Zandvliet, David B.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article reports a study of the learning environments in computer networked classrooms. The study is unique in that it involved an evaluation of both the physical and psychosocial classroom environments in these computerised settings through the use of a combination of questionnaires and ergonomic evaluations. The study involved administering…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.
This research investigated some determinants of classroom environment in Australian Catholic high schools. The Catholic School Classroom Environment Questionnaire (CSCEQ) was used to assess 7 dimensions of the classroom psychosocial environment: student affiliation, interactions, cooperation, task orientation, order and organization,…
This study involved whether psychosocial aspects of English classroom environments had associations with the English learning motivation types of Chinese tertiary-level English majors based on a case study of approximate 1,000 English majors in their first 2 years at one of the key universities located in South China. Canonical correlation…
Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill M.
The primary aim of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify salient psychosocial features of the classroom environment that influence students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning; and 2) to examine the effect of the motivational constructs of learning goal orientation, science task value and self-efficacy in science learning on…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.
This research investigated associations between classroom environment and student affective outcomes in Australian secondary schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.
Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…
Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill M.
The primary aim of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify salient psychosocial features of the classroom environment that influence students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning; and 2) to examine the effect of the motivational constructs of learning goal orientation, science task value and self-efficacy in science learning on students' self-regulation in science classrooms. Data collected from 1360 science students in grades 8, 9 and 10 in five public schools in Perth, Western Australia were utilized to validate the questionnaires and to investigate the hypothesized relationships. Structural Equation Modeling analysis suggested that student cohesiveness, investigation and task orientation were the most influential predictors of student motivation and self-regulation in science learning. In addition, learning goal orientation, task value and self-efficacy significantly influenced students' self-regulation in science. The findings offer potential opportunities for educators to plan and implement effective pedagogical strategies aimed at increasing students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning.
Recent classroom environment research has investigated the association between students' cognitive and affective learning outcomes and their perceptions of psychosocial characteristics of their classrooms. The findings of these studies suggest that student outcomes can be improved by creating environments that are conducive to learning. This study…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.; Fraser, Barry J.
Much Catholic school and church rhetoric suggests that Catholic schools possess distinctive learning environments. Research into this aspect of Catholic schooling has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate assessment instrument. By drawing on contemporary church literature, the perceptions of personnel involved in Catholic education and existing classroom environment questionnaires, a new instrument was developed to assess student perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment in Catholic schools. The use of this instrument in 64 classrooms in Catholic and Government schools indicated significant differences on some scales. The distinctive nature of Catholic schooling did not extend to all classroom environment dimensions deemed important to Catholic education.
Dunn, Dana S.
This article presents some psychosocial aspects of disability linked to the person--environment relation that teachers should share in the psychology classroom. Disability is an often-overlooked form of diversity, one that teachers should discuss alongside race, gender, sexual orientation, social class/socioeconomic status (SES), religiosity, and…
Rowbotham, Melodie A
Developing and implementing a positive psychosocial environment should be one of the main responsibilities of educators. As educators influence the climate, learning is enhanced or hindered. Therefore educators need to understand their own teaching perspectives and how they in turn influence the classroom. Data were collected from nurse educators and BSN nursing students. The relationship between faculty teaching perspectives and the students' perceptions of the learning environment was examined. The data collection tool used to measure the educators' perspective was the Instructional Perspective Inventory (IPI), and to measure the students' perspective was the Adult Classroom Environment Scale (ACES). A MANCOVA was used to determine the relationship and significant differences between educators' and students' perspectives. The results indicated that the teachers in the high group of teacher responsiveness had students who reported greater teacher support, time on task, focus, organization, clarity of subject content, involvement, and satisfaction.
Fraser, Barry J.; O'Brien, Peter
Focuses on student and teacher perceptions of psychosocial characteristics of the elementary school classroom environment. Profiles, comparing actual and preferred classroom environments, were assessed using the following five dimensions of the My Class Inventory (short form) (Fisher and Fraser): satisfaction, friction, competitiveness,…
Darkenwald, Gordon G.
The Adult Classroom Environment Scale measures seven dimensions of teacher behaviors or style: involvement, affiliation, teacher support, task orientation, personal goal attainment, organization and clarity, and student influence. Comparison of profiles of students' actual and ideal environments showed that students most wanted involvement,…
Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth
This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…
Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn
The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.
Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.
The classroom environment is uppermost in teachers' minds at the start of each school year. Designing an effective classroom environment for learning to read and reading is both an art and a science. Aligning physical space with instructional goals involves the flexible use of space that is adapted to instructional needs. A well-designed classroom…
Matijevic, Milan; Radovanovic, Diana
The authors consider the present and future of new media and the classroom environment of pupils in primary education. Some experts are inclined to see the future of the classroom teaching environment solely through the perspective of new media, primarily computers and the Internet. The authors agree that these media are essential for modern…
Siegrist, Johannes; Marmot, Michael
As social inequalities in health continue to be a key public health problem, scientific advances in explaining these inequalities are needed. It is unlikely that there will be a single explanation of social inequalities in health. This introductory paper sets out one explanatory framework, exposure to adverse psychosocial environments during midlife, and particularly at work. We argue that exposure to an adverse psychosocial environment, in terms of job tasks, defined by high demands and low control and/or by effort-reward imbalance, elicits sustained stress reactions with negative long-term consequences for health. These exposures may be implicated in the association of socioeconomic status with health in two ways. First, these exposures are likely to be experienced more frequently among lower socioeconomic groups. Second, the size of the effects on health produced by adverse working conditions may be higher in lower status groups, due to their increased vulnerability. In this special issue, these arguments are illustrated by a collection of original contributions from collaborative research across Europe. The papers, in our view, advance the case for the robust associations between measures of adverse psychosocial environment and ill health, as they are based on comparative studies across several European countries and as they combine different types of study designs. This collaboration was enabled and supported by a European Science Foundation scientific programme on 'Social Variations in Health Expectancy in Europe'.
Blomkvist, V; Eriksen, C; Theorell, T; Ulrich, R; Rasmanis, G
Aims: To examine the influence of different acoustic conditions on the work environment and the staff in a coronary critical care unit (CCU). Method: Psychosocial work environment data from start and end of each individual shift were obtained from three shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) for a one-week baseline period and for two four-week periods during which either sound reflecting or sound absorbing tiles were installed. Results: Reverberation times and speech intelligibility improved during the study period when the ceiling tiles were changed from sound reflecting tiles to sound absorbing ones of identical appearance. Improved acoustics positively affected the work environment; the afternoon shift staff experienced significantly lower work demands and reported less pressure and strain. Conclusions: Important gains in the psychosocial work environment of healthcare can be achieved by improving room acoustics. The study points to the importance of further research on possible effects of acoustics in healthcare on staff turnover, quality of patient care, and medical errors. PMID:15723873
Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Baghcheghi, Nayereh
Background: Team-based learning is a structured type of cooperative learning that is becoming increasingly more popular in nursing education. This study compares levels of nursing students' perception of the psychosocial climate of the classroom between conventional lecture group and team-based learning group. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design 38 nursing students of second year participated. One half of the 16 sessions of cardiovascular disease nursing course sessions was taught by lectures and the second half with team-based learning. The modified college and university classroom environment inventory (CUCEI) was used to measure the perception of classroom environment. This was completed after the final lecture and TBL sessions. Results: Results revealed a significant difference in the mean scores of psycho-social climate for the TBL method (Mean (SD): 179.8(8.27)) versus the mean score for the lecture method (Mean (SD): 154.213.44)). Also, the results showed significant differences between the two groups in the innovation (p<0.001), student cohesiveness (p=0.01), cooperation (p<0.001) and equity (p= 0.03) sub-scales scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that team-based learning does have a positive effect on nursing students' perceptions of their psycho-social climate of the classroom.
Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Baghcheghi, Nayereh
Background: Team-based learning is a structured type of cooperative learning that is becoming increasingly more popular in nursing education. This study compares levels of nursing students’ perception of the psychosocial climate of the classroom between conventional lecture group and team-based learning group. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design 38 nursing students of second year participated. One half of the 16 sessions of cardiovascular disease nursing course sessions was taught by lectures and the second half with team-based learning. The modified college and university classroom environment inventory (CUCEI) was used to measure the perception of classroom environment. This was completed after the final lecture and TBL sessions. Results: Results revealed a significant difference in the mean scores of psycho-social climate for the TBL method (Mean (SD): 179.8(8.27)) versus the mean score for the lecture method (Mean (SD): 154.213.44)). Also, the results showed significant differences between the two groups in the innovation (p<0.001), student cohesiveness (p=0.01), cooperation (p<0.001) and equity (p= 0.03) sub-scales scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that team-based learning does have a positive effect on nursing students’ perceptions of their psycho-social climate of the classroom. PMID:28210602
Bonifas, Robin P.
Little is known about how work environment characteristics influence social services professionals' ability to deliver effective psychosocial services in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and how such influence translates into resident-centered outcomes. This study combines data from a survey of facility social services directors in Washington State with State inspection outcomes from the Online Survey Certification Reporting database. Logistic regression is used to examine how facility structure and facility culture impact receipt of a survey inspection deficiency in medically-related social services. Results indicate that non-metropolitan location and larger caseload size are the strongest predictors of receiving such a deficiency. PMID:19361114
The aim of the study was to develop a short Swedish standardized, factor analyzed and cross-validated, family and school psychosocial environment questionnaire (FSPE). The study was based on 244 Swedish girls and boys, 10-19 years old, who filled in the FSPE. Maximum likelihood factor analysis, promax rotation, yielded six primary factors, based on absolute ratings. Since the factors were somewhat correlated, two broader secondary factors, with satisfactory reliabilities, were also included in the form, named Warmth, support and openness from parents, siblings and peers, and Family conflicts and school discipline, respectively. Means and standard deviations for girls and boys showed sex differences in most of the factors. Because the children participated anonymously they could report about spanking without negative consequences. Indeed, 8.1% of the children had been spanked by their parents. Based on relative ratings, two factors were identified, covering environmental questions about "more than, the same as or less than" a sibling. Only 6.6% of the children rated their environment exactly the same on the Family Psychosocial Environment (FPE) factors, compared to a sibling within the family. Thus the majority reported environmental differences. Further research is proposed to evaluate such differences and relations to personality, genotype-environment correlation and genetic mediation.
Thelin, A G
The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.
Harvey, Shane T.; Bimler, David; Evans, Ian M.; Kirkland, John; Pechtel, Pia
Harvey and Evans (2003) have proposed that teachers' emotional skills, as required in the classroom, can be organized into a five-dimensional model. Further research is necessary to validate this model and evaluate the importance of each dimension of teacher emotion competence for educational practice. Using a statistical method for mapping…
Khine, Myint Swe; Fisher, Darrell L.
The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal behaviour in psychosocial learning environments and to determine the associations between science students' perceptions of their interactions with their teachers, the cultural background of teachers and their attitudinal outcomes. A sample of 1188 students completed the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction instrument. The responses to two subscales of Test of Science-related Attitudes were used as attitudinal measures. Significant associations between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour and the cultural background of teachers were detected. The results showed that students perceived a more favourable interpersonal relationship with Western teachers in the secondary science classrooms. The students in the classes of Western teachers indicated that they enjoyed science lessons more than those in the classes of Asian teachers. Some implications for science instruction in this context are discussed.
Docker, John G.; And Others
Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)
Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.
Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling
This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…
Hall, Judith J.; Sink, Christopher A.
In an attempt to reveal the various types of learning environments present in 30 mathematics classrooms in five Catholic high schools, this replication study examined student (N = 602) perceptions of their classrooms using the Classroom Environment Scale. Student attitudes toward mathematics were assessed by the Estes Attitude Scale. Extending…
Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne
Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, p<0.001, Normed χ(2)=1.537, RMSEA= 0.041, CFI=0.98). Psychosocial work environment influenced both perceived stress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.
Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas
This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…
Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.
Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366
Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...
Pulvers, Kim; Diekhoff, George M.
A study of 280 undergraduates in two liberal arts colleges examined the relationship between college classroom environment, academic cheating, and the neutralization (justification) of cheating. Results suggest classroom environment is a significant situational variable in academic dishonesty, with both attitudes and behavior being related to…
Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia
This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…
Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Kelleher, Jaqueline
The Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA) is a tool that provides a means of understanding the impact of a classroom's sensory environment on student behavior. The purpose of the CSEA is to promote collaboration between occupational therapists and elementary education teachers. In particular, students with autism spectrum disorder included in general education classrooms may benefit from a suitable match created through this collaborative process between the sensory environment and their unique sensory preferences. The development of the CSEA has occurred in multiple stages over 2 yr. This article reports on descriptive results for 152 classrooms and initial reliability results. Descriptive information suggests that classrooms are environments with an enormous variety of sensory experiences that can be quantified. Visual experiences are most frequent. The tool has adequate internal consistency but requires further investigation of interrater reliability and validity.
Smith, Prapanna Randall
This article reports the quantitative phase of a mixed-methods study that was conducted to investigate the relationships between psychosocial learning environments and student satisfaction with their education as mediated by Agentic Personal Meaning. The interdisciplinary approach of the study integrated the fields of learning environment…
Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha
The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…
Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina
Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
This article describes a study of links between school environment and science classroom environment. Instruments to assess seven dimensions of school environment (viz., Empowerment, Student Support, Affiliation, Professional Interest, Mission Consensus, Resource Adequacy and Work Pressure) and seven dimensions of classroom environment (viz., Student Affiliation, Interactions, Cooperation, Task Orientation, Order & Organisation, Individualisati n and Teacher Control) in secondary school science classrooms were developed and validated. The study involved a sample of 1,318 students in 64 year 9 and year 12 science classes and 128 teachers of science in Australian secondary schools. Using the class mean as the unit of analysis for student data, associations between school and classroom environment were investigated using simple, multiple and canonical correlational analyses. In general, results indicated weak relationships between school and classroom environments and they reinforced the view that characteristics of the school environment are not transmitted automatically into science classrooms.
Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty
In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…
A classroom assessment environment is a classroom context experienced by students as the teacher determines assessment purposes, develops assessment tasks, defines assessment criteria and standards, provides feedback, and monitors outcomes (Brookhart, 1997). It is usually a group experience varying from class to class dependent upon the teacher's…
Zandvliet, David B.; Fraser, Barry J.
The study of learning environments provides a useful research framework for investigating the effects of educational innovations such as those which are associated with the use of the Internet in classroom settings. This study reports an investigation into the use of Internet technologies in high-school classrooms in Australia and Canada.…
Harmon, Darell Boyd
The classroom environment is a working surround in which children, through participating in organized experiences, can grow and develop in an optimum manner. Classroom design requires organization of principles of environmental control in order to assure efficient and successful performance. This control cannot be left to chance. In considering…
Fleith, Denise de Souza
Analysis of interviews with seven teachers and 31 students (grades 3 and 4) suggested that both teachers and students believe that a classroom environment which enhances creativity provides students with choices, accepts different ideas, boosts self-confidence, and focuses on students' strengths and interests. In classrooms that inhibit…
Welch, Anita G.; Cakir, Mustafa; Peterson, Claudette M.; Ray, Christopher M.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of gender between actual and preferred classroom environment and use of technology in the science classroom of Turkish students. Employing stratified random sampling procedures, data were collected from 985 students from schools across twelve different districts in Istanbul, Turkey. The…
Javorček, Miroslav; Sternová, Zuzana
The article contains the analysis of experimental ventilation measurement in selected classrooms of the Elementary School Štrba. Mathematical model of selected classroom was prepared according to in-situ measurements and air exchange was calculated. Interior air temperature and quality influences the students ´ comfort. Evaluated data were compared to requirements of standard (STN EN 15251,2008) applicable to classroom indoor environment during lectures, highlighting the difference between required ambiance quality and actually measured values. CO2 concentration refers to one of the parameters indicating indoor environment quality.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.
The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.
Background Many questionnaires have been developed to measure how psychosocial characteristics are perceived in a work environment. But the content validity of these questionnaires has rarely been questioned due to the absence of a reference taxonomy for characteristics of work environments. Objectives To propose an exhaustive taxonomy of work environment characteristics involved in psychosocial risks and to apply this taxonomy to questionnaires on workplace psychosocial factors. Methods The taxonomy was developed by categorizing factors present in the main theoretical models of the field. Questionnaire items most frequently cited in scientific literature were retained for classification. Results The taxonomy was structured into four hierarchical levels and comprises 53 categories. The 17 questionnaires analyzed included 927 items: 59 from the “physical environment” category, 116 from the “social environment” category, 236 from the “work activity” category, 255 from the “activity management” category, and 174 from the “organizational context” category. Conclusions There are major content differences among analyzed questionnaires. This study offers a means for selecting a scale on the basis of content. PMID:27367232
North, F M; Syme, S L; Feeney, A; Shipley, M; Marmot, M
OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine the association between the psychosocial work environment and subsequent rates of sickness absence. METHODS. The analyses were based on a cohort of male and female British civil servants (n=9072). Rates of short spells (
Glonti, K; Mackenbach, J D; Ng, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; McKee, M; Rutter, H
Socio-ecological models suggest that many elements of the social environment act as upstream determinants of obesity. This systematic review examined definitions, measures and strength of associations between the psychosocial environment and adult weight status. Studies were included if they were conducted on adults, the outcome was weight status, carried out in any developed country and investigated at least one psychosocial environmental construct. Six databases for primary studies were searched: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We restricted our search to studies published in English between January 1995 and February 2015. An adapted 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' was used to evaluate risk of bias of included studies. Out of 14,784 screened records, 42 articles were assessed using full text. A total of 19 studies were included. The strongest associations with weight status were found for social capital and collective efficacy, although few studies found significant associations. There was heterogeneity in the definitions and metrics of psychosocial environmental constructs. There is limited evidence that greater social capital and collective efficacy are associated with healthier weight status. The research conducted to date has not robustly identified relations. We highlight challenges to undertaking research and establishing causality in this field and provide recommendations for further research.
Fraser, Barry J.; Lee, Sunny S. U.
In order to investigate the learning environment of senior high school science laboratory classrooms in Korea, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was translated into Korean and administered to 439 students (99 science-independent stream students, 195 science-oriented stream students and 145 humanities stream students). Data…
The classroom environment can be an acoustically difficult atmosphere for students to learn effectively, sometimes due in part to poor acoustical properties. Noise and reverberation have a substantial influence on room acoustics and subsequently intelligibility of speech. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA, 1995) developed minimal standards for noise and reverberation in a classroom for the purpose of providing an adequate listening environment. A lack of adherence to these standards may have undesirable consequences, which may lead to poor academic performance. The purpose of this capstone project is to develop a protocol to measure the acoustical properties of reverberation time and noise levels in elementary classrooms and present the educators with strategies to improve the learning environment. Noise level and reverberation will be measured and recorded in seven, unoccupied third grade classrooms in Lincoln Parish in North Louisiana. The recordings will occur at six specific distances in the classroom to simulate teacher and student positions. The recordings will be compared to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards for noise and reverberation. If discrepancies are observed, the primary investigator will serve as an auditory consultant for the school and educators to recommend remediation and intervention strategies to improve these acoustical properties. The hypothesis of the study is that the classroom acoustical properties of noise and reverberation will exceed the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards; therefore, the auditory consultant will provide strategies to improve those acoustical properties.
Loucks, Eric B; Taylor, Shelley E; Polak, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Aude; Kalra, Preety; Matthews, Karen A
Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment (characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect and/or low nurturance) affects coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment with carotid intima media thickness (IMT), a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. The study population included 2659 CARDIA study participants, aged 37-52 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Carotid IMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of mean common carotid, bulb and internal carotid IMT, assessed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images. Utilizing linear regression analyses adjusted for age, a 1-unit (range 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 0.0036 (95% CI: 0.0006,0.0066 mm) and 0.0020 (95% CI: 0.0002,0.0038) mm increase in mean IMT in white males and females, respectively. Formal mediation analyses and covariate adjustments suggested childhood socioeconomic position and smoking may be important mechanisms in white males and females, as well as education and depressive symptomatology in white males. No associations were found in black participants. Formal statistical tests for interaction between risky family score and sex, and between risky family score and race/ethnicity, demonstrated borderline evidence of interactions for both sex (p = 0.12) and race/ethnicity (p = 0.14) with risky family score for associations with mean IMT. In conclusion, childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with IMT in white participants, with little evidence of association in black participants. Mechanisms in white participants may include potential negative impacts of socioeconomic constraints on parenting quality, potentially influencing offspring's cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), socioeconomic position (e
Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.
