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Sample records for classroom-embedded l2 learning

  1. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  2. Flipping the Classroom: Embedding Self-Regulated Learning Prompts in Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Bonde, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of embedding self-regulated learning (SRL) prompts in a video designed for the flipped class model. The sample included 32 undergraduate participants who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: control (video) or experimental (video + SRL prompts). Prior knowledge was measured with a pre-test, SRL was…

  3. A Summative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Classroom-Embedded, Individualistic, Computer-Based Learning for Middle School Students Placed at Academic Risk in Schools with a High Proportion of Title I Eligible Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Regina M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this "post hoc," summative evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of classroom-embedded, individualistic, computer-based learning for middle school students placed at academic risk in schools with a high proportion of Title I eligible students. Data were mined from existing school district databases. For data (n = 393)…

  4. The Impact of Resilience on L2 Learners' Motivated Behaviour and Proficiency in L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…

  5. Gaming as Extramural English L2 Learning and L2 Proficiency among Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…

  6. Distributional Effects and Individual Differences in L2 Morphology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; Kwoka, Nicole; Kempe, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Second language (L2) learning outcomes may depend on the structure of the input and learners' cognitive abilities. This study tested whether less predictable input might facilitate learning and generalization of L2 morphology while evaluating contributions of statistical learning ability, nonverbal intelligence, phonological short-term memory, and…

  7. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  8. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  9. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  10. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  11. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

  12. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  13. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  14. The Role of Statistical Learning and Working Memory in L2 Speakers' Pattern Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) speakers' morphosyntactic pattern learning was predicted by their statistical learning and working memory abilities. Across three experiments, Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students (N = 140) were exposed to either the transitive construction in Esperanto (e.g., "tauro…

  15. Motivation and Persistence of Learning among L2 Learners in Self-Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Chika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between learners' motivation to learn a second language (L2) and persistence in their learning using self-instructional radio (SIR) materials with a sample of Japanese high school students learning English. L2 self-instruction remains under-researched, in spite of the importance of out-of-class learning…

  16. Effects of Glosses on Learning of L2 Grammar and Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jookyoung

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how glossing of second language (L2) texts affects L2 learners' reading comprehension as well as their learning of L2 grammar and vocabulary. It employed a pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest design with two treatment sessions. The target features were English unaccusativity and 10 pseudo-word items.…

  17. Learning L2 German Vocabulary through Reading: The Effect of Three Enhancement Techniques Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Elke; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Sercu, Lies; Lutjeharms, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three techniques designed to increase the chances that second language (L2) readers look up and learn unfamiliar words during and after reading an L2 text. Participants in the study, 137 college students in Belgium (L1 = Dutch, L2 = German), were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, forming combinations of two…

  18. Comparison of L2 Listening and Reading Comprehension by University Students Learning English in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2004-01-01

    This study compared L2 listening comprehension with L2 reading comprehension in terms of the roles of linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and question types among 168 university students learning English in Korea. The analyses of the data found that L2 listeners processed inferential information more easily than factual information, while…

  19. Investigating the Role of Multiple Intelligences in Determining Vocabulary Learning Strategies for L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistani, Mahsa; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This study, first, examined whether there was any relationship between Iranian L2 learners' vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs), on the one hand, and their multiple intelligences (MI) types, on the other hand. In so doing, it explored the extent to which MI would predict L2 learners' VLSs. To these ends, 40 L2 learners from Isfahan University of…

  20. Aspects of Working Memory in L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan; Harrington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on working memory (WM) and its use in second language (L2) acquisition research. Recent developments in the model and issues surrounding the operationalization of the construct itself are presented, followed by a discussion of various methods of measuring WM. These methods include word and digit span tasks, reading,…

  1. Semantic Categories and Context in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick; Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This article extends recent findings that presenting semantically related vocabulary simultaneously inhibits learning. It does so by adding story contexts. Participants learned 32 new labels for known concepts from four different semantic categories in stories that were either semantically related (one category per story) or semantically unrelated…

  2. Telecollaboration in Online Communities for L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malerba, Maria Luisa; Appel, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a PhD study about informal second language learning in online communities (Livemocha and Busuu). In these communities learners autonomously seek opportunities for telecollaboration with Native Speakers (NSs) in the absence of teachers and pedagogical tasks, and in an informal context. This paper focuses on learning and social…

  3. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    PubMed

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  4. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    PubMed Central

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  5. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  6. Opportunities to Learn and Practise English as an L2 in Parent-Child Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a less formal learning context: interactions between parents and children using English as a second language (L2). In this study, L2-speaking parents were invited to conduct informal interviews at home with their own children about the children's experiences in local schools. The data indicated that the hybrid role of acting…

  7. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  8. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

  9. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  10. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

  11. Empowering L2 Tutoring: A Case Study of a Second Language Writer's Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severino, Carol; Deifell, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Writing center tutors play a key role in advancing L2 writers' language learning because the tutorial interaction involves the introduction of new language and vocabulary at the point of need or interest. This tutor-research case study presents a detailed, complex portrait of how a second language writer in a US writing center learned and used…

  12. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama "From the Learner's Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from…

  13. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning.

    PubMed

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z

    2015-06-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader.

  14. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL) such as L∞, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L∞ MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L∞ and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L∞ MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the

  15. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  16. Explicit Instruction and Implicit Use of L2 Learning Strategies in Higher Secondary EFL Course Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bueno-Alastuey, M. Camino; Agulló, Gloria Luque

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that teaching second language (L2) learning strategies explicitly promotes an increase in strategy use and in oral proficiency. Consequently, a checklist based on the six types of strategies from Oxford's taxonomy (1990) was created to analyze strategic instruction in the most common textbooks used in the last year of Higher…

  17. Constructing the L2-Graph for Robust Subspace Learning and Subspace Clustering.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Yu, Zhiding; Yi, Zhang; Tang, Huajin

    2017-04-01

    Under the framework of graph-based learning, the key to robust subspace clustering and subspace learning is to obtain a good similarity graph that eliminates the effects of errors and retains only connections between the data points from the same subspace (i.e., intrasubspace data points). Recent works achieve good performance by modeling errors into their objective functions to remove the errors from the inputs. However, these approaches face the limitations that the structure of errors should be known prior and a complex convex problem must be solved. In this paper, we present a novel method to eliminate the effects of the errors from the projection space (representation) rather than from the input space. We first prove that l1 -, l2 -, l∞ -, and nuclear-norm-based linear projection spaces share the property of intrasubspace projection dominance, i.e., the coefficients over intrasubspace data points are larger than those over intersubspace data points. Based on this property, we introduce a method to construct a sparse similarity graph, called L2-graph. The subspace clustering and subspace learning algorithms are developed upon L2-graph. We conduct comprehensive experiment on subspace learning, image clustering, and motion segmentation and consider several quantitative benchmarks classification/clustering accuracy, normalized mutual information, and running time. Results show that L2-graph outperforms many state-of-the-art methods in our experiments, including L1-graph, low rank representation (LRR), and latent LRR, least square regression, sparse subspace clustering, and locally linear representation.

  18. The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and…

  19. The Tense-Aspect System in Pidgins and Naturalistically Learned L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, J. Clancy

    2003-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of wider or narrower definitions of "pidginization" and "pidgin" are reviewed to determine the differences between pidgins and naturalistically learned second languages (L2s). It is argued that a wider definition is preferred because it avoids problematic counterexamples and captures…

  20. Learning to Do Concept-Based Pragmatics Instruction: Teacher Development and L2 Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the development of pedagogical content knowledge in relation to one teacher's experience in learning to engage in a Vygotskian approach to teaching second language (L2) pragmatics known as "concept-based pragmatics instruction" (CBPI). The teacher, Mrs. Hanks, was a PhD candidate in second language acquisition at…

  1. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  2. Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

  3. The Natural Approach to Adult Learning and Teaching of L2 Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Learning a language in a natural way is normally understood to involve the development of implicit knowledge of that language. The acquisition of such knowledge takes place through communication and is driven by learner-internal mechanisms which cannot be directly influenced by formal instruction. In the case of foreign or second language (L2)…

  4. Learning English as an L2 in the Global Context: Changing English, Changing Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

    2013-01-01

    As the English language has become a global lingua franca today, it is not surprising that changes in attitudes and perceptions towards learning English in the international context have taken place at the same time. In this paper, I critically examine the notion of "integrative motivation" in the literature of second language (L2)…

  5. Pronunciation Training Facilitates the Learning and Retention of L2 Grammatical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ines A.; Jackson, Carrie N.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of pronunciation training on the learning and retention of second language (L2) grammatical structures. By drawing on the phonological saliency of stress placement in German separable- and inseparable-prefix verbs, the study explored whether enhancing explicit instruction through pronunciation training can…

  6. Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

    2011-01-01

    This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

  7. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  8. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  9. The Impact of Learning Contexts on Proficiency, Attitudes, and L2 Communication: Creating an Imagined International Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yashima, Tomoko; Zenuk-Nishide, Lori

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of learning contexts on proficiency development as well as attitudinal and behavioral changes. At a Japanese high school where content-based L2 instruction in global studies is a feature of education, TOEFL scores, international posture, L2 WTC, and frequency of communication in L2 were assessed in the participants'…

  10. EFFECTS OF L2 LEARNING ORIENTATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION INTENTIONS ON SELF-REGULATION.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Chang, Yu-Jen; Cheng, Hsing-Fu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a classic L2 learning orientation framework and a multi-faceted implementation intention construct were used to predict self-regulation. Attention was particularly paid to the way in which different types of implementation intentions predicted the self-regulatory capacity. A two-phase research design was executed. A pilot was conducted to ensure the reliability and validity of the scales. In the main study, a series of regression analyses examined the links among the variables of interest. The modeling results indicated that the effects of the integrative and instrumental orientations were substantially diminished after the implementation intentions were incorporated into the orientation structure. The empirical findings strongly suggest the need for L2 learners to utilize strategic planning in response to situational and temporal cues in the process of goal pursuit. Further discussions focused on the effects of both orientations and implementation intentions on the self-regulatory capacity in language learning.

