores Really Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Garrett, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    As states and districts implement more rigorous teacher evaluation systems, measures of teacher performance are increasingly being used to support instruction and inform retention decisions. Classroom observations take a central role in these systems, accounting for the majority of teacher ratings upon which accountability decisions are based.…

  15. Classroom Observation of Students and Teachers (COST): A Multiple Payoff Approach to Inservice Training. A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowling, Wynn; And Others

    This group of papers was presented as part of a symposium entitled "Classroom Observation of Students and Teachers (COST): A Multiple Payoff Approach to Inservice Training." The first paper, "Films for Inservice Teacher Training: A Miniworkshop," outlines the rationale and development of the film series of which the film, Consequences of Behavior,…

  16. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Three Classroom Observation Systems: A Proposed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borich, Gary D.; Malitz, David

    Evaluated is the validity of the behavioral categories held in common among three classroom observation systems. The validity model employed was that reported by Campbell and Fiske (1959) which requires that both convergent and discriminant validity be demonstrated. These procedures were applied to data obtained from the videotapes of 62 teacher…

  17. The Relationships Between Teachers' Goal Orientations, Structure, And Observable Classroom Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saletore, Sudha; George, Judith D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among teachers' goal orientations, structure (amount of directiveness provided by the teacher), and observable classroom behaviors to determine: (1) if teachers with different goal orientations differ in verbal and nonverbal affective responses; and (2) if teachers with different goal…

  18. Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

  19. Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations: The Utility and Application of an Observation Schedule for School-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Taylor, Myra; West, John; List-Kerz, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The present research describes the development and pilot testing of a new instrument, the Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations Schedule (RIPPS), designed to measure the reactivity of students with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in the naturalistic setting of the classroom. For this study, 29…

  20. Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired. PMID:25354126

  1. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  2. Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Adapted for Older Individuals with Severe to Profound Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berument, Sibel Kazak; Starr, Elizabeth; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Papanikolauou, Katerina; Lord, Catherine; Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured observational scale developed to assess social interaction, communication and play in individuals who are suspected to have autism. Since the ADOS is not suitable to be used with severely or profoundly mentally retarded adolescents and adults with very limited language…

  3. Using Classroom Observations to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Rob Ramsdell. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this webinar, Mr. Rob Ramsdell, Vice President, Cambridge Education, discussed the use of classroom observations as one measure of teacher effectiveness in a comprehensive educator support system. Mr. Ramsdell presented research-based recommendations for improving the quality and rigor of classroom observations. This Q&A addressed the…

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) schedule plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes Aerojet's methods and procedures used to control and administer contractual schedules for the EOS/AMSU-A program. Included are the following: the master, intermediate, and detail schedules; critical path analysis; and the total program logic network diagrams.

  5. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.

  6. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined. PMID:24341926

  7. [A study on immunization of polio vaccine. I. Observation on an improved immunization schedule].

    PubMed

    Su, W

    1991-10-01

    This artical reports the result of serological observation on an improved immunization schedule of polio vaccine. The result shows that a good response can be obtained by immunizing an additional dose of the vaccine on the children of 18-24 month of age.serological convertion type I of neutralization antibody can be improved from 85% up to 96%, type II from 84% to 100%, and type III from 91% to 100%, with great increase of all the three types. The study proves that the additional immunization of the vaccine will effectively control over the incidence occurrence of the children who have received three doses of the vaccine within 3 years of age. An nation-wide extensive inoculation of the vaccine among the children who have received three doses of the vaccine is suggested. 81% of neonates inoculated with the vaccine within 24 hours after birth can discharge the polio-vaccine-virus through their intestinal canal and the inoculation has some effect on the improvement of the seroconversion obtained from the immunization of the three doses of the vaccine afterwards.

  8. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module: A New Module of a Standardized Diagnostic Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the…

  9. Combinations of Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Schedule-Correlated Stimulus Presentation in an Observing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFulio, Anthony; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons pecked a response key on a variable-interval (VI) schedule, in which responses produced food every 40 s, on average. These VI periods, or components, alternated in irregular fashion with extinction components in which food was unavailable. Pecks on a second (observing) key briefly produced exteroceptive stimuli (houselight flashes)…

  10. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  11. Japanese Classroom Behavior: A Micro-Analysis of Self-Reports versus Classroom Observations--With Implications for Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Mariko T.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the influence of Japanese cultural values, beliefs, and educational style on Japanese students learning English as a second language in an American classroom. In contrast to the Japanese students' high motivation to learn English, their classroom behavior and roles reflect their own cultural perspectives rather than the…

  12. Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a

  13. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  14. Testing gridded NWS 1-Day observed precipitation analysis in a daily irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the inputs required by daily irrigation schedulers is the amount of water supplied by rainfall. In-field measurements of daily precipitation are expensive or laborious, while measurements from gauges within a few kilometers are frequently not representative due to the high spatiotemporal vari...

  15. CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High-Resolution Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, John M.; Giguere, Matthew; Fischer, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of Web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy-to-use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.

  16. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  17. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  18. Examination of Classroom Observations and Educator Perceptions of Classroom Interventions of Middle School Gifted Students Exhibiting Unhealthy Perfectionist Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawdy, LaTease

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy perfectionist tendencies plague many gifted middle school students, and this type of perfectionism can lead to a lack of classroom success. Identifying effective interventions that educators can utilize is important in assisting middle school gifted students who demonstrate these maladaptive tendencies in their achievement in the…

  19. The Identity, Second Language, and the Classroom Dynamic: Participant Observation in a Beginning Korean as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study was to explore the nexus between second language acquisition, identity, and the beginning second language classroom. Using a social constructionist framework, the study utilizes ethnographic methodology incorporating both narrative and autoethnographic elements. Specifically the author acted as a participant…

  20. Predictive Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form on Statewide Testing Scores: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management…

  1. Monitoring Classroom Behavior in Early Childhood: Using Group Observation Data to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasch, Delilah; Carter, Deborah Russell

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations, engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where…

  2. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  3. Observing physical education teachers' need-supportive interactions in classroom settings.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-02-01

    According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement.

  4. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Ratings of Students by Teachers and Classroom Observers. Report No. 75-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cynthia L.; And Others

    Elementary school students were ranked by teachers on scales measuring personality characteristics and teacher expectations. Classroom observers also rated the students to assess the validity of teacher rankings and to determine whether teachers and observers use the same characteristics in forming perceptions of students. Teacher rankings and…

  5. Initial Validation of the Prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and Goal Setting System for Data-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, April D.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based…

  6. Variable sleep schedules and outcomes in children with psychopathological problems: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Raubuck, Danielle L; Grogan, Katie; Gozal, David; Stein, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Background Night-to-night variability in sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be a mediator of behavioral phenotype. We examined the potential association between alertness, sleep, and eating behaviors in children with ADHD and comorbid problems. Methods Sleep was monitored by actigraphy for 7 days. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, habits and food patterns by parental report, and sleep complaints and sleepiness by child report. Results The group comprised 18 children, including 15 boys, aged 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 88.9% Caucasian, who took one or multiple medications. Children slept on average for 6 hours and 58 minutes with a variability of 1 hour 3 minutes relative to the mean, and their sleepiness scores were highly variable from day to day. Most children had a normal body mass index (BMI). Sleepiness and BMI were associated with sleep schedules and food patterns, such that they accounted for 76% of variance, predominantly by the association of BMI with mean wake after sleep onset and by bedtime sleepiness, with wake after sleep onset variability. Similarly, 97% of variance was shared with eating behaviors, such as desserts and snacks, and fast food meals were associated with morning sleepiness. Conclusion Disrupted sleep and sleepiness appears to favor unhealthy food patterns and may place children with ADHD at increased risk for obesity. PMID:23616725

  7. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  8. Classroom Use of Multimedia-Supported Predict Observe Explain Tasks in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-08-01

    This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.

  9. Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms: Insights Revealed through Systematic Observation and Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…

  10. Observing Emotional Interactions between Teachers and Students in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.

    2011-01-01

    Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…

  11. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  12. Exploring Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language Pronunciation Techniques: Teacher Cognitions, Observed Classroom Practices, and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated…

  13. The Reciprocal Category System (RCS): An Observational System Designed To Assess Teacher-Student Classroom Verbal Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Richard L.

    The Reciprocal Category System (RCS) is an observational system used to record and assess teacher-student classroom verbal interaction. The RCS is composed of nine verbal categories which are applicable to either the student or teacher (and as such are numbered differently, thus producing 18 categories) and one additional category--silence or…

  14. Who Is Granted Authority in the Mathematics Classroom? An Analysis of the Observed and Perceived Distribution of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaepe, Fien; De Corte, Erik; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the way in which authority was established and interpreted by teachers and students in two Flemish sixth-grade mathematics classrooms. Problem-solving lessons during a seven-month observation period were analysed regarding three aspects of teacher-student interactions that explicitly or implicitly reflect who bears…

  15. From Evaluation to Collaborative Reflection: Teacher Candidate Perceptions of a Digital Learner-Centered Classroom Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Raymond; Krutka, Daniel G.; Mason, Katherine; Bergman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to promote a more learner-centered approach to supervision, faculty members at a Midwestern U.S. university piloted a new digital classroom observation form. Participants included middle/secondary teacher candidates (N = 28) in their final semester of their programs. The overall goal of this study was to gather teacher candidates'…

  16. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students'…

  17. Using Systematic Classroom Observation to Explore Student Engagement as a Function of Teachers' Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Practices (DAIP) in Ethnically Diverse Pre-Kindergarten through Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Beverly L.; Rollins, Kayla B.; Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers observed pre-kindergarten through second-grade public school classrooms, specifically noting child-centered and teacher-directed pedagogical approaches, by simultaneously examining: (a) student behavior and activities, (b) teacher instructional orientation and rationale, and (c) overall classroom environment. Dissimilar to previous…

  18. Socio-communicative deficits in young children with Williams syndrome: performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.

    PubMed

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Mervis, Carolyn B; Lord, Catherine; Phillips, Kristin D

    2007-09-01

    In this investigation, the socio-communicative skills of 29 children with Williams syndrome aged 2 (1/2) to 5 (1/2) years were examined using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 1. Most of the participants showed socio-communicative difficulties. Approximately half of the participants were classified by the ADOS algorithm as "autism spectrum." Three participants were classified "autism." Difficulties with pointing, gestures, giving, showing, and eye contact were present for more than half of the participants, with many also showing difficulties with initiation and response to joint attention and with integration of gaze with other behaviors. Expressive and receptive language abilities of the children with Williams syndrome classified "autism spectrum" were weaker than for children classified nonspectrum, but expressive and receptive language level did not account for the socio-communicative difficulties. Implications for our understanding of the socio-communicative abilities of young children with Williams syndrome and diagnostic practices regarding dual diagnosis are discussed.