Research employing the Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was conducted in Australian secondary schools. A sample of 4,146 students from 286 classes responded to the TROFLEI which assesses 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, task orientation, investigation,…
van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Salmivalli, Christina; Veenstra, René
The association between experienced victimization and students' psychological and social adjustment depends on the intensity of victimization. We examined how frequency and multiplicity of victimization, and the number of bullies involved, account for differences in students’ psychosocial well-being and social standing in the classroom. Multilevel analyses were conducted on the control group of an intervention study among students in grades 3–6 of Dutch elementary schools (N = 2859 students from 124 classes and 33 schools; ages 8–12; 49.6% boys). It was found that victims of frequent and multiple victimization, and victims who were victimized by several bullies, had higher levels of psychosocial adjustment problems than victims of less frequent and non-multiple victimization, and victims with only one bully. Moreover, these more severe victims turned out to be least accepted and most rejected among their classmates. The findings illustrate that it can be fruitful to use several measures of victimization so that (differences in) adjustment problems can be better understood. Moreover, the results suggest that it is important to find out who is victimized, in what ways, and by whom. Anti-bullying interventions should provide resources to do this. PMID:26513576
The classroom environment is an important aspect of classroom management that concerns many teachers. Properly engaging students in the classroom can foster a positive environment. This study examines social and emotional needs of students and its implications in developing a positive classroom. How can meeting social and emotional needs of…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Elovainio, Marko; Pietikäinen, Minna; Luopa, Pauliina; Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Jokela, Jukka; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
It has been shown that the psychosocial environment perceived by school staff is associated with children's academic performance and wellbeing. In this study we examined the associations between organizational justice (procedural and relational justice) as reported by school staff and pupils' perceptions of their school environment, health problems, academic performance, and absenteeism. We combined data from two surveys: for the staff (the Finnish Public Sector Study, n = 1946) and pupils (the Finnish school health promotion survey, n = 11,781 boys and 12,842 girls) of 136 secondary schools, collected during 2004-2005. Multilevel cumulative logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for potential individual and school-level confounding factors, low procedural justice was associated with pupils' dissatisfaction with school-going. Low relational justice was associated with a 1.30 times higher risk of poor academic performance, 1.15 times higher risk of psychosomatic symptoms and 1.13 times higher risk of depressive symptoms among pupils. Both organizational justice components were associated with truancy. We concluded that staff perceptions of organizational justice at school are associated with pupils' reports of their psychosocial school environment, health, performance, and absenteeism due to truancy. Improving managerial and decision making procedures among school personnel may be an important factor for protecting pupils' academic performance and wellbeing.
Adamski, Aurora; Fraser, Barry J.; Peiro, Maria M.
We investigated relationships between students' perceptions of parental involvement in schooling, their Spanish classroom environment and student outcomes (attitudes and achievement). Modified Spanish versions of the What Is Happening In this Class?, Test of Spanish-Related Attitudes-L[subscript 1], a parental involvement questionnaire and a…
Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen
This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…
Larkin, Shirley; Freathy, Rob; Walshe, Karen; Doney, Jonathan
Recent reports on Religious Education (RE) in England and Wales highlight the need for guidance on pedagogy and learning. The RE-flect project addressed this by promoting the creation of metacognitively oriented learning environments in primary school RE classrooms. Six primary school teachers and 160 pupils (eight to 10 years of age) took part in…
This study, carried out at a major technological university in China and based on a convenience sample of 116 students, is designed to identify which aspects of their classroom environments had the greatest effect on the students. Students completed a 26-item questionnaire which elicited general as well as specific views on the EFL classroom…
Discusses an approach to teaching about the environment in the Spanish classroom. The approach incorporates oral proficiency goals and is based on authentic materials that are accompanied by worksheets that include prereading exercises, small-group discussion activities and structured conversation and composition suggestions. (VWL)
This paper aims to explain effects of acoustical environments in sound perception of hearing impaired people. Important aspects of sound and hearing impairment are explained. Detrimental factors in acoustic conditions for speech perception are mentioned. Necessary acoustic treatment in classrooms and use of FM systems to eliminate these factors…
Gupta, Adit; Fisher, Darrell
The adoption of technology has created a major impact in the field of education at all levels. Technology-supported classroom learning environments, involving modern information and communication technologies, are also entering the Indian educational system in general and the schools in Jammu region (Jammu & Kashmir State, India) in…
The Internet may be the ultimate immersive and participatory medium, opening doors as it does to countless story worlds. As such, it has much to offer reading instruction in both elementary and secondary classrooms. This paper explores how a teacher used one web application--a text-based virtual environment called a MOO--to encourage his high…
Schweig, Jonathan David
Developing indicators that reflect important aspects of school and classroom environments has become central in a nationwide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and effectiveness. Formulating teacher evaluation policy necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This…
Spruell, James; Hawkins, Al; Vicknair, David
The study explores the development and management of a rich learning environment that extends the traditional classroom to include significant co-curricular programs. Learning enrichment is guided by the individual mission of the business school, accreditation agency (AACSB), and in our case, the Jesuit mission. That central framework provides a…
Grannis, Joseph C.
This report is organized into seven chapters. Chapter One, an Introduction by Joseph C. Grannis, includes the most relevant sections of the proposal made by the Columbia Classroom Environments Project (CCEP) to Project Follow Through in August 1970. Chapter Two is an Analysis of the Child Behavior Stream Observations from the Spring 1971 Study of…
Hanna, Tuvesson; Mona, Eklund
The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics--Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience--are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff's perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.
Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne
This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…
Piechowski, Alta Begay
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a gender difference in how students perceived their classroom environment on the Navajo Nation public school. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be…
Che Ahmad, Che Nidzam; Osman, Kamisah; Halim, Lilia
This paper is a report of a survey conducted to determine teachers' perception of the science laboratory learning environment and the relationship between different aspects of this environment and satisfaction from teaching and learning. Teachers' perceptions of psychosocial aspects were measured by use of the Science Laboratory Environment…
Gowrie, George; Ramdass, Mala
The study explored some of the important psycho-social factors in the primary school environment that impact on students' learning as perceived by teachers. It also attempted to identify, describe and develop conceptual categories as separate dimensions of the social and emotional environment. The sample consisted of 187 teachers and 53 schools…
Considine, David M.
Suggests that the notion that the young can be protected by denying them access to materials has been invalidated by the expansion of the electronic environment and changes in community standards. Argues that since students today cannot avoid exposure to questionable material, it is important to see that the exposure they receive is educated and…
In nursing education, the inclusion of pedagogical tools is necessary to transform Millennial classrooms. One such pedagogical tool currently offered is classroom response systems (CRS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRS as a pedagogical tool in improving nursing students' examination performance within an active learning environment. A pretest-posttest design was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the use of CRS (independent variable) and nursing students' examination performance in a first-year Professional Practice course (dependent variable). Paired t tests revealed no greater improvement in posttest scores. Therefore, the use of CRS technology was not effective in increasing nursing students' examination scores in the Professional Practice course. Additional research is needed to provide adequate understanding of the effectiveness of CRS within the nursing education classroom.
Emery, CF; Olson, KL; Lee, VS; Habash, DL; Nasar, JL; Bodine, A
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Prior research indicates that features of the home environment (for example, televisions, exercise equipment) may be associated with obesity, but no prior study has examined objective features of the home food environment (for example, location of food) in combination with behavioral (for example, food purchasing), psychological (for example, self-efficacy) and social factors among obese adults. This study identified factors associated with obesity status from measures of home environment, food purchasing behavior, eating behavior and psychosocial functioning. SUBJECTS/METHODS One hundred community-residing obese (mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.8, s.e. = 0.60) and nonobese (mean BMI = 23.7, s.e. = 0.57) adults (mean age = 42.7, s.e. = 1.50; range = 20–78 years) completed an observational study with 2-h home interview/assessment and 2-week follow-up evaluation of food purchases and physical activity. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and logistic regression, controlling for sex. RESULTS Univariate analyses revealed that homes of obese individuals had less healthy food available than homes of nonobese (F(1,97) = 6.49, P = 0.012), with food distributed across a greater number of highly visible locations (F(1,96) = 6.20, P = 0.01). Although there was no group difference in household income or size, obese individuals reported greater food insecurity (F(1,97) = 9.70, P < 0.001), more reliance on fast food (F(1,97) = 7.63, P = 0.01) and more long-term food storage capacity in number of refrigerators (F(1,97) = 3.79, P = 0.05) and freezers (F(1,97) = 5.11, P = 0.03). Obese individuals also reported greater depressive symptoms (F(1,97) = 10.41, P = 0.002) and lower ability to control eating in various situations (F(1,97) = 20.62, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity status was associated with lower self-esteem (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, P = 0.011), less healthy food consumption (OR 0.94, P = 0.048) and more food
Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Izumi, Betty T.; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A.; Lockett, Murlisa
Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of 9 items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. PMID:23415977
Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa
Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation.
Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle
Background Recovery-oriented language has been widely adopted in mental health policy; however, little is known about how recovery practices are implemented within individual services, such as psychosocial clubhouses. Aims To explore how recovery practices are implemented in a psychosocial clubhouse. Method Qualitative case study design informed by self-determination theory was utilised. This included 120 h of participant observation, interviews with 12 clubhouse members and 6 staff members. Field notes and interview transcripts were subject to theoretical thematic analysis. Results Two overarching themes were identified, each comprising three sub-themes. In this paper, the overarching theme of ‘social environment’ is discussed. It was characterised by the sub-themes, ‘community and consistency’, ‘participation and opportunity’ and ‘respect and autonomy’. Conclusions Social environment was used to facilitate recovery-oriented practice within the clubhouse. Whether recovery is experienced by clubhouse members in wider society, may well depend on supports and opportunities outside the clubhouse. Declaration of interests None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703771
Lian, Chua Siew; Wong, Angela F. L.; Der-Thanq, Victor Chen
The Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI) is a bilingual instrument developed for use in measuring students' and teachers' perceptions toward their Chinese Language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The English version of the CLCEI was customised from the English version of the "What is…
Phan, Huy P.
Introduction: Research pertaining to achievement goals and reflective thinking practice has received considerable attention in educational psychology. However, very few, if any, studies have looked at the impact of the classroom climate and how this psychosocial milieu may influence students' engagement in achievement goals and reflective thinking…
Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya
The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.
School connectedness and classroom environment have both been strongly linked to depressive symptoms, but their interrelation is unclear. We tested whether school connectedness mediated the link between classroom environment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 504 Australian seventh-and eighth-grade students completed the Classroom Environment…
Beer, Carole T.
Examined patterns in the way returning women students perceive classroom environment. Data from 284 female and 155 male returning adult students revealed that gender differences do exist in the perceptions of adult students concerning the college classroom environment. Males appeared less concerned with relational aspects of classroom setting than…
Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115
Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.
Olaru, Claudia; Trandafir, Laura; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Olaru, Radian A.; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Ciubotariu, Gabriela; Burlea, Marin; Iorga, Magdalena
Functional constipation is an issue for both the patient and his/her family, affecting the patient's psychoemotional balance, social relations, and their harmonious integration in the school environment. We aimed to highlight the connection between chronic constipation and encopresis and the patient's psychosocial and family-related situation. Material and Method. 57 patients with ages spanning from 6 to 15 were assessed within the pediatric gastroenterology ward. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychological data was recorded. The collected data was processed using the SPSS 20 software. Results. The study group consisted of 57 children diagnosed with encopresis (43 boys (75.44%) and 14 girls (24.56%)), M = 10.82 years. It was determined that most of the children came from urban families with a poor socioeducational status. We identified a level of studies of 11.23 ± 5.56 years in mothers, while fathers had an average number of 9.35 ± 4.53 years of study. We also found a complex relationship between encopretic episodes and school performances (F = 7.968, p = 0.001, 95% Cl). Children with encopresis were found to have more anxiety/depression symptoms, greater social problems, more disruptive behavior, and poorer school performance. Conclusions. The study highlights the importance of the family environment and socioeconomic factors in manifestations of chronic constipation and encopresis. PMID:27990158
In Sweden, the health care sector was subject to considerable changes during the 1990s: decreased costs, related staff redundancies and high rates of sick leave. The situation has now changed, and the sector is not facing the same all-embracing and turbulent changes. In addition, there is a shortage of nurses and physicians and a difficulty in retaining qualified staff. Regarding the psychosocial work environment, there is a lack of studies where both physicians and nurses are in focus. It is from a managerial perspective important to take a holistic approach towards questions regarding the work environment in general and the psychosocial work environment in particular. The aims of this study were to analyse similarities and differences in Registered Nurses and physicians' experience of quantitative and qualitative demands, control, role conflicts, role clarity, social support and job satisfaction in 2002 and 2009 and to analyse the stability in the prediction of job satisfaction over time. Questionnaires regarding psychosocial work environment aspects were distributed in 2002 and 2009, and a total of 860 nurses and 866 physicians answered the questionnaire. Independent t tests and linear stepwise regression analyses were conducted. The results indicate that the work environment has improved between 2002 and 2009 and that nurses experience their psychosocial working environment as more satisfactory than physicians. Social support, control, role conflicts, role clarity and qualitative demands were the best predictors of job satisfaction in 2002 and 2009. Quantitative demands did not contribute to predicting job satisfaction. Variables predicting job satisfaction are quite stable over time and are quite comparable for both nurses and physicians.
Sorkin, Donna L
Audiologists and acoustical engineers have urged that acoustics be considered in the design of classrooms for more than 30 years. Research has demonstrated that children with hearing loss have great difficulty understanding speech in noisy, reverberant environments. However, there has never been a legal mechanism to require local educational systems to address acoustics in the design and construction of schools. An effort by a broad-based coalition of engineers, audiologists, parents, architects, and educators is now underway to develop a standard for acoustics that would then be referenced in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Although the legal mechanism for this action is to address the needs of children with disabilities as the ADA requires (most notably, children with hearing impairments, but also those with central auditory disorders, attention deficit disorders, and vision impairments), the impact will be more far-reaching. All children-whether or not they have a disability-will benefit from a favorable acoustical environment.
Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.
Anthropological methods of classroom observation were combined with the results of student responses to three questionnaires in a study of classroom learning environments. The questionnaires were: Learning Environment Inventory, Class Activities Questionnaire, and ALP (Authenticity, Legitimacy, Productivity) Ethos Instrument. Although the…
Bartelheim, Frederick J.; Conn, Daniel R.
The classroom environment can impact students' motivation and engagement, and can influence students' academic learning. In some cases, pre-service teachers' influence on the classroom environment may not always be conducive for student learning. This exploratory study investigated pre-service teachers' perceptions of an ideal classroom…
Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern
Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…
Campbell, Matthew; Saltmarsh, Sue; Chapman, Amy; Drew, Christopher
In response to the demands of the "21st century learner", classroom environments are increasingly moving away from traditional models of a single-teacher isolated in their classroom. There is an advent of 'non-traditional' environments that challenge long-held practices in teaching. To support these changes there is a pressing need to…
Hébert, Thomas P.; Corcoran, Jamie A.; Coté, John M.; Ene, Mihaela C.; Leighton, Elizabeth A.; Holmes, Ashley M.; Padula, Diane D.
Gifted teenagers in middle and high school benefit from classroom environments that support their social and emotional development. Teachers of gifted adolescents may create classroom environments in which young people know it is safe to be smart and where they feel valued and respected for their intellect, creativity, and passions. By utilizing…
Beer, Carole T.; Darkenwald, Gordon G.
Adult male and female students' perceptions of classroom social environments were compared on the dimensions of affiliation and involvement as measured by the Adult Classroom Environment Scale. Data from 439 students in an urban community college were tested using the general linear model procedure. Women perceived more affiliation and a greater…
Spinner, Howard; Fraser, Barry J.
Dull classroom environments, poor students' attitudes and inhibited conceptual development led to the creation of an innovative mathematics program, the Class Banking System (CBS), which enables teachers to use constructivist ideas and approaches. To assess the effectiveness of the CBS, the Individualised Classroom Environment Questionnaire…
Huffman, Heather B.; Jernstedt, G. Christian; Reed, Virginia A.; Reber, Emily S.; Burns, Mathew B.; Oostenink, Richard J.; Williams, Margot T.
Suggests two guiding principles as a framework to interpret the research findings of environmental psychology that focus on effective classroom design: effective design promotes attention in the classroom and allows for periodic shifts of learner activities. Examines these principles as they apply to the design of a computer classroom, reviewing…
Fraser, Barry J.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Adolphe, F. S. Gerard
This article reports a cross-national study of classroom environments in Australia and Indonesia. A modified version of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was used simultaneously in these two countries to: 1) crossvalidate the modified WIHIC; 2) investigate differences between countries and sexes in perceptions of classroom environment; and 3) investigate associations between students’ attitudes to science and their perceptions of classroom environment. The sample consisted of 1,161 students (594 students from 18 classes in Indonesia and 567 students from 18 classes in Australia). Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation supported the validity of a revised structure for the WIHIC. Two-way MANOVA revealed some differences between countries and between sexes in students’ perceptions of their classroom environments. Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed generally positive associations between the classroom environment and student attitudes to science in both countries.
Tynes, Brendesha M.
Many Internet safety and parenting experts suggest that parents prohibit their teens from social networking sites and other online spaces where predators may lurk. But we may do adolescents a disservice when we curtail their participation in these spaces, because the educational and psychosocial benefits of this type of communication can far…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.
The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…
Bookout, James Marshall, Jr.
Research suggests that students who are satisfied with their learning experiences are typically successful and there is a fundamental theory that suggests if the expectations of students are achieved they will be return customers. This study examined the relationships between the psychosocial satisfaction scales in an online student learning…
Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter
Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 (th)birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.
Bradley, Gunilla; And Others
Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…
Masyn, Katherine E.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.
Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions
Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan
The lack of achievement of students from high-risk and high-poverty environments necessitates changes in today's middle school environments to create a caring, supportive environment where all middle school students can succeed. This study investigated the classroom learning environments of resilient, average, and nonresilient minority students in…
Background Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period. Method Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24–60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender. Results Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99). Conclusions The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for
Scigliano, John A.; And Others
This paper describes an electronic classroom (ECR) program that has been developed at Nova University to facilitate online real-time group instruction in graduate degree programs in information and computer science. The first section describes the educational uses of the program, including the simulation of a classroom-type educational setting…
Croissant, Hillary P.
This study aimed to find the characteristics of public school math classrooms and how they influence self-efficacy of students. Data were collected on math students in grades 4 through 12 in a North Texas school district. Two surveys were administered to students in the district. Within 10 days, the students completed a classroom environment…
Laskin, Alexander V.; Avena, Joseph
Among all the technological changes in the society, smartphones have become one of the most adopted innovations. Yet, in the classroom a common response to phones in students' hands is to ban them! This study uses Social Construction of Technology theory to investigate whether mobile media can have a place in the classroom. Using in-depth…
Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali
The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in the process of a constructivist-learning environment in Classroom Management Course. Teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained before and after a social constructivist curriculum implementation. Prior to the…
Hughes, Joan E.; McLeod, Scott; Brown, Rachel; Maeda, Yukiko; Choi, Jiyoung
This study examined Algebra students' achievement and perceptions of their classroom environments in both online and traditional face-to-face learning contexts using two validated assessments, the Assessment of Algebraic Understanding (AAU) test and the What is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) classroom perceptions instrument. Three virtual and…
Doll, Beth; Spies, Robert A.; LeClair, Courtney M.; Kurien, Sarah A.; Foley, Brett P.
The purpose of this study was to describe the means, variability, internal consistency reliability, and structural validity evidence of the ClassMaps Survey, a measure of student perceptions of classroom learning environments. The ClassMaps Survey is a 55-item student rating scale of eight important classroom characteristics. The survey provides a…
Massie, Robyn; Theodoros, Deborah; McPherson, Bradley; Smaldino, Joseph
Sound-field amplification is an educational tool that allows control of the acoustic environment in a classroom. Teachers wear small microphones that transmit sound to a receiver system attached to loudspeakers around the classroom. The goal of sound-field amplification is to amplify the teacher's voice by a few decibels, and to provide uniform…
Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.
This study examined whether sixth- and eighth-grade students' motivation, anxiety, and classroom learning environment in mathematics differed significantly according to the degree of implementation of technology in the mathematics classroom. Self-concept, involvement, affiliation, satisfaction, and parent participation are discussed in relation to…
Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.
Our study compared the learning and motivational outcome of one educational approach in two different learning environments, a natural science museum and a classroom, drawing on studies about the effects of field trips on students' learning and motivation. The educational intervention consisted of an introduction phase in the classroom and…
Nelson, Peter M.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Christ, Theodore J.