  11. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  12. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  13. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  14. The Influence of L2 Teachers' Use of CALL Modes on Language Learners' Reactions to Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kwang Hee; Samimy, Keiko K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on blended learning (BL) implementation in L2 instructional settings considers L2 teachers' use of the incorporated CALL modes and learners' attitudes toward the CALL modes as critical factors, among other factors, for achieving successful BL implementation. In the literature, these two factors are suggested to be strongly…

  15. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  16. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  17. Motivation to Learn English Language: A Survey on Parents' & Teachers' Influence on L2 Learners in Sindh, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadho, Saeed; Memon, Shumaila; Memon, Rafique Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is, without question, the most complex and challenging issue faced by English language teachers today (Schiedekr & Freeman, 1999). It is a key contributing factor for L2 learning (Cheng & Dornyei, 2007; Gardner, 1985b). It is an established fact that no motivation means no learning. Motivation comes from different sources.…

  18. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  19. Assessing Input Enhancement as Positive Factor and Its Impact on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlagh, Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi; Nasab, Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti

    2015-01-01

    Input enhancement's role to promote learners' awareness in L2 contexts has caused a tremendous amount of research. Conspicuously, by regarding all aspects of input enhancement, the study aimed to find out how differently many kinds of input enhancement factors such as bolding, underlining, and capitalizing impact on L2 learners' vocabulary…

  20. L1 Use in L2 Vocabulary Learning: Facilitator or Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of L1 use on L2 vocabulary teaching. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of L1 can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and the bilingual method (both English explanation and Chinese…

  1. L2 Academic Discourse Socialization through Oral Presentations: An Undergraduate Student's Learning Trajectory in Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides an in-depth, longitudinal account of an undergraduate student's L2 discourse socialization in an academic exchange program in Canada. By invoking Rogoff's (1995) notion of participatory appropriation, this qualitative case study examined an L2 student's task-related strategies and performance as they evolved over time in…

  2. Perceived Learning Difficulty and Actual Performance: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of L2 English Grammar Points among Instructed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Humberto Rodríguez; Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an approach that conceptualizes L2 learning difficulty in terms of implicit and explicit knowledge. In a study with first language Mexican Spanish university-level learners (n = 30), their teachers (n = 11), and applied linguistics experts (n = 3), we investigated the relationship between (a) these groups' difficulty…

  3. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  4. Iranian EFL Learners' Emotional Intelligence, Learning Styles, Strategy Use, and Their L2 Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Tofighi, Somayyeh; Hamazavi, Raouf

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language learning is facilitated or inhibited by a multitude of factors has prompted scholars in the field to investigate variables considered to be crucial in the process of second or foreign language learning. This study investigated relationships between emotional intelligence, learning style, language learning strategy use, and…

  5. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  6. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  7. Effects of Three Forms of Reading-Based Output Activity on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of three forms of output activity on EFL learners' recognition and recall of second language (L2) vocabulary. To this end, three groups of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) were instructed to employ the following three output activities after reading two narrative texts: (1) summarizing the…

  8. Learning to Express Motion Events in an L2: The Case of Chinese Directional Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The present study adopted a cognitive linguistic framework--Talmy's (1985, 1991, 2000) typological classification of motion events--to investigate how second-language (L2) Chinese learners come to express motion events in a targetlike manner. Fifty-five U.S. university students and 20 native speakers of Chinese participated in the study. A…

  9. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Rebecca Lee Su

    2014-01-01

    Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP) still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001). The purpose of this paper is to present the…

  10. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  11. Effects of Interactive Chat versus Independent Writing on L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…

  12. Cultural Conceptualisations in Learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-Speaking Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA) were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions…

  13. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  14. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  15. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou

    2013-05-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  16. The Influence of Learning Context and Age on the Use of L2 Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…

  17. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  18. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  19. Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that…

  20. The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

  1. The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

  2. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  3. Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

  4. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

    2014-01-01

    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students, without…

  5. Learning to Act in L2 English: An Ethnographic Comparison of the Experience of Two Students in a South African University Drama Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    Documents a pilot study of the perceptions of two L1 Xhosa acting students and their teachers about learning to act in L2 English in an L1 English university drama department in South Africa. Seeks to identify perceptions of "good acting," and the degree to which these are contingent on perceptions of "good English" in theatre…

  6. Numeracy in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms: Embedding Learning Opportunities and Using Effective Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    This literature review will address issues to consider related to teaching numeracy and mathematics to children with disabilities in inclusive early childhood classrooms. As inclusive settings and instruction in numeracy/mathematics at an early age become more common, it is important to closely examine teaching strategies and make appropriate…

  7. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  8. L2 Negation Constructions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Soren W.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the usage- and exemplar-based roots of second language (L2) negation construction learning. Based on two longitudinal case studies involving two adult L2 English learners and a corpus of 63 three-hour sessions of recorded classroom interactions, the study shows that L2 learning follows the predictions of usage-based models of…

  9. Developing a Portfolio Assessment Model for the Teaching and Learning of English in Malaysian L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Charanjit Kaur a/p Swaran; Samad, Arshad Abdul; Hussin, Habsah; Sulaiman, Tajularipin

    2015-01-01

    Standardized testing is viewed as particularly incompatible to the process of learning due to its summative nature as it measures what students are able to recall and produce. Because of the discrepancy between the process of learning and products of learning, educators today have come to recognize that an alternative form of assessment is…

  10. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  11. Effects of Learning Strategies and Motivation on Implicit vs. Explicit Instructional Approaches for Spanish L2 Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervas, David

    2010-01-01

    Under the premise that vocabulary learning in a Spanish as a second language in-class environment may be affected by the instructional approach adopted by the instructors or the materials followed, this study explores the influence of rather distant teaching styles, such as implicit and explicit approaches, on the learning outcome of Spanish…

  12. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  13. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  14. The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

  15. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  16. The Efficacy of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Its Impact on L2 Rule-Learning: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Raafat

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial that foreign language teachers know well what kinds of grammar teaching strategies best aid learning in the classroom in order to adjust their teaching toward a practical and successful approach. Much of the debate about how to help EFL learners achieve grammatical proficiency centers on the implicit versus explicit, or deductive…

  17. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

  18. Exploring the Interface: Explicit Focus-on-Form Instruction and Learned Attentional Biases in L2 Latin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate the attentional processes whereby different types of focus on form (FonF) instruction assist learners in overcoming learned attention and blocking effects in their online processing of second language input. English native speakers viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality…

  19. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  20. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2004-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NS

  1. Strategies for Engaging FCS Learners in a Large-Format Classroom: Embedded Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Catherine Amoroso

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a method for utilizing technology to increase student engagement in large classroom formats. In their lives outside the classroom, students spend considerable time interfacing with media, and they are receptive to information conveyed in electronic formats. Research has shown that multimedia is an effective learning resource;…

  2. Educational Games as Stand-Alone Learning Tools and Their Motivational Effect on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Perceived Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Ferrer, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    According to different authors, computer games not only teach contents and skills, but also do so in a more efficient manner, allowing long-lasting learning. However, there is still little consensus on this matter as different studies put their educational benefits into question, especially when used without instructional support. An empirical…

  3. An Alternative to Language Learner Dependence on L2 Caption-Reading Input for Comprehension of Sitcoms in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, C.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Most second/foreign language (L2) learners have difficulty understanding listening input because of its implicit and ephemeral nature, and they typically have better reading comprehension than listening comprehension skills. This study examines the effects of using an interactive advance-organizer activity on the DVD video comprehension of L2

  4. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  5. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to 1000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  6. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  7. Effects of a Whole-Class Reading Program Designed for Different Reading Levels and the Learning Needs of L1 and L2 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Susanne; Schwab, Susanne; Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the whole-class reading program Language And Reading Skills (LARS) and its effects on the decoding, reading comprehension, and language abilities of 1st-language (L1) and 2nd-language (L2) German 2nd graders. The program consisted of teacher training and differentiated reading materials adapted to the needs of both L1…