  19. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Gotham, Katherine; Guthrie, Whitney; Coffing, Mia; Petrak, Rachel; Pierce, Karen; Bishop, Somer; Esler, Amy; Hus, Vanessa; Oti, Rosalind; Richler, Jennifer; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Lord et al., J Autism Dev Disord, 30(3):205-223, 2000) is widely accepted as a "gold standard" diagnostic instrument, but it is of restricted utility with very young children. The purpose of the current project was to modify the ADOS for use in children under 30 months of age. A modified ADOS, the ADOS Toddler Module (or Module T), was used in 360 evaluations. Participants included 182 children with best estimate diagnoses of ASD, non-spectrum developmental delay or typical development. A final set of protocol and algorithm items was selected based on their ability to discriminate the diagnostic groups. The traditional algorithm "cutoffs" approach yielded high sensitivity and specificity, and a new range of concern approach was proposed.

  20. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  1. Vehicle rollover avoidance by application of gain-scheduled LQR controllers using state observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poggetto, Vinicius F.; Serpa, Alberto L.

    2016-02-01

    Many researches have been conducted in the area of control applied to vehicle dynamics, aiming at reducing the possibility of the occurrence of the type of accident known as rollover. In this research, based on a common nonlinear model and its linearisation, a method for properly selecting matrices for solving the Riccati equation considering different speeds was proposed. The method showed in which ways speed really influences the choice of controller gains. By developing the dynamic equations for the yaw- and roll-coupled motions and modelling of controllers and state observers, it is possible to compare the efficacy of this control strategy using both linear and nonlinear simulations using Matlab. Significant results were obtained regarding the reduction of the rollover coefficient for a double-lane change manoeuvre at different speeds, thus indicating advantages of using this controller in practical cases.

  2. A strategy to rotate the Mars Observer orbit node line to advance the mapping schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernicka, Henry J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer (MO) spacecraft was successfully launched on September 25, 1992 and will arrive at Mars on August 24, 1993. At Mars, the spacecraft will study the planet's surface, atmosphere, and gravitational and magnetic fields. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, MO will be placed in a 2 PM (descending node) sun-synchronous orbit. Upon arrival at Mars, however, the longitude of the descending node will be approximately 15 deg greater than the desired value. The baseline plan requires a 59 day `waiting' period for the correct solar orientation to occur. During this period, 28 days are required for scientific experimentation but the remaining 30.6 days potentially could be eliminated. The strategy developed in this study examined the possibility of using any `excess' Delta-V available at Mars arrival to rotate the node line to the desired value and thus allow mapping to begin earlier. A preliminary analysis completed prior to launch is described that examined the entire launch period including the required Delta-V to perform the needed nodal rotation. A more detailed study performed after launch is also summarized.

  3. Differentiated Instruction at Work. Reinforcing the Art of Classroom Observation through the Creation of a Checklist for Beginning and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subban, Pearl; Round, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Professional experience is viewed as integral to shaping philosophy and acquiring skills in the area of classroom teaching. Classrooms are complex places, with educators implementing differentiated strategies to cater for student diversity. Pre-service teachers who observe these lessons often miss the intuitive practices, as there is much to…

  4. The View from the Little Chair in the Corner: Improving Teacher Practice and Early Childhood Learning (Wisdom from an Experienced Classroom Observer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Cindy Rzasa

    2009-01-01

    This is a down-to-earth, heart-to-heart book about what it takes to be an exceptional early childhood teacher. The author uses her experience as a classroom observer and a developmental psychologist to create a rationale for best practice--the reasoning behind the best (worst and average) classroom practice. Cindy Rzasa Bess examines a variety of…

  5. Observation of Classroom Social Communication: Do Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Spend Their Time Differently than Their Typically Developing Peers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders…

  6. The Effective Elementary Classroom Literacy Environment: Examining the Validity of the TEX-IN3 Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Sailors, Misty; Duffy, Gerald R.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development and validation of the TEX-IN3, a research tool and protocol designed to assess the quality of the classroom literacy environment. The TEX-IN3 is described in terms of its theoretical base as well as its practical applications. The TEX-IN3 includes three basic components: a text inventory, a text "in-use" observation,…

  7. Observed Implementation of a Science Professional Development Program for K-8 Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Becky Barton; Naizer, Gilbert; Ledbetter, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a teacher professional development program on the classroom teaching practices of the participants. This particular professional development program included an intensive summer institute, 8 monthly follow-up sessions, informal participant-professor mentoring and peer networking. The majority of participants were teachers (grades 4-8) in rural school districts. Qualitative and descriptive measures were used to assess the impact of this program in terms of participants' science content learned, teacher self-efficacy, classroom teaching performance and an informal program survey.

  8. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores.

    PubMed

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Dowd, Michael; Tomblin, J Bruce; Folstein, Susan E

    2008-10-01

    Autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are developmental disorders that, although distinct by definition, have in common some features of both language and social behavior. The goal of this study was to further explore the extent to which specific clinical features of autism are seen in SLI. The children with the two disorders, matched for non-verbal IQ, were compared on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). In the SLI group, 41% met autism or autism spectrum cut-offs for social or communication domains either on the ADI or ADOS or both. No relationship was found between the language deficits exhibited by the children with SLI and their scores on the ADI and ADOS. These findings contribute to evidence that there is some overlap in social and communicative deficits between autism and SLI, supporting the view that autism and SLI share etiologic factors. This continuum of pathology between SLI and autism appears to range from structural language abnormalities as seen in individuals with SLI to individuals with SLI with both structural and social abnormalities to individuals with autism with pragmatic impairment and language abnormalities.

  9. New Directions in Open Classroom Evaluation: Situational Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.

    The material reported here was developed as part of a systematic effort to develop techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of a nationally implemented early childhood program. The Classroom Attitude Observation Schedule technique has been implemented in a number of school districts as a means of assessing program implementation of the Tucson…

  10. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  11. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  12. Observations for the Panicked: How to Implement a Multi-age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Heather L.

    1996-01-01

    Advantages of multiage classrooms include improvements in student self-concept, attitudes toward school, leadership, and social skills; reduced discipline problems; and individualized instruction. Implementation problems include entrenched teacher attitudes, including overdependence on textbooks, and the extra teacher training and planning time…

  13. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  14. Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms through a Direct Observation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.

    2010-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that many students struggle to learn mathematics proficiently. One plausible contributor to the low math achievement is the quantity and quality of learning opportunities provided in classrooms. These opportunities may fall short of addressing the learning needs of students, especially those at risk for failure in…

  15. Classroom Perspectives: A Comparison of Teachers', Students', and Observers' Perceptions of Teacher Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrkemper, Mary M.

    Eight elementary school teachers, judged outstanding in ability to deal with difficult students but differing in socialization style (behavior modification, which involves rewards, or induction approaches, which emphasize rationales for behavior change), were the subjects of a study on classroom management strategies. The teachers nominated one…

  16. Are Handheld Computers Dependable? A New Data Collection System for Classroom-Based Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Tufan; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Very little research exists on the dependability of handheld computers used in public school classrooms. This study addresses four dependability criteria--reliability, maintainability, availability, and safety--to evaluate a data collection tool on a handheld computer. Data were collected from five sources: (1) time-use estimations by 19 special…

  17. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    PubMed

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  18. Usability and Reliability of a Remotely Administered Adult Autism Assessment, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Michael P.; Parmanto, Bambang; McGonigle, John; Handen, Benjamin; Lewis, Allen; Pulantara, I. Wayan; Saptono, Andi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4 is an autism assessment designed for verbally fluent adolescents and adults. Because of a shortage of available clinical expertise, it can be difficult for adults to receive a proper autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessment. A potential option to address this shortage is remote assessment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, usability, and reliability of administering the ADOS Module 4 remotely using the Versatile and Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISYTER). Materials and Methods: VISYTER consists of computer stations at the client site and clinician site for video communication and a Web portal for managing and coordinating the assessment process. Twenty-three adults with an ASD diagnosis participated in a within-subject crossover design study in which both a remote ADOS and a face-to-face ADOS were administered. After completing the remote ADOS, participants completed a satisfaction survey. Results: Participant satisfaction with the remote ADOS delivery system was high. The kappa value was greater than 0.61 on 21 of 31 ADOS items. There was substantial agreement on ADOS classification (i.e., diagnosis) between assessments delivered face-to-face versus assessments delivered remotely (interclass coefficient=0.92). Non-agreement may have been due to outside factors or practice effect despite a washout period. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an autism assessment designed to be delivered face to face can be administered remotely using an integrated Web-based system with high levels of usability and reliability. PMID:25569603

  19. The Relationship between Older Drivers’ Performance on the Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith; Langford, Jim; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Di Stefano, Marilyn; Macdonald, Wendy; Mazer, Barbara; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Research question/Objective: The Driving Observation Schedule (eDOS) was developed for use in the Candrive/Ozcandrive five-year prospective study of older drivers to observe the driving behavior of older drivers and monitor changes in driving behaviors over time. The aim of this study is to describe participants’ driving performance during the eDOS driving task and investigate the association between driving performance and cognitive measures. Methods: A subset of Ozcandrive participants (n = 144, 104 male [72%], 40 female [28%], Mean age = 81.49 years, SD = 3.58 years, Range: 76 – 96 years) completed the eDOS driving task. Participants drove to their selected destinations (up to 4 locations), with observations of driving behaviors (both inappropriate and appropriate) recorded for specific driving maneuvers: intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low speed maneuvers and maneuver-free driving. Driving behaviors (e.g. signalling, speed regulation, gap acceptance, lane position, ‘critical errors’) were scored by a trained observer and participants received an overall eDOS driving task score (Maximum = 100 points). Participants also completed a series of cognitive assessments as part of the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocols. Results: The overall eDOS driving task score was very high (M = 95.77; SD = 5.15; Range = 65.63 – 100). Detailed analyses of participants’ driving behavior revealed a high level of appropriate driving behavior (96%, n = 5,935 maneuvers), with few errors (4%, n = 252 maneuvers). While most participants’ performance on the cognitive assessments was high, some scores were below the criteria for cogntive impairment (BIC) according to conventional benchmarks: (MoCA: M = 26.56, SD = 2.12, Range = 19 – 30, % BIC = 28%; MMSE: M = 29.10, SD = 1.01, Range = 26–30, %BIC = 0%; Trails B: M = 111.66, SD = 43.53, Range = 50 – 301, %BIC = 6%). There was no significant relationship observed between participants

  20. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  1. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  2. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  3. Test Review: Lord, C., Luyster, R. J., Gotham, K., & Guthrie, W. (2012). "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual (Part II): Toddler Module." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition." Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam; Rostad, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition" (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012), a newly updated, semistructured, standardized measure of communication, social interaction, play/imagination, and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors published by Western…

  4. Developing Expertise: Using Video to Hone Teacher Candidates' Classroom Observation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Steadman, Sharilyn C.; Stapleton, Joy; Hodge, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the impact of a video observation model developed for teacher candidates in an early experiences course. Video Grand Rounds (VGR) combines a structured observation protocol, videos, and directed debriefing to enhance teacher candidates' observations skills within nonstructured and field-based observations. A comparative…

  5. Does Use of ICT-Based Teaching Encourage Innovative Interactions in the Classroom? Presentation of the CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manny-Ikan, Edith; Tikochinski, Tal Berger; Bashan, Zipi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observations analysis tool (CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation tool). The CLI-O tool enables the collection of various data regarding the use of ICT tools, organization of learning, and teacher-student interactions in the lesson. Several examples demonstrating the use of CLI-O and some preliminary…

  6. Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

  7. The Future of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the teaching methods shaping the classroom of tomorrow, where sixth graders carry laptops and teachers work in teams. Space requirements for departmentalized vs. interdisciplinary education are examined as are the types of materials and furniture used in design classrooms for block scheduling, and differing instruction methods changing…

  8. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PMID:24341925

  9. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved.