The impact and feasibility of using student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment as an instructional feedback tool were explored. Thirty-one teachers serving 797 middle school students collected data twice across 3 weeks using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT). Researchers randomly assigned half of…
This report is about one of two phases in an investigation into associations between student engagement in classroom learning and the classroom learning environment. Both phases applied the same instrumentation to the same sample. The difference between the phases was in the measurement approach applied. This report is about application of the…
Boling, Erica C.; Beatty, Jeanine
This qualitative case study of 1 teacher and 10 students in an Advanced Placement English class explores the role of computer-mediated feedback in the creation of a classroom learning environment that was supported through hybrid learning experiences. Data sources included classroom observations, online conversations, interviews with 10 high…
Finnan, Christine; Schnepel, Katherine C.; Anderson, Lorin W.
Evaluated classrooms within four Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) schools, operationalizing the ASP principles, values, and concepts of a "powerful learning environment" (PLE), examining how similarly PLE was implemented in different classrooms and schools, and analyzing the relation between degree of implementation and differences in…
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Thinschmidt, Marleen; Deckert, Stefanie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Seidler, Andreas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The high incidence of cognitive impairment in the ageing population, together with the challenges it imposes to health systems, raises the question of what affect working life has on cognitive abilities. The study, therefore, reviews recent work on the longitudinal impact of psychosocial work conditions on cognitive functioning and on dementia. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycINFO using a standardised search string and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We included articles reporting longitudinal effects that were investigated in cohort studies, case-control studies or randomised controlled trials in the working population. Two independent reviewers evaluated the studies in three subsequent phases: (i) title-abstract screening, (ii) full-text screening and (iii) checklist-based quality assessment.Methodical evaluation of the identified articles resulted in 17 studies of adequate quality. We found evidence for a protective effect of high job control and high work complexity with people and data on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, cognitively demanding work conditions seem to be associated with a decreased risk of cognitive deterioration in old age.Psychosocial work conditions can have an impact on cognitive functioning and even on the risk of dementia. As the world of work is undergoing fundamental changes, such as accelerated technological advances and an ageing working population, optimising work conditions is essential in order to promote and maintain cognitive abilities into old age.
Seow, Anthony; Tay, Grace
This pronoun study examines the effect of two classroom learning environments on the acquisition of English personal and possessive pronouns by Primary Two students in Singapore on the premises that: 1. Students from the formal learning environment will perform better than those from the informal learning environment in the shorter term; 2.…
Girard, Beverly Lawler
This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…
Li, Jian; Shang, Li; Galatsch, Michael; Siegrist, Johannes; Miüller, Bernd Hans; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin
Many countries throughout the world are facing a serious nursing shortage, and retention of nurses also is a challenge. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive contribution of a broad spectrum of psychosocial work factors, including job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and alternative employment opportunity, to the probability of intention to leave the nursing profession. A total of 7,990 registered female nurses working in hospitals in eight countries (Germany, Italy, France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Slovakia, and China) were included in the one-year prospective study. A standardized questionnaire on job strain, effort-reward imbalance, employment opportunity, and intention to leave the nursing profession was used in the survey. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that an imbalance between high effort and low reward (in particular, poor promotion prospects) and good employment opportunity at baseline were independently associated with a new intention to leave the nursing profession at follow-up. However, job strain appeared to have relatively less explanatory power. Findings suggest that interventions to improve the psychosocial work environment, especially the reciprocity experienced between effort and reward, may be effective in improving retention of nurses and tackling the international nursing shortage.
Day, Stephanie L; Connor, Carol McDonald; McClelland, Megan M
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both of which require the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy.
Day, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; McClelland, Megan
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both which requires the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. PMID:26407837
Amick, B C; Celentano, D D
To extend current models of psychosocial work stress research into organizational structure, technology is introduced. An exploratory model is developed combining research from ergonomics, epidemiology, and organizational science. It is hypothesized that technology influences a worker's health by structuring the job, and the relationship between the job and a worker's health is mediated by attitudes at work. To test the model, data are used from a 1978 NIOSH survey of postal workers sorting mail (N = 4903). Path analysis shows technology is indirectly associated with job satisfaction and psychosomatic symptoms by how it structured the job. A machine-paced technological system of work is associated with greater job demands, less control in the job, and less co-worker support but not with supervisor support. The implications of this model for prevention strategies at the workplace are discussed suggesting that influencing supervisor support is the most effective way to affect a person's job satisfaction and level of psychosomatic symptomology.
Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut
This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M
A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.
MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Simonsen, Brandi; Briere, Donald E.
Establishing effective academic instruction, effective classroom management, and building relationships can all be accomplished with the application of observable and measurable practices. How an individual applies these practices will vary, yet common components of effective teaching are omnipresent. Across academic instruction, behavior…
Black, Laurel Johnson; Wygonik, Mindy L.; Frey, Barbara A.
The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and seriousness of disruptive student behaviors and the effective strategies used by educators to manage these classroom behaviors. At a mid-sized state university, 228 of 780 faculty members (29.2%) completed a 76-item survey. Results indicated that as faculty members' participation in…
Fien, John, Ed.
Forty classroom activities selected from New Internationalist Calendars published between 1984-1989 were collected. Each activity is presented in the form of a short story about a real-life person and a graphic spread of data consisting of maps, tables, photographs, diagrams, text, and student exercises. These activities have been written to…
Cerullo, Mary M.
Science trade books, both fiction and nonfiction, nurture a child's personal journey of discovery through the anecdotes, adventures, and experiences of others and through vivid word and picture images. This book focuses on the use of children's literature in the science classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Science and Literature Belong…
Sorkin, Donna L.
This article discusses the lack of an acoustic standard in classrooms and an effort by a broad-based coalition of engineers, audiologists, parents, architects, and educators to develop a standard for acoustics that would then be referenced in the Americans with Disabilities Act. The benefits to all children are emphasized. (Contains six…
Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.
Logan, Keri A.; Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.
Research over the last four decades has shown that the classroom learning environment impacts on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to measure students' perceptions of their learning environment, and this has led to the development of a large number of survey instruments. One such instrument is the…
Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Wu, Ying-Tien; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wong, Terrence William; Fu, Hsieh-Hai; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chung-Yen
This study aimed to develop an instrument, named the inquiry-based laboratory classroom environment instrument (ILEI), for assessing senior high-school science students' preferred and perceived laboratory environment. A total of 262 second-year students, from a senior-high school in Taiwan, were recruited for this study. Four stages were included…
Lightburn, Millard E.; Fraser, Barry J.
The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of anthropometric activities among a sample of 761 high-school biology students in terms of student outcomes (achievement and attitudes) and classroom environment (assessed with the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory, SLEI). Data analyses supported the SLEI's factorial validity,…
Dykstra, Jessica R.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura G.; Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Sam L.
This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data…
Atomatofa, Rachel; Okoye, Nnamdi; Igwebuike, Thomas
The nature of classroom learning environments created by teachers had been considered very important for learning to take place effectively. This study investigated the effect of creating constructivist and transmissive learning environments on achievements of science students of different ability levels. 243 students formed the entire study…
Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Shiu, William
The Classroom Community Scale (CCS) has been utilized in previous research to measure sense of community of learners including those learners in blended learning environments. In the current study, the CCS was examined with respect to its psychometric properties in the blended learning environment. Reliability analyses indicate an acceptable level…
Barker, Lecia J.; Garvin-Doxas, Kathy
The authors conducted ethnographic research to provide deep understanding of the learning environment of a selection of computer science classrooms at a large, research university in the United States. Categories emerging from data analysis included (1) impersonal environment and guarded behavior; and (2) the creation and maintenance of informal…
Dinkins, Elizabeth G.; Englert, Patrick
This paper uses a case study approach to examine how the heteronormative nature of one middle school setting and classroom environment shapes the climate of safety, support and learning for LGBTQ students when they are engaged in studying a novel with a gay character. Heteronormative environments inform and shape positioning of and by students and…
Grannis, Joseph C.
The Columbia Classroom Environments Project (CCEP) report discusses a number of questions about a set of dimensions of learning and development as well as the instruments the project was developing for the analysis of behavior in learning environments. Joseph C. Grannis examines The Argument, Assumptions, Definitions, Hypothesis; Rochelle Mayer…
Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A
Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and
Beagle, Kimberly Geiger; Dowhower, Sarah L.
Assesses physical print environment of 18 kindergarten classrooms, addressing whether literacy was honored with materials and special places for reading/writing. Finds suburban and holistic classrooms had more writing tools and print than urban, rural, and conventional settings. Concludes print-poor classrooms do not honor literacy, and…
Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying.
Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman
Al Kharusi, Hussain A.
Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment
Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners.
Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A
Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk.
Join, A; Saeed, K; Arnaout, S; Kortum, E
Psychosocial risks are widely recognised as major challenges to occupational health and safety. The risk management approach, which starts with an assessment of the risk that they pose, is acknowledged as the most effective way of preventing and managing psychosocial risks at the workplace. This paper presents the findings and action taken following a risk assessment of psychosocial risks, at the World health Organization Regional Officeforthe Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) and country offices, carried outon behalf of the Committee on Health and Safety in the Workplace in EMRO. The findings show that psychosocial risks pose a threat to the mental well-being of staff. Management and co-worker support, rewards, possibilities for development, and trust mitigate the negative impact of psychosocial risks. The results of this risk assessment are being used to develop interventions aimed at enhancing the sense of well-being of staff, initially through actions at the employee level.
Wight, D; Abraham, C
This paper describes the development of a theoretically based sex education programme currently undergoing a randomized controlled trial in the UK. It considers some of the practical difficulties involved in translating research-based conclusions into acceptable, replicable and potentially effective classroom lessons. The discussion acknowledges that the implications of social psychological research and the requirements of rigorous evaluation may conflict with accepted principles inherent in current sex education practice. It also emphasizes that theoretical ideas must be carefully embedded in lessons which are informed by an awareness of classroom culture, and the needs and skills of teachers. For example, the use of same-sex student groups to reflect on the gendered construction of sexuality may be problematic. Materials must be tailored to recipients' circumstances, which may require substituting for limited experience with the use of detailed scripts and scenarios. Furthermore, role-play techniques for sexual negotiation that work elsewhere may not be effective in the UK. The use of trigger video sessions and other techniques are recommended. Finally, the problems involved in promoting condom-related skills are discussed. The paper concludes that, if an intervention is to be sustainable beyond the research stage, it must be designed to overcome such problems while remaining theoretically informed.
In this research, it was aimed to analyze the classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment in terms of various variables. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. Classroom teachers' level of creating a constructivist learning environment was determined using the "constructivist…
Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.
We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…
O Fathaigh, Mairtin
Adult learners (n=532) at University College Cork (Ireland) identified the following features of a positive affective learning environment: teacher's key role in class organization and pace, healthy interpersonal interaction among students, and focused cognitive environment. Older learners were particularly sensitive to six of seven dimensions of…
Ulman, Jerome D.
Reviews the basic principles of behaviorology, beginning with the work of B.F. Skinner, examining how these principles can be applied in creating responsive learning environments and delineating a system of steps needed to transform an ineffective instructional situation, characterized by chronic failure, into a learning environment that is…
Explores five alternative visions of the Australian environment through a brief environmental history. Presents imperatives for geography education to help students become socially responsible and ecologically sensitive including: (1) developing an environmental ethic; (2) teaching about the impact of the political economy on the environment; and…
Background The psychosocial work environment can benefit and harm mental health. Poor psychosocial work environments and high level work-family conflict are both associated with poor mental health, yet little is known about how people with poor mental health manage the interactions among multiple life domains. This study explores the interfaces among paid work, family, community and support services and their combined effects on mental health. Methods We conducted 21 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people identified as having poor mental health to examine their experiences of paid employment and mental health and wellbeing in the context of their daily lives. Results The employment-related psychosocial work environment, particularly workplace relationships, employment security and degree of control over hours, strongly affected participants’ mental health. The interfaces among the life domains of family, community and access to support services suggest that effects on mental health differ according to: time spent in each domain, the social, psychological and physical spaces where domain activities take place, life stage and the power available to participants in their multiple domains. This paper is based on a framework analysis of all the interviews, and vignettes of four cases. Cases were selected to represent different types of relationships among the domains and how interactions among them either mitigated and/or exacerbated mental health effects of psychosocial work environments. Conclusions Examining domain interactions provides greater explanatory capacity for understanding how people with low mental health manage their lives than restricting the research to the separate impacts of the psychosocial work environment or work-family conflict. The extent to which people can change the conditions under which they engage in paid work and participate in family and social life is significantly affected by the extent to which their employment position
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas
A multilevel approach was used to analyze relationships between perceived classroom environments and emotions in mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000) [A social-cognitive, control-value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp. 143-163)] social-cognitive, control-value theory of…
Crook, Charles; Cluley, Robert
University staff are now encouraged to supplement their classroom activity with computer-based tools and resources accessible through virtual learning environments (VLEs). Meanwhile, university students increasingly make recreational use of computer networks in the form of various social software applications. This paper explores tensions of…
Boschmann, Erwin, Ed.
This book explores emerging technologies and their use in secondary and higher education and in private, corporate, and government training environments. In addition to providing specific classroom applications of technology, the book treats issues of research, technology assessment, legal, copyright, and privacy rights, ethical considerations,…
Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…
This study was focused on investigating inclusive learning environments in accelerated classroom formats. Three 8-week sections of an undergraduate course at Regis University were examined. Results from observations and surveys were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and consistency of 13 inclusive strategies derived from Wlodkowski and…
Chang, Chia-Lin; Su, Yelin
This study examined whether using localized interface designs would make a difference in users' learning results and their perceptions of the interface design in a classroom learning environment. This study also sought to learn more about users' attitudes toward the localized interface features. To assess the impact of using localized interfaces…
Houston, Linda Scott; Fraser, Barry J.; Ledbetter, Cynthia E.
Student perceptions of classroom environment can provide useful criteria for evaluating educational alternatives. The My Class Inventory (MCI) was used with 588 3rd- to 5th-grade students in Texas in evaluating the effectiveness of instruction using a textbook, science kits, or a combination of both. Various analyses attested to the factorial…
Cichon, Donald J.; Olson, George E.
This study deals with the following topics: (1) the extent to which three different learning environment instruments and their underlying conceptual framework are empirically related, and (2) the extent to which intensive observation of classrooms aids in the interpretation of instruments' characterizations of a class. In the first part of the…
Richardson, Arthur G.
A class inventory and two creativity measures were administered to 350 sixth-grade students in three Caribbean territories (Barbados, Grenada, and St. Vincent). Analyses indicated that Barbadian schools have a more favorable classroom learning environment for creative production than the other two territories. Barbadian students also demonstrated…
Liang, J.-K.; Liu, T.-C.; Wang, H.-Y.; Chang, B.; Deng, Y.-C.; Yang, J.-C.; Chou, C.-Y.; Ko, H.-W.; Yang, S.; Chan, T.-W.
"1:1" educational computing refers to a scenario where every student in a group or class uses a computing device equipped with wireless communication capability to conduct a learning task. This paper, drawing from design experiences with our digital classroom environment series and other studies, attempts to describe a few valuable "1:1" design…
Padron, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.
Compared the classroom instruction and learning environment of 563 resilient and nonresilient, predominantly minority, fourth and fifth graders. Observations indicate that resilient students spend more time interacting with teachers for instructional purposes, and nonresilient students spend more time interacting with peers for social purposes.…
Abell, Michael M.; Jung, Eunjoo; Taylor, Matthew
Using a sample of 867 students in Grades 5-12, the present study investigated whether students' perceptions toward the instructional environment in classrooms that employed Universal Design for Learning differed by school grade level and teacher gender. High-school students in the study showed higher perception scores than upper-elementary or…
Yapici, I. Ümit
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq
Associations between the nature of Chinese Language Classroom Environments and Singapore secondary school students' motivation to learn the Chinese Language were investigated. A sample of 1,460 secondary three (grade 9) students from 50 express stream (above average academic ability) classes in Singapore government secondary schools was involved…
Hopson, Anna C.
In U.S. history, racism has existed in traditional brick-and-mortar academic institutions for hundreds of years. With the increase of online learning--a strategic and effective form of education for many academic institutions of higher education--the question being asked is, Does racism exist in the online classroom learning environment? This…
DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Mullineaux, Paula Y.
Children's behavior problems, both internalizing and externalizing, are a function of both genetic and environmental influences. One potentially important environmental influence is the classroom environment. This study of 1941 monozygotic twin pairs examined whether children whose parents rated them as similarly high or low on a number of problem…
LaCour, Misty; McGlawn, Penny; Dees, Laura
Foster children often struggle socially, emotionally, and academically in the school setting leading to school failure. By establishing a positive classroom environment, teachers can provide for the needs of the foster child while encouraging academic achievement. This study seeks to determine teacher best practices for meeting the needs of foster…
This study investigated middle school students' engagement in science in relation to students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment (teacher support, student cohesiveness, and equity) and motivation (self-efficacy beliefs and achievement goals). The participants were 315 Turkish sixth and seventh grade students. Four hierarchical…
Although the effectiveness of student response systems in improving student learning is inconclusive, clickers can be used to create a positive learning environment in the classroom, which can help increase student achievement. With the use of clickers, students showed modest improvements in their performance in conceptual summative assessments.…
Moxey, Lucas; Tucker, Compton; Sloan, Jim; Chadwick, John
A low-cost (US$350) satellite receiving station was assembled and operated within a classroom environment in Gainesville (Florida) on October 2001 for acquiring satellite data directly from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellites. The simplicity of the satellite signal makes this source of real-time satellite data readily…
This paper explores the relationship between the natural world and its potential benefits to the art classroom environment. In particular, it considers the following research question: Can natural sound foster creativity? The study investigates the role of natural sound on creative ability in girls' intermediate schools (12 to 15 years) in Jeddah,…
Gilbert, Melissa C.; Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Woolley, Michael E.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Strutchens, Marilyn E.; Martin, W. Gary
This study examined the relationship of 979 middle school students' perceptions of their mathematics classroom environment to their motivation and achievement. Structural equation modeling indicated that motivational variables (utility, personal achievement goals, efficacy) mediated the influence of perceived teacher expectations, teacher…
Yates, Shirley M.
Reviews in many countries have found little evidence of consistent advantages in either single-sex education or coeducation. Over the last three decades, coeducation has been introduced into many single-sex schools, but there is a dearth of evidence from the student perspective of the impact of such changes on the classroom learning environment.…
Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita
Researchers have reported persuasive evidence that students' perceptions of their classroom learning environment account for significant variance in cognitive and affective outcomes (e.g. intrinsic motivation, self-concept, liking for particular subjects and students' intention to drop out). The study reported in this paper investigated the…
Mouriño Pérez, R; Viniegra Velázquez, L
It is an instrument to explore the psico-social environment that carries out a thorough inventory of the elements in such environment, it groups them in general categories that, from the process of stress (taken as the point of the departure), are the following: stressing situations, psicosocial support and facing conducts. And they are expressed in four levels or spheres of action: society, family, occupation and individual. It was intended to satisfy the need to count on relatively simple material, self-managable, widely applicable, standardized and that describes in an integral way the environment. The validity of contents and concepts was estimated through the Delphos technique. Though the concurrent validity is established by its application with another similar instrument, when this late was not available, some scales that could work as standards were use. The t Student test was used to evaluate the discrimination capacity among subgroups. In this, statistical differences were noticed for the same items with a significant value of 0.01. It was observed that the older they were there was an increasing set of stressing situations in the society and occupation spheres (correlation quotient of 0.80). According to sex, there were more stressing family situations in women. According to income, it was found that the bigger number of stressing situations and fewer psicosocial supports pertained to a higher income (correlation quotient of 0.91). It is deduced that the instrument, though it has some limitations, can be widely used. The only requirement is that it should be applied to individuals over 18 years old, of any sex and socio-economical class, and they should be literate.
Madonna, S; Bailey, G K; Wesley, A L
This study examined classroom environment and locus of control in identifying successfully children showing high and low self-concepts. In their respective intact classrooms, 107 fourth- and fifth-graders were administered the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale, the Classroom Environment Scale, and the Nowicki-Strickland Children's Locus of Control Scale. A stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that four variables in combination successfully classified 76% all cases, suggesting the importance of environmental factors associated with classrooms and locus of control in identifying self-concepts of children of elementary-school age.
Barman, Charles R.