  8. English L3 Learning in a Multilingual Context: The Role of Parental Education and L2 Exposure within the Living Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines two factors in relation to English L3 proficiency development and school performance in a third language: (a) parental education and (b) second language exposure within the living community. Participants (n?=?50) are Italian L1 students with German L2 and English L3. All students (eighth grade, 14 years of age) were…

  9. The VVT Project: A Web-Based Platform for Strategy Instruction and Research into Self-Regulated Learning of L2 Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is a web-based, second language (L2) instructional resource called VVT (Virtual Vocabulary Trainer) designed to teach integrated vocabulary depth of knowledge and dictionary referencing skills to tertiary-level learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). In addition to evaluating the potential of online resources…

  10. ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

  11. The Role of Structural Position in L2 Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from English Learners of Spanish as L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, the speech of 12 adult native speakers of English with intermediate to intermediate-high proficiency in Spanish as a second language (L2) was analyzed to determine whether L2 learners rely on distributional information in the process of L2 speech learning and if so, if similar or dissimilar distributional patterns of sounds…

  12. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  13. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  14. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language…

  15. Effects of Variability in Fundamental Frequency on L2 Vocabulary Learning: A Comparison between Learners Who Do and Do Not Speak a Tone Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies (Barcroft & Sommers, 2005; Sommers & Barcroft, 2007) have demonstrated that variability in talker, speaking style, and speaking rate positively affect second language vocabulary learning, whereas variability in overall amplitude and fundamental frequency (F0) do not, at least for native English speakers. Sommers and…

  16. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader's attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence…

  17. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  18. Learning to Learn Together with CSCL Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Baruch B.; de Groot, Reuma; Mavrikis, Manolis; Dragon, Toby

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we identify "Learning to Learn Together" (L2L2) as a new and important educational goal. Our view of L2L2 is a substantial extension of "Learning to Learn" (L2L): L2L2 consists of learning to collaborate to successfully face L2L challenges. It is inseparable from L2L, as it emerges when individuals face problems…

  19. Systematic Asymmetries in Perception and Production of L2 Inflections in Mandarin L2 Learners of English: The Effects of Phonotactics, Salience, and Processing Pressure on Inflectional Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of language production by adults who are learning a second language (L2) has received a good deal of attention especially when it comes to omission of inflectional morphemes within L2 utterances. Several explanations have been proposed for these inflectional errors. One explanation is that the L2 learner simply does not have the L2

  20. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  1. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

  2. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  3. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  4. Metalinguistic Knowledge, Metalingual Knowledge, and Proficiency in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The role of metalinguistic knowledge of language and knowledge of technical terms (i.e. metalingual knowledge) in second language (L2) learning and use is a matter of controversy in the field of Second Language Acquisition. This paper examines the development of these two types of knowledge in adult university-level learners of L2 Spanish, and…

  5. Individual and Longitudinal Differences among High and Low-Achieving, LD, and ADHD L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Javorsky, James

    2008-01-01

    High-achieving (HA) and low-achieving (LA), learning disabled (LD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) high school students were followed over two years of L2 study and compared on measures of L1 literacy (reading and writing) in elementary school, L1 cognitive ability, L2 aptitude, oral and written L2 proficiency, and L2 word…

  6. The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

  7. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  8. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  9. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2

  10. How a Tutor Uses Gesture for Scaffolding: A Case Study on L2 Tutee's Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Suyeon; Cho, Sookyung

    2017-01-01

    Recently, from the Vygotskyan socio-cultural perspective, second language (L2) researchers have paid growing attention to scaffolding and have argued that L2 learning is enhanced through experts' scaffolding. However, not much is known about how teacher gesture scaffolds L2 learners' writing and how teachers manipulate writing-oriented gestures…

  11. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  12. ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2). Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS), and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. Results Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. Conclusions Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language. PMID:21612604

  13. Inputs for L2 Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleemi, Anjum P.

    1989-01-01

    Major approaches of describing or examining linguistic data from a potential target language (input) are analyzed for adequacy in addressing the concerns of second language learning theory. Suggestions are made for making the best of these varied concepts of input and for reformulation of a unified concept. (MSE)

  14. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  15. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  16. Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yulita, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine…

  17. Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosoughi, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Data were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female) studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran (N = 73). Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL…

  18. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  19. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  20. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  1. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  2. Forming a Clearer Image of the Ideal L2 Self: The L2 Motivational Self System and Learner Autonomy in a Japanese EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueki, Michiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Research on the L2 Motivational Self System has drawn considerable attention in Second Language Acquisition. Previous studies have discussed the system itself, its basic concepts and their relationships to such affective variables as anxiety in various L2 learning contexts. The findings of these studies suggest that (1) having a clearer image of…

  3. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  4. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Christian Robert; Hammond, Simon David; Dinge, Dennis; Lin, Paul T.; Vaughan, Courtenay T.; Cook, Jeanine; Edwards, Harold C.; Rajan, Mahesh; Hoekstra, Robert J.

    2015-09-01

    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  5. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  6. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  7. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  8. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  9. Collaboration between L2 and Content Subject Teachers in CBI: Contrasting Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    As content-based instruction (CBI) programmes involve certain degrees of integration of second language (L2) and content learning, collaboration between L2 and content subject teachers has been strongly advocated. Whether this type of teacher collaboration can be successfully implemented will depend on many factors, one of which is teacher beliefs…

  10. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  11. L1 Allophones in L2 Speech Production: The Case of English Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Although it is broadly accepted that adult second-language (L2) learners focus attention only on those aspects of sounds needed for phonemic contrast, the role that allophony plays in the process of L2 speech learning is less well understood. It is widely assumed that speakers do not have conscious awareness of and access to first-language (L1)…

  12. Not so Fast: A Discussion of L2 Morpheme Processing and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Learning inflectional morphology is a vexing problem for second language (L2) learners. Children acquiring their native language also experience some difficulty, which results in their committing overgeneralization errors. Long after individuals have achieved a high level of proficiency in the L2, they are still plagued by uncertainty when it…

  13. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  14. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  15. Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Sachiho

    2008-01-01

    Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual…

  16. Dispersion and Frequency: Is There Any Difference as Regards Their Relation to L2 Vocabulary Gains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Mármol, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current importance given to L2 vocabulary acquisition in the last two decades, considerable deficiencies are found in L2 students' vocabulary size. One of the aspects that may influence vocabulary learning is word frequency. However, scholars warn that frequency may lead to wrong conclusions if the way words are distributed is ignored.…

  17. Bridging Theory and Practice: Developing Lower-Level Skills in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Studies on L2 reading have provided extensive evidence for the significant contribution of lower-level processing skills in learning to read and the critical impact on the overall development of L2 reading of more accurate and fluent connections between three sub-lexical components: phonology, orthography and semantics. The broad consensus among…

  18. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  19. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  20. Engaging L2 Undergraduates in Relevant Project Work and Interaction: A Role for Video Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell O'Callaghan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on two small-scale international projects, both outcomes of a teaching staff exchange, which seek to exploit the potential afforded by new technologies to enrich L2 learning conditions and learners' experience of using the L2 (in this case English) as a lingua franca. Two undergraduate courses, one for professional and one for…

  1. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  2. Interplay of Languaging and Gameplay: Player-Game Interactions as Ecologies for Languaging and Situated L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Karim Hesham Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The field of game-mediated L2 learning has grown exponentially, and much has been discovered about the potentials of game-mediated interactions for L2 development, yet the fine-grained dynamics of player-game interactions and how they come to facilitate and afford L2 development are still largely underexplored. To address this gap in the…

  3. Counterexamples concerning a weighted L^2 projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinchao

    1991-10-01

    Counterexamples are given to show that some results concerning a weighted {L^2} projection presented earlier by Bramble and the author are sharp, i.e., that certain error and stability estimates are impossible in some cases.

  4. Fast Image Reconstruction with L2-Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Fan, Audrey P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We introduce L2-regularized reconstruction algorithms with closed-form solutions that achieve dramatic computational speed-up relative to state of the art L1- and L2-based iterative algorithms while maintaining similar image quality for various applications in MRI reconstruction. Materials and Methods We compare fast L2-based methods to state of the art algorithms employing iterative L1- and L2-regularization in numerical phantom and in vivo data in three applications; 1) Fast Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSD), 2) Lipid artifact suppression in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI), and 3) Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI). In all cases, proposed L2-based methods are compared with the state of the art algorithms, and two to three orders of magnitude speed up is demonstrated with similar reconstruction quality. Results The closed-form solution developed for regularized QSM allows processing of a 3D volume under 5 seconds, the proposed lipid suppression algorithm takes under 1 second to reconstruct single-slice MRSI data, while the PCA based DSI algorithm estimates diffusion propagators from undersampled q-space for a single slice under 30 seconds, all running in Matlab using a standard workstation. Conclusion For the applications considered herein, closed-form L2-regularization can be a faster alternative to its iterative counterpart or L1-based iterative algorithms, without compromising image quality. PMID:24395184

  5. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  6. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    PubMed

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

  7. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time.