  10. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  11. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  12. A Descriptive Assessment of Instruction-Based Interactions in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndoro, Virginia W.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Heal, Nicole A.

    2006-01-01

    The current study describes preschool teacher-child interactions during several commonly scheduled classroom activities in which teachers deliver instructions. An observation system was developed that incorporated measurement of evidence-based compliance strategies and included the types of instructions delivered (e.g., integral or deficient…

  13. Panel: Implementing Behavior Modification in the Classroom: Problems and Strategies. Problems of the Implementor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Mann

    Problems and strategies in implementing classroom token economy systems as a means of behavior modification are reviewed. Discussed is the importance of such factors in the original token plan as the reinforcement schedule, and time-out procedures. Among implementation issues considered are observing and counting behaviors. (CL)

  14. The Master Schedule and Learning: Improving the Quality of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Carol A.; Kruse, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    The master schedule determines instructional time, use of space, student grouping, and teacher role. Currently, secondary school buildings are used like factories, and teachers can spend an entire career in the same classroom. Traditional, intensified, and flexible block scheduling produces master schedules with greater flexibility, less…

  15. Observations from Secondary School Classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Science Teachers' Use of Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maharaj-Sharma, R.; Sharma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine and interpret how science teachers in Trinidad and Tobago used analogies in their science teaching. A total of 30 lessons taught by five different teachers were observed and analysed using an interpretative research methodology to develop generalized observations. The findings revealed that in general science…

  16. The Poor at School in Canada; Observational Studies of Canadian Schools, Classrooms and Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, John W.; And Others

    The document presents 8 observational studies of interaction of the poor and the Canadian school system in an effort to gather data on inequalities in education. An ad hoc committee formed by the Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) asked the member organizations to undertake observational studies following 1 of 2 main types of designs: (1) an…

  17. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  18. I Spy Something! A Practical Guide to Classroom Observations of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Ann Marie

    Claiming that observation is the first and most authentic tool for assessing young children's learning and development, this book advises educators of young children how to improve observation skills by recording children's growth and development. The book also serves as a tool to evaluate and improve early childhood programs. Specific benefits of…

  19. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  20. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of an Observation System to Assess Teachers' Use of Effective Behavior Support Strategies in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew; Gera, Shradha; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matt; Buck, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are one of the most common concerns of early educators, and preschool teachers continue to report feeling unprepared to meet the needs of children displaying challenging behaviors. Overall, traditional standardized classroom assessments have evaluated global classroom quality, but they may not capture the reciprocal and…

  1. Classroom Observations: Documenting Shifts in Instruction for Districtwide Improvement. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Rebecca R.; Seago, Nanette M.; Burr, Elizabeth; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. This research brief explores how best to select or develop and use classroom observation systems in order to document instructional shifts and…

  2. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  3. Developing Indicators for a Classroom Observation Tool on Pedagogy and Technology Integration: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmendorf, Douglas C.; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in technology and increased access to technology tools have created new instructional demands and expectations on teachers. Due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in K-12 schools, teachers are being observed on both their pedagogical and technology integration practices. Applying the technological pedagogical and content…

  4. Tale of the Tape: International Teaching Assistant Noticing during Videotaped Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.; Case, Rod E.

    2015-01-01

    International teaching assistants face challenges in learning the norms for teaching in American universities. In order to address this learning curve this article describes a qualitative study of twenty international teaching assistants that examined how these participants viewed observations as part of their professional development. The study…

  5. Using Generalizability Theory to Examine Sources of Variance in Observed Behaviors within High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Cash, Anne H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizability theory (GT) offers a useful framework for estimating the reliability of a measure while accounting for multiple sources of error variance. The purpose of this study was to use GT to examine multiple sources of variance in and the reliability of school-level teacher and high school student behaviors as observed using the tool,…

  6. Observations of adolescent peer resistance skills following a classroom-based healthy relationship program: a post-intervention comparison.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Crooks, Claire V; Chiodo, Debbie; Hughes, Raymond; Ellis, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    This study examines peer resistance skills following a 21-lesson classroom-based intervention to build healthy relationships and decrease abusive and health-risk behaviors among adolescents. The Fourth R instructs students in positive relationship skills, such as negotiation and delay, for navigating challenging peer and dating scenarios. Observational data from 196 grade 9 students participating in a larger cluster randomized controlled trial were used to evaluate post-intervention acquisition of peer resistance skills. Pairs of students engaged in a role play paradigm with older student actors, where they were subjected to increasing pressure to comply with peer requests related to drugs and alcohol, bullying, and sexual behavior. Specific and global measures of change in peer resistance responses were obtained from two independent sets of observers, blinded to condition. Specific peer resistance responses (negotiation, delay, yielding to pressure, refusal, and compliance) were coded by research assistants; global peer resistance responses were rated by teachers from other schools (thinking / inquiry, application, communication, and perceived efficacy). Students who received the intervention were more likely to demonstrate negotiation skills and less likely to yield to negative pressure relative to controls. Intervention students were also more likely to use delay than controls; control girls were more likely to use refusal responses; the number of times students complied with peer requests did not differ. Teacher ratings demonstrated significant main effects favoring intervention youth on all measures. Program and research implications are highlighted.

  7. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  8. Evaluation Report 1-C-2: Observations of CSMP First Grade Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Alan; And Others

    This evaluation report is one of 17 planned for the longitudinal pilot study of the implementation in kindergarten and grade 1 of the Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP). In this report, the purpose and design of the classroom observation phase of evaluation are described; schedules of observation and a sample observation form are…

  9. Operating a wide-area high-availability collaborative remote observing system for classically-scheduled observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibrick, Robert I.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Allen, Steven L.; Deich, William T. S.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Lanclos, Kyle; Lyke, James E.

    2011-03-01

    For over a decade, the W. M. Keck Observatory's two 10-meter telescopes have been operated remotely from its Waimea headquarters. Over the last 9 years, WMKO remote observing has expanded to allow observing teams at dedicated sites located across California to observe via the Internet either in collaboration with colleagues in Waimea or entirely from California; this capability was extended to Swinburne University in Melbourne, Australia in 2010 and to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut in early 2011. All Keck facility science instruments are currently supported. Observers distributed between as many as four sites can collaborate in the interactive operation of each instrument by means of shared VNC desktops and multipoint video and/or telephone conferencing. Automated routers at primary remote observing sites ensure continued connectivity during Internet outages. Each Keck remote observing facility is similarly equipped and configured so observers have the same operating environment. This architecture provides observers the flexibility to conduct observations from the location best suited to their needs and to adapt to last-minute changes. It also enhances the ability of off-site technical staff to provide remote support.

  10. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (n = 93).

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in J Autism Dev Disord 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off resembled the original algorithm ASD cut-off: highly specific for psychopathy and controls, lower sensitivity than Hus and Lord (2014; i.e. ASD .61, AD .53). The revised algorithm AD cut-off improved sensitivity over the original algorithm. Discriminating ASD from schizophrenia was still challenging, but the better-balanced sensitivity (.53) and specificity (.78) of the revised algorithm AD cut-off may aide clinicians' differential diagnosis. Findings support using the revised algorithm, being conceptually conform the other modules, thus improving comparability across the lifespan.

  11. A genome-wide association study of autism incorporating autism diagnostic interview-revised, autism diagnostic observation schedule, and social responsiveness scale.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John J; Glessner, Joseph T; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to understand the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been hampered by genetic complexity and heterogeneity among individuals. One strategy for reducing complexity is to target endophenotypes, simpler biologically based measures that may involve fewer genes and constitute a more homogenous sample. A genome-wide association study of 2,165 participants (mean age = 8.95 years) examined associations between genomic loci and individual assessment items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and Social Responsiveness Scale. Significant associations with a number of loci were identified, including KCND2 (overly serious facial expressions), NOS2A (loss of motor skills), and NELL1 (faints, fits, or blackouts). These findings may help prioritize directions for future genomic efforts. PMID:22935194

  12. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, M. T.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Clark, M. H.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in use since September, 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while preserving telescope flexibility and data quality without creating undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria; observer availability and qualifications for remote observing; three-dimensional weather forecasts; and telescope state, the DSS software optimally schedules observers 24 to 48 hours in advance for a telescope that has a wide-range of capabilities and a geographical location with variable weather patterns. The DSS project was closed October 28, 2011 and will now enter a continuing maintenance and enhancement phase. Recent improvements include a new resource calendar for incorporating telescope maintenance activities, a sensitivity calculator that leverages the scheduling algorithms to facilitate consistent tools for proposal preparation, improved support for monitoring observations, scheduling of high frequency continuum and spectral line observations for both sparse and fully sampled array receivers, and additional session parameters for observations having special requirements.

  13. Getting Classroom Observations Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover; Chingos, Matthew M.; Lindquist, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to the body of knowledge on teacher evaluation systems by examining the actual design and performance of new teacher-evaluation systems in four school districts that are at the forefront of the effort to evaluate teachers meaningfully. The authors find first that the ratings assigned teachers by the districts'…

  14. Rethinking Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Emily Dolci; Kaufman, Trent; Doty, Dave

    2014-01-01

    If your professional learning seems stalled, maybe you could put yourself and your colleagues in the driver's seat of professional development. The authors describe a professional learning approach that gives teachers both a say in what they focus their learning on and a chance to practice and refine teaching strategies that they hope to…

  15. Swedish Religious Education at the End of the 1960s: Classroom Observations, Early Video Ethnography and the National Curriculum of 1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flensner, K. Kittelmann; Larsson, G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a unique corpus of film-recorded classroom observations of sixth-grade classes (age 12-13) in the Swedish cities of Gothenburg, Partille and Trollhättan in the late 1960s. The material documents how RE could be taught in Swedish schools in line with the curriculum of Lgr 62 which internationally was an early…

  16. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: A New Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, K.; Balser, D.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; Shelton, A.; Braatz, J.; Harnett, J.; Maddalena, R.; Mello, M.; Sessoms, E.