Describes and details the construction of a land-water environment using an aquarium and variety of terrestrial and aquatic materials and organisms. Suggests activities such as identification of organisms, observation of predator-prey interactions, construction of food webs, and recognition of interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors. (CS)
Casey, Gail; Evans, Terry
This paper deploys notions of emergence, connections, and designs for learning to conceptualize high school students' interactions when using online social media as a learning environment. It makes links to chaos and complexity theories and to fractal patterns as it reports on a part of the first author's action research study, conducted while she…
Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.
A study of 13,502 students in urban public schools (grades 3 through 12) serving predominantly minority students found females reported higher scores for their perceptions of the learning environment than did males, few differences by subject area, and many differences by grade level. In general, middle school classes had the least favorable…
Oluwatelure, T. A.
This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between science learning environments and scientific literacy level of learners. Descriptive research design of the survey type was employed. The population for the study was made up of both secondary school students and science teachers, stratified into types A, B, and C. Four hundred and…
Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.
Energy-Environment Simulators, provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, can be used to help individuals experience the effects of unbridled energy consumption for the next century on a national or worldwide scale. The simulator described is a specially designed analog computer which models the real-world energy situation. (MP)
Maine Arts Commission, Augusta.
Design and the built environment are subjects of concern to Maine communities. State mandated town planning, new school construction, and the Department of Transportation plans to rebuild roads and bridges elicit public discussion. The study of design encourages elementary students to enter this public forum as informed citizens. The study of…
Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai
It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators’ physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchrony in physiological signals between collaborating computer science students performing pair-programming exercises in a class room environment. We recorded electrocardiography over the course of a 60 minute programming session, using lightweight physiological sensors. We employ correlation of heart-rate variability features to study social psychophysiological compliance of the collaborating students. We found evident physiological compliance in collaborating dyads’ heart-rate variability signals. Furthermore, dyads’ self-reported workload was associated with the physiological compliance. Our results show viability of a novel approach to field measurement using lightweight devices in an uncontrolled environment, and suggest that self-reported collaboration quality can be assessed via physiological signals. PMID:27416036
Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J
This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures.
The four Cs of classroom management--commendation, communication, consistency, and content--represent one of the quickest and most successful ways to establish a safe, healthful, and fun environment at any level, especially in elementary schools. Using the four Cs helps establish an efficient, supportive, and safe environment to nurture positive…
Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.
This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…
Harbaugh, Allen G.; Cavanagh, Robert F.
This report is about the second of two phases in an investigation into associations between student engagement in classroom learning and the classroom-learning environment. Whereas the first phase utilized Rasch modelling (Cavanagh, 2012), this report uses latent variable modelling to explore the data. The investigations in both phases of this…
Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.
Investigates whether significant differences exist between effective and ineffective urban schools based on students' classroom behavior and students' motivation and perceptions of their classroom learning environment. Comparisons between eight urban elementary schools serving predominantly African American students are presented that show…
Jones, Karrie A.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Vermette, Paul J.
Creating a learning environment where all students can thrive academically requires an understanding of the complexities of classroom management. The notions of "discipline," "conformity" and "obedience" that have littered discussions of classroom management in the past are no longer sufficient to describe the diverse…
Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance personnel and the core work force in Denmark. In addition, to examine the association between physical and psychosocial work environment factors and different measures of health among ambulance personnel. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide sample of ambulance personnel and fire fighters (n = 1,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self-rated health compared to the core work force (5% vs. 10%). Levels of mental health were the same across the two samples whereas a substantially higher proportion of the ambulance personnel reported musculoskeletal pain (42% vs. 29%). The ambulance personnel had higher levels of emotional demands and meaningfulness of and commitment to work, and substantially lower levels of quantitative demands and influence at work. Only one out of ten aspects of physical work environment was consistently associated with higher levels of musculoskeletal pain. Emotional demands was the only psychosocial work factor that was associated with both poorer mental health and worse sleep quality. Conclusions Ambulance personnel have similar levels of mental health but substantially higher levels of musculoskeletal pain than the work force in general. They are more exposed to emotional demands and these demands are associated with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence
Waldrip, Bruce G.; Fisher, Darrell L.; Dorman, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine students' psychosocial perceptions of their science classroom learning environment in order to identify exemplary teachers. This mixed-method study used the valid and reliable What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire with over 3,000 middle school students in 150 classrooms in Australia.…
Modell, Harold I; DeMiero, Frank G; Rose, Louise
A holistic learning environment is one that nurtures all aspects of students' learning. The environment is safe, supportive, and provides opportunities to help students deal with nonacademic as well as academic factors that impact their learning. Creation of such an environment requires the establishment of a supportive learning community. For a variety of reasons, establishing such a learning community of first-year medical students can be challenging. This communication presents one approach to meeting this challenge in a medical school Human Physiology course. Steps were taken at the beginning of the course to create the community, and activities designed to reinforce these efforts were incorporated into the course as it progressed. Two pilot studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that providing students with a participatory music experience may help to promote a holistic learning environment by helping them restore a sense of balance to their emotional well-being as well as reinforce a sense of community in the classroom. Student response to these activities indicated that these efforts provided emotional support during stressful periods during the quarter, helped promote a feeling of safety within the environment, and re-energized the class during long class sessions. This project illustrates that each instructor, within the confines of his/her own classroom, can make a significant contribution to achieving a holistic learning environment for his/her students.
Tosto, Maria G; Asbury, Kathryn; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia
Drawing on Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation model, perceived classroom environment and three intrapersonal factors (mathematics self-efficacy, maths interest and academic self-concept) were considered as predictors of test performance in two correlated mathematics assessments: a public examination (GCSE) and an on-line test, both taken by UK pupils at age 16 (n = 6689). Intrapersonal factors were significantly associated with both test scores, even when the alternative score was taken into account. Classroom environment did not correlate with mathematics achievement once intrapersonal factors and alternative test performance were included in the model, but was associated with subject interest and academic self-concept. Perceptions of classroom environment may exercise an indirect influence on achievement by boosting interest and self-concept. In turn, these intrapersonal factors have direct relationships with achievement and were found to mediate the relationship between perceived classroom environment and maths performance. Findings and their implications for mathematics education are discussed.
Guardino, Caroline; Antia, Shirind D
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical modifications on the academic engagement and disruptive behavior of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing students in self-contained classrooms. Three classrooms at a school for the Deaf were modified after consultation with the classroom teachers. The modifications of the classroom environment included changes in seating arrangements, classroom organization, visual stimulation, and acoustic quality. A multiple-baseline design was used to examine the effects of the intervention on the frequency of student academic engagement and disruptive behaviors. Results show a functional relationship between the physical environment and both an increase in levels of academic engagement and a decrease in levels of disruptive behavior. Teachers maintained the majority of modifications after the study ceased. Social validity ratings by the teachers indicated high acceptability of the intervention. Limitations and practical implications for future research are discussed.
Corrias, Alberto; Cho Hong, James Goh
The design and implementation of a learning environment that leverages on the use of various technologies is presented. The context is an undergraduate core engineering course within the biomedical engineering curriculum. The topic of the course is data analysis in biomedical engineering problems. One of the key ideas of this study is to confine the most mathematical and statistical aspects of data analysis in prerecorded video lectures. Students are asked to watch the video lectures before coming to class. Since the classroom session does not need to cover the mathematical theory, the time is spent on a selected real world scenario in the field of biomedical engineering that exposes students to an actual application of the theory. The weekly cycle is concluded with a hands-on tutorial session in the computer rooms. A potential problem would arise in such learning environment if the students do not follow the recommendation of watching the video lecture before coming to class. In an attempt to limit these occurrences, two key instruments were put in place: a set of online self-assessment questions that students are asked to take before the classroom session and a simple rewards system during the classroom session. Thanks to modern learning analytics tools, we were able to show that, on average, 57.9% of students followed the recommendation of watching the video lecture before class. The efficacy of the learning environment was assessed through various means. A survey was conducted among the students and the gathered data support the view that the learning environment was well received by the students. Attempts were made to quantify the impacts on learning of the proposed measures by taking into account the results of selected questions of the final examination of the course. Although the presence of confounding factors demands caution in the interpretation, these data seem to indicate a possible positive effect of the use of video lectures in this technologically
Thomas, Gregory P.; Anderson, David
Concerns persist regarding science classroom learning environments and the lack of development of students' metacognition and reasoning processes within such environments. Means of shaping learning environments so that students are encouraged to develop their metacognition are required in order to enhance students' reasoning and…
Patterson, Barbara; Kilpatrick, Judith; Woebkenberg, Eric
As the number of nursing students increases, the ability to actively engage all students in a large classroom is challenging and increasingly difficult. Clickers, or student response systems (SRS), are a relatively new technology in nursing education that use wireless technology and enable students to select individual responses to questions posed to them during class. The study design was a quasi-experimental comparison with one section of an adult medical-surgical course using the SRS and one receiving standard teaching. No significant differences between groups on any measure of performance were found. Focus groups were conducted to describe student perceptions of SRS. Three themes emerged: Being able to respond anonymously, validating an answer while providing immediate feedback, and providing an interactive and engaging environment. Although the clickers did not improve learning outcomes as measured by objective testing, perceptions shared by students indicated an increased degree of classroom engagement. Future research needs to examine other potential outcome variables.
Teh, George P. L.
Reports on a study of Web-based learning environments in Singapore that focuses on the cross-validation of the Geography Classroom Environment Inventory (GCEI) which assesses undergraduate students' perceptions of psychosocial aspects of their Web-based instruction. Examines gender equity, instructional innovation, internal consistency…
Clements, R. O.
An ongoing research project, Dimensions of Classroom Instruction (DCI) is described. The primary data source is a study of reading in nine second-grade classrooms using such observation techniques as categorical observation, ethnographic observation, and videotaping. Three major objectives for the project are stated: 1) developing methods of…
Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle
This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…
Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.
This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The learning environment was assessed using previously-validated and reliable scales from What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) and the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI). Analyses indicated moderate multiple correlations that were statistically significant ( p < 0.01) between Creative (R = 0.22), Testable (R = 0.29), and Unified (R = 0.27), and a positive learning environment. Regression coefficients revealed that Open-Endedness was a significant independent predictor of students' understanding of the role of creativity in science (β = 0.16), while Cooperation, Open-Endedness, and Material Environment were linked with understanding the testable nature of science (β = 0.10-0.12). Interview questions probed possible relationships between an improved understanding of the nature of science and elements of a positive classroom environment. Responses suggested that an appropriate level of open-endedness during investigations was very important as this helped students grapple with abstract nature of science concepts and shift their conceptions closer to a more realistic view of scientific practice.
Turanli, Adem Sultan; Yildirim, Ali
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between teachers' orientations to classroom management and their students' classroom behaviors and the learning environment. Two teachers with different orientations (non-interventionist and interventionist) to classroom management were selected, and their 91 students were administered the…
Problem Statement: One of the main aims of constructivism is to improve critical thinking skills/tendencies via experiences. In this sense, it is believed that the more the constructivist-learning environment is improved, the more the appropriateness of supporting critical thinking is improved. However, no study has yet statistically tested this…
Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zhou, Wenhui; Wang, Sheng
To investigate the effects of the job demand-control (DC) model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model on worker's well-being, self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and well-being were made by a sample of 878 workers at a thermal power plant in China using the main dimensions of DC and ERI questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were employed controlling for age, gender, and educational level, and negative and positive affection among others. Workers reporting high job demands and low job control or high efforts and low rewards had elevated risks of job dissatisfaction, psychosomatic complaints and depressive symptoms. Odds ratios were generally higher in workers reporting both high efforts and low rewards. Furthermore, low reward proved to be a stronger predictor of poor well-being when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. To some extent, interaction effects were found for social support, but no interaction effects were found for overcommitment. The findings indicate independent effects of both the DC model and the ERI model on well-being. Future work should explore the combined effects of these two models of psychosocial stress at work on health more thoroughly.
Jesús Cava, María; Musitu, Gonzalo; Buelga, Sofia; Murgui, Sergio
This study analyzes the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of their family and classroom environments with peer relational victimization, taking into account that these relationships could be mediated by adolescents' self-esteem, feelings of loneliness, and sociometric status. These relationships, and their possible gender differences, were analyzed in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5). A structural equation modeling was calculated for boys and girls separately. The findings suggested that the adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on peer relational victimization for boys, and adolescents' loneliness and sociometric status for girls. Their perceptions of family and classroom environments had a significant indirect effect on peer relational victimization for boys and girls, but the paths were different. Overall, findings suggested that a negative classroom environment had a more relevant effect in relational victimization for boys.
Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Akinsola Okebukola, Peter
An amount-of-learning outcome variable has been attributed to the environment in which teaching and learning are conducted. Studies carried out so far have, however, not focused on the sociocultural aspect of the classroom environment, which has been theorized to have potential influence on students' learning. The intent of this study was to examine the influence of five aspects of the sociocultural environment in science classes with particular reference to how these are perceived by boys and girls. The 30-item Socio-Cultural Environment Scale (SCES) developed by Jegede and Okebukola (1988) was used to collect data from 707 Nigerian secondary school students in Classes Four and Five (Grades 10 and 11, respectively). Authoritarianism, goal structure, African worldview, societal expectation, and sacredness of science were the five subscales studied. Sex differences were recorded in the societal expectation subscale. Most of the female subjects are of the opinion that society has a negative or low regard for their ability to do science and this has an effect on their motivation to undertake science-based careers. The reverse is true for boys. This perception is in agreement with the literature on sex differences in science education and highlights the social pressure that brings about subject preferences. The implications of these findings for science teaching and further research are highlighted.
Westerberg, Kristina; Tafvelin, Susanne
Work in home help services is typically conducted by an assistant nurse or nursing aide in the home of an elderly person, and working conditions have been described as solitary with a high workload, little influence and lack of peer and leader support. Relations between leadership styles, psychosocial work environment and a number of positive and negative employee outcomes have been established in research, but the outcome in terms of quality of care has been addressed to a lesser extent. In the present study, we aimed to focus on working conditions in terms of leadership and the employee psychosocial work environment, and how these conditions are related to the quality of care. The hypothesis was that the relation between a transformational leadership style and quality of care is mediated through organisational and peer support, job control and workload. A cross-sectional survey design was used and a total of 469 questionnaires were distributed (March-April 2012) to assistant nurses in nine Swedish home help organisations, including six municipalities and one private organisation, representing both rural and urban areas (302 questionnaires were returned, yielding a 65% response rate). The results showed that our hypothesis was supported and, when indirect effects were also taken into consideration, there was no direct effect of leadership style on quality of care. The mediated model explained 51% of the variance in quality of care. These results indicate that leadership style is important not only to employee outcomes in home help services but is also indirectly related to quality of care as assessed by staff members.
Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.
Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in
Cavanagh, Robert F.
This study employed the capabilities-expectations model of engagement in classroom learning based on bio-ecological frameworks of intellectual development and flow theory. According to the capabilities-expectations model, engagement requires a balance between the capabilities of a student for learning in a particular situation and what is expected…
Dykstra, Jessica R; Sabatos-Devito, Maura G; Irvin, Dwight W; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara A; Odom, Sam L
This study describes the language environment of preschool programs serving children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and examines relationships between child characteristics and an automated measure of adult and child language in the classroom. The Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system was used with 40 children with ASD to collect data on adult and child language. Standardized assessments were administered to obtain language, cognitive, and autism severity scores for participants. With a mean of over 5 hours of recording across two days several months apart, there was a mean of 3.6 child vocalizations per minute, 1.0 conversational turns (in which either the adult or child respond to the other within 5 seconds) per minute, and 29.2 adult words per minute. Two of the three LENA variables were significantly correlated with language age-equivalents. Cognitive age-equivalents were also significantly correlated with two LENA variables. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule severity scores and LENA variables were not significantly correlated. Implications for using the LENA system with children with ASD in the school environment are discussed.
De La Paz, Susan; Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Barron, Linda
A multimedia CD-ROM program, Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Inclusive Classrooms, was produced to help preservice teachers learn mathematics teaching methods in the context of inclusive classrooms. The contents include text resources, video segments of experts and of classroom lessons, images of student work, an electronic notebook, and a…
Gámez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis…
Nelson, Angela C.
It is widely recognized that technology in the classroom has the potential to transform education at every stage from Pre-K, to K-12, to Higher Education and Adult Education. Using the Digital Teaching Platform as an exemplar of 21st Century classroom instruction style, the author offers an overview of classroom technology and its effects on…
Burke, Karen; Burke-Samide, Barbara
The New York City Department of Education has recently set forth new mandates for the redesign of classrooms. Teachers must be taught how to redesign their classrooms correctly so that all students will be provided with the necessary space to accommodate their environmental learning-style preferences. By altering the classroom, teachers give some…
Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.
The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…
Martin, Caren S.
In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported a 1600% increase in the number of individuals between the ages of 6 and 22 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knowledge about educational interventions for children with ASD is substantial; however, less is known about the design of supportive classroom environments where they learn.…
Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil; Fisher, Darrell L.
The research reported in this inquiry consisted of the application of two classroom learning environment questionnaires developed in a Western context to a culturally diverse context, namely, the Pacific Islands. The College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) and Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) instruments were administered to intact classes of first- and second-year science students ( n= 257) at a regional university in the Pacific Islands, containing a total of 12 ethnicities. The data reveal that the QTI instrument holds good reliability for all scales, whereas the CUCEI holds reliability for only two scales. This may be due to the simple nature of the questions on the QTI whereas the questions on the CUCEI require more interpretation, the latter exacerbated by the fact that English is a second or third language for most participants. Surprisingly, there were few differences in perceptions of teacher student interaction based on ethnicity, but substantial differences based on gender. As reported in previous classroom environment research at the secondary school level, in this study, females perceived their environment more favourably than males. The data for the QTI reveal that the students perceive their classrooms to be highly teacher dominated, consistent with previous naturalistic studies of secondary schools and exploratory studies at the tertiary level in Fiji. Since almost all the graduates from this institution become science teachers, a cycle is completed.
Giallousi, M.; Gialamas, V.; Pavlatou, E. A.
The present study was the first in Greece in which educational effectiveness theory constituted a knowledge base for investigating the impact of chemistry classroom environment in 10 Grade students' enjoyment of class. An interpretive heuristic schema was developed and utilised in order to incorporate two factors of teacher behaviour at classroom…
Larson, Kristine E.
The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…
Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John
Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about how diverse learning needs of ethnic minority students could be better fulfilled. This study examines local teachers' constructs of assessment classroom environments. Using qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with 32 teachers from three secondary schools, this study shows ways in…
Sun, Furong; Xie, Limin
Totally 789 students from 18 schools (9 primary schools and 9 junior high schools) at a medium managed level from Shanghai, Wenzhou, and Aojiang, which are located in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China were investigated with the questionnaire of Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale in this study. The result indicates that the actual…
Measuring school and classroom environments has become central in a nation-wide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and teacher effectiveness. Formulating successful programs necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This paper uses a generalizability theory framework…
Kombe, Dennis; Che, S. Megan; Carter, Traci L.; Bridges, William
In this article, we present findings from a study that investigated the relationship between all-girls classes, all-boys classes, and coeducational classes on student mathematics self-concept and student perception of classroom environment. Further, we compared responses of girls in all-girls classes to girls in coeducational classes and responses…
Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.; Thompson, John A.
This study examined the functional relationships among motivation, perceived classroom environment, and student satisfaction, for three major curricular groups: arts and leisure programs, personal development programs, and professional development programs. The sample included 1,180 students enrolled in noncredit courses at the College of…
This study examined the perception of secondary school students on the condition of their classroom physical learning environment and its impact on their learning and motivation. Four research questions were asked and answered using descriptive statistics while three hypotheses were formulated and tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of…
Drawing on the expectancy-value model, stage-environment fit theory, and self-determination theory, this study examined the longitudinal associations between classroom characteristics, expectancies-values, high school course enrollment, and career aspirations in the domain of math. Data were collected on 3,048 youth who reported on their classroom experiences in 7th grade, expectancies-values in 6th, 7th, and 10th grades, and career aspirations in 12th grade. Student grades for math courses were collected from school records at 6th, 7th, and 10th grades, and their math course enrollment was collected from 9th through 12th grades. Results indicated that students' math classroom experiences predicted their expectancies and values, which, in turn, predicted the number of high school math courses taken and career aspirations in math. Gender and math ability differences are also discussed.