  8. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  9. AFL Research in the L2 Classroom and Evidence of Usefulness: Taking Formative Assessment to the Next Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby-Kelly, Christian; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends in classroom evaluation seek innovative formative assessment intended to benefit learning, called assessment for learning (AFL), largely unresearched in the second language (L2) classroom (Rea-Dickins, 2004). This paper calls for taking L2 testing research to the next level, investigating the "usefulness" (Bachman & Palmer, 1996;…

  10. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  11. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  12. Selective Teaching of L2 Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Olaf; Koreman, Jacques; Martínez-Paricio, Violeta; Abrahamsen, Jardar E.; Albertsen, Egil; Hedayatfar, Keivan; Bech, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    The pronunciation of a second or foreign language is often very challenging for L2 learners. It is difficult to address this topic in the classroom, because learners with different native languages (L1s) can have very different challenges. We have therefore developed a Computer-Assisted Listening and Speaking Tutor (CALST), which selectively…

  13. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  14. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  15. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  16. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  17. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  18. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  19. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  20. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  1. Overt and covert contrast in L2 phonology

    PubMed Central

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports results on the acquisition of the English /p/ - /b/ contrast by native speakers of Arabic. This contrast does not exist in the participants’ native language (NL). The central finding of this study is that some of the research participants exhibited a covert contrast between these segments in their interlanguage productions. That is, two of the five Arabic-speaking participants who were transcribed as having no contrast between [p] and [b] did, in fact, produced a statistically reliable distinction in voice onset time lags between the two target segments. The existence of such an intermediate stage of covert contrast in the learning of L2 phonology is eminently plausible, in view of the progressive nature of phonological acquisition. Our results help bring the learning of second-language contrasts into conformity with findings of the same phenomenon in the areas of L1 acquisition and phonologically disordered speech. PMID:28090439

  2. Overt and covert contrast in L2 phonology.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Fred R; Iverson, Gregory K; Song, Jae Yung

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports results on the acquisition of the English /p/ - /b/ contrast by native speakers of Arabic. This contrast does not exist in the participants' native language (NL). The central finding of this study is that some of the research participants exhibited a covert contrast between these segments in their interlanguage productions. That is, two of the five Arabic-speaking participants who were transcribed as having no contrast between [p] and [b] did, in fact, produced a statistically reliable distinction in voice onset time lags between the two target segments. The existence of such an intermediate stage of covert contrast in the learning of L2 phonology is eminently plausible, in view of the progressive nature of phonological acquisition. Our results help bring the learning of second-language contrasts into conformity with findings of the same phenomenon in the areas of L1 acquisition and phonologically disordered speech.

  3. GPS L1-L2 Bias Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER AmnistratvCotatnOfce Directorate of Contracted Support Management ...operating at Millstone Hill in Westford, MA. Pseudorange LI-L2 differences are computed. This difference is a measure of the total electron content (TEC...comparison shown in Figure 23, and many stimulating discussions. In addition, we thank Lori Thornton and Karl Buchmann for managing and assembling the data

  4. Using Music To Promote L2 Learning among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Offers practical suggestions for incorporating music activities into the adult English-as-a-Second-or- Other-Language (ESOL) classroom. Focuses on reasons for using music, guidelines for selecting songs, categories of music activities, guidelines for structuring classroom music activities, and ways to use music in adult ESOL classes. (Author/VWL)

  5. Recasts, Language Anxiety, Modified Output, and L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheen, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated (a) whether classroom language anxiety affects learners' ability to improve accuracy in their use of English articles when provided with corrective feedback in the form of recasts and (b) whether language anxiety influences the extent to which learners modify output following recasts. Four groups…

  6. Some External Factors Which Might Affect L2 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentric, Dragica

    Yugoslav elementary school students of English as a second language were the subjects of a longitudinal study to determine factors influencing the acquisition of correct English pronunciation. The students were tested for their ability to articulate 32 sounds within ten specific English words. The test was administered each year from the second…

  7. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez

    2016-01-01

    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2

  8. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  9. Explicit Knowledge and Processes from a Usage-Based Perspective: The Developmental Trajectory of an Instructed L2 Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers explicit knowledge and processes in second language (L2) learning from a usage-based theoretical perspective. It reports on the long-term development of a single instructed adult learner's use of two L2 constructions, the German Perfekt of "gehen" ("go," "walk") and "fahren"…

  10. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Differences in Pairs on Idea Units in a Collaborative Text Reconstruction Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sun-Young; Lidster, Ryan; Sabraw, Stacy; Yeager, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative text reconstruction tasks such as dictogloss have been suggested as effective second language (L2) learning tasks that promote meaningful interaction between learners and their awareness of L2 target grammatical structures. However, it should be noted that the effect of pair interaction on the final product may differ depending on…

  11. An Investigation of How the Channel of Input and Access to Test Questions Affect L2 Listening Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2013-01-01

    The use of video technology has become widespread in the teaching and testing of second-language (L2) listening, yet research into how this technology affects the learning and testing process has lagged. The current study investigated how the channel of input (audiovisual vs. audio-only) used on an L2 listening test affected test-taker…

  12. Can Higher-Proficiency L2 Learners Benefit from Working with Lower-Proficiency Partners in Peer Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shulin; Hu, Guangwei

    2017-01-01

    Informed by Vygotsky's conceptualization of the Zone of Proximal Development, this case study investigated the benefits of peer feedback on second language (L2) writing for students with high L2 proficiency and the factors that may influence their learning in peer feedback in the Chinese English-as-a-foreign-language context. Specifically, the…

  13. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.; Davin, Kristin J.

    2016-01-01

    As a new century begins for "The Modern Language Journal," we argue that highly effective pedagogy requires viewing language and language learning as both cognitive and social phenomena, and that teachers who seek to truly understand the nature of their responsibilities do not have the luxury of choosing one perspective over the other.…

  15. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  16. Revisiting Fluctuations in L2 Article Choice in L1-Korean L2-English Learners.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Bijon K; Baek, Seunghyun

    2017-04-01

    The current study investigated the distinction of L2 (second language) English article choice sensitivity in fifty-three L1-Korean L2-English learners in semantic contexts. In the context of English as a foreign language, the participants were divided into two groups based on grammatical ability as determined by their performance on a cloze test. In addition, a forced-choice elicitation test and a writing production test were administered to assess, respectively, the participants' receptive and productive article choice abilities. Regardless of grammatical ability, the results disclosed the overuse of the indefinite a in the [[Formula: see text]definite, -specific] context and the definite the in the [-definite, [Formula: see text]specific] context on the forced-choice elicitation test. In the [[Formula: see text]definite, [Formula: see text]specific] and [-definite, -specific] contexts, however, the overuse of either the indefinite a or the definite the, respectively, was less likely. Furthermore, it was revealed on the writing test that the participants more accurately used the definite the than the indefinite a, and they were also found to unreasonably omit more articles than to add or substitute articles on the writing production test. The findings across the two tests indicate that L1-Korean L2-English learners are more likely to have intrinsic difficulties transferring their L1 noun phrase (NP) knowledge to L2 NP knowledge owing to structural discrepancies and complex interfaces between L1 NPs and L2 NPs with respect to syntactic, semantic and pragmatic/discourse language subsystems.