    2009-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing a dynamic scheduling system which schedules observers, rather than running scripts. The DSS works by breaking each project into one or more sessions which have associated observing criteria such as RA, Dec, and frequency. Potential observers may also enter dates when members of their team will not be available for either on-site or remote observing. The scheduling algorithm uses those data, along with the predicted weather, to determine the most efficient schedule for the GBT. The DSS provides all observers at least 24 hours notice of their upcoming observing. In the uncommon (< 20%) case where the actual weather does not match the predictions, a backup project, chosen from the database, is run instead. Here we give an overview of the GBT DSS project, including the ranking and scheduling algorithms for the sessions, the scheduling probabilities generation, the web framework for the system, and an overview of the results from the beta testing which were held from June - September, 2008.

  17. Schedule-induced licking during multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Yasuko Filby

    1972-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia was studied in rats bar pressing under two-component multiple schedules of food reinforcement. The first component of the multiple schedule was a variable-interval 1-min schedule throughout the experiment. The schedule comprising the second component was varied over blocks of sessions in terms of rate and magnitude of reinforcement, and was either variable-interval 3-min (one pellet), variable-interval 3-min (three pellets), variable-interval 1-min (one pellet), or extinction. Water intake per session varied with the rate of reinforcement in the schedule comprising the second component and was highest when the schedule was variable-interval 1-min. Both bar-pressing behavior and licking behavior showed behavioral interactions between the two components of the multiple schedules. With magnitude of reinforcement held constant, a matching relationship was observed between lick rate and reinforcement rate; the relative frequency of licks in the constant component matched the relative frequency of reinforcement in that component. Bar pressing, however, showed only a moderate degree of relativity matching. During the schedule-induced licking, a burst of licking followed each delivery of a pellet (post-prandial drinking). The duration of these bursts of licking was observed to be a function of the inter-reinforcement interval. PMID:16811598

  18. Classroom Communication: Verbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John C.

    The teacher, a participant observer in the total communication environment of the classroom, can, through systematic observation of that communication, attempt a change in behaviors which will result in an improved teaching-learning environment. One systematic way of looking at classroom communication involves the distinction between the nature of…

  19. Media Equipped Classrooms: Giving Attention to the Teaching Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    This paper provides an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC), i.e., a centrally scheduled or departmentally scheduled teaching space with permanently installed media and classroom support technology designed to enhance the quality of teaching when properly utilized. Specific emphasis is given to the teaching station at the State…

  20. Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faia, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

  1. Pinpointing Chinese Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Development Needs through Self-Evaluation and External Observation of Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Zhou, Yisu; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    This study compared Chinese kindergarten teachers' values and perceptions of program quality with trained raters' assessments of quality in order to gain insights into effective professional development for improving teacher quality. A total of 284 Chinese kindergarten teachers self-assessed the quality of their classroom teaching and…

  2. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  3. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  4. Measurement of Child Behavior via Classroom Observations in the Good Behavior Game Professional Development Models Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Anja; Wang, Wei; Li, Yibing; Poduska, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom-based behavior management strategy aimed at reducing aggressive/disruptive behavior and socializing children into the role of student. GBG, delivered in first and second grades, has been shown to reduce rates of substance abuse and other deleterious outcomes into young adulthood (Brown, C.H. et al 2007,…

  5. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  6. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  7. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  8. Steps for Improving School Climate in Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, J. Allen; Kaskey, Kimberly A.

    1997-01-01

    Developing a block schedule and surviving its first year of implementation require an open mind, a flexible spirit, and commitment. Discusses the basics of block scheduling; curricular alignment, course development, and unit design; pacing guides for time management; instruction strategies and lesson designs; classroom management; advanced…

  9. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  10. Scheduling the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Traverso, Henry P.

    This "how-to-do-it" manual on the intricacies of school scheduling offers both technical information and common sense advice about the process of secondary school scheduling. The first of six chapters provides an overview of scheduling; chapter 2 examines specific considerations for scheduling; chapter 3 surveys the scheduling models and their…

  11. Different Regions, Diverse Classrooms? a Study of Primary Classrooms in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Carmel; Lok, Beatrice; Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Song, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Classroom experience is shaped by a number of factors. In this paper, we report a classroom observation study in China, illustrating regional variation in students' classroom learning experiences. Through comparing and contrasting observed classroom practices in three different regions in China (Chongqing, Hong Kong and Shanghai), the paper…

  12. Craters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students create and study miniature impact craters in the classroom. Engages students in making detailed, meaningful observations, drawing inferences, reaching conclusions based on scientific evidence, and designing experiments to test selected variables. (DDR)

  13. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  14. Classroom Astronomy Via Remotely-Controlled Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, B. S.

    2006-06-01

    The Telescopes in Education (TIE) project, sponsored by the Mount Wilson Institute, NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), gives teachers and their students worldwide the opportunity to use a 0.61-meter telescope by remote access from their classrooms. Since 1993, over 160 schools have imaged deep-space objects by communicating with the telescope over a telephone line, slewing to the desired object, operating the CCD camera, and downloading the image directly to the classroom computer. Grades K through 12 conduct classroom research projects, including learning the different types of deep-space objects by imaging stars, nebulae, galaxies, comets, and asteroids. Advanced projects include astrometry and photometry. Of special interest is the discovery of new variable stars and the measurement of known variables, including periods and color indexes. Recently, Project SCHOLAR-Students Conducting Hands-On Learning in Astronomy Research-was initiated to give students around the world the opportunity to work hand-in-hand conducting observations and research for the astronomical community through the TIE program. Additional telescopes in several northern and southern hemisphere countries will provide expanded capacity, diversity and scheduling flexibility.

  15. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  16. Iterative refinement scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric

    1992-01-01

    We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.

  17. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  18. Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake

    2010-01-01

    Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…

  19. Classroom Dimensions and Classroom Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Arthur J.; Solomon, Daniel

    Although classroom "openness" has been much discussed in recent years, there has been little effort to investigate to what degree this openness occurs within a general sample of classrooms. The purpose of this study is to identify significant attributes of classroom activity and organization relevant to the concepts of "traditional" and "open" and…

  20. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  1. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  2. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  3. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  4. Courses without classrooms.

    PubMed

    Boyer, S A

    1999-01-01

    There is an alternative to classroom lecture that provides faster, more complete instruction and introduces the learner to clinical application of skills in a safe environment. This teaching style uses multiple media to present professional, published resources that provide excellent quality, topic-specific information. The benefits of this type of teaching/learning module include improved use of student and instructor time, scheduling advantages, increased learning, revenue generation potential, and student empowerment. With this approach, a strong, sound educational base is built, and each course includes some degree or form of clinical application as a key component.

  5. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities…

  6. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  7. Watching for Washback: Observing the Influence of the International English Language Testing System Academic Writing Test in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of washback (the influence of a test on teaching and learning) have provided insights into the complexity of educational systems and test use, especially in relation to the role of the teacher, but have given insufficient attention to the relationship between observed practices and test design features. In this article a washback…

  8. Rethinking Teacher Evaluation in Chicago: Lessons Learned from Classroom Observations, Principal-Teacher Conferences, and District Implementation. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartain, Lauren; Stoelinga, Sara Ray; Brown, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a two-year study of Chicago's Excellence in Teaching Pilot, which was designed to drive instructional improvement by providing teachers with evidence-based feedback on their strengths and weaknesses. The pilot consisted of training and support for principals and teachers, principal observations of teaching…

  9. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  10. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  11. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  12. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  13. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  14. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  15. Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Terri Sue

    This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

  16. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  17. The Technology-Rich Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew; Luft, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Observes the use of educational technology in four middle-school classes at the Ameritech Electronic University School Classroom located on the campus of Kent State University. Draws implications for the effective use of educational technology (both hardware and software) in the classroom. (PKP)

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  19. Bridging Theory to Practice with Classroom Rounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Connie L.; Herrelko, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service candidates' perceptions of how to teach were challenged after going through the process of Classroom Rounds, the process that was used in this study. Classroom Rounds consisted of a pre-conference meeting with an inservice teacher, followed by a classroom observation of that teacher, and finally a discussion focusing on proven…

  20. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom…

  1. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  2. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. H.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; McCarty, M. T.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2011-07-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope's (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in production use since September 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while maintaining the GBT's flexibility, improving data quality, and minimizing any undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria, observer availability and qualifications, three-dimensional weather forecasts, and telescope state, the DSS software is capable of optimally scheduling observers 24 to 48 hours in advance on a telescope having a wide-range of capabilities in a geographical location with variable weather patterns. Recent improvements for the GBT include an expanded frequency coverage (0.390-90 GHz), proper treatment of fully sampled array receivers, increasingly diverse observing criteria, the ability to account for atmospheric instability from clouds, and new tools for scheduling staff to control and interact with generated schedules and the underlying database.

  3. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  4. NASA scheduling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  5. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  6. Teaching and Student Achievement in Science: A Comparison of Three Different Schedule Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of block scheduling on teacher practice and student achievement. Sought to recognize the professional lives of teachers as a context for both change and stability. Investigates two questions: (1) How does one type of block schedule reform change science classroom practice within specific subjects; and (2) How does this reform…

  7. Self-Contained Classrooms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Determining the ideal academic setting in which students can be successful continues to be one of the primary goals of educators. Is there a best classroom structure in which students can be successful? Although there is research on the academic gains in the block schedule and in traditional departmentalized settings, both of which are common in…

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. February 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of February, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, links to related World Wide Web sites, and lists of related news terms. Topics include: Monica Lewinsky scheduled to be deposed for the Senate,…

  9. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  10. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  11. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple…

  12. Classroom Dynamics in Adult Literacy Education. NCSALL Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal; Medina, Patsy

    The effects of adult literacy classroom dynamics on the content and structure of instruction, learning processes, and classroom behavior were examined in a study during which 20 adult literacy classes in 8 states were observed and the teachers of those classrooms were interviewed. Key findings were as follows: (1) most classroom instruction…

  13. Variations in Classroom Structure and Growth in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Hermine H.

    This study investigated the effect of various dimensions of classroom structure on children's reading skills. Two classrooms each from grades one to three were selected by district administrators as outstanding examples of different types of classroom structure. A sample of 16 children was drawn from each class. Each classroom was observed on the…

  14. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  15. The Effects of Classroom Management on the Behaviors of Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Akalin, Selma; Sazak-Pinar, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the behaviors of the students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms differed according to the classroom management level of the teachers. The classroom management strategies of the 44 teachers were assessed by using The Proactive Classroom Management Observation Form. The…

  16. Connellys' Classroom Cutaway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, John; Connelly, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to help classroom teachers use the educational tool of student-produced media to meet their curriculum objectives. It has been the authors' experience in three decades of utilizing this tool personally and observing other teachers utilizing this tool, across nearly all grades and course content areas, that it is very effective.…

  17. The Structured Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the organisation of the remedial classroom. The data were collected from observations and semi-structured interviews with 10 teachers in remedial classes for children seen and treated as having concentration deficits. The teachers use primarily compensatory language that places the deficits in the pupils.…

  18. Computers and Classroom Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Janet Ward

    This book explores the meaning of computer technology in schools. The book is based on data gathered from a two-year observation of more than 30 different classrooms in an urban high school: geometry classes in which students used artificially intelligent tutors; business classes in which students learned word processing; and computer science…

  19. Toward Better Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grew, James H.

    1964-01-01

    Designed for the inexperienced language teacher, this summary of effective language teaching techniques is based on observations made in high school French classes, but is applicable also to elementary school and beginning college language programs. Consideration is given to maintaining interest and classroom control, using realia, and giving each…

  20. Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

  1. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-04-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older children (5-8 vs. 8+ years). Compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) classification of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), both instruments measure AD or PDD validly and reliably. Even in low-functioning children the interrelationship between the instruments and the clinical classification was satisfactory. The combination of ADI-R and ADOS-G identifies AD or PDD, as described in the DSM-IV-TR, most appropriately. Both instruments seem to be of great value in the diagnostic process of PDD in children and adolescents with MR.