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of classroom emotional climate were conducted at the same time points. Results revealed a positive relation between anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall semester of each grade. However, in classrooms with supportive versus unsupportive emotional climates, this relation demonstrated a different pattern of change from fall to spring semesters. In classrooms with supportive emotional climates, children with high versus low levels of anxious solitude experienced relative elevation in fall peer exclusion, but this disappeared by the spring, such that spring peer exclusion levels were equalized among children who differed in anxious solitude. This result is consistent with hypotheses guided by the Child × Environment model. However, in classrooms with unsupportive emotional climates, results did not conform to expectations that children with high anxious solitude would experience stable or increased peer exclusion over time.
The aim of the present study was to explore: the main effect of empowerment on burnout; empowerment as a mediator between the work environment and burnout; and empowerment as a moderator of the association between the work environment and burnout. In order to explore these effects, multiple regression analyses were performed on questionnaire data from 838 registered nurses and 518 assistant nurses in Sweden. The analyses showed that: empowerment has a negative association to burnout; empowerment has a mediating effect between the work environment (especially for control and social support) and burnout; and the moderating effect of empowerment on the association between the work environment and burnout was weak. The results suggest that: empowerment explains variation with regard to burnout over and above what can be explained by established work situation dimensions; the improvement of the work environment is associated with a higher sense of empowerment which, in turn, is related to lower degrees of burnout; and individual and group differences should be considered in workplace health promotion.
Hallam, Teresa A.; Hallam, Stephen F.
Imagine a computerized learning management system that enables teachers to deliver pertinent learning materials to students. Lectures are prerecorded and made available to download from the learning management system. If all their lectures were prerecorded, what would teachers do in the classroom? Classroom time could be used to coordinate…
Kearney, W. Sean; Smith, Page A.; Maika, Sean
There is currently a lack of research into classroom climate as perceived by the students themselves. This article presents a new classroom climate evaluation instrument which is designed to gauge student perceptions of their own level of engagement in academic activities, their relationships with peers, and the level of support they feel from…
Young, Dolly Jesusita
Discussion of six potential sources of anxiety in the second language classroom, student manifestations of anxiety, and possible remedies covers such areas as personal and interpersonal anxieties, learner beliefs about language learning, instructor beliefs about language teaching, instructor-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language…
Rheingold, Alison; LeClair, Caitlin; Seaman, Jayson
Notebooks are commonly used in middle school classrooms as a place for students to record information delivered via lecture, classroom discussion, or independent work. A primary reason teachers ask students to use notebooks is to capture and organize information. In many cases, students are expected to use these tools with little direction,…
HOWATT, CLARKE T.
THIS IS A FINAL REPORT OF A STUDY OVER A FOURTEEN MONTH PERIOD FROM APRIL, 1959 TO JUNE, 1960 OF HEATING AND COOLING TWO SCHOOL CLASSROOMS AND A COMPARISON WITH A THIRD CLASSROOM IN WHICH THERE WAS HEATING AND FRESH AIR CIRCULATION ONLY. ALL THREE ROOMS HAD AN AIR-FLOW DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A TYPHOON HEAT PUMP PROVIDED HEATING AND COOLING IN ONE…
Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.
This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…
Nichols, Joe D.; Zhang, Guanglan
This project explored a classroom model of motivation in which the source of student motivation is based on internal mechanisms or structures and classroom student/instructor interactions. It also extended earlier research in which beliefs of veteran, entry level, and preservice teachers have been explored. For this project, 117 elementary…
Krantz, Patricia J.; Risley, Todd R.
Many investigators have been interested in the development of techniques for remediating undersirable classroom behavior, but far less attention has been paid to physical, spatial and architectural variables which often set the occasion for inappropriate behavior in the classroom. The present study explored the relationships between these…
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.
McCormick, Bonnie Day
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the revision of an undergraduate biology course to meet the standards set forth by current science education reform documents. This course was revised by a collaborate team at a small, religious, liberal arts university located in an urban area of South Texas. This institution is a Hispanic serving institution where the majority of students are Hispanic. The female population of this institution is approximately 70 percent. The course was revised to meet teaching standards called for in the National Science Education Standards. The guiding principle was to use an instructional model that was based on constructivist theories of learning. The lecture and laboratory sections of the course were combined into a class that met two days a week for three hours. A learner-centered instructional model based on learning cycles and the 5E model were used to organize instruction. Three sections of the experimental course were compared to three control sections that were taught in a traditional format of a three-hour lecture with a separate lab. Instruments that measured classroom learning environment, achievement, and attitude toward science were given at the beginning and conclusion of the course. Qualitative data was gathered from a questionnaire, university course evaluations, and student portfolios. Results of the learning environment survey found that two sections of the control class used some active learning within the context of the traditional lecture. These sections were analyzed as a modified lecture and the other control section as the traditional lecture. The experimental sections were the integrated sections. Subjects in the traditional and integrated sections scored higher on the content knowledge test than those in the modified section. This suggests that the integrated course was as successful as the traditional method in acquisition of content knowledge. Subjects the integrated course and the
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
Students situated in post-structural feminist pedagogical learning (PFPL) in a freshman English course (37 students) were expected to have lower English classroom anxiety, score higher in English, and have greater satisfaction with the class they attended than those in conventional lecture classes (40 students). Seventy-four students participated in the study (M age=18.5 yr., SD=0.5; 34 men, 43 women). The measures included the English Classroom Anxiety Scale (ECAS), English proficiency tests, the Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), and student interviews. After the classes were completed, students in PFPL reported a significant decrease in anxiety toward the English classroom, scored significantly higher on English proficiency, and expressed significantly greater satisfaction with the course. PFPL potentially decreases students' English classroom anxiety and increases their English proficiency.
Fifty five years after the first finding relating mood disturbances and cardiovascular diseases, there is still debate on the formation of a cogent conception embracing all the fragments of insight within the various aspects relating psychosocial stress to cardiovascular diseases. The clinical comorbidity is empirically evident, but there are ambiguous research results limiting the value of the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. Psychosocial stress represents here any event that relates psychological phenomena to the social environment and to the associated pathophysiological changes. Stress denotes the external or environmental factors to which people are exposed, as well as the behavioural or biological reaction to it (response that some authors call "distress"). Cardiovascular diseases will be considered here only when being the consequence of chronic inflammatory disease of arteries (atherosclerosis).The question is: Are there pathophysiological reliable mechanisms relating psychosocial stress to the development of cardiovascular diseases? PMID:15998817
Ritter, Jason K.
Drawing on my experiences as a former classroom teacher making the transition to teacher education, this study examines how my vision of teacher education developed over the course of my first three years as a graduate teaching assistant in a social studies education program in the United States. A qualitative self-study methodology was used to…
Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly
A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…
Lin, Chin-Yen; Kuo, Tsung-Hsien; Kuo, Yen-Ku; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Ho, Li-An; Lin, Chien-Ting
The study investigates the effect of length of meditation history on various factors, namely learning motivation, learning outcome and classroom climate. Data were collected from working adult learners (n = 450) attending meditation classes in two large cities in Taiwan. The investigation categorized learners based on meditation experience, namely…
The purpose of this study is to investigate approaches and techniques related to how brain based learning used in classroom atmosphere. This general purpose were answered following the questions: (1) What is the aim of brain based learning? (2) What are general approaches and techniques that brain based learning used? and (3) How should be used…
Presented at the National Conference on Student Assessment in Orlando, hosted by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), June 2008. This presentation explores use of the assessments within the classroom and how those choices can affect performance and learning.
Seep, Benjamin; Glosemeyer, Robin; Hulce, Emily; Linn, Matt; Aytar, Pamela
This booklet provides a general overview of classroom acoustic problems and their solutions for both new school construction and renovation. Practical explanations and examples are discussed on topics including reverberation, useful and undesirable reflections, mechanical equipment noise, interior noise sources, and sound reinforcement. Examples…
Born, Warren C., Ed.
The following papers on the current status of the foreign language teaching profession are included: (1) "The View on the Way Up: A Wider Perspective," by Wilga M. Rivers; (2) "Educational Goals: The Foreign Language Teacher's Response," also by Rivers; (3) "Cindy: A Learner in Today's Foreign Language Classroom," by Carol Hosenfeld; and (4) "The…
Muncy, James A.; Eastman, Jacqueline K.
Classroom response systems (CRS), also called student/audience response systems or clickers, have been used by business instructors, particularly in larger classes, to allow instructors to ask students questions in class and have their responses immediately tabulated and reported electronically. While clickers have typically been used to measure…
This study compared the levels of anxiety that students experienced when taking a foreign language in the classroom with those taking a foreign language at a distance. It also aimed to determine if the student's academic performance in the course could be predicted by his or her foreign language anxiety level. The sample consisted of 107…
Existing literature shows students agree that active participation in the classroom is important and many want to engage. However, only one third regularly do so and previous studies have suggested that the vast majority of contributions in class may be made by a handful of students. The aim of this research was to explore from the student's…
This literature-based article examines a range of factors directly influencing and shaping perceptions of the role of the teaching assistant within UK classrooms. Drawing directly on research gathered and analysed through three systematic literature reviews into "pupils" support and academic engagement' and other contemporary literature,…
Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create a synchronous online learning community through the use of "Blackboard Collaborate!" to promote and enhance transactional engagement outside the classroom. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data were sourced from a third year…
Mink, Deborah V.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article describes a one-year study of 120 fifth grade students whose teachers participated in a program entitled Project SMILE (Science and Mathematics Integrated with Literary Experiences). The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the classroom implementation of Project SMILE positively influenced the classroom…
Kendricks, Kimberly D.
Significant research in K-12 education has shown that computer based learning in mathematics positively impacts students' attitudes toward mathematics and greatly increases academic performance. Little research has shown, however, how this success can be replicated in a postsecondary classroom for minority students. This paper is a case study that…
Danhoff, Kristin Lindsay
Social work educators have the challenging task of preparing students to be ethically, morally, and socially responsible professionals. As professionals in the 21st Century, social workers are faced with ever increasing complexity and change. Teaching philosophies are at the foundation of what educators do in the classroom. Research about teaching…
Heller, Sherryl Scott; Rice, Janet; Boothe, Allison; Sidell, Margo; Vaughn, Krystal; Keyes, Angela; Nagle, Geoffrey
This article investigates the effectiveness of a statewide 6-month early childhood mental health consultation (ECMHC) model on teachers' emotional support of children and classroom organization. We provide a brief historical and theoretical background of the field of ECMHC, present the logic model for our ECMHC intervention, and discuss the…
Lightburn, Millard E.; Fraser, Barry J.
The study involved implementing and evaluating activities that actively engage students in the process of gathering, processing and analyzing data derived from human body measurements, with students using their prior knowledge acquired in science, mathematics, and computer classes to interpret this information. In the classroom activities…
Graziadei, William D.; And Others
The State University of New York (SUNY) established the need among faculty for an Internet-based course/classroom management system (CMS) to provide the means to customize and manage the instructional process in teaching and learning and to integrate the content from a variety of sources including instructors both local and remote, students, and…
Zheng, Binbin; Lawrence, Joshua; Warschauer, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsi
Individual writing and collaborative writing skills are important for academic success, yet are poorly taught in K-12 classrooms. This study examines how sixth-grade students (n = 257) taught by two teachers used Google Docs to write and exchange feedback. We used longitudinal growth models to analyze a large number of student writing samples…
Doll, Beth; Zucker, Steven; Brehm, Katherine
Grounded in cutting-edge theory and research, this book presents innovative, classroom-based strategies for promoting the academic competence and mental health of students at risk. Easy-to-implement procedures are described that enlist the involvement of school practitioners, teachers, and students in creating nurturing, success-oriented classroom…
Problem Statement: Based on information presented in previous literature, that the characteristics of learning environments foster metacognition and thinking, it is believed that metacognitive oriented classrooms can contribute to the formation of environments needed to teach thinking, and when metacognitive oriented learning environment…
Sutherland, Louis; Lubman, David; Pearsons, Karl
Unlike the traditional ``sage-on-the-stage'' configuration of many K-12 classrooms, the group learning or ``guide-on-the-side'' configuration does not involve communication between a teacher in front of a seated class of 20 to 30 students. Instead, it can involve, most of the time, communication between the teacher and each of several small groups of students interacting, aurally, with each other. To maintain the desired 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio intended as the rationale for the ANSI standard, S12.60-2002 on classroom acoustics, the ``noise'' heard by participants in one of the groups is likely to include the speech levels generated by the participants in the other groups as well as the background noise in the unoccupied classroom. Thus, specification of the speech level within (i.e. the ``signal''), and between (i.e. part of the ``noise'') the learning groups, must be considered. Data available to evaluate these speech levels are reviewed and possible models considered to account for the Lombard effect for voice levels of both the teacher and the students. Some of the gaps in these data are suggested as a challenge to stimulate further studies on speech levels of teachers and students in a wide range of communication conditions.
Guardino, Caroline; Antia, Shirind D.
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical modifications on the academic engagement and disruptive behavior of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing students in self-contained classrooms. Three classrooms at a school for the Deaf were modified after consultation with the classroom teachers. The modifications of the classroom environment…
No significant difference of student-concrete physical environment interaction occurred with a change in physical environment. A test was made on five null hypotheses related to the change of physical environment and (1) student-concrete physical environment interaction; (2) environmental preference by students; (3) student attending behavior; (4)…
Brock, Laura L.; Nishida, Tracy K.; Chiong, Cynthia; Grimm, Kevin J.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.
This study examines the contribution of the "Responsive Classroom" (RC) Approach, a set of teaching practices that integrate social and academic learning, to children's perceptions of their classroom, and children's academic and social performance over time. Three questions emerge: (a) What is the concurrent and cumulative relation between…
French, Michael P.; Danielson, Kathy Everts
Presents seven reading activities involving the preschool classroom writing environment, using big books and predictable books, using cereal boxes to foster emergent literacy, using editorials, visual-auditory links, reading outside the classroom, and ownership of writing. (MG)
Modell, Harold I.; DeMiero, Frank G.; Rose, Louise
A holistic learning environment is one that nurtures all aspects of students' learning. The environment is safe, supportive, and provides opportunities to help students deal with nonacademic as well as academic factors that impact their learning. Creation of such an environment requires the establishment of a supportive learning community. For a…
So, Winnie Wing Mui; Ching, Fiona Ngai Ying
This paper discusses the creation of learning environments with online resources by three primary school teachers for pupil's learning of science-related topics with reference to the resource-based e-learning environments (RBeLEs) framework. Teachers' choice of contexts, resources, tools, and scaffolds in designing the learning environments are…
Smith, Elizabeth A.
Standard, text-book based learning for earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences has been limited by the unavailability of quantitative teaching materials. While a descriptive presentation, in a lecture format, of discrete satellite images is often adequate for high school classrooms, this is seldom the case at the undergraduate level. In order to address these concerns, a series of numerical exercises for the Macintosh was developed for use with satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, pigment and sea ice concentration data. Using a modified version of NIH Image, to analyze actual satellite data, students are able to better understand ocean processes, such as circulation, upwelling, primary production, and ocean/atmosphere coupling. Graphical plots, image math, and numerical comparisons are utilized to substantiate temporal and spatial trends in sea surface temperature and ocean color. Particularly for institutions that do not offer a program in remote sensing, the subject matter is presented as modular units, each of which can be readily incorporated into existing curricula. These materials have been produced in both CD-ROM and WWW format, making them useful for classroom or lab setting. Depending upon the level of available computer support, graphics can be displayed directly from the CD-ROM, or as a series of color view graphs for standard overhead projection.
Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.
As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.
Raiford, Lisa Renee
This study examined the classroom learning environments and science attitudes of students in three IB Higher Level science classrooms. The study sample consisted of 82 twelfth grade IB science students and three IB Higher Level science teachers. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to generate assertions toward the development of a grounded theory on accelerated curriculum effects on the classroom learning environment. The four research questions that guided this investigation are: (1) What are the shared characteristics of IB Higher Level experimental science instructors? (2) What instructional methods do instructors use to implement the IB Higher Level experimental science program and why do the instructors use these methods? (3) What are the students' perceptions about the classroom learning environment in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? (4) Does a relationship exist between student perceptions of the classroom learning environment and student attitudes toward the subject of science in IB Higher Level experimental science courses? The qualitative data sources were field notes from classroom observations, teacher interview transcripts, and relevant documents. These data sources were analyzed by constant comparison analysis. Assertions were generated about the educational and professional qualifications of the Higher Level science instructors and the teaching methods used to implement the IB science curriculum. Quantitative data sources consisted of student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Attitude Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA). Student responses to the Preferred and Actual Forms of the ICEQ were analyzed with paired t-tests and one way analyses of variance to determine the students' perceptions about the science classroom environment. Correlation tests were used to examine the relationship between learning environment dimensions and
Krzic, M.; Watson, K.; Grand, S.; Crowley, C.; Dyanatkar, S.; Bomke, A.; Smith, S.
The relationship between sedimentary deposits, landforms and soil profile development is difficult for students to grasp in a conventional classroom setting. The ideal way to solve this is to take the students on extended field trips; however, field trips are expensive, have to be conducted during specific time periods, and can only handle a limited number of students. The objective of this project was to bring the field to the classroom via a virtual, dynamic web-based teaching tool illustrating common depositional environments and associated landforms and soils. The teaching tool was largely based on video footage obtained in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and in the grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia. The Canadian Rockies are undergoing rapid deglaciation and provided excellent examples of new glacial deposits and early landscape development processes. On the other hand, British Columbia's grasslands became ice-free about 10,000 years ago and were used to illustrate landscape evolution and post-glaciation soil profile development. To bring these two environments together, video footage of corresponding landforms was shot at both locations and edited into a series of short video clips illustrating the link between depositional processes, resulting landforms and soils and their post-glacial evolution. Soil scientists, survey specialists and geomorphologists provided live commentary. The teaching tool (http://soilweb.landfood.ubc.ca/landscape/) is an open-access website merging video clips, sound recordings, text, photos and graphics intended to help students situate landforms within their geomorphologic context. This online teaching resource allows students to observe, on their own time, conditions under which sediments are deposited and soils are formed, and to witness the transformation of a barren, glacial landscape into a vegetated soil landscape. The tool can be used in various geomorphology, soil, agriculture, forestry, and natural
Robinson, Esther; Fraser, Barry J.
This study, involving the modification, validation and use of a learning environment questionnaire for both kindergarten students and their parents, is significant because prior learning environment research has normally involved neither parents nor such young students. A questionnaire, which was based on the What Is Happening In this Class? and…
Waxman, Hersh C.; Garcia, Andres; Read, Lisa L.
One of the essential principles for improving middle grade education is to establish a safe and healthy school environment (Jackson & Davis, 2000; Price & Waxman, 2005). The overall quality of the school climate or school environment has been argued to be one of the central problems of urban schools (Waxman & Huang, 1997). Several…
American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000
The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…
Fernández-Andrés, Ma Inmaculada; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl
Sensory processing and higher integrative functions impairments are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Context should be considered in analyzing the sensory profile and higher integrative functions. The main objective of this study is to compare sensory processing, social participation and praxis in a group of 79 children (65 males and 14 females) from 5 to 8 years of age (M=6.09) divided into two groups: ASD Group (n=41) and Comparison Group (n=38). The Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) was used to evaluate the sensory profile of the children: parents reported information about their children's characteristics in the home environment, and teachers reported information about the same characteristics in the classroom environment. The ASD Group obtained scores that indicate higher levels of dysfunction on all the assessed measures in both environments, with the greatest differences obtained on the social participation and praxis variables. The most affected sensory modalities in the ASD Group were hearing and touch. Only in the ASD Group were significant differences found between the information reported by parents and what was reported by teachers: specifically, the teachers reported greater dysfunction than the parents in social participation (p=.000), touch (p=.003) and praxis (p=.010). These results suggest that the context-specific qualities found in children with ASD point out the need to receive information from both parents and teachers during the sensory profile assessment process, and use context-specific assessments.
Lambert, Richard; Abbott-Shim, Martha; McCarty, Frances
This study monitored classroom quality throughout three Head Start programs in the Southeastern United States, using the "Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs: Research Edition II." A random sample of classrooms was selected to represent high and low quality classrooms in urban and rural settings. Parents and teachers rated…
Toch, Marlen; Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Witvliet, Margot I; Dragano, Nico; Eikemo, Terje A
This study is the first to examine the contribution of both psychosocial and physical risk factors to occupational inequalities in self-assessed health in Europe. Data from 27 countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey for men and women aged 16 to 60 (n = 21,803). Multilevel logistic regression analyses (random intercept) were applied, estimating odds ratios of reporting less than good health. Analyses indicate that physical working conditions account for a substantial proportion of occupational inequalities in health in both Central/Eastern and Western Europe. Physical, rather than psychosocial, working conditions seem to have the largest effect on self-assessed health in manual classes. For example, controlling for physical working conditions reduced the inequalities in the prevalence of"less than good health" between the lowest (semi- and unskilled manual workers) and highest (higher controllers) occupational groups in Europe by almost 50 percent (Odds Ratio 1.87, 95% Confidence Interval 1.62-2.16 to 1.42, 1.23-1.65). Physical working conditions contribute substantially to health inequalities across "post-industrial" Europe, with women in manual occupations being particularly vulnerable, especially those living in Central/Eastern Europe. An increased political and academic focus on physical working conditions is needed to explain and potentially reduce occupational inequalities in health.