  17. A Comparative Study on Strategies of the Children for L1 and L2 Reading Comprehension in K12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belet, S. Dilek; Gursoy, Esim

    2008-01-01

    In today's world it has long become a necessity to learn and communicate in another language other than one's mother tongue (L1). When the world is walking on the path of globalization people try to learn a second/foreign language (L2). In this study it's critically aimed to explore strategy use in L1 and L2 reading at K12 level. Subjects involved…

  18. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  19. Gender Differences in Identity and Acculturation Patterns and L2 Accent Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mahalingappa, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the influence of sociocultural theory, current views of second language acquisition situate language learning in a much broader context than the isolated box of the classroom. There is need to consider second language (L2) acquisition practices more broadly. This study addresses differences between girls and boys of Kurdish ethnic…

  20. ICALL for Improving Korean L2 Writers' Ability to Edit Grammatical Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Ron; Choo, Jinhee; Lee, Gabseon Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates how a synergy of two technologies--Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) and corpus linguistic analysis--can produce a lasting improvement in L2 learners' ability to edit persistent grammatical errors from their writing. A large written English corpus produced by Korean undergraduate and graduate students…

  1. Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

  2. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  3. The Multi-Feature Hypothesis: Connectionist Guidelines for L2 Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonen, Machteld; de Graaff, Rick; Westhoff, Gerard; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of task type on the retention and ease of activation of second language (L2) vocabulary, based on the multi-feature hypothesis (Moonen, De Graaff, & Westhoff, 2006). Two tasks were compared: a writing task and a list-learning task. It was hypothesized that performing the writing task would yield higher…

  4. Leveling L2 Texts through Readability: Combining Multilevel Linguistic Features with the CEFR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Wei-Chun; Dyson, Scott Benjamin; Chang, Kuo-En; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Selecting appropriate texts for L2 (second/foreign language) learners is an important approach to enhancing motivation and, by extension, learning. There is currently no tool for classifying foreign language texts according to a language proficiency framework, which makes it difficult for students and educators to determine the precise…

  5. Roles of Position, Stress, and Proficiency in L2 Children's Spelling: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…

  7. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  8. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  9. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  10. L2 Learners' Recognition of Unfamiliar Idioms Composed of Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Choonkyong

    2016-01-01

    Most second language (L2) learners are aware of the importance of vocabulary, and this awareness usually directs their attention to learning new words. By contrast, learners do not often recognise unfamiliar idioms if all the compositional parts look familiar to them such as "turn the corner" or "carry the day." College-level…

  11. Is the L2 lexicon different from the L1 lexicon? Evidence from novel word lexicalization.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the representation of newly learned words in the native language show that after repeated sessions of learning, novel words produce less form priming than nonwords when they are used as primes in a masked priming experiment. This suggests that the newly learned words have established lexical representations, and therefore start to behave more like real words than nonwords (Qiao & Forster, 2013). Since adult language learning normally happens in a foreign language context rather than in the native language context, it is important to see whether similar results could be obtained if bilingual subjects were taught novel words in their second language (L2) rather than their first language (L1). The current experiment explores this issue using the same procedure and materials as used in the L1 experiment. Results show that in contrast to the nonsignificant priming observed with the L1 speakers, L2 speakers show enhanced facilitatory priming after the same training process. In addition, a significant facilitatory priming effect is also obtained with real words as primes, suggesting that the L1 and L2 lexicons might work in rather different ways. One possibility is that the L2 lexicon is not represented in the same type of memory system as the L1 lexicon, rather it is represented in a system where competitive effects are not observed.

  12. A Blended Collaborative Writing Approach for Chinese L2 Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…

  13. Does the Medium Really Matter in L2 Development? The Validity of Call Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Luis; Baralt, Melissa; Suh, Bo-Ram; Leow, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of educational institutions are redefining second/foreign language (L2) classrooms by enhancing--or even replacing--traditional face-to-face (FTF) instruction with computer-assisted language learning (CALL). However, are these curricular decisions supported by research? Overall, a cursory review of empirical studies…

  14. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  15. Assessing L2 Lexical versus Inflectional Accuracy across Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna E.

    2014-01-01

    This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning,…

  16. Gender Bender: Gender Errors in L2 Pronoun Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton-Mendez, Ines

    2010-01-01

    To address questions about information processing at the message level, pronoun errors of second language (L2) speakers of English were studied. Some L2 pronoun errors--"he/she" confusions by Spanish speakers of L2 English--could be due to differences in the informational requirements of the speakers' two languages, providing a window into the…

  17. The Multilingual Classroom: New Rhetorical Frontiers in L2 Writing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magistro, Elena

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents some considerations on teaching L2 rhetorical conventions in university-level multilingual classrooms. It is claimed that if L2 students need to acquire versatile writing skills in L2 to be given a voice in the discourse milieu of the receiving society, they should also have the right to preserve their L1 cultural perspective.…

  18. Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla Salih, Abdel Rahman

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers' preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions,…

  19. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  20. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period.…

  1. Representation and Embodiment of Meaning in L2 Communication: Motion Events in the Speech and Gesture of Advanced L2 Korean and L2 English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soojung; Lantolf, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interface between speech and gesture in second language (L2) narration within Slobin's (2003) thinking-for-speaking (TFS) framework as well as with respect to McNeill's (1992, 2005) growth point (GP) hypothesis. Specifically, our interest is in whether speakers shift from a first language (L1) to a L2 TFS pattern as…

  2. Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

  3. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  4. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ~8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

  5. L1 literacy affects L2 pronunciation intake and text vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Martin

    2005-04-01

    For both deaf and hearing learners, L1 acquisition calls on auditive, gestural and visual modes in progressive processes over longer stages imposed in strictly anatomical and social order from the earliest pre-lexical phase [Jusczyk (1993), Kuhl & Meltzoff (1996)] to ultimate literacy. By contrast, L2 learning will call on accelerating procedures but with restricted input, arbitrated by L1 literacy as can be traced in the English of French-speaking learners, whether observed in spontaneous speech or in text vocalization modes. An inventory of their predictable omissions, intrusions and substitutions at suprasegmental and syllabic levels, many of which they can actually hear while unable to vocalize in real-time, suggests that a photogenic segmentation of continuous speech into alphabetical units has eclipsed the indispensable earlier phonogenic module, filtering L2 intake and output. This competing mode analysis hypothesizes a critical effect on L2 pronunciation of L1 graphemic procedures acquired usually before puberty, informing data for any Critical Period Hypothesis or amounts of L1 activation influencing L2 accent [Flege (1997, 1998)] or any psychoacoustic French deafness with regard to English stress-timing [Dupoux (1997)]. A metaphonic model [Howell & Dean (1991)] adapted for French learners may remedially distance L1 from L2 vocalization procedures.

  6. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  7. Towards Effective Instruction on Aspect in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Paz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether L2 instruction on the Spanish aspectual system containing a recognition task of the learners' L1 (Dutch) aspectual system helps the learner to understand and interiorise the L2 system. Second year Dutch university students (N = 20) took part in the experiment. In weekly groups of two to four, the students received…

  8. Attention and L2 Learners' Segmentation of Complex Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate L2 Japanese learners' ability to segment complex sentences from aural input. Elementary- and early intermediate-level L2 learners in general have not developed the ability to use syntactic cues to interpret the meaning of sentences they hear. In the case of Japanese, recognition of…

  9. Development of L2 Word-Meaning Inference while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Megumi

    2009-01-01

    Ability to infer the meaning of unknown words encountered while reading plays an important role in learners' L2 word-knowledge development. Despite numerous findings reported on word-meaning inference, how learners develop this ability is still unclear. In order to provide a developmental inquiry into L2 word-meaning inference while reading, this…

  10. Assessing Proficiency Through an Analysis of L2 Learner Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    The need for an index of development by which second language proficiency could be expediently and reliably guaged has been acknowledged by both second language (L2) teachers and researchers. In two previous L2 studies, the search for an index of development centered on an examination of learner written performance. In an attempt to construct an…

  11. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  12. Speaking L2 in EFL Classes: Performance, Identity and Alterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and students use L2 in Expanding Circle, Asian EFL classes, what kind of interpersonal roles do they perform, and what does this mean for the development of L2-mediated identity? The notion of alterity, or otherness, is used here to analyse the extent to which identity work occurs in EFL classes located in a Thai university context.…

  13. Automated Assessment of Speech Fluency for L2 English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides an automated scoring method of speech fluency for second language learners of English (L2 learners) based that uses speech recognition technology. Non-standard pronunciation, frequent disfluencies, faulty grammar, and inappropriate lexical choices are crucial characteristics of L2 learners' speech. Due to the ease of…

  14. Calibration of Comprehension and Performance in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university…

  15. Facilitating L2 Writers' Interpretation of Source Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Student success in higher education often involves the effective integration of source texts into students' writing (Horowitz, 1986); therefore, advanced second language (L2) students are particularly well served by effective reading-to-write instruction. Teaching L2 students to write from sources is challenging because of several issues,…

  16. Pausing Patterns: Differences between L2 Learners and Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of pauses made by L2 learners and native speakers of English while narrating picture stories. The comparison is based on the number of pauses and total amount of silence in the middle and at the end of clauses in the performance of 40 native speakers and 40 L2 learners of English. The results of the…

  17. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  18. Pragmatic Development of L2 Spanish Proposals in Planning Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marda C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines proposals made during planning talk--a speech act that has received little attention in previous literature--to determine the applicability of the stages of second language (L2) pragmatic development posited by Kasper and Rose (2002). Although Kasper and Rose suggest that formulas play a prominent role in L2 pragmatic…

  19. Portraits of the L2 User. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User"…

  20. Untutored Vocabulary Acquisition and L2 Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a self-instruction procedure designed to provide students of science and technology at the tertiary level with a basic vocabulary in a foreign language of around 1,000 items. The technique represents an efficient method for bridging the gap between the vocabulary that beginning L2 students possess and that required to read L2 scientific…

  1. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  2. Lexical Patterns in L2 Textual Gist Identification Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2009-01-01

    Gist identification or coherent situation model construction performance is an important criterion not only in L1 and L2 reading comprehension assessment but also in every aspect of discourse processing. Whereas most previous L2 research has investigated schematic knowledge of readers about relations within a text, more recent studies have used…

  3. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  4. L2-stability of distributed feedback systems: Singular perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barman, J. F.; Callier, F. M.; Desoer, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A continuous time, single input-single output, linear, time-invariant, distributed feedback system F sup epsilon, containing a small delay of length epsilon in the loop, is considered. Conditions are given under which L2-stability and L2-instability of this feedback system can be deduced from those of the reduced model obtained by neglecting the delay. The two system models associated with F sup epsilon are the low-frequency model F and the high frequency model F. The condition for neglecting the small delay is the L2-stability of the family of high-frequency models, where epsilon or = 0 is sufficiently small. A lemma and a theorem are given. The lemma gives sharp Nyquist-type conditions for the L2-stability and L2-instability of the family of high frequency models for sufficiently small epsilon or = 0, while the Theorem gives explicit conditions under which the small delay may or may not be neglected.