  2. Religion in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of religion in the elementary classroom. Suggests activities and discusses cautions and concerns, dealing with absolutism, using religious literature, and parental rights. Compares teaching about religion with teaching for religious observance. (CMK)

  3. A Zebra in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Devin; Morvillo, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the care and breeding of zebra fish, suggests various experiments and observations easily performed in a classroom setting, and provides some ideas to further student interest and exploration of these organisms. (DDR)

  4. Wave scheduling - Decentralized scheduling of task forces in multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tilborg, A. M.; Wittie, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Decentralized operating systems that control large multicomputers need techniques to schedule competing parallel programs called task forces. Wave scheduling is a probabilistic technique that uses a hierarchical distributed virtual machine to schedule task forces by recursively subdividing and issuing wavefront-like commands to processing elements capable of executing individual tasks. Wave scheduling is highly resistant to processing element failures because it uses many distributed schedulers that dynamically assign scheduling responsibilities among themselves. The scheduling technique is trivially extensible as more processing elements join the host multicomputer. A simple model of scheduling cost is used by every scheduler node to distribute scheduling activity and minimize wasted processing capacity by using perceived workload to vary decentralized scheduling rules. At low to moderate levels of network activity, wave scheduling is only slightly less efficient than a central scheduler in its ability to direct processing elements to accomplish useful work.

  5. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  6. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  7. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  8. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  9. Fundamentals of School Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Gwen

    The ability of the school administrator to schedule teachers' and students' time so that each receives the most from each school day has become an essential skill. This book has been prepared for school administrators at the elementary and middle school levels who need appropriate management techniques for scheduling students into classes. Chapter…

  10. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  11. What's behind Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierke, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of block scheduling in secondary schools focuses on its impact on the school library media center. Discusses increased demand for library services, scheduling classes, the impact on librarians' time, teaching information technology, local area networks, and the increased pace of activity. (LRW)

  12. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  13. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  14. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development. PMID:25746823

  15. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development.

  16. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  17. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  18. Classroom Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…

  19. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  20. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  1. Classroom Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jacqueline; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes five classroom activities or projects used in Canadian social studies classes. Includes discussions of the use of artifacts, a field trip to Spain, a simulation of the Earth Summit meeting, and the application of mahatma Gandhi's philosophy to current problems. (CFR)

  2. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  3. Coordinating, Scheduling, Processing and Analyzing IYA09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John; Behrend, Dirk; Gordon, David; Himwich, Ed; MacMillan, Dan; Titus, Mike; Corey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The IVS scheduled a special astrometric VLBI session for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA09) commemorating 400 years of optical astronomy and 40 years of VLBI. The IYA09 session is the most ambitious geodetic session to date in terms of network size, number of sources, and number of observations. We describe the process of designing, coordinating, scheduling, pre-session station checkout, correlating, and analyzing this session.

  4. Real-world experiences of nuclear science in the classroom - What an individual can do

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Experience is showing that the public has yet to learn about the natural world, radiation, risk analysis, and energy, as well as other issues. This has occurred during a time in which the quality of education has declined in the US. As a former college professor who is married to a schoolteacher, the author realized that the two observations are linked. A communications gap has developed between science and the schools. Scientists perceive that once scientific advancements have taken place, new curriculum materials for schools automatically adapt to include these advancements. Teachers' schedules are typically so filled during and after school that new curriculum material is slowed in being introduced in the classroom. Thus, the question becomes, how do we bridge the gulf between scientists and the classroom Scientists can be helpful to teachers in many ways. This paper is a summary of some of the activities and lessons learned in strengthening teacher-scientist relationships.

  5. Prototype resupply scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Steve; Hughes, Angi; Byrd, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Resupply scheduling for the Space Station presents some formidable logistics problems. One of the most basic problems is assigning supplies to a series of shuttle resupply missions. A prototype logistics expert system which constructs resupply schedules was developed. This prototype is able to reconstruct feasible resupply plans. In addition, analysts can use the system to evaluate the impact of adding, deleting or modifying launches, cargo space, experiments, etc.

  6. Ecology and Development in Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowy, William; Smith, Jeanne Elser

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon observer participation in a first grade classroom, we present a systemic functional analysis of classroom communication located in relation to social semiotics, cultural historical activity theory, and ecological psychology, relating context to meaning making. Two years of observation include field notes, student assessments, audio…

  7. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  8. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  9. Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Surender

    1991-01-01

    Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

  10. Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA

    2016-01-01

    MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.

  11. Chandra mission scheduling on-orbit experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Sabina; Williams, Brent; Pendexter, Misty; Balke, David

    2008-07-01

    Scheduling observatory time to maximize both day-to-day science target integration time and the lifetime of the observatory is a formidable challenge. Furthermore, it is not a static problem. Of course, every schedule brings a new set of observations, but the boundaries of the problem change as well. As spacecraft ages, its capabilities may degrade. As in-flight experience grows, capabilities may expand. As observing programs are completed, the needs and expectations of the science community may evolve. Changes such as these impact the rules by which a mission scheduled. In eight years on orbit, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Mission Planning process has adapted to meet the challenge of maximizing day-to-day and mission lifetime science return, despite a consistently evolving set of scheduling constraints. The success of the planning team has been achieved, not through the use of complex algorithms and optimization routines, but through processes and home grown tools that help individuals make smart short term and long term Mission Planning decisions. This paper walks through the processes and tools used to plan and produce mission schedules for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Nominal planning and scheduling, target of opportunity response, and recovery from on-board autonomous safing actions are all addressed. Evolution of tools and processes, best practices, and lessons learned are highlighted along the way.

  12. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  13. Thermal comfort in tropical classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, A.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper examines the comfort criteria of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 for their applicability in tropical classrooms. A field study conducted in Hawaii used a variety of methods to collect the data: survey questionnaires, physical measurements, interviews, and behavioral observations. A total of 3,544 students and teachers completed questionnaires in 29 naturally ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms in six schools during two seasons. The majority of classrooms failed to meet the physical specifications of the Standard 55 comfort zone. Thermal neutrality, preference, and acceptability results are compared with other field studies and the Standard 55 criteria. Acceptability votes by occupants of both naturally ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms exceeded the standard`s 80% acceptability criteria, regardless of whether physical conditions were in or out of the comfort zone. Responses from these two school populations suggest not only a basis for separate comfort standards but energy conservation opportunities through raising thermostat set points.

  14. The Changing College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulien, Daniel K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the ways in which college classrooms are changing as a result of technology, furnishings, and educational needs requiring more space and different classroom-design concepts. Explains why the traditional tablet armchair classroom is becoming unpopular. (GR)

  15. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times

  16. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  17. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  18. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  19. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  20. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  1. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  2. Quantifying and understanding reproductive allocation schedules in plants.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Elizabeth Hedi; Falster, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A plant's reproductive allocation (RA) schedule describes the fraction of surplus energy allocated to reproduction as it increases in size. While theorists use RA schedules as the connection between life history and energy allocation, little is known about RA schedules in real vegetation. Here we review what is known about RA schedules for perennial plants using studies either directly quantifying RA or that collected data from which the shape of an RA schedule can be inferred. We also briefly review theoretical models describing factors by which variation in RA may arise. We identified 34 studies from which aspects of an RA schedule could be inferred. Within those, RA schedules varied considerably across species: some species abruptly shift all resources from growth to reproduction; most others gradually shift resources into reproduction, but under a variety of graded schedules. Available data indicate the maximum fraction of energy allocated to production ranges from 0.1 to 1 and that shorter lived species tend to have higher initial RA and increase their RA more quickly than do longer-lived species. Overall, our findings indicate, little data exist about RA schedules in perennial plants. Available data suggest a wide range of schedules across species. Collection of more data on RA schedules would enable a tighter integration between observation and a variety of models predicting optimal energy allocation, plant growth rates, and biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Quantifying and understanding reproductive allocation schedules in plants.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Elizabeth Hedi; Falster, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    A plant's reproductive allocation (RA) schedule describes the fraction of surplus energy allocated to reproduction as it increases in size. While theorists use RA schedules as the connection between life history and energy allocation, little is known about RA schedules in real vegetation. Here we review what is known about RA schedules for perennial plants using studies either directly quantifying RA or that collected data from which the shape of an RA schedule can be inferred. We also briefly review theoretical models describing factors by which variation in RA may arise. We identified 34 studies from which aspects of an RA schedule could be inferred. Within those, RA schedules varied considerably across species: some species abruptly shift all resources from growth to reproduction; most others gradually shift resources into reproduction, but under a variety of graded schedules. Available data indicate the maximum fraction of energy allocated to production ranges from 0.1 to 1 and that shorter lived species tend to have higher initial RA and increase their RA more quickly than do longer-lived species. Overall, our findings indicate, little data exist about RA schedules in perennial plants. Available data suggest a wide range of schedules across species. Collection of more data on RA schedules would enable a tighter integration between observation and a variety of models predicting optimal energy allocation, plant growth rates, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:27069603

  4. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  5. Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Apthorp, Helen; Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. Researchers randomly assigned 67 elementary schools to receive CASL materials or continue with regularly scheduled professional development. Teachers in CASL schools formed…

  6. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  7. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  8. Analysis of the integration of the physician rostering problem and the surgery scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Van Huele, Christophe; Vanhoucke, Mario

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Integrated Physician and Surgery Scheduling Problem (IPSSP) as a new approach for solving operating room scheduling problems where staff rosters for the physicians are integrated in the optimization. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is created based on the most frequently observed objective and restrictions of the surgery scheduling and the physician rostering problem in the literature. We analyze schedules by relaxing both surgery and physician related constraints. We then measure the implications of setting these physician preferences on the surgery schedule. Our experiments show two main interesting insights for physician roster schedulers as well as operating theatre scheduling managers.