Fordham, Adrian M.
This publication describes the first phase of the Classroom Environment: Teaching for Learning Study in Australia, a six-year international research effort to identify correlations between teaching practices and student achievement. The report's first chapter presents a resume of the study and reviews research findings on managerial and…
Kimbrough-Walls, Vickie J.
Student success is dependent on effective instruction. Yet, effective teaching is difficult to define and described differently by students, faculty, and administrators. Nursing and dental hygiene education programs require faculty to teach in both classroom and clinical environments. However, accreditation agencies for these programs mandate…
Wiginton, Barry Lynn
This study utilized an explanatory mixed-methods research design to investigate the effect of learning environment on student mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy, and student learning style in a ninth grade Algebra I classroom. The study also explored the lived experiences of the teachers and students in the three different…
This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…
The three-phase process "-Instrument for Minority Immigrant Science Learning Environment," an 8-scale, 32-item see Appendix I- (I_MISLE) instrument when completed by teachers provides an accurate description of existing conditions in classrooms in which immigrant and refugee students are situated. Through the completion of the instrument…
Kyburiene, Laima; Navickiene, Gemma
The article gives a review of the investigations publicised in the scientific papers of various countries, which reveal the increase in social closure and analyse the problematic conception of social withdrawal; introduces the theoretical (ideal) model of a socially integral teaching/learning environment in the classroom; uncovers its impact on…
Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.
Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…
This paper focuses on the use of multimedia-based predict-observe-explain (POE) tasks to facilitate small group learning conversations. Although the tasks were given to pairs of students as a diagnostic tool to elicit their pre-instructional physics conceptions, they also provided a peer learning opportunity for students. The study adopted a social constructivist perspective to analyse and interpret the students conversations, focussing on students articulation and justification of their own science conceptions, clarification of and critical reflection on their partners views, and negotiation of new, shared meanings. Two senior science classes participated in this interpretive study. Data sources were mainly qualitative and included audio and video recordings of students small group discussions at the computer, interviews with selected students and their teachers, classroom observations, and student surveys. Findings indicate that the computer-based POE tasks supported students peer learning conversations, particularly during the prediction, reasoning and observation stages of the POE strategy. The increased level of student control of the POE tasks, combined with the multimedia nature of the program, initiated quality peer discussions. The findings have implications for authentic, technology-mediated learning in science.
Ayyavoo, Gabriel Roman
With the proliferation of 21st century educational technologies, science teaching and learning with digitally acclimatized learners in secondary science education can be realized through an online Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE)-based issues approach. STSE-based programs can be interpreted as the exploration of socially-embedded initiatives in science (e.g., use of genetically modified foods) to promote the development of critical cognitive processes and to empower learners with responsible decision-making skills. This dissertation presents a case study examining the online environment of a grade 11 physics class in an all-girls' school, and the outcomes from those online discursive opportunities with STSE materials. The limited in-class discussion opportunities are often perceived as low-quality discussions in traditional classrooms because they originate from an inadequate introduction and facilitation of socially relevant issues in science programs. Hence, this research suggests that the science curriculum should be inclusive of STSE-based issue discussions. This study also examines the nature of students' online discourse and, their perceived benefits and challenges of learning about STSE-based issues through an online environment. Analysis of interviews, offline classroom events and online threaded discussion transcripts draws from the theoretical foundations of critical reflective thinking delineated in the Practical Inquiry (P.I.) Model. The PI model of Cognitive Presence is situated within the Community of Inquiry framework, encompassing two other core elements, Teacher Presence and Social Presence. In studying Cognitive Presence, the online STSE-based discourses were examined according to the four phases of the P.I. Model. The online discussions were measured at macro-levels to reveal patterns in student STSE-based discussions and content analysis of threaded discussions. These analyses indicated that 87% of the students participated in
Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.
Nixon, Mary Anne; Leftwich, Beth Rodgers
Describes steps followed by Western Carolina University's College of Business (North Carolina) in changing a traditional on-campus graduate program to a distance-learning environment: evaluating current mission, customer needs, and program to determine goals; forming a cross-disciplinary team; developing a program structure, including…
Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethical dilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…
Students from 84 biology, 113 chemistry, and 41 physics classes drawn from midwestern states completed the Learning Environment Inventory and the Science Attitude Inventory. One out of ten LEI scales predicted attitude scores of biology and chemistry students, and none was found for physics students. (MLH)
Knutzen, Brant; Kennedy, David
This paper reports the progress of a pilot project exploring the integration of a collaborative virtual learning environment (Second Life) with the instruction of English courses at Lingnan University in Hong Kong. An educational partnership was developed with two TESOL teacher-training courses at Texas A&M University in the US. The project…
Franco, Robert W., Ed.; Shimabukuro, James N., Ed.
Part of a four-volume set in which community college educators discuss their efforts to internationalize the educational experience of the students and communities they serve, volume II in this series considers the challenges, pitfalls, and rewards of creating campus environments with rich international and intercultural programs and activities.…
Create an outdoor learning program for young children. Transform outdoor spaces into learning environments where children can enjoy a full range of activities as they spend quality time in nature. This book is filled with guidance to help you plan, design, and create an outdoor learning program that is a rich, thoughtfully equipped, natural…
Marcum, Tanya M.; Perry, Sandra J.
In the Legal Environment of Business course in a traditional undergraduate business curriculum, students are expected to acquire knowledge about many areas of the law and the application of law to business, society, and the international marketplace. Current concepts in undergraduate business education, such as ethics and sustainability, must also…
Johnson, Mark William; Sherlock, David
The Personal Learning Environment (PLE) has been presented in a number of guises over a period of 10 years as an intervention which seeks the reorganisation of educational technology through shifting the "locus of control" of technology towards the learner. In the intervening period to the present, a number of initiatives have attempted…
Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony
This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…
Considers the problem of how to track a student's real progress in learning and evaluates the success of concept mapping in constructing a learning environment in a Finnish primary school. Highlights include the semiotic paradigm developed by Charles Sanders Peirce; and results of a longitudinal study. (Author/LRW)
Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.
This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The…
Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.
In an online graduate paleontology course taken by practicing Earth Science teachers, we designed an investigation using teachers' local informal educational environments. Teachers (N = 28) were responsible for photographing, describing, and integrating fossil specimens from two informal sites into a paleoenvironmental analysis of the landscape in…
Whyte, Barbara; House, Nik; Keys, Nikki
The New Zealand Ministry of Education encourages schools to update to flexible learning spaces and activate teaching approaches that augment such physical settings. Many schools have embraced the concept of innovative learning environments (ILE) and team teaching, motivating a trend fast gaining popularity in New Zealand primary schools. However,…
Outlines research findings on enriched environment investigations on the development of the brain's neocortex. Although the research has been conducted on animal brains, researchers expect to find related patterns in plasticity in humans. The research is important to educators as it challenges them to define, create, and maintain an emotionally…
Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David
The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…
Keeler, Carolyn M.
Describes a qualitative evaluation of an elementary schoolwide computer implementation project. Highlights include the use of interviews, questionnaires, and surveys with teachers, students, and parents; changes in teacher attitudes and roles, classroom management, and classroom climate; and a model for creating a community of learners through the…
Hill, M. C.; Abarca, S.; Bollinger, T.; Cox, S.; Engel, D.; Miranda, E.; Pelkey, S.; Shaffer, M.; Taylor, J.; VanSomeren, C.; Yoerg, A.; Jeffries, Z.
Opportunities and tradeoffs related to water, energy, food, and the environment will be of critical concern for the next generatiion of people on Earth. Better future decisions are likely if those who are now students explore these issues from scientific and multicultural approaches using cross-cutting concepts. In the Fall of 2015 at the University of Kansas, this topic is the focus of one of the Freshman Honors courses. These courses bring 10 freshmen from different backgrounds together to develop skills in discussion, understanding different viewpoints, researching a focused topic, and expression through read and writing. The course coordinator is a specialist in the very nerdy field of numerical simulation of environmental systems. Invited speakers will come from, for example, the KU Law School and the English Department. A Policy Conference with adversarial and collaborative role playing will be conducted toward the end of the class. The roles played will include politicians, scientists, and native Americans. A poster will be developed for presentation at a KU Symposium and AGU, which will hopefully (at the discretion of the students) provide an interactive experience for the audience. Please come see how the class turned out and provide discussion and suggestions.
Lampard, Amy M.; Maclehose, Richard F.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Davison, Kirsten K.
Weight-related teasing has been found to be associated with low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviors in adolescents. While research has typically examined weight-related teasing directed towards the individual, little is known about weight-related teasing at the school level. This study aimed to determine the association between the school-level prevalence of weight-related teasing and psychosocial factors, body dissatisfaction and weight control behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 2,793; 53.2% female) attending 20 US public middle and high schools were surveyed as part of the Eating and Activity in Teens (EAT) 2010 study. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between school-level weight-related teasing and health variables, controlling for individual-level weight-related teasing, clustering of individuals within schools, and relevant covariates. A greater school-level prevalence of weight-related teasing was associated with lower self-esteem and greater body fat dissatisfaction in girls, and greater depressive symptoms in boys, over and above individual-level weight-related teasing. Dieting was associated with the school-level prevalence of weight-related teasing in analysis adjusted for covariates in girls, but not following adjustment for individual-level weight-related teasing. Unhealthy weight control behaviors, extreme weight control behaviors, and muscle-enhancing behaviors were not associated with the school-level prevalence of weight-related teasing in girls or boys. Findings from the current study, in conjunction with previous findings showing associations between weight-related teasing, psychological concerns, and weight control behaviors, highlight the importance of implementing strategies to decrease weight-related teasing in schools. PMID:24395152
Elison-Bowers, P; Snelson, Chareen; Casa de Calvo, Mario; Thompson, Heather
This study compared the responses of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students on measures of student/teacher interaction, course structure, physical learning environment, and overall course enjoyment/satisfaction. The sample population consisted of students taking undergraduate courses in medical terminology at two western colleges. The survey instrument was derived from Thomerson's questionnaire, which included closed- and open-ended questions assessing perceptions of students toward their courses. Controlling for grade expectations, results revealed no significant differences among the on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students in any of the four cluster domains. However, a nonsignificant (and continuing) trend suggested that students preferred the traditional classroom environment. When results were controlled for age, significant differences emerged between traditional and nontraditional students on measures of student/teacher interaction, physical learning environment, and overall enjoyment/satisfaction, as nontraditional students exhibited higher scores. Students' responses to open-ended questions indicated they enjoyed the convenience of online instruction, but reported finding frustration with technology itself.
Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others
Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…
For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects.
Bernal, Guillermo; Saez-Santiago, Emily
Over the last few decades, psychologists and other health professionals have called attention to the importance of considering cultural and ethnic-minority aspects in any psychosocial interventions. Although, at present, there are published guidelines on the practice of culturally competent psychology, there is still a lack of practical…
The main purposes of the present study are to investigate the differences on student's attitudes toward physics and their perceptions regarding classroom climate during physics classes based on gender and grade level. In addition, the study also explores female students' opinions about physics, and examines to what extent this factor might influence their decision to choose or not to choose physics or physics-related fields for their career choices in the future. A group of approximately 864 male and female students, equally proportioned by gender, were assigned to take part in this study. Two standardized instruments, namely the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), have been employed to collect data. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyze the collected data resulting from the questionnaires as well as from the interviews. The study found, first, regardless of their gender and grade level differences, students expected a more positive classroom climate during learning physics. Also, it has been found that male students experience a more positive classroom environment than female students. Second, the study found that male students do show more positive attitudes toward physics than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, twelfth-grade students show a more positive attitude toward physics than eleventh-graders. Third, the study found that most female students do not like physics based on several reasons such as physics is a hard, monotonous and boring subject. Although eleventh-grade female students do not like physics, most of them intended to choose science as their major in the next grade. Surprisingly, a majority of twelfth-grade female students who are majoring in science have no intention to choose physics or physics-related subjects either for their prospective major at the university or for their career choices in the future.
Liben, L S; Moore, M L; Golbeck, S L
Preschoolers (N = 20) and student teachers (N = 10) were asked to reconstruct the complete layout of their familiar classroom using a small-scale model as well as using life-size furniture in their actual classroom. Children were given the model task once within a testing room (standard model) and once within their normally arranged classroom (cued model). Subjects were also given an isolated-location task in which they were asked to show the location of individual pieces of furniture, 1 at a time. Adults performed virtually perfectly on all tasks. Children demonstrated more knowledge about their classroom when no scale reduction was necessary (i.e., performance was significantly better in the classroom than on the model) and when information about spatial arrangement was available (i.e., performance on the cued model surpassed performance on the standard model). Nevertheless, some children still performed inaccurately, even with these additional aids. Results from the isolated-location task demonstrated that, when possible children rely on relational information in determining locations. Implications for conclusions about children's spatial competence are discussed.
King, Elizabeth K.; Pierro, Rebekah C.; Li, Jiayao; Porterfield, Mary Lee; Rucker, Lia
This study examined differences in classroom quality, assessed by the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R), in 287 infant and 479 toddler classrooms. Classroom quality was compared across classroom age group (infant compared to toddler classrooms) as well as across programme type (for-profit compared to not-for-profit…
Lin, Yen-Ting; Jou, Min
Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT) allowed several tools and systems to be proposed for improving classroom experiences to both instructors and students. However, most of these tools were brand-new and stand-alone programs that require users to invest additional time and effort to become familiar with their use. This…
Zeli, Doris Conti
A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to…
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…
Lang, Dale Christopher
Through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, this study revealed the degree to which 31 high school teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals at a temporary school site. Teachers emphatically desired: (1) an appropriate amount of space to rearrange student furniture, enabling…
Gilboa, Yafit; Rosenblum, Sara; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Rizzo, Albert; Josman, Naomi
The objectives of this study were to describe the nature of the attention deficits in children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in comparison with typically developing (TD) children, using the Virtual Classroom (VC), and to assess the utility of this instrument for detecting attention deficits. Twenty-nine NF1 children and 25 age-and…
Lim, Cher Ping; Chai, Ching Sing
Although classroom-oriented instructional development (ID) models have the potential to help teachers think and plan for effective instruction with technology, research studies have shown that they are not widely employed. Many of these models have not factored in the complexities that teachers faced when planning for instruction in…
Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.
This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.
It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.
Greene, Katie; Mitcham, Karen Conn
Classroom community is an integral part of facilitating a safe and supportive learning environment for students. Teachers, architects of community, recognize the importance of encouraging collaboration and respect among students in the classrooms and schools, and the value of nurturing atmospheres of respect. Teachers who are intentional about…
Orlowski, Marietta; Lorson, Kevin; Lyon, Anna; Minoughan, Susan
The classroom teacher is a critical team member of a comprehensive school physical activity program and an activity-friendly school environment. Students spend more time in the classroom than in any other school setting or environment. Classrooms are busy places, and classroom teachers must make decisions about how to make the best use of their…
Blankenship, Colleen S.
Recent research on effective classroom management practices is summarized. Effective practices include organizing classroom space, establishing rules, developing classroom procedures, maintaining the learning environment (e.g., matching instruction to individual needs and monitoring pupil performance), and assessing the effectiveness of management…
Kramer, David C.
Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)
The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...
Postholm, May Britt
The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…
Tannenbaum, D.; McGillivray, M.
The Model for the Assessment of Psychosocial Problems (MAPP) can help family medicine residents effectively assess patients with psychosocial problems. Following a patient-centred clinical method, MAPP provides a guide to exploring problems and an approach that allows residents and patients jointly to define problems and decide upon management. Emphasis is placed on clarifying patients' expectations of physicians. PMID:9222578
Suszycki, Lee H.
Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)
Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.
Miranda, Michael V.
The academically underprepared community college student may also be psychosocially underprepared for college, a condition contributing to the development of classroom-specific social phobia and to the high attrition rate at community colleges. The "Find Your Voice Program" uses individual and group cognitive-behavioral techniques to develop…
Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers. As anticipated, children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude were more rejected, poorly accepted (boys), and victimized (girls) by peers and demonstrated more depressive symptoms (girls) in 1st-grade classrooms with negative observed emotional climate. Results support a Child x Environment model of children's social and emotional adjustment.
Alzahrani, Ibraheem; Woollard, John
This paper seeks to discover the relationship between both the social constructivist learning theory and the collaborative learning environment. This relationship can be identified by giving an example of the learning environment. Due to wiki characteristics, Wiki technology is one of the most famous learning environments that can show the…
Weiss, Maureen R.
The goal of a positive youth development perspective is the promotion of healthy physical and psychosocial development in young people. This approach consists of social-contextual features (e.g., teacher behaviors, classroom structure, student activities) that help equip youth with attributes, skills, competencies, and values that will contribute…
Marcia, James E.
At first consideration, the worlds of the classroom, the psychotherapy office and the experimental psychology laboratory may seem disparate settings with no obvious connection among them. In this article, the author would like to draw such a connection and to suggest the relevance of psychosocial developmental theory and research to self-regulated…
LaForett, Dore R.; Murray, Desiree W.; Kollins, Scott H.
This article reviews the research literature on psychosocial treatments for preschool-aged children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the context of the developmental and contextual needs of this population (e.g., increased parenting demands, differences in classroom structure, and the child's emerging developmental…
Emmanuel, Glory Ruth; Silva, Austin Ray
Sandia Labs has corporate, lab-wide efforts to enhance the research environment as well as improve physical space. However, these two efforts are usually done in isolation. The integration of physical space design with the nurturing of what we call psychosocial space can foster more efficient and effective creativity, innovation, collaboration, and performance. This paper presents a brief literature review on how academia and industry are studying the integration of physical and psychosocial space and focuses on the efforts that we, the authors, have made to improve the research environment in the Cyber Engineering Research Lab (CERL), home to Group 1460. Interviews with subject matter experts from Silicon Valley and the University of New Mexico plus changes to actual spaces in CERL provided us with six lessons learned when integrating physical and psychosocial space. We describe these six key takeaways in hopes that Sandia will see this area as an evolving research capability that Sandia can both contribute to and benefit from.
Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.
Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.
Haney, Jodi J.; Lumpe, Andrew T.; Czerniak, Charlene M.
This study examines the perceptions of teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and high school students about the science learning environment. The participants were active members of a grant project aimed at creating community action teams. Varrella and Burry-Stock's (1997) Beliefs About Learning Environments (BALE) Instrument was…
Effective Instructional Strategies To Facilitate: Classroom Transitions, Group Instruction, Independent Performance and Self-Assessment. Fourth Edition. Teacher's Manual for Project SLIDE: Skills for Learning Independence in Developmentally Appropriate Environments.
Carta, Judy; Renauer, Marita; Schiefelbusch, Jeanie; Terry, Barbara
This manual presents instructional strategies developed by Project SLIDE (Skills for Learning Independence in Developmentally Appropriate Environments), a project that identified skills that general education kindergarten teachers found to be critical for students' success in their classrooms. After training in Project SLIDE strategies, students…
Green, John O.
Discusses how the power and potential of the computer may shape the classroom of the future by presenting a scenario of a classroom in the year 2001. The role of artificial intelligence in this environment is considered. (JN)
This paper describes the family pathology affecting five children with growth retardation. Psychosocial dwarfism was suspected in all of them. Emotional trauma from the social environment is believed to have contributed to the children's retarded growth pattern. Striking similarity in the pattern of disturbance in parent-child interaction with child abuse and maltreatment cases is shown. The social worker's responsibility and the difficulties encountered in both assessment and treatment of these families is highlighted. Guidelines are delineated for social work practitioners in approaching these families. Implications of the findings are examined and directions for future studies identified.
The concept of race is only a human particularity. In spite of this, the racism, as a construction of imagination or a paranocial delusion or an ethnic attitude, is spread among the narcissist personalities and the environment dominated by nationalist or religious fanaticism and anyway generates collective violence. There is also a psychosocial racism almost always actual in the common human relations, appeared in form of positive attitudes towards similar others and negative attitudes towards different others. The best defence against these both phenomena are the attitudes of tolerance, understanding and liking.
Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth
In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.
Chua, M L; Setyawati, M I; Li, H; Fang, C H Y; Gurusamy, S; Teoh, F T L; Leong, D T; George, S
We investigated the physicochemical properties (size, shape, elemental composition, and endotoxin) of size resolved particulate matter (PM) collected from the indoor and corridor environments of classrooms. A comparative hazard profiling of these PM was conducted using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Oxidative stress-dependent cytotoxicity responses were assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high content screening (HCS), and disruption of monolayer cell integrity was assessed using fluorescence microscopy and transwell assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed differences in the morphology and elemental composition of PM of different sizes and origins. While the total mass of PM collected from indoor environment was lower in comparison with those collected from the corridor, the endotoxin content was substantially higher in indoor PM (e.g., ninefold higher endotoxin level in indoor PM8.1-20 ). The ability to induce oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and leakiness in cell monolayer were higher for indoor PM compared to those collected from the corridor. In conclusion, this comparative analysis suggested that indoor PM is relatively more hazardous to the endothelial system possibly because of higher endotoxin content.
Kwan, Yee Wan; Wong, Angela F. L.
In this study, we investigated-secondary school students' perceptions of their constructivist learning environment in Liberal Studies, and whether their perceptions were related to their critical thinking ability. A convenience sample of Secondary Three students (N = 967) studying Liberal Studies in Hong Kong participated in this research by…
Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Gwo-Dong
Elementary school is the critical stage during which the development of listening comprehension and oral abilities in language acquisition occur, especially with a foreign language. However, the current foreign language instructors often adopt one-way teaching, and the learning environment lacks any interactive instructional media with which to…
Ebrahimi, Nabi. A.
This article reports the validation and application of an English language teacher education (LTE) version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). The instrument, called the CLES-LTE, was field tested with a sample of 622 Iranian English language student teachers in 28 classes. When principal components analysis led to the…
Helding, Karen A.; Fraser, Barry J.
No previous research has employed learning environments criteria in evaluating the effectiveness of the system of teacher certification sponsored by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Because the litmus test of any professional development effort is the extent of the changes in teaching behaviours in participating teachers'…
Deng, M.; di, L.
Higher education in geosciences has imminent goals to prepare students with modern geoscience knowledge and skills to meet the increased demand on trained professionals for working on the big challenges faced by geoscience disciplines, such as the global environmental change, world energy supplies, sustainable development, etc. In order to reach the goal, the geoscience education in post-secondary institutes worldwide has to attract and retain enough students and to train students with knowledge and skills needed by the society. The classroom innovations that can encourage and support student investigations and research activities are key motivation mechanisms that help to reach the goal. This presentation describes the use of GeoBrain, an innovative geospatial knowledge system, as a powerful educating tool for motivating and facilitating innovative undergraduate and graduate teaching and research in geosciences. Developed in a NASA funded project, the GeoBrain system has adopted and implemented the latest Web services and knowledge management technologies for providing innovative methods in publishing, accessing, visualizing, and analyzing geospatial data and in building/sharing geoscience knowledge. It provides a data-rich online learning and research environment enabled by wealthy data and information available at NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Students, faculty members, and researchers from institutes worldwide can easily access, analyze, and model with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess such vast resources locally at their desktops. The online environment provided by GeoBrain has brought significant positive changes to geosciences education in higher-education institutes because of its new concepts and technologies, motivation mechanisms, free exploration resources, and advanced geo- processing capabilities. With the system, the used-to-be very challenging or even impossible teaching tasks has
Yang, Wonyoung; Hodgson, Murray
An investigation was made of the acoustical environments in the Berwick Preschool, Vancouver, in response to complaints by the teachers. Reverberation times (RT), background noise levels (BNL), and in-class sound levels (Leq) were measured for acoustical evaluation in the classrooms. With respect to the measured RT and BNL, none of the classrooms in the preschool were acceptable according to the criteria relevant to this study. A questionnaire was administered to the teachers to assess their subjective responses to the acoustical and nonacoustical environments of the classrooms. Teachers agreed that the nonacoustical environments in the classrooms were fair, but that the acoustical environments had problems. Eight different classroom configurations were simulated to improve the acoustical environments, using the CATT room acoustical simulation program. When the surface absorption was increased, both the RT and speech levels decreased. RASTI was dependent on the volumes of the classrooms when the background noise levels were high; however, it depended on the total absorption of the classrooms when the background noise levels were low. Ceiling heights are critical as well. It is recommended that decreasing the volume of the classrooms is effective. Sound absorptive materials should be added to the walls or ceiling.
Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; Wilson, Anne
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the psychosocial needs of nurses who care for patients with severe burn injuries. Burns nurses work in an emotionally challenging and confronting environment, for which they are in need of emotional and clinical support. Exposure to such high levels of stress in this occupational environment has implications for nurses' health and psychosocial well-being. Seven burns nurses were recruited in 2009 from a severe burn injury unit in New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting nurses' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data were collected through in-depth individual semistructured interviews using open-ended questions. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. The psychosocial needs of burns nurses were identified and organized into five categories: peer nursing support, informal support, lack of support, multidisciplinary team collaboration, and professional support. The findings clearly demonstrate that support and unity within the workplace are fundamental factors for the psychosocial well-being of nurses caring for patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Support for nurses in the form of regular professional or collegial debriefing sessions and utilization of employee assistance programs could ease the impact of the stressful environment in which they operate, and could influence staff retention. However, a supportive workplace culture is necessary to encourage nurses to access these services.
Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)
Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong
With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.
Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory
(1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076
In "Learning Outside the Primary Classroom," the educationalist and writer Fred Sedgwick explores in a practical way the many opportunities for intense learning that children and teachers can find outside the confines of the usual learning environment, the classroom. This original work is based on tried and tested methods from UK primary…
DiSarno, Neil J.; Schowalter, Melissa; Grassa, Patricia
Discussion of classroom amplification systems to improve the performance of students with hearing loss or learning disabilities addresses the auditory challenges of inclusive classrooms, changing the classroom environment to reduce noise, types of amplification systems, and what teachers observe about amplification. (Contains references.) (DB)
At times, classroom management and guidance elude even the most seasoned teachers. Yet, students need guidance and practice in self-regulatory skills to assist in the learning that occurs in classrooms. Teachers need both practical and research-based classroom management strategies that benefit the environment and help create a space conducive to…
Allen, Kathleen P.
While bullying in schools has begun to receive attention, little is known about the relationship between classroom management and bullying in the classroom. The process for exploring this relationship will be a review of research and literature related to bullying in the school environment, classroom management, teacher practices, and student…
Clark, Cynthia M; Ahten, Sara; Werth, Loredana
The appeal of online learning has increased dramatically among nurses who are pursuing higher-education opportunities. However, online learning has created potential avenues for uncivil behaviors that can affect student satisfaction, performance, and retention. This is the second of 2 articles detailing a study to empirically measure nursing faculty and student perceptions of an online learning environment (OLE). Part 1, in the July/August 2012 issue, described the quantitative results including the types and frequency of uncivil behaviors and the extent to which they are perceived to be a problem in online courses. In this portion of the study, the authors discuss the qualitative findings, including the challenges and advantages of the OLE, specific ways to foster civility, and strategies to promote student success and retention.
Describes a classroom technique used to creatively involve first grade students in reading and writing through the use of classroom characters who talk to the class via a paper cartoon-type balloon attached to the characters picture. Provides examples of classroom characters and how they help children develop their writing skills. (MG)
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Martinez, Jaime; Chakraborty, Rana
This clinical report provides guidance for the pediatrician in addressing the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults living with HIV, which can improve linkage to care and adherence to life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Recent national case surveillance data for youth (defined here as adolescents and young adults 13 to 24 years of age) revealed that the burden of HIV/AIDS fell most heavily and disproportionately on African American youth, particularly males having sex with males. To effectively increase linkage to care and sustain adherence to therapy, interventions should address the immediate drivers of ARV compliance and also address factors that provide broader social and structural support for HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Interventions should address psychosocial development, including lack of future orientation, inadequate educational attainment and limited health literacy, failure to focus on the long-term consequences of near-term risk behaviors, and coping ability. Associated challenges are closely linked to the structural environment. Individual case management is essential to linkage to and retention in care, ARV adherence, and management of associated comorbidities. Integrating these skills into pediatric and adolescent HIV practice in a medical home setting is critical, given the alarming increase in new HIV infections in youth in the United States.
Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Lee, Susanne; Latimer, William W.
This paper examines the association of psychosocial factors and long-term drug use behaviors (year-5.5) among adolescents with a substance dependence disorder. One group received treatment with a 12-Step approach (n = 159) and one group was on a waiting list (n = 62). Four psychosocial factors (deviant behavior, peer drug environment,…
The psychosocial rehabilitation of older persons is one of the main problems in health policy. About one quarter of the over 65-year-olds face psychic problems, without, to a large extent, receiving adequate treatment and rehabilitative care. Substantial deficits exist above all in the out-patient and non-residential service sectors. In in-patient care, existing methods for psychosocial intervention (such as psychoanalysis, behavioural, client-centered, family, Gestalt, milieu, or music and dance therapy, psychodrama, reality orientation training, or resensitization techniques) are hardly ever used. This absence of applied geronto-psychology is attributable to the shortcomings of available assessment methods, multiple methodical problems of intervention research, and--above all--to insufficient staff positions for psychosocial professions in the gerontological sector. Provision of further permanent posts for psychosocial workers; development of age-specific assessment methods; interdisciplinary and systematic interventional research; the development of ambulatory, community-based services as well as intensive support for existing self-help efforts are therefore called for.
THE DEPTH OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATION VARIES WITH ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTION. THESE FACTORS INCREASE AS A BUILDING USAGE BECOMES MORE ANTHROPOPHILIC. SITUATIONS RELATING TO AMBIGUOUS DESIGN MUST BE ELIMINATED IN BUILDING DESIGN. PROBLEMS INVOLVING VISUAL PERCEPTION SUCH AS (1) GLASS DOORS, (2) APPARENT INSECURITY OF STRUCTURE, (3) AMBIGUOUS SYMBOLIC…
The psychosocial maturity scale (PSM) described in several earlier papers is a self-report questionnaire. It is vulnerable, as are other questionnaires of this type, to respondents' wishes to present themselves in a socially desirable light. In this study, scores on two social desirability scales are examined in relation to PSM. Correlations…
National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.
The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Kramer, David C.
Describes the distinctive features of the common snapping turtle. Discusses facts and misconceptions held about the turtle. Provides guidelines for proper care and treatment of a young snapper in a classroom environment. (ML)
Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye
academic achievement and other factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment. PMID:17880688
Love, Betty; Hodge, Angie; Corritore, Cynthia; Ernst, Dana C.
The flipped classroom model of teaching can be an ideal venue for turning a traditional classroom into an engaging, inquiry-based learning (IBL) environment. In this paper, we discuss how two instructors at different universities made their classrooms come to life by moving the acquisition of basic course concepts outside the classroom and using…
Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.
Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…
Adams, Laural L.
In an increasingly technological environment, traditional teaching presentation methods such as the podium, overhead, and transparencies are no longer sufficient. This document serves as a guide to designing and planning an electronic classroom for "bidirectional" communication between teacher and student. Topics include: (1) determining…
Purkey, William Watson; Strahan, David B.
Invitational theory addresses the total educational environment and culture of the classroom and school, focusing on the people, places, policies, programs, and processes that constitute any school culture. Invitational teaching is a process for communicating caring and appropriate messages to nurture the realization of student potential as well…
Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…
Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.
The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…
The flipped classroom can support the implementation of a communicative, student-centered learning environment in the English as a foreign language classroom. Unfortunately, there is little research which supports the incorporation of flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom. Numerous studies have focused on flipped learning…
Park, Elisa L.; Choi, Bo Keum
Educational environment influences students' learning attitudes, and the classroom conveys the educational philosophy. The traditional college classroom design is based on the educational space that first appeared in medieval universities. Since then classrooms have not changed except in their size. In an attempt to develop a different perspective…
Milner, K.; Becker, T. W.; Boschi, L.; Sain, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Waterhouse, H.
The Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software framework to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. SEATREE is open source and community developed, distributed freely under the GNU General Public License. It is a fully contained package that lets users operate in a graphical mode, while giving more advanced users the opportunity to view and modify the source code. Top level graphical user interfaces which initiate the calculations and visualize results, are written in the Python programming language using an object-oriented, modern design. Results are plotted with either Matlab-like Python libraries, or SEATREE’s own Generic Mapping Tools wrapper. The underlying computational codes used to produce the results can be written in any programming language and accessed through Python wrappers. There are currently four fully developed science modules for SEATREE: (1) HC is a global geodynamics tool based on a semi-analytical mantle-circulation program based on work by B. Steinberger, Becker, and C. O'Neill. HC can compute velocities and tractions for global, spherical Stokes flow and radial viscosity variations. HC is fast enough to be used for classroom instruction, for example to let students interactively explore the role of radial viscosity variations for global geopotential (geoid) anomalies. (2) ConMan wraps Scott King’s 2D finite element mantle convection code, allowing users to quickly observe how modifications to input parameters affect heat flow over time. As seismology modules, SEATREE includes, (3), Larry, a global, surface wave phase-velocity inversion tool and, (4), Syn2D, a Cartesian tomography teaching tool for ray-theory wave propagation in synthetic, arbitrary velocity structure in the presence of noise. Both underlying programs were contributed by Boschi. Using Syn2D, students can explore, for example, how well a given
Technology & Learning, 2005
Good organization skills are key to running an efficient classroom, and having the right tools makes it easier to manage all of the tasks, save time, and be more productive. Having the power of information when and where anyone need it makes a difference in how well any teacher runs the classroom and knows his or her students. A Palm handheld…
An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…
Walker, William J.; Stern, George G.
The purpose of this research was to conduct a preliminary analysis of a new instrument, the Classroom Environment Index (CEI), designed to measure the psychological environment (press) of the classroom. The structure was essentially the same as other Syracuse indexes, containing 30 scales of 10 items each. Three forms of the instrument were…
Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie
The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…
Boulton, Michael; Woodmansey, Helen; Williams, Emma; Spells, Ruth; Nicholas, Beth; Laxton, Eleanor; Holman, Gemma; Duke, Elizabeth
Being bullied is associated with a psycho-social maladjustment during childhood. One hitherto largely overlooked correlate is disrupted classroom concentration. Using data collected from 364 9-11-year-old children attending seven junior schools in the UK, we tested a model in which children's perceived safety in two contexts (classroom and…
Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.
Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662
Kazak, Anne E; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A; Reilly, Anne; Fooks Parker, Stephanie; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P
Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches [Distress Thermometer (DT), Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT)], among many more articles calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed.
The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…
Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres
Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical
Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael
A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level.
Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael
A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50 years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140
Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.
In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.
Nielsen, Sarah K; Stube, Jan; Bass, Gail
The integration of psychosocial strategies into pediatric and physical disabilities coursework presents an issue of importance to advancing the outcomes for both occupational therapy education and practice. After curriculum mapping and modification to course content, a retrospective student survey and review of educational outcomes were undertaken in one curriculum. The programmatic formative evaluation results demonstrated that all students felt moderately prepared to use cognitive-behavioral strategies in their future practices, preferring behavioral strategies over cognitive strategies for changing client thinking. Implications for the importance of integration of psychosocial content across curricula and for future study of effective teaching methods within classroom learning activities and fieldwork are included.
Martin, Peter W.; Espiritu, Clemencia C
Examines how the teacher incorporates elements of both "Bahasa Melayu" and Brunei Malay into content lessons and views code switching in the primary classroom within the wider framework of community language norms and the linguistic pressures on students and teachers. Espiritu shares Martin's concern regarding the quantity and quality of…
Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel
Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…
The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of smart classrooms on the academic achievement of the nursing students. The sample of the research included 66 Health College students in Elazig. The sampling group was randomly chosen from second year students of Nursing and Midwife Education. The research was carried out with experimental…
McMahon, Susan D.; Wernsman, Jamie; Rose, Dale S.
In this study, 149 low-income, ethnically heterogeneous, fourth- and fifth-grade students completed self-report surveys in the fall and spring of 1 academic year. We examined classroom climate (satisfaction, cohesion, friction, task difficulty, and competition) and school belonging in relation to language arts and math and science self-efficacy,…
Barrett, Leverne A.; Kepler, Sheila J.
This study was conducted in order to determine the impact of a 3-year, theory based, inservice training program on teaching effectiveness for classroom teachers. Feedback on observed teaching effectiveness competencies was provided for each teacher in the study sample, along with a profile of student learning styles and data on student perceptions…
Mahony, Elizabeth M., Ed.; And Others
This five-part anthology presents descriptions of 22 classroom projects undertaken by a consortium of Missouri community colleges and elementary and secondary schools, directed by St. Louis Community College. The collection comprises the following articles: "Views of an Elementary Teacher" (Susan Biffignani); "Writing To Learn and…
Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Hessler, Danielle; Polonsky, William H.; Fisher, Lawrence
Background: The psychosocial impact of the bionic pancreas (BP) was assessed among children attending diabetes camp. Methods: Nineteen children were randomly assigned for 5 days to the BP condition and 5 days to the control condition in a crossover design. Results: Significant reductions in hypoglycemic fear and regimen burden were found. Children felt less burdened or worried about diabetes and felt freer to do things they enjoyed while using the BP. Children wished the BP responded to out of range numbers faster and expressed annoyance about carrying around the necessary equipment. Conclusions: Children may experience improved psychosocial outcomes following use of BP while expressing key areas of user concern. Future studies in less controlled environments with larger sample sizes can determine if these findings are generalizable to other groups. PMID:26993252
Murphy, John L
This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.
A game is used to study population control factors on a wolf pack and to explore human competition with these animals. A game board and chance cards to be photocopied for use in the classroom are provided. (DH)
Flay, B R
Twenty-seven school-based studies of psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention are reviewed. Two major approaches are represented: the "social influences" approach and the broader "life/social skills" approaches. The research studies are considered in four "generations": the seminal work by Richard Evans and colleagues at the University of Houston; seven "pilot" studies of improved programs at Stanford, Minnesota, New York, and Washington, with one school or classroom per experimental condition; twelve improved "prototype" studies by these four groups and others, with two or three units randomly assigned to conditions; and six studies in which maximizing internal validity was of prime concern. Reported results were fairly consistent, with each tested program seeming to reduce smoking onset by about 50%. However, none of the pilot or prototype studies considered alone provided easily interpreted results. The major contributions were improved programs and methods. The findings from the fourth generation of studies were more easily interpreted, though only two of them were interpreted with high confidence. It seems that psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention, particularly the social influences approach--fourth generation tests of the broader life/social skills approaches have yet to be reported--are effective, but at this time we know very little about why, for whom, or under what conditions. Suggestions are provided for improved future research.
This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…
Stretch, Robert H.
Examined the psychosocial readjustment of 164 Canadian Vietnam veterans. Found significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans and evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems. Suggests that problems are a result, in part, of prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of…
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.
A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…
Chappell, Anne; Ernest, Paul; Ludhra, Geeta; Mendick, Heather
In this paper, we look at what engaging with psychoanalysis, through psychosocial accounts of subjectivity, has contributed to our struggles for legitimacy and security within our ways of knowing. The psychosocial, with its insistence on the unconscious and the irrational, features as both a source of security and of insecurity. We use three…
Rourke, Byron P.; Fuerst, Darren E.
Evidence bearing on the relationships between profiles of neuropsychological assets and deficits, subtypes of learning disabilities, and patterns and degrees of psychosocial functioning is reviewed. Conclusions related to the neurodevelopmental bases of psychosocial functioning in children with nonverbal learning disabilities are emphasized. (SLD)
Longo, David J.; And Others
Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…
Gil-Monte, Pedro R
The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Discusses what size classrooms should be and what research is revealing on the concept of social distance and its influence on classroom size considerations. A standard classroom size chart is provided. (GR)
Chi, Xinli; Lin, Li; Zhang, Peichao
This study examined the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China and explored the correlations between Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. A total of 1,173 Chinese college students (62.1 percent males, Mage = 19.65 years) were invited to complete a questionnaire containing measures of demographic characteristics, psychosocial correlates, including the quality of the parent-child relationship, propensity for depression, and psychosocial competence, and Internet addictive behaviors. Among the participating students, 15.2 percent were classified as having Internet addiction. Furthermore, students who reported poorer parent-child relationships, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of psychosocial competence were more likely to report behaviors indicative of Internet addiction. Internet addiction was prevalent among college students in China. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were found to include the quality of the family environment (i.e., the quality of the parent-child relationship), personal mental health status (i.e., the existence of depression), and the level of developmental assets (i.e., psychosocial competence). These findings suggest that improving the quality of family life and promoting psychosocial competence among youth can be promising approaches for preventing or/and reducing Internet addiction among college students in China.
Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia
Davis (2001) introduced a cognitive-behavioral theory of generalized pathological internet use (GPIU) that attempts to model the etiology, development, and outcomes associated with PIU. According to this model, pre-existing psychosocial problems (depression, loneliness, or low levels of social support) predispose an individual to GPIU cognitions, behaviors, and negative outcomes. An exploratory study intended to investigate whether GPIU is associated with psychosocial health (loneliness, depression, self-esteem, and shyness), also taking account of types of internet services used, was conducted in a sample of Italian undergraduate students. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. The participants were 157 undergraduate students (34 male and 123 female) enrolled at The University of Florence. The results revealed a stronger correlation between the frequency of use of communicative services (as opposed to leisure or informational services) and GPIU levels. Among services, the most significant predictor of GPIU was the frequency of use of chat rooms and "adult" websites. All psychosocial health variables were correlated with GPIU, with the exception of shyness; however, general loneliness was the only significant predictor of GPIU. Depression and self-esteem were not significant predictors of GPIU. These results are consistent with the assumption that GPIU is related to the social aspect of the internet (e.g., online chatting) and arises from the unique communicative environment found online. In accordance with recent studies, social wellbeing (i.e. loneliness) seems to play a greater role than psychological health in deriving negative effects from internet use.
Thomas, Duane E; Townsend, Tiffany G; Belgrave, Faye Z
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and combined influence of racial identity and Africentric values on African American children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 104 (53 males, 51 females) African American fourth-grade students attending an inner-city public school in a northeastern city. Child and teacher ratings were used to assess the relationship between racial identity, Africentric values, and several indices of child psychosocial adjustment, including child behavior control, school interest, and teacher perceptions of child strengths and problems in the classroom. Child self-esteem and the effects of gender and cohort were used as covariates in several analyses in the study. Overall, findings from the study supported the usefulness of combining racial identity and Africentric values into a single model of ethnic identification for African American children. Implications for risk prevention and enhancement of psychosocial functioning among African American children are discussed.
McGillivray, Donald C.
This article reviews and tabulates some of the current concepts of the role of psychosocial factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concepts prevalent during the 1950's are listed followed by discussion of some of the variable factors that complicate studies in this field. Studies are then cited which lead to the following conclusions: 1. Patients with RA tend to have certain personality characteristics, such as depression, rigidity, dependency, neurotic response patterns, emotional instability, feelings of guilt and low ego strength. 2. These are not specific to RA. 3. They may well be sequelae of the disease rather than pre-morbid features. 4. There is no clear evidence as to the role of psychological stress in causing or activating RA. 5. Personality factors have an influence on the course of the disease. PMID:20468900
Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J
This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity.
Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny
Ninety percent of the 3.4 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Their psychosocial well being is fundamental to establishing and maintaining successful treatment outcomes and overall quality of life. With the increased roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, HIV infection is shifting from a life-threatening to a chronic disease. However, even for paediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment, HIV can still be devastating due to the interaction of complex factors, particularly in the context of other household illness and overextended healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa.This article explores the negative effect of several interrelated HIV-specific factors on the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children: disclosure, stigma and discrimination, and bereavement. However, drawing on clinical studies of resilience, it stresses the need to move beyond a focus on the individual as a full response to the needs of a sick child requires support for the individual child, caregiver-child dyads, extended families, communities, and institutions. This means providing early and progressive age appropriate interventions aimed at increasing the self-reliance and self-acceptance in children and their caregivers and promoting timely health-seeking behaviours. Critical barriers that cause poorer biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among children and caregiver must also be addressed as should the causes and consequences of stigma and associated gender and social norms.This article reviews interventions at different levels of the ecological model: individual-centred programs, family-centred interventions, programs that support or train healthcare providers, community interventions for HIV-infected children, and initiatives that improve the capacity of schools to provide more supportive environments for HIV-infected children. Although experience is increasing in approaches that address the psychosocial needs of vulnerable and HIV-infected children, there
American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010
Good teachers know that the physical environment of the classroom can either enhance or hinder learning. Appropriate room preparation and arrangement of materials reserves class time for learning, while inadequate planning interferes with instruction by causing interruptions and delays. Before the year begins, effective classroom managers…
Palmer, Catherine V.
Discusses factors that affect how well students with hearing loss and typical students can hear in classrooms. Soundfield equalization is discussed as a way to create an environment where each child is at a favorable speaker-listener distance by routing the teacher's voice to loudspeakers around the classroom. (CR)
Raphael Cohen-Almagor's article "Hate in the Classroom: Free Expression, Holocaust Denial, and Liberal Education" (2008) calls for sanctions on those K-12 public school teachers whose deployment of "hate speech"--and/or associations with others who deploy it--creates a "poisoned environment" in the classroom. While…
National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.
This guide gives elementary school teachers suggestions for providing a safe environment for their students and covers general safety concerns in the science classroom. Information is printed in a flip chart format for easy reference. Safety areas covered include: (1) In Case of Accident; (2) Eye Protection; (3) Plants in the Classroom; (4) First…
Levine, Glenn S.
Code Choice in the Language Classroom argues that the foreign language classroom is and should be regarded as a multilingual community of practice rather than as a perpetually deficient imitator of an exclusive second-language environment. From a sociocultural and ecological perspective, Levine guides the reader through a theoretical, empirical,…
DiCarlo, Kristen; Cooper, Lori
Effective classroom assessment techniques are directly linked to course objectives and proposed outcomes. Results within formative and summative assessments have been studied in the online learning environment as educators seek to meet objectives with respect to student success in the non-traditional setting. Online classroom assessment techniques…
This article looks at ways in which schools buildings designed for today and tomorrow can provide superior environments for learning by keeping pace with rapidly evolving technologies that have redefined the educational landscape. Wireless classrooms, data projectors and wall-mounted plasma monitors are cited as in-classroom technologies of…
Rollman, Steven A.
Research has shown that nonverbal variables have a strong influence on classroom communication. This paper examines the way in which communication in the classroom is affected by the variables of distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, posture and gestures, touch, use of time, physical attractiveness, and dress. Each…
The state of second language acquisition research, particularly that which is classroom-oriented, is examined in a review of 50 empirical investigations undertaken over the last 25 years. The studies were analyzed according to the following dimensions: the environment in which the data were collected (classroom, naturalistic, simulated classroom,…
Waxman, Hersholt C.; Huang, Shwu-Yong L.; Anderson, Lascelle; Weinstein, Thomas
Examined classroom processes in urban elementary schools identified as effective/efficient (E/E) and ineffective/inefficient (I/I), noting differences regarding students' behavior, motivation, and perception of classroom learning environment. Data from observations and student surveys indicated several classroom process differences between E/E and…
Fadde, Peter; Rich, Peter
Contemporary changes in pedagogy point to the need for a higher level of video production value in most classroom video, replacing the default video protocol of an unattended camera in the back of the classroom. The rich and complex environment of today's classroom can be captured more fully using the higher level, but still easily manageable,…
Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between family social support, parenting skills and child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care. We obtained data on 1,331 children (response rate 56.6%), 4-18 years old, enrolled in preventive child health care, and child and adolescent social care and mental health care because of psychosocial problems, and on 463 children (response rate 70.3%) not enrolled in psychosocial care. Results showed that enrolment in psychosocial care was associated with low family social support (odds ratio; 95%-confidence interval: 3.2; 2.4-4.4), and with poor parenting skills, i.e. poor supervision (1.5; 1.1-2.1) and inconsistent disciplining (1.5; 1.1-2.1). Children's psychosocial problems partially mediated the associations with family social support and completely with parenting skills. Children's problems did not moderate the associations. Positive parenting was not associated with care enrolment. We conclude that low family social support and poor parenting are important factors associated with enrolment, in particular because they are associated with more frequent occurrence of children's psychosocial problems. This implies that professionals and policymakers need to be aware that factors in children's social environment are related with enrolment in psychosocial care, in addition to children's psychosocial problems.
This article features the latest classroom technologies namely the FLY Pentop, WriteToLearn, and a new iris scan identification system. The FLY Pentop is a computerized pen from Leapster that "magically" understands what kids write and draw on special FLY paper. WriteToLearn is an automatic grading software from Pearson Knowledge Technologies and…
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007
In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…
Kelly, Rhea, Ed.
What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007
In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…
Wilson, H. Kent; Pianta, Robert C.; Stuhlman, Megan
In this study we examined the relation between children's social competence and their first-grade classroom environment. Drawing from data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we used cluster analysis to identify 4 types of typical classrooms based on observed classroom emotional and instructional supports. The 4 types…
Denny, Joanna Hope; Hallam, Rena; Homer, Karen
Research Findings: A statewide study of preschool classroom quality was conducted using 3 distinct classroom observation measures in order to inform a statewide quality rating system. Findings suggested that Tennessee preschool classrooms were approaching "good" quality on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R)…
Bondesan, S. R.; Brummer, J. G.; Wright, S. M.
Examines a classification system that offers a framework for discussing and choosing questions regarding curricular organization, classroom environment, and teaching and learning strategies. (Contains 21 references.) (DDR)
An issue of relationship between exposure to psychosocial factors and health status of employees is presented in this review. It is difficult to find hard evidence that could reliably confirm this relationship. Methodological difliculties encountered in measuring psychosocial factors and health effects and in designing research procedures are responsible for equivocal study results. However, a huge number of articles presenting the results of numerous studies make us convinced that many human organs are targets of dangerous impact of stress evoked by job conditions. Bearing in mind that work processes and working conditions become more and snore stressogenic. one can expect that in the near future psychosocial factors will form a group of the most dangerous health hazards. Therefore, it is an urgent challenge facing the occupational health service (OHS) to adapt its system of prevention to the specificity of threats, and thus better protect employees against harmful impact of the psychosocial factors.
Boxer, P.A. )
The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.
Boxer, P A
The incidence of indoor air quality problems has increased dramatically over the past decade. Investigation of these problems has yielded a definitive cause in only one third of the cases. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in the development and propagation of symptoms attributed to poor indoor air quality. Guidelines for managing indoor air quality problems from the organizational perspective are based upon psychosocial principles and elements of risk perception.
Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.
The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children’s psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression. PMID:21643447
Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Shapiro, Edward S; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F
The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression.
Jehng, Jihn-Chang J.
Discussion of peer-based collaborative learning focuses on two related studies: a micro-structure comparative analysis of students' psycho-social behaviors in computer-based collaborative learning experiments conducted in face-to-face and distributed learning environments; and an examination of cognitive effects of peer-based collaborative…
Green, Carie; Kalvaitis, Darius; Worster, Anneliese
This article presents an Environmental Identity Development model, which considers the progression of young children's self-cognitions in relation to the natural world. We recontextualize four of Erikson's psychosocial stages, in order to consider children's identity development in learning in, about, and for the environment. Beginning with…
Adams, Gerald R.; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Keating, Leo
The investigation involved the assessment of a model predicting that family and university relationship environments are linked with identity processes and identity states (statuses) that predict psychosocial resources among first-year university students. A sample of 351 university students, between the ages of 18 and 21 years, completed measures…
Schwartz, David; Hopmeyer, Andrea; Luo, Tana; Ross, Alexandra C.; Fischer, Jesse
This longitudinal study examined the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents who affiliate with antisocial crowds in a gang-impacted urban environment. We followed 405 adolescents (219 boys, 186 girls; average age of 11.51 years, SD = 0.61; 84% Latino, 9% Asian, and 7% other or unclassified) for one academic year. These youth attended a middle…
Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...
Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900
Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.
The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only…
Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles was performed in April 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through back-searching bibliographies. Only randomized control trials with an intervention of aerobic physical activity in children younger than 19 years that measured psychological, behavioral, cognitive, or academic outcomes were included. Results We found 8 relevant randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria and extracted relevant data and evaluated the methodologic quality of the studies. Of the 8 studies identified, 2 studies were crossover randomized control trials studying the effects of acute aerobic physical activity on cognitive performance. Six studies were parallel-group randomized control studies, of which only 2 had a follow-up period of longer than 6 months. All studies showed that APA had a generally positive impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial function. However, this relationship was found to be minimal in many studies and in some measures, no significant improvement was seen at all. There was no documentation of APA having any negative impact on children’s cognition and psychosocial health, even in cases where school curriculum time was reassigned from classroom teaching to aerobic physical activity. Conclusion APA is positively associated with cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and psychosocial functioning outcomes. More rigorous trials with adequate sample sizes assessing the impact of APA on
Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.
Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This
Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.
Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…
Stotland, N L
US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.
Carter, J. H.
In general, we are raised in a specific cultural environment, and consequently, we have a common sense of identity, shared standards, and religion. The effects of this commonality carries over into health-care situations, including health maintenance and disease prevention. This article provides an overview of how psychosocial/cultural issues have been used with insensitivity to race, culture, and the value orientations of African Americans. It is concluded that the training of all health-care practitioners should include psychosocial/cultural aspects of illnesses. PMID:8558616
Anderson, Karen L.
Background noise from loud ventilation systems, outdoor activities, and poor acoustics can lead to voice problems for teachers, worsen hearing-impaired students' listening ability, and create unhealthy learning environments. Solutions include providing teachers with a sound-field amplification system and improving classroom acoustics. (MLH)
To help architectural students adapt to the realities of the work environment, Gerard Campbell of Holland College has set up his classroom as a design office. Working as a team, the students prepare a complete set of working drawings and construction documents, simulating an actual design process. (JOW)
Why is the physical learning environment in schools largely ignored by teachers within pedagogical practice? The cellular classroom has remained seemingly immutable since the Industrial Revolution, with spatiality playing a silent and subconscious role in schooling other than related to concerns around surveillance. Previous studies have shown…
Luck, Philip A.
In this article, the author talks about creating a nurturing classroom environment of mutual respect with students enthralled by possessions and technology. He talks about his life in the city, how life is abundant in the city, and that he acknowledges all that the city offered, from the culture of art and music to racial and ethnic diversity.…
Sensitivity training in the classroom can help children cope with and adapt to their environment--family, peer group, friends, school, and teachers--and get them to talk honestly and openly about emotional, social, and intellectual feelings and concepts. Some techniques of encouraging students to explore, to become involved with and aware of…
Crandell, Carl C.; Smaldino, Joseph J.
This article reviews procedures for evaluating, measuring, and modifying noise and reverberation levels in the classroom environment. Recommendations include: relocating children away from high noise sources, such as fans, air conditioners, heating ducts, and faulty lighting fixtures, using sound-absorbing materials, using acoustical ceiling tile…
Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque
Classroom management (CRM) has been associated with discipline, control, or other terms that connote reducing unacceptable student behavior. However, CRM involves not merely responding effectively when problems occur, but also preventing problems from occurring by creating environments that encourage learning and appropriate behavior. Teachers'…
Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.
This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…
Rosenberg, Gail Gegg; Blake-Rahter, Patricia; Heavner, Judy; Allen, Linda; Redmond, Beatrice Myers; Phillips, Janet; Stigers, Kathy
The Improving Classroom Acoustics (ICA) special project was designed to determine if students' listening and learning behaviors improved as a result of an acoustical environment enhanced through the use of FM sound field classroom amplification. The 3-year project involved 2,054 students in 94 general education kindergarten, first-, and…
Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark
Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…
This book applies the latest in brain research and learning theory to classroom management. The concepts of psychoneurophysiology are made readily accessible. The book offers creative data gathering activities to help students manage their own behavior and to help teachers learn how their own behavior impacts the classroom environment. The seven…
Scott, Jan; Colom, Francesc
Psychosocial problems may be causes or consequences of BP relapses,and adding psychologic therapies to usual-treatment approaches may improve the prognosis of those at risk of persistent symptoms or frequent episodes. The three core individual manualized therapies (IPSRT, cognitive therapy, and FFT) have all developed specific models for use in BP. Colom et al's group psychoeducation model also has a clearly developed rationale and format, and it allows individuals to share their views of BP with others, to learn adaptive coping strategies from the other 8 to 12 members of the group, and to have regular contact with an expert therapist. Careful review of the four more extended and comprehensive approaches and the brief technique-driven interventions demonstrates that the effective therapies incorporate one or more of the modules show in Box 1. At present,the choice between the four extended models is more likely to be dictated by patient choice or the availability of a trained therapist. The technique-driven interventions are briefer than the specific therapies (about 6-9 sessions compared with about 20-22 sessions) and usually offer a generic, fixed treatment package targeted at a circumscribed issue such as medication adherence or managing early symptoms of relapse. These brief interventions can be delivered by a less-skilled or less-experienced professional than the specific model. They potentially seem to be useful in day-to-day clinical practice in general adult psychiatry settings; additional larger-scale, randomized trials should be encouraged. Given the reduction in relapse rates and hospitalizations associated with the use of psychologic therapy as an adjunct to medication, it is likely that these approaches will prove to be clinically and cost effective. They may provide a significant improvement in the quality of life of individuals with BP (and indirectly to that of their partners and family members). Brief,evidence-based therapies represent an
Kramer, David C.
Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)
Holmbeck, Grayson N; Devine, Katie A
A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower socio-economic status (SES) homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB.
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.
A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770
Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.
Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.
The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…
Huang, Shwu-yong L.
School-level environments differ from the classroom environments. Classroom environments involve students' perceptions of their relationships with teachers and other students in their classrooms; school-level environments involve mainly teachers and school staff's perceptions of their work environment, their relationship with other teachers,…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher
The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom…
Cuendet, Sébastien; Dehler-Zufferey, Jessica; Ortoleva, Giulia; Dillenbourg, Pierre
Despite many years of research in CSCL, computers are still scarcely used in classrooms today. One reason for this is that the constraints of the classroom environment are neglected by designers. In this contribution, we present a CSCL environment designed for a classroom usage from the start. The system, called TapaCarp, is based on a tangible…
Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan
This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…
Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M
This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time.
Stretch, R H
A survey study was conducted on the psychosocial readjustment of 164 of the estimated 10,000-40,000 Canadians who served in Vietnam with the U.S. military. Results indicate significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans. Evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems such as depression, inability to handle frustration and anger, difficulty in getting along with and trusting others, and family and marital problems, as well as poor physical health, was also found. Results suggest these problems are due, in part, to prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of recognition, and no readily available treatment for PTSD in Canada.
Background We examined the associations between substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and cannabis use) and psychosocial characteristics at the individual and family levels among adolescents of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. Methods A school survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1432 students aged 11-17 years from all secondary schools. Data came from a self-administered anonymous questionnaire conducted along a standard methodology (Global School-based Health Survey, GSHS). Risk behaviors and psychosocial characteristics were dichotomized. Association analyses were adjusted for a possible classroom effect. Results The prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use was higher in boys than in girls and increased with age. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses showed that several individual level characteristics (e.g. suicidal ideation and truancy) and family level characteristics (e.g. poor parental monitoring) were associated with substance use among students. Conclusions Our results suggest that health promotion programs should simultaneously address multiple risk behaviors and take into account a wide range of psychosocial characteristics of the students at the individual and family levels. PMID:21985036
Plakun, Eric M
Psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment have been shown to be effective forms of treatment of a range of individual and complex comorbid disorders. The future role of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment depends on several factors, including full implementation of mental health parity, correction of underlying false assumptions that shape treatment, payment priorities and research, identification and teaching of common factors or elements shared by effective psychosocial therapies, and adequate teaching of psychotherapy and psychosocial treatment.
Flesvig Bruland, Nicole
Many in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) agree that interaction is a critical component in the process of second language acquisition (Hatch 1978; Long, 1996; Pica 1994). According to Long (1996), second language (L2) learners have the best chance of successful L2 acquisition when placed in an environment in which conversational…
Boz, Yezdan; Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Aydemir, Nurdane; Aydemir, Murat
Background: Investigating factors contributing to chemistry achievement is important since it enables us to make more concrete instructional decisions related to improving students' chemistry achievement. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate how students' perceptions of learning environment, self-efficacy and gender are related to chemistry…
McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James
Many UK children with severe and persistent language impairment (SLI) attend local mainstream schools. Although this should provide an excellent language-learning environment, opportunities may be limited by difficulties in sustaining time-consuming, child-specific learning activities; restricted co-professional working, and the complex classroom…