  5. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation.

    PubMed

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual's L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants' native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  6. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    PubMed Central

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space. PMID:25414678

  7. Putting Students at the Centre of Classroom L2 Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2016-01-01

    In many educational contexts, L2 writing assessment tends to emphasize its summative functions (i.e., assessment of learning--AoL) more than its formative potential (i.e., assessment for--AfL). While the teacher plays a dominant role in AoL, central to AfL is the role of the students, alongside that of the teacher and peers. A student-centred…

  8. Conceptualizing Willingness To Communicate in a L2: A Situational Model of L2 Confidence and Affiliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Peter D.; Dornyei, Zoltan; Clement, Richard; Noels, Kimberly A.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined linguistic, communicative, and social psychological variables affecting an individual's "willingness to communicate" (WTC) in a second language (L2), and suggests a model for integrating them that may useful in L2 WTC research. Twelve specific variables are identified and organized into layers in a heuristic model. It is…

  9. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  10. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M.; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  11. Learning second language vocabulary: neural dissociation of situation-based learning and text-based learning.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-04-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition necessitates learning and retrieving new words in different modes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the cortical representation of an L2 vocabulary acquired in different learning modes and in cross-modal transfer between learning and retrieval. Healthy participants learned new L2 words either by written translations (text-based learning) or in real-life situations (situation-based learning). Brain activity was then measured during subsequent retrieval of these words. The right supramarginal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus were involved in situation-based learning and text-based learning, respectively, whereas the left inferior frontal gyrus was activated when learners used L2 knowledge in a mode different from the learning mode. Our findings indicate that the brain regions that mediate L2 memory differ according to how L2 words are learned and used.

  12. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kwang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  13. Analyzing Genre Exemplars in Preparation for Writing: The Case of an L2 Graduate Student in the ESP Genre-Based Instructional Framework of Academic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, An

    2008-01-01

    Some researchers believe that the ESP genre-based framework of writing instruction is effective in teaching discipline-specific English EAP writing to L2 learners, especially to advanced L2 graduate students. However, studies examining students' genre-based learning in such a framework are still underrepresented in current ESP genre-based…

  14. Heuristic Algorithms for the L(2,1)-Labeling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, B. S.; Goel, Preeti

    An L(2, 1)-labeling of a graph G is an assignment f from the vertex set V(G) to the set of nonnegative integers such that |f(x) - f(y)| ≥ 2 if x and y are adjacent and |f(x) - f(y)| ≥ 1 if x and y are at distance two for all x and y in V(G). The span of an L(2,1)-labeling f is the maximum value of f(x) over all vertices x of G. The L(2,1)-labeling number of a graph G, denoted as λ(G), is the least integer k such that G has an L(2,1)-labeling with span k.

  15. Bactobolin Resistance Is Conferred by Mutations in the L2 Ribosomal Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Josephine R.; Truong, Thao T.; Silva, Patricia M.; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Carr, Gavin; Radey, Matthew; Jacobs, Michael A.; Sims, Elizabeth H.; Clardy, Jon; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia thailandensis produces a family of polyketide-peptide molecules called bactobolins, some of which are potent antibiotics. We found that growth of B. thailandensis at 30°C versus that at 37°C resulted in increased production of bactobolins. We purified the three most abundant bactobolins and determined their activities against a battery of bacteria and mouse fibroblasts. Two of the three compounds showed strong activities against both bacteria and fibroblasts. The third analog was much less potent in both assays. These results suggested that the target of bactobolins might be conserved across bacteria and mammalian cells. To learn about the mechanism of bactobolin activity, we isolated four spontaneous bactobolin-resistant Bacillus subtilis mutants. We used genomic sequencing technology to show that each of the four resistant variants had mutations in rplB, which codes for the 50S ribosome-associated L2 protein. Ectopic expression of a mutant rplB gene in wild-type B. subtilis conferred bactobolin resistance. Finally, the L2 mutations did not confer resistance to other antibiotics known to interfere with ribosome function. Our data indicate that bactobolins target the L2 protein or a nearby site and that this is not the target of other antibiotics. We presume that the mammalian target of bactobolins involves the eukaryotic homolog of L2 (L8e). PMID:23249812

  16. The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the

  17. A Model of the Effect of Uncertainty on the C elegans L2/L2d Decision

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Leon

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the first larval stage, the C elegans larva chooses between two developmental pathways, an L2 committed to reproductive development and an L2d, which has the option of undergoing reproductive development or entering the dauer diapause. I develop a quantitative model of this choice using mathematical tools developed for pricing financial options. The model predicts that the optimal decision must take into account not only the expected potential for reproductive growth, but also the uncertainty in that expected potential. Because the L2d has more flexibility than the L2, it is favored in unpredictable environments. I estimate that the ability to take uncertainty into account may increase reproductive value by as much as 5%, and discuss possible experimental tests for this ability. PMID:25029446

  18. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated…

  19. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-05-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology.

  20. Using Student Co-Regulation to Address L2 Students' Language and Pedagogical Needs in University Support Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights student co-regulation of teaching practices as a way of exploring how L2 students' language and pedagogical needs can be met in university support classes. Integration rather than assimilation--or adapting to the needs of the students rather than leaving students to face the exigencies of the new learning environment…

  1. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  2. "Even Though I Am Married, I Have a Dream": Constructing L2 Gendered Identities through Narratives of Departure and Arrival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroir, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a multiple case study to show how 3 women constructed meaning around the processes of L2 learning and migration and (re)constructed identities through their participation in new communities of practice (CoPs). Data sources include formal classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and the participants'…

  3. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  4. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  5. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  6. Speech Processing Prerequisites or L1 Transfer? Evidence from English and French L2 Learners of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhawary, Mohammad T.

    2009-01-01

    The article aims at investigating speech processing prerequisite claims made by Pienemann's Processability Theory (1998). Longitudinal data from eight English L1 and one French L1 speaker learning Arabic as an L2 were used to investigate the emergence/processing of demonstrative-predicate gender agreement and verbal agreement structures…

  7. Assessing L2 lexical versus inflectional accuracy across skill levels.

    PubMed

    West, Donna E

    2014-10-01

    This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning, undergraduate majors and graduate students. Number of morphemes was varied within each syllable count; and responses were either correct or modified (lexemically/inflectionally as deletions or substitutions). Two way ANOVAs determined significance between mean proportions for each group. Findings indicate that increases in number of morphemes yielded significant differences; and that while the lowest proficiency group produced higher proportions of lexical deletions, the more advanced groups' modifications were inflectional substitutions.

  8. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  9. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  10. L2 Blogging: Who Thrives and Who Does Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rainbow Tsai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    While research has reported generally enthusiastic results regarding L2 blogging, some studies have found contrasting blogging experiences among individual learners. Consequently, this study investigated the factors underlying such discrepancies by exploring 33 EFL learners' experiences of participating in a blog project at a Taiwanese university.…

  11. Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuming; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to uncover how L2 writing is affected by alignment, a socio-cognitive process involving dynamic coordination and adaptation. For this, two studies were conducted. Study 1 required two groups of 24 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to continue in English two stories with their endings removed, both of which had a…

  12. Hedging, Inflating, and Persuading in L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkel, Eli

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…

  13. Autobiographical Accounts of L2 Identity Construction in Chicano Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    i Sole, Cristina Ros

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses narrative accounts to explore intercultural experiences and the perception of the self by second language (L2) users. The analysis follows poststructuralist and postmodern theories of cultural and language identity. Extracts from the autobiographies of three chicano writers from the 1980s to the new millennium, Richard Rodriguez's…

  14. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS) News:  TES News Join TES News List ... and Order:  Earthdata Search   FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  ... Spacecraft Position Solar Azimuth Angle Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata Search Guide ...

  15. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANCS) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  ... and Order:  Earthdata Search   FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  ... Solar Azimuth Angle Spacecraft Position Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   Order Data SCAR-B Block:  ...

  16. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC) News:  TES News Join TES News List ... and Order:  Earthdata Search   FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Surface Pressure Emissivity Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata Search Readme ...