  9. Shaping academic task engagement with percentile schedules.

    PubMed

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pipkin, Claire C St Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used.

  10. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261

  11. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara

    2006-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace…

  12. Should Supervisors Intervene during Classroom Visits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Real-time coaching has become the go-to supervisory model in some schools (especially charters), with supervisors routinely jumping in during teacher observations and sometimes taking over the class to model a more effective approach. The author sets out goals and guidelines for impromptu classroom visits that include visiting each classroom at…

  13. Promoting Excellence: Some Classroom Evaluation Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Archibald P.; Sydnor, Darlean

    Following a brief overview of literature on excellence in the classroom, the shortcomings of objective tests as means for evaluating classroom excellence are discussed as well as the need for evaluation alternatives. Descriptions are given of evaluation alternatives, some of which focus upon reading and writing achievement: (1) observation of…

  14. Continuous Classroom Assessment at Primary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Imtiaz; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussein; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the continuous classroom assessment at primary level in Pakistan. Findings of the study revealed that the students' achievement of single class teacher in the subject of English, General science, Urdu and mathematics were almost on average and rubric observation during continuous classroom assessment ranked…

  15. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…

  16. A Chill in the College Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bem P.; Niss, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Conducting research in university classrooms is difficult because the lecture method stifles discussion and limits opportunities to observe student/professor interactions. A recent study found that university classrooms are probably as chilly for minority students as they are for women. Bias against foreign students is less discernible. Study…

  17. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  18. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  19. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  20. Class Schedules--Computer Loaded or Student Self-Scheduled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Edward F.

    1979-01-01

    In the two-step process of student scheduling, the initial phase of course selection is the most important. At Chesterton High School in Indiana, student self-scheduling is preferred over computer loading. (Author/MLF)

  1. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and…

  2. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  3. Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachur, Donald; And Others

    The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

  4. Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    1989-01-01

    Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

  5. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  6. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  7. Classroom Re-Design to Facilitate Student Learning: A Case Study of Changes to a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perks, Tom; Orr, Doug; Alomari, Elham

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the physical aspects of a particular university classroom, and what affect specific changes to the classroom had on the perceptions of students, instructors and observers regarding the room as an effective learning space. We compare survey and focus group data collected from students taking courses in the classroom prior…

  8. A Multi-Instrument Examination of Preschool Classroom Quality and the Relationship between Program, Classroom, and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Joanna Hope; Hallam, Rena; Homer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A statewide study of preschool classroom quality was conducted using 3 distinct classroom observation measures in order to inform a statewide quality rating system. Findings suggested that Tennessee preschool classrooms were approaching "good" quality on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and provided…

  9. An integrated scheduling and program management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D.; Gibson, J. D.; Williams, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    An integrated scheduling and program management system is being developed for the MMT Observatory (MMTO), Arizona, USA. A systems engineering approach is used to combine existing and new relational databases, spreadsheets, file storage systems, and web-based user interfaces into a single unified system. An overview of software design, data management, user interfaces, and techniques for performance assessment is presented. Goals of this system include streamlined data management and an optimized user experience. The MMTO has over a dozen different telescope configurations, including three secondary mirrors and a wide range of observing instruments. Scheduling is complex for the varying telescope configurations, limited available observing time, and appropriate astronomic conditions (e.g., lunar phase) for each science project. Scheduled telescope configurations can be used to perform safety checks of actual configuration during telescope operations. Programmatic information is automatically input into nightly telescope operator (TO) logs by the system. The TO's provide additional information into the system on telescope usage, observing conditions (e.g., weather conditions), and observatory closure (e.g., from instrument malfunction or inclement weather). All of this information is synthesized to assess telescope and observatory performance. Web interfaces to the system can be used by observers to submit information, such as travel plans, instrumentation requirements, and observing catalogs. A service request (SR) (i.e., trouble report) system has also been developed for tracking operational issues. The specific needs of the MMTO have been met through in-house software development of this integrated scheduling and program management system.

  10. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike

  11. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  12. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  13. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  14. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  15. Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

  16. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  17. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  18. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  19. MESA: Mercator scheduler and archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, Florian; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an observing scheduling and archive system for the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The goal was to optimize the specific niche of this modern small telescope in observational astrophysics: the building-up of long-term time series of photometric or high-resolution spectroscopic data with appropriate sampling for any given scientific program. This system allows PIs to easily submit their technical requirements and keep track of the progress of the observing programmes. The scheduling system provides the observer with an optimal schedule for the night which takes into account the current observing conditions as well as the priorities and requirements of the programmes in the queue. The observer can conveniently plan an observing night but also quickly adapt it to changing conditions. The archiving system automatically processes new files as they are created, including reduced data. It extracts the metadata and performs the normalization. A user can query, inspect and retrieve observing data. The progress of individual programmes, including timeline and reduced data plots can be seen at any time. Our MESA project is based on free and open source software (FOSS) using the Python programming language. The system is fully integrated with the Mercator Observing Control System1 (MOCS).

  20. Implementing Block Scheduling: A Concern-Based Model of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvaterra, Mary E.; Adams, Don C.

    A study focused primarily on building-level leadership by observing how principals in 12 high schools (11 public and 1 Catholic) engaged in planning a structural change from a traditional schedule with 45-minute periods to the 90-minute periods of a block schedule. Using a concerns-based model of change, principals' behaviors and teachers'…

  1. 12 CFR 791.5 - Scheduling of board meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scheduling of board meetings. 791.5 Section 791.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.5 Scheduling...

  2. 12 CFR 791.5 - Scheduling of board meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of board meetings. 791.5 Section 791... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.5 Scheduling of board meetings. (a) Meeting calls—(1) Regular meetings. The Board will hold regular meetings each...

  3. 9 CFR 381.37 - Schedule of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than 30 minutes is regularly observed, approximately midpoint between start of work and the lunch... establishment shall submit a work schedule to the area supervisor for approval. In consideration of whether the approval of an establishment work schedule shall be given, the area supervisor shall take in account...

  4. 9 CFR 307.4 - Schedule of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficient and effective use of inspection personnel. The work schedule must specify daily clock hours of... than 30 minutes is regularly observed, approximately midpoint between start of work and the lunch... establishment shall submit a work schedule to the area supervisor for approval. In consideration of whether...

  5. 9 CFR 307.4 - Schedule of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficient and effective use of inspection personnel. The work schedule must specify daily clock hours of... than 30 minutes is regularly observed, approximately midpoint between start of work and the lunch... establishment shall submit a work schedule to the area supervisor for approval. In consideration of whether...

  6. 9 CFR 381.37 - Schedule of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than 30 minutes is regularly observed, approximately midpoint between start of work and the lunch... establishment shall submit a work schedule to the area supervisor for approval. In consideration of whether the approval of an establishment work schedule shall be given, the area supervisor shall take in account...

  7. Classroom Quality, Concentration of Children with Special Needs, and Child Outcomes in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Peggy A.; Lambert, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The associations among classroom quality, classroom percentage of children with special needs, and child outcome measures were tested in low- and high-quality classrooms using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). No main effect on child outcomes for the classroom concentration of children with special needs was observed. However, an interaction…

  8. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  9. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  10. Automated Long - Term Scheduling for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the "Early Science" program as well as a deployment to Germany. The new observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA long-term schedules that will be used in operations from the Cycle 1 observing period. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  11. Developing stimulus control of young children's requests to teachers: classwide applications of multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    Children may recruit their teachers' attention at undesirably high rates or at inconvenient times. Tiger and Hanley (2004) described a multiple-schedule procedure to reduce ill-timed requests, which involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals that were correlated with periods in which teacher attention was either available or unavailable. The current study extended the application of multiple schedules by evaluating the effectiveness of the procedure when implemented by private-school teachers in 3 elementary classrooms. Following the introduction of the multiple schedules, student approaches toward their teacher were maintained during desirable periods but were minimized during undesirable periods.

  12. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  13. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  14. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  15. Automated long-term scheduling for the SOFIA airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civeit, Thomas

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German project to develop and operate a gyro-stabilized 2.5-meter telescope in a Boeing 747SP. SOFIA's first science observations were made in December 2010. During 2011, SOFIA accomplished 30 flights in the “ Early Science” program as well as a deployment to Germany. The next observing period, known as Cycle 1, is scheduled to begin in late fall 2012. It includes 46 science flights grouped in four multi-week observing campaigns spread through a 13-month span. Automation of the flight scheduling process offers a major challenge to the SOFIA mission operations. First because it is needed to mitigate its relatively high cost per unit observing time compared to space-borne missions. Second because automated scheduling techniques available for ground-based and space-based telescopes are inappropriate for an airborne observatory. Although serious attempts have been made in the past to solve part of the problem, until recently mission operations staff was still manually scheduling flights. We present in this paper a new automated solution for generating SOFIA's long-term schedules. We describe the constraints that should be satisfied to solve the SOFIA scheduling problem in the context of real operations. We establish key formulas required to efficiently calculate the aircraft course over ground when evaluating flight schedules. We describe the foundations of the SOFIA long-term scheduler, the constraint representation, and the random search based algorithm that generates observation and instrument schedules. Finally, we report on how the new long-term scheduler has been used in operations to date.

  16. Personalized Education; Solving a Group Formation and Scheduling Problem for Educational Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahargam, Sanaz; Erdos, Dóra; Bestavros, Azer; Terzi, Evimaria

    2015-01-01

    Whether teaching in a classroom or a Massive Online Open Course it is crucial to present the material in a way that benefits the audience as a whole. We identify two important tasks to solve towards this objective; (1) group students so that they can maximally benefit from peer interaction and (2) find an optimal schedule of the educational…

  17. The Effect of Immersion Scheduling on Academic Performance and Students' Ratings of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Curl, Layton S.; Broussard, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, little research has investigated the effects of immersion scheduling on the psychology classroom. Therefore, we sought to compare academic performance of students in 2-week immersion psychology courses to that of students in traditional 16-week courses. In Study 1, students who received instruction in a 2-week immersion…

  18. Course Scheduling to Find the Minimum Cost Set of Facilities Required.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccatore, Luis A.

    The problem of determining the quantity of classroom, laboratories and instructors to train sections of students attending numerous distinct courses in a school such as the Fleet Ballistic Missile School is considered. A procedure is developed for determining feasible schedules in order to graduate a fixed number of trainees over time while…

  19. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  20. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  1. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses.