  17. Attention, Awareness, and Accents in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present research applies the concepts of attention, awareness, and noticing to a previously unresolved strand of inquiry: accent marks in L2 (second language) French. Previous research found that learners who typed accented words had better recall of the accent marks than those who wrote the same words by hand. Sturm suggested that it may have…

  18. Teaching L2 Pragmatics: Opportunities for Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellenga, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Teaching L2 pragmatics is often not covered in teacher education programs, and is an excellent area for continuing professional development. As part of a larger project on instructed interlanguage pragmatics, volunteer instructor participants were asked to teach a series of lessons on pragmatics to university-aged (19-23) ESL learners in ESL and…

  19. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  20. Strategic Processing and Predictive Inference Generation in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahatame, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Predictive inference is the anticipation of the likely consequences of events described in a text. This study investigated predictive inference generation during second language (L2) reading, with a focus on the effects of strategy instructions. In this experiment, Japanese university students read several short narrative passages designed to…

  1. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  2. The Role of Paired Listening in L2 Listening Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Toro, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Paired listening was originally developed as a research tool with the aim to understand the strategies used by L2 learners when listening to recorded speech in the target language. It offers researchers a useful combination of direct observation and verbal data, whilst avoiding the common drawbacks of subjective introspection. This paper examines…

  3. Ultimate Attainment of Anaphora Resolution in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Lucy Xia

    2014-01-01

    The current study tests the Interface Hypothesis through forward and backward anaphora in complex sentences with temporal subordinate clauses in highly proficient English-speaking learners' second-language (L2) Chinese. Forward anaphora is involved when the overt pronoun "ta" "he/she" or a null element appears in the subject…

  4. Reclaiming the Relevance of L2 Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    This article lays out a theoretical argument for empirical research that focuses on what happens inside the practices of L2 teacher education. Central to this argument is that it is inside these practices--the dialogic interactions between teacher educators and teachers--where teacher educators can see, support, and enhance the professional…

  5. Developing Intentionality and L2 Classroom Task-Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelma, Juup

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends work on "intentionality", from philosophy, psychology and education to an exploration of learners' meaning-making in L2 classroom task-engagement. The paper draws on both phenomenological and folk-psychological perspectives on intentionality, and employs John R. Searle's intrinsic (mental) and derived (observable)…

  6. Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2)…

  7. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  8. Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

  9. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  10. The Effectiveness of L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ron I.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the efficacy of second language (L2) pronunciation instruction has produced mixed results, despite reports of significant improvement in many studies. Possible explanations for divergent outcomes include learner individual differences, goals and foci of instruction, type and duration of instructional input, and assessment procedures.…

  11. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  12. Effects and Student Perceptions of Collaborative Writing in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and students' perceptions of collaborative writing (CW) in second language (L2). The study involved 38 first year students in two intact classes at a large university in the UAE (United Arab Emirates). One class consisted of 18 students and was considered the experimental group, and the second consisted of…

  13. L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joan Kelly; Hellermann, John; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to…

  14. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  15. Automated Scoring of L2 Spoken English with Random Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Abe, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess second language (L2) spoken English using automated scoring techniques. Automated scoring aims to classify a large set of learners' oral performance data into a small number of discrete oral proficiency levels. In automated scoring, objectively measurable features such as the frequencies of lexical and…

  16. Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

  17. Testing the Shallow Structure Hypothesis in L2 Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Language processing heuristics are one of the possible sources of divergence between first and second language systems. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006) proposes that non-native language processing relies primarily on semantic, and not syntactic, information, and that second language (L2) processing is therefore…

  18. A Dynamic Usage Based Perspective on L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verspoor, Marjolijn; Schmid, Monika S.; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty seven texts written by Dutch learners of English…

  19. A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

  20. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  1. On Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Truscott (1996) questions the practicability of grammar correction, and he believes that written corrective feedback (WCF) is not only a waste of time, but even harmful to the students as well. This has led to a great deal of discussion and research on WCF in second-language (L2) writing. Ferris (1999) is the representative opponent of Truscott's…

  2. Concept Appropriation and the Emergence of L2 Sociostylistic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on longitudinal data, this study explores the dynamic relationship between the development of conceptual knowledge of language and the emergence of sociostylistic variation in second language (L2) speech. Participants include eight intermediate-level US university learners of French who participated in a concept-based pedagogical…

  3. The Teaching of L2 Pronunciation through Processing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Bueno, Manuela; Quintana-Lara, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to pilot test whether the instructional approach known as Processing Instruction could be adapted to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation. The target sounds selected were the Spanish tap and trill. Three groups of high school students of Spanish as a foreign language participated in the study. One group…

  4. Truncation and Missing Inflection in Initial Child L2 German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevost, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of finite and nonfinite main declarative sentences produced by L2 child learners. It claims that two of the main proposals on the root infinitive (RI) phenomenon, the Truncation Hypothesis (TH) and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH), are not mutually exclusive in child SLA because they are hypotheses on…

  5. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  6. TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

    TES/Aura L2 Ancillary Data (TL2ANC) News:  TES News Join TES News List ... Reverb   Reverb Tutorial FTP  Access:   Data Pool OPeNDAP Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  Surface Pressure Emissivity Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data Guide Documents:  ...

  7. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  8. L2 Processing of Plural Inflection in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yoonsang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates (1) whether late second language (L2) learners can attain native-like knowledge of English plural inflection even when their first language (L1) lacks an equivalent and (2) whether they construct hierarchically structured representations during online sentence processing like native speakers. In a self-paced reading task,…

  9. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  10. Perceptual processing of Mandarin nasals by L1 and L2 Mandarin speakers.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Hsiu

    2012-08-01

    Nasals are cross-linguistically susceptible to change, especially in the syllable final position. Acoustic reports on Mandarin nasal production have recently shown that the syllable-final distinction is frequently dropped. Few studies, however, have addressed the issue of perceptual processing in Mandarin nasals for L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin Chinese. The current paper addressed to what extent and in what directions L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin differed in perceiving Mandarin nasals. Possible variables, including the linguistic backgrounds (i.e. L1 vs. L2 speakers of Mandarin Chinese), the vocalic contexts (i.e. [i, ə, a, y, ua, uə, ia]) and the phonetic settings (i.e. syllable-initial vs. syllable-final), were discussed. Asymmetrical findings in the current investigation indicated limitations of speech learning theories developed from European languages in the context of Mandarin nasals. A tri-dimensional model was thus suggested for interpreting the cognitive mechanism in Mandarin nasal perception.

  11. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  12. Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Learners: Some Effects of Bilinguality on L1 and L2 Processing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussias, Paola E.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates whether proficient second language (L2) speakers of Spanish and English use the same parsing strategies as monolinguals when reading temporarily ambiguous sentences containing a complex noun phrase followed by a relative clause, such as "Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California."…

  13. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  14. Test-Takers' Interaction with an L2 Video Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis

    2010-01-01

    Video technology is commonly used in L2 classrooms, but it is rarely used in assessing L2 listening, and there is little research investigating how L2 listeners process video texts (spoken texts that include the visual channel). The purpose of this study is to examine how L2 test-takers interact with a video listening test: the rate L2 listening…

  15. The Effects of Utilizing Corpus Resources to Correct Collocation Errors in L2 Writing--Students' Performance, Corpus Use and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yi-ju

    2016-01-01

    Data-Driven Learning (DDL), in which learners "confront [themselves] directly with the corpus data" (Johns, 2002, p. 108), has shown to be effective in collocation learning in L2 writing. Nevertheless, there have been only few research studies of this type examining the relationship between English proficiency and corpus consultation.…

  16. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  17. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  18. Fostering Computer-Mediated L2 Interaction beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrs, Keith

    2012-01-01

    In language learning contexts a primary concern is how to maximise target language interaction both inside and outside of the classroom. With the development of digital technologies, the proliferation of language learning applications, and an increased awareness of how technology can assist in language education, educators are being presented with…

  19. The Role of Interest Enhancement for L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rix, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examines the role of metacognitive awareness as a motivational strategy in second language learning. The paper begins by exploring metacognitive strategies within the general language learning strategy framework, and then zooming in upon "interest enhancement" as a particular strategy that influences motivation and…

  20. Exoplanet Photometry and Spectroscopy with HII/L2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, M.

    2000-12-01

    With the recent discovery of extrasolar planets (exoplanets) around nearby stars by indirect methods, one of the next goals of the exoplanet study is to directly detect the giant exoplanets and to make photometry and spectroscopy. The next decade will be the time to move from discovery to characterization of exoplanet systems. This, however, requires all of high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths, which will be difficult to achieve from the ground. In this paper, we describe a coronagraphic camera and spectrometer for the HII/L2 mission for mid- and far-infrared astronomy and show the photometry and spectroscopy of exoplanets to be one of the most important scientific aims for this mission. The proposed HII/L2 coronagraph will cover the wavelength between 4 and 27 micron, optimized at 5 micron. The plate scale is about 0.06 arcsec, covering a field-of-view of about 1 arcmin by 1 arcmin with a 1024x1024 array detector. Occulting masks of diameter greater than 0.72 arcsec will be available, which enables the observations of exoplanets beyond ~2 AU around nearby (d~5 pc) stars. The coronagraph greatly takes advantage of the single (non-segmented) mirror of the HII/L2 telescope design. A high-efficiency Ge or CdTe grism with a resolution of a few hundreds will be installed for the coronagraphic spectroscopy of the exoplanet atmosphere. Rich spectral features at mid-infrared wavelengths enable us to study various atmospheric components and to make a comparative study of the exoplanets and our solar system planets.

  1. Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert

    A report on learning psychology and its relationship to the study of school learning emphasizes the increasing interaction between theorists and educational practitioners, particularly in attempting to learn which variables influence the instructional process and to find an appropriate methodology to measure and evaluate learning. "Learning…

  2. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, John; Pugh, Jerry

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  3. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of L2 vertebra--a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S P; Agarwal, Anil

    2005-07-01

    Intraosseous neurilemmoma (schwannoma) is a rare bone tumor with incidence less than 0.2% of all primary bone tumors. It is a benign neoplasm arising from the schwann cells of the nerve sheath. When they occur, they are usually found in the mandible. This paper reports an unusual occurrence of intraosseous neurilemmoma in L2 vertebral body. This patient presented with complaints of backache and progressively increasing weakness in both lower limbs. Roetengenograms showed an osteolytic lesion of L2 vertebra localized in the left half of the body and pedicle. Computed tomograph revealed a large soft tissue component of the tumor mass with thecal sac compression. A computed tomograph assisted needle biopsy revealed the tumor to be neurilemmoma. Subsequently, during decompression, it was possible to shell out tumor from surrounding tissues. Remaining tumor was curettedfrom bone and the cavity packed with autograft. The recovery was uneventful with incorporation of graft. The aim of this article is to highlight intraosseous neurilemmoma as a possible differential diagnosis in bony tumors. Intraosseous neurilemmoma of lumbar vertebrae is an extremely rare occurrence and till date only four cases are reported in English literature.

  4. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  5. Input-based structure-specific proficiency predicts the neural mechanism of adult L2 syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Taiping; Zhou, Huixia; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Baoguo

    2015-06-12

    This study used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore the role of input-based structure-specific proficiency in L2 syntactic processing, using English subject-verb agreement structures as the stimuli. A pre-test/trainings/post-test paradigm of experimental and control groups was employed, and Chinese speakers who learned English as a second language (L2) participated in the experiment. At pre-test, no ERP component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was observed in either group. At training session, the experimental group learned the subject-verb agreement structures, while the control group learned other syntactic structures. After two continuously intensive input trainings, at post-test, a significant P600 component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was elicited in the experimental group, but not in the control group. These findings suggest that input training improves structure-specific proficiency, which is reflected in the neural mechanism of L2 syntactic processing.

  6. Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

  7. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  8. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  9. Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Behcet; Breckenridge, William; Macenka, Steven; Hein, Randall; Tubbs, Eldred

    2007-01-01

    Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point -- a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory would comprise two spacecraft flying in precision formation: (1) a primary-aperture spacecraft, from which would be deployed a 25-m diameter membrane primary mirror aimed at the Earth, and (2) a secondary-telescope spacecraft at the focal plane of the primary mirror, 125-m distant along the axis towards the Earth. The secondary telescope would be aimed at the primary mirror and slowly rotated to scan the focused annular image of the visible illuminated portion of the Earth's atmosphere during continuous occultation of the Sun.

  10. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can't be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English…

  11. Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

  12. Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    Human capacity for language acquisition is not strictly compartmentalized, with one acquisitional mechanism for the native language and others totally unrelated to it; rather, it consists of a unified mechanism flexible enough to handle various differences in external settings. This learning system operates on the formal properties of the…

  13. Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Elreyes, Abdullah; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2001-01-01

    Contributes to the understanding of several well-known problems relating to the learning of phonemic contrasts in second language phonology. Describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957) hypothesized to represent maximum difficulty in second language pronunciation, namely a phonemic split. (Author/VWL)

  14. Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…

  15. Regulation of the TMEPAI promoter by TCF7L2: the C-terminal tail of TCF7L2 is essential to activate the TMEPAI gene

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Naoko; Kato, Mitsuyasu; Itoh, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that TCF7L2 could activate the TMEPAI gene efficiently, whereas LEF1 could not nearly augment its transcription. When we comprehended the functional difference(s) between TCF7L2 and LEF1 with respect to the activation of the TMEPAI gene, the C-terminal tail of TCF7L2 was needed to reveal its transcriptional activity as well as its interaction with Smad3. Consistently, both TCF7/TCF7L2 and LEF1/TCF7L2 chimeric proteins exhibited an activity similar to TCF7L2 in transcription and Smad3 binding in contrast with LEF1 and TCF7. Our data elaborated on the diverse activity among TCF/LEF family members with respect to the transcriptional regulation of the TMEPAI gene. PMID:26590303

  16. Using Solar Radiation Pressure to Control L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tene, Noam; Richon, Karen; Folta, David

    1998-01-01

    The main perturbations at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L1 and L2 are from solar radiation pressure (SRP), the Moon and the planets. Traditional approaches to trajectory design for Lagrange-point orbits use maneuvers every few months to correct for these perturbations. The gravitational effects of the Moon and the planets are small and periodic. However, they cannot be neglected because small perturbations in the direction of the unstable eigenvector are enough to cause exponential growth within a few months. The main effect of a constant SRP is to shift the center of the orbit by a small distance. For spacecraft with large sun-shields like the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the SRP effect is larger than all other perturbations and depends mostly on spacecraft attitude. Small variations in the spacecraft attitude are large enough to excite or control the exponential eigenvector. A closed-loop linear controller based on the SRP variations would eliminate one of the largest errors to the orbit and provide a continuous acceleration for use in controlling other disturbances. It is possible to design reference trajectories that account for the periodic lunar and planetary perturbations and still satisfy mission requirements. When such trajectories are used the acceleration required to control the unstable eigenvector is well within the capabilities of a continuous linear controller. Initial estimates show that by using attitude control it should be possible to minimize and even eliminate thruster maneuvers for station keeping.

  17. The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kota

    2005-09-01

    The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

  18. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  19. Multilingual Learning Stories: Threshold, Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a reflection on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences in retrospect. Emphasis is placed on sequential learning of foreign languages in classroom settings for learners/users homogenous in terms of their learning histories, with L1 Polish and L2 English (advanced), but at two…

  20. The Effects of Late Acquisition of L2 and the Consequences of Immigration on L1 for Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Language Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…

  1. Cortical surface biomarkers for predicting cognitive outcomes using group l2,1 norm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingwen; Li, Taiyong; Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Wan, Jing; Nho, Kwangsik; Kim, Sungeun; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Regression models have been widely studied to investigate the prediction power of neuroimaging measures as biomarkers for inferring cognitive outcomes in the Alzheimer's disease study. Most of these models ignore the interrelated structures either within neuroimaging measures or between cognitive outcomes, and thus may have limited power to yield optimal solutions. To address this issue, we propose to use a new sparse multitask learning model called Group-Sparse Multi-task Regression and Feature Selection (G-SMuRFS) and demonstrate its effectiveness by examining the predictive power of detailed cortical thickness measures toward 3 types of cognitive scores in a large cohort. G-SMuRFS proposes a group-level l2,1-norm strategy to group relevant features together in an anatomically meaningful manner and use this prior knowledge to guide the learning process. This approach also takes into account the correlation among cognitive outcomes for building a more appropriate predictive model. Compared with traditional methods, G-SMuRFS not only demonstrates a superior performance but also identifies a small set of surface markers that are biologically meaningful.

  2. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY L2 Ground Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretschany, Sergei; Lichtenberg, Günter; Meringer, Markus; Theys, Nicolas; Lerot, Christophe; Liebing, Patricia; Noel, Stefan; Dehn, Angelika; Fehr, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming Version 7 of ESA's operational Level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had been originally developed for the GOME-2 sensor and later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to utilize BrO total columns (already an operational product) and split them into stratospheric VCDstrat and tropospheric VCDtrop fractions. BrO VCDstrat is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O3 and NO2 observations. VCDtrop is then determined simply as a difference: VCDtrop = VCDtotal - VCDstrat. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher sensitivity w.r.t. thin clouds. 3. A new

  3. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  4. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  5. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  6. Do L2 Writing Courses Affect the Improvement of L1 Writing Skills via Skills Transfer from L2 to L1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonca, Altmisdort

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of second language (L2) writing skills proficiency with the first language (L1) writing skills, in light of the language transfer. The study aims to analyze the positive effects of L2 writing proficiency on L1 writing proficiency