  2. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  3. Examining the Validity of Ratings from a Classroom Observation Instrument for Use in a District's Teacher Evaluation System. REL 2016-135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of teacher evaluation scores that are derived from an observation tool, adapted from Danielson's Framework for Teaching, designed to assess 22 teaching components from four teaching domains. The study analyzed principals' observations of 713 elementary, middle, and high school teachers in…

  4. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  5. In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P.; Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1991-01-01

    Presents seven reading activities involving the preschool classroom writing environment, using big books and predictable books, using cereal boxes to foster emergent literacy, using editorials, visual-auditory links, reading outside the classroom, and ownership of writing. (MG)

  6. The Networked Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Penuel, William R.; Abrahamson, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Classroom network requires every student to think actively, which enhances student participation in mathematics and science. Classroom-specific networks use software designed to enhance communication between teacher and students.

  7. Research on schedulers for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colome, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Guàrdia, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; Gesa, Lluis; Martínez, Francesc; Rodler, Florian

    2012-09-01

    The main task of a scheduler applied to astronomical observatories is the time optimization of the facility and the maximization of the scientific return. Scheduling of astronomical observations is an example of the classical task allocation problem known as the job-shop problem (JSP), where N ideal tasks are assigned to M identical resources, while minimizing the total execution time. A problem of higher complexity, called the Flexible-JSP (FJSP), arises when the tasks can be executed by different resources, i.e. by different telescopes, and it focuses on determining a routing policy (i.e., which machine to assign for each operation) other than the traditional scheduling decisions (i.e., to determine the starting time of each operation). In most cases there is no single best approach to solve the planning system and, therefore, various mathematical algorithms (Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, Multi-Objective Evolutionary algorithms, etc.) are usually considered to adapt the application to the system configuration and task execution constraints. The scheduling time-cycle is also an important ingredient to determine the best approach. A shortterm scheduler, for instance, has to find a good solution with the minimum computation time, providing the system with the capability to adapt the selected task to varying execution constraints (i.e., environment conditions). We present in this contribution an analysis of the task allocation problem and the solutions currently in use at different astronomical facilities. We also describe the schedulers for three different projects (CTA, CARMENES and TJO) where the conclusions of this analysis are applied to develop a suitable routine.

  8. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  9. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  10. Effects of Fixed-Time Reinforcement Delivered by Teachers for Reducing Problem Behavior in Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Michelle; Reed, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules on the disruptive behavior of 4 students in special education classrooms were studied. Attention provided on FT schedules in the context of a multiple-baseline design across participants substantially decreased all students' challenging behavior. Disruptive behavior was maintained at levels…

  11. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  12. Multicultural Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of culturally inappropriate, prejudicial, and disempowering classroom management techniques often employed with students who are not Euro-American or middle class. Teachers need to adapt classroom management techniques to their student population, eliminate prejudicial classroom management, and replace techniques that…

  13. Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

    Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

  14. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  15. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

  16. RISO: A New Online Tool for Bringing the Sun into the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael; Hood, J.; Cruzen, S. T.; Williams, R. N. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Real-Time Interactive Solar Observatory (RISO) is an online portal that allows schools worldwide to log in via the internet and control the telescopes at Columbus State University's Mead Observatory. Users of RISO are able to view live video of the Sun, image the Sun, and complete activities while observing the Sun, all from their own classroom. Debuted in 2007, RISO will begin its full observing schedule in January 2008. In this oral presentation, we will highlight the features of RISO and will discuss the current activities users can complete with RISO. We will also discuss the future activities, such as a cloudy day simulator and field of view calculations that are currently in development. Support for RISO has been provided by NASA through the Georgia Space Science Grant Consortium.

  17. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  18. Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

  19. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  20. Intensification of the Learning Process: Diagnostic Instruments--Visual Performance Screening Test, Observing the Learner, Questionnaire-Parent. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    Instruments for screening visual performance, for observing vision behavior, the learner in general, and the student at a learning task, and a parent questionnaire are described. (See TM 001 363 for a description of the total project; for other related documents, see TM 001 160, 364-368, 370-374.) (MS)

  1. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration.

  2. Designing for the Active Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.

  3. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  4. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  5. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  6. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  7. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  8. Master Classrooms: Classroom Design with Technology in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Kathryn

    Technology is changing the classroom requiring new design features and considerations to make the classroom flexible and interactive with the teaching process. The design of a Master Classroom, a product of the Classroom Improvement Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is described. These classrooms are specially-equipped to…

  9. Scheduling Software for MS-DOS Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David H.; Prior, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Identifies four microcomputer-based software packages for scheduling and evaluates their usefulness for scheduling employees in a library setting. Evaluation criteria are applied to (1) Schedule Master, from Schedule Master Corporation; (2) Schedule Plus, from Cyclesoft, Inc.; (3) Who Works When, from Newport Systems; and (4) Working Hours, from…

  10. Solve Your Scheduling Puzzle without a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toy, Steve

    1982-01-01

    The small Lone Star school district in Otis (Colorado) developed a year-long process for creating its master course schedule. The scheduling process includes a needs assessment, a curriculum scheduling committee of teachers and students, a trial run of the schedule, and board approval of the master schedule. (RW)

  11. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  12. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Planning for Cometary Observations with the Green Bank Telescope and Its Application to Chemistry Classroom Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Christopher; Lockman, F. J.; Lovell, A.

    2010-01-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will describe the development of a Python program as a further expansion of a previous mathematical model3 designed to simulate cometary data collected by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The program allows for user interaction to change parameters such as the comet's distance from the sun, the rate of production of gaseous outflows, lifetime of these gaseous particles and maximum limit for how many gas particles are generated. Furthermore this paper will present results of how students can write their own Python programming code to manipulate these parameters to generate velocity profiles of the out gassed chemical species. Students should be enlightened that Science can be cross disciplinary. Several concepts in Chemistry: sublimation, electromagnetic spectrum, quantum mechanics, gas behavior and chemical kinetics play an important role in the formation of a comet cloud and how that cloud could be observed using radio astronomy. Chemical species such as HCN, CS and HCO+1 have been observed in cometary clouds. The chemical composition of the cloud and its size are a function of its distance from the sun and the radial location from the center of the comet cloud. High-school students at the Louisiana School for Math, Science and the Arts, LA will learn Python programming language to create a mathematical model of a cometary cloud. The students will have formulated models for rate of sublimation, rate of photo-dissociation, and velocity of gas particles as the fundamental framework to determine frequencies and intensities of the molecular spectra. The students will be able to manipulate their code to create various comet cloud scenarios as it might be observed by the GBT.

  13. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  14. Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: What Is the Contextual Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna

    2007-01-01

    A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom Observation Form…

  15. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  16. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  17. Observation as an Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Pat; Wilson, Angene

    1999-01-01

    Considers the use of observation in the classroom as a means of student assessment. Focuses on developing an observation instrument, the scoring criteria, and using progress-based rankings rather than static rankings. Provides an example teacher observation form. (CMK)

  18. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  19. GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: Algorithms, Metrics, and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, D. S.; Bignell, C.; Braatz, J.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; Harnett, J.; O'Neil, K.; Maddalena, R.; Marganian, P.; McCarty, M.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss the scoring algorithm of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS). Since the GBT is located in a continental, mid-latitude region where weather is dominated by water vapor and small-scale effects, the weather plays an important role in optimizing the observing efficiency of the GBT. We score observing sessions as a product of many factors. Some are continuous functions while others are binary limits taking values of 0 or 1, any one of which can eliminate a candidate session by forcing the score to zero. Others reflect management decisions to expedite observations by visiting observers, ensure the timely completion of projects, etc. Simulations indicate that dynamic scheduling can increase the effective observing time at frequencies higher than 10 GHz by about 50% over one full year. Beta tests of the DSS during Summer 2008 revealed the significance of various scheduling constraints and telescope overhead time to the overall observing efficiency.

  20. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children Recommend on Facebook ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Schedule for ...

  1. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  2. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Random ratio schedules produce greater demand for i.v. drug administration than fixed ratio schedules in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Carla H.; Winger, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Organisms emit more responses when food is provided according to random as compared with fixed schedules of reinforcement. Similarly, many human behaviors deemed compulsive are maintained on variable schedules (e.g., gambling). If greater amounts of behavior are maintained by drugs of abuse when earned according to variably-reinforced schedules, this would suggest that excessive drug-taking behavior may be due in part to the nature of drug availability. Objectives The aim was to determine whether random schedules of contingent intravenous drug delivery would produce more responding than similarly-priced fixed schedules. Methods Six rhesus macaque subjects responded to produce cocaine (0.003–0.03 mg/kg/inj), remifentanil (0.01–1.0 µg/kg/inj), or ketamine (0.01–0.1 mg/kg/inj) according to either fixed- or random-ratio requirements that increased systematically across sessions. Demand curves were generated with the most effective dose of each drug and compared across drug- and schedule-type. Results Cocaine and remifentanil maintained higher levels and rates of responding when earned according to random ratio schedules as compared with fixed ratio schedules. This difference was most pronounced when drugs were available at high unit prices. Differences in responding across the schedule types generated by ketamine – a lesser valued reinforcer – were qualitatively similar but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions The current study provides a systematic replication across reinforcer-type demonstrating that drugs delivered after a random number of responses generate more behavior than those delivered according to a fixed schedule. The variable nature of the availability of drugs of abuse – particularly those that are scarce or expensive – may be a contributing factor to excessive drug intake by humans. This effect is most likely to be observed when more highly demanded (reinforcing) drugs are being consumed. PMID:24562063

  4. 5 CFR 532.254 - Special schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exist in the private sector that are incompatible with regular schedule practices, and serious... authorization for a special schedule shall include instructions for its construction, application,...

  5. Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Branch, Marc N

    2004-01-01

    Daily administration of cocaine often results in the development of tolerance to its effects on responding maintained by fixed-ratio schedules. Such effects have been observed to be greater when the ratio value is small, whereas less or no tolerance has been observed at large ratio values. Similar schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance, however, has not been observed with fixed-interval schedules arranging comparable interreinforcement intervals. This experiment examined the possibility that differences in rate and temporal patterning between the two types of schedule are responsible for the differences in observed patterns of tolerance. Five pigeons were trained to key peck on a three-component multiple (tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio) schedule. The interval values were 10, 30, and 120 s; the tandem ratio was held constant at five responses. Performance appeared more like that observed under fixed-ratio schedules than fixed-interval schedules. Effects of various doses of cocaine given weekly were then determined for each pigeon. A dose that reduced responding was administered prior to each session for 50 days. A reassessment of effects of the range of doses revealed tolerance. The degree of tolerance was similar across components of the multiple schedule. Next, the saline vehicle was administered prior to each session for 50 days to assess the persistence of tolerance. Tolerance diminished in all subjects. Overall, the results suggested that schedule-parameter-dependent tolerance does not depend on the temporal pattern of responding engendered by fixed-ratio schedules. PMID:15693524

  6. Calling All Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents examples of innovative public/private partnerships that have successfully provided affordable telephone access to school classrooms. Contact information for each of the programs is provided. (GR)

  7. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

  8. Knowledge based tools for Hubble Space Telescope planning and scheduling: Constraints and strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark; Vick, Shon; Sponsler, Jeff; Lindenmayer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) presents an especially challenging scheduling problem since a year's observing program encompasses tens of thousands of exposures facing numerous coupled constraints. Recent progress in the development of planning and scheduling tools is discussed which augment the existing HST ground system. General methods for representing activities, constraints, and constraint satisfaction, and time segmentation were implemented in a scheduling testbed. The testbed permits planners to evaluate optimal scheduling time intervals, calculate resource usage, and to generate long and medium range plans. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and plans are an important feature of the system. High-level scheduling strategies using rule based and neural net approaches were implemented.

  9. AI techniques for a space application scheduling problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thalman, N.; Sparn, T.; Jaffres, L.; Gablehouse, D.; Judd, D.; Russell, C.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling is a very complex optimization problem which can be categorized as an NP-complete problem. NP-complete problems are quite diverse, as are the algorithms used in searching for an optimal solution. In most cases, the best solutions that can be derived for these combinatorial explosive problems are near-optimal solutions. Due to the complexity of the scheduling problem, artificial intelligence (AI) can aid in solving these types of problems. Some of the factors are examined which make space application scheduling problems difficult and presents a fairly new AI-based technique called tabu search as applied to a real scheduling application. the specific problem is concerned with scheduling application. The specific problem is concerned with scheduling solar and stellar observations for the SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument in a constrained environment which produces minimum impact on the other instruments and maximizes target observation times. The SOLSTICE instrument will gly on-board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, and a similar instrument will fly on the earth observing system (Eos).

  10. Concurrent random-interval schedules and the matching law.

    PubMed

    Rodewald, H K

    1978-11-01

    In Experiment I, a group of eight pigeons performed on concurrent random-interval schedules constructed by holding probability equal and varying cycle time to produce ratios of reinforcer densities of 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 for key pecking. Schedules for a second group of seven were constructed with equal cycle times and unequal probabilities. Both groups deviated from simple matching, but the two forms of the schedules appeared to produce no consistent patterns of deviation. The data were found to be consistent with those obtained in concurrent variable-interval situations. The parameters of the matching equation in the form of Y=k X(a) were estimated; the value of k was unity and a was 0.84. In Experiment II, six pigeons were exposed to two conc RI RI schedules in which one component increasingly approximated an FI schedule. The value of k was not 1.0. Concurrent RI RI schedules were shown to represent a continuum from conc FI VI to conc VI VI schedules. The use of the exponential equation in testing "matching laws" suggests that a<1 will continue to be observed, and this will set limits on the form of new laws and the assumed or rational values of the component variables in these laws.

  11. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  12. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  13. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  14. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  15. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  16. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  17. Comparison of reinforcement schedules in the reduction of stereotypy with supported routines.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M D; Saunders, R R; Marquis, J G

    1998-01-01

    The rates and durations of stereotypic behaviors in four adolescents with severe mental retardation were measured during two daily vocational training sessions and during contiguous periods of leisure in their special education classrooms. Vocational training was conducted in two different tasks, alternating across days. The task requirements for each participant were matched to each participant's learning and performance characteristics. The participants were exposed to a fixed ratio schedule of tokens exchangeable for food items on one task and to a variable interval schedule for the same consequences on the second task. The schedules were chosen as an initial test of a matching-law based prediction by Myerson and Hale (1984): Variable interval reinforcement for adaptive behavior will produce less allocation of responding to maladaptive behavior than will a ratio-based intervention. When work performances stabilized, the schedules of token delivery were reversed across the tasks and performances again stabilized. Results are reported for periods when work performances met stability criteria. Stereotypy occurred more during leisure than during vocational training under either schedule. The major differences in stereotypy between leisure and vocational training were differences in episode length rather than rate of onset. Onset of stereotypy in vocational training, however, occurred at higher rates under the interval schedule than under the ratio schedule in both tasks. The results are discussed in terms of Myerson and Hale's prediction and implications for further research and application. PMID:9547523

  18. Comparison of reinforcement schedules in the reduction of stereotypy with supported routines.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M D; Saunders, R R; Marquis, J G

    1998-01-01

    The rates and durations of stereotypic behaviors in four adolescents with severe mental retardation were measured during two daily vocational training sessions and during contiguous periods of leisure in their special education classrooms. Vocational training was conducted in two different tasks, alternating across days. The task requirements for each participant were matched to each participant's learning and performance characteristics. The participants were exposed to a fixed ratio schedule of tokens exchangeable for food items on one task and to a variable interval schedule for the same consequences on the second task. The schedules were chosen as an initial test of a matching-law based prediction by Myerson and Hale (1984): Variable interval reinforcement for adaptive behavior will produce less allocation of responding to maladaptive behavior than will a ratio-based intervention. When work performances stabilized, the schedules of token delivery were reversed across the tasks and performances again stabilized. Results are reported for periods when work performances met stability criteria. Stereotypy occurred more during leisure than during vocational training under either schedule. The major differences in stereotypy between leisure and vocational training were differences in episode length rather than rate of onset. Onset of stereotypy in vocational training, however, occurred at higher rates under the interval schedule than under the ratio schedule in both tasks. The results are discussed in terms of Myerson and Hale's prediction and implications for further research and application.

  19. One-to-One Assistant Engagement in Autism Support Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Downey, Margaret Mary; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom assistants and one-to-one assistants are an important part of the staffing structure of many autism support classrooms. Limited studies, however, have examined how one-to-one assistants spend their time in the classroom. The purpose of this article was to examine the percentage of time one-to-one assistants were engaged in instruction or support of students with autism and to determine the factors associated with their engagement. Direct observations were conducted in 46 autism support classrooms. Teachers and classroom assistants were engaged in instruction or support 98% and 91% of the time, respectively. One-to-one assistants were engaged in instruction or support 57% of the time. Classroom assistants’ and one-to-one assistants’ engagement was significantly correlated. The low rate of one-to-one assistants’ engagement suggests an inefficient use of an important resource. PMID:26807003

  20. Assessing Teaching Artists through Classroom Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Elda E.

    2005-01-01

    In schools across the United States, an increasingly familiar sight is that of professional artists coming together with students and teachers for the purpose of learning in and through the arts. Musicians, dancers, visual artists, actors, storytellers, and others are finding exciting new professional opportunities as more and more schools are…

  1. Development of a Classroom Authority Observation Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middendorf, Joan; McNary, Erin

    2011-01-01

    When student end-of-course ratings are not commensurate with instructor skill and effort, one possible reason may be that students question the instructor's authority. It is proposed here that such doubts about authority are reinforced by specific instructor behaviors. This pilot study attempts to identify these behaviors in the interest of…

  2. Remote Classroom Observations with Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Pamela D.; Bradley, Gary; Beck, Judy

    2014-01-01

    According to O'Brien, Aguinaga, Hines, and Hartsborne (2011), "Delivery of course content via various distance education technologies (e.g., interactive video, asynchronous and/or synchronous online delivery) is becoming an accepted and expected component of many teacher preparation programs" (p. 3). With the infusion of technology in…

  3. Evangelism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Elmer John

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently said that evangelism or proselytizing has no place in the classroom. The purpose of this essay is to counter this generalization and to explore the nature of legitimate religious influence in the classroom. In doing so I will offer some criteria to help us determine what is and what is not acceptable by way of religious persuasion…

  4. Telecommunications in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Chris; And Others

    This document is a resource guide for educators on using telecommunications in the classroom. The first chapter provides a brief history of telecommunications, describes what telecommunications is, and discusses its value in the classroom today. The second chapter discusses the parts of a telecommunications system and provides technical…

  5. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  6. Classrooms and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloome, David, Ed.

    This book is intended for researchers and teachers interested in literacy and concerned about classrooms as a context for literacy activity and learning. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "What It Means to be Literate about Classrooms" (Lyn Corno); (2) "Beyond Access: An Ethnographic Study of Reading and Writing in a Seventh Grade…

  7. The Permeable Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Leo R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the concept of permeability as knowledge flow into and out of the classroom and applies it to three college courses taught by the author at Plymouth State College (New Hampshire). Experiential knowledge comes into the classroom through interviews, guest speakers, and panel presentations, and flows out through service-learning students…

  8. Competition in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Erv

    1981-01-01

    Argues that teacher use of competition in the classroom may lead to anxiety, aggression, or a decrease in self-concept among students and that learning to compete is not so important in a postindustrial society. Advocates cooperative classroom activities. (SJL)

  9. Ideas for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some of the activities for the classroom invented by Gill Hatch. One of those activities is the activity for older students, which is for the five-year-olds through to post-graduates. Card-sorting game, geometry games, algebra games, and loop games are also some of those activities for the classroom invented by…

  10. For the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Gordon; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

  11. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  12. Artifacts, Tools, and Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Geraldine; Le, Huong; Higgins, Joanna; Podmore, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    Although schools contain many material artifacts, studies in classrooms have tended to focus on discourse and quality of social interaction even when artifacts are being used. Responding to Engstrom's (1999) invitation to take artifacts seriously, three studies are described in which a material object was essential to a classroom activity. The…

  13. Classroom versus Online Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Michael F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined students' effort and performance using online versus traditional classroom testing procedures. The instructor and instructional methodology were the same in different sections of an introductory finance class. Only the procedure in which students were tested--online versus in the classroom--differed. The authors measured…

  14. Culturally Responsive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

    The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

  15. Technology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Gisela E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue contains 20 articles dealing with technology in the classroom. The articles are: (1) "Distance Learning and the Future of Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate" (Henry E. Meyer); (2) "Technology and Multiple Intelligences" (Bette Savini); (3) "Technology Brings Voyagers into Classrooms" (Kristina Inn and others); (4) "Technologies Old…

  16. Frontloading Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Keith; Orr, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a systematic approach to planning for the first days of school that is appropriate for today's demanding high school science classrooms. These strategies apply to any science subject and benefit student teachers, new teachers, and those teachers wishing to improve their classroom management skills. (Contains 3…

  17. The Welcoming Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating a welcoming classroom environment, including: decorating the room by hanging students' names from the ceiling; making a classroom community puzzle involving each student; and developing a variety of welcoming bulletin boards. A reproducible sheet includes cut-out shapes to make an underwater-theme bulletin board that…

  18. Sociolinguistics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Bethany K.

    There are three areas of interest in the topic of sociolinguistics in the classroom. First, the study of sociolinguistics is the interest of the professional linguist; second, the application of sociolinguistic principles is or should be the concern of all professional people who care about what goes on in the classroom, especially the teacher;…

  19. Evaluation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Shirley

    Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

  20. Your Ideal Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    As teachers think about their career and the nature of their professional commitment, they should consider treating their classrooms as creative opportunities for mapping the learning process for both themselves and their students. This article provides suggestions for designing a classroom that will offer creative learning opportunities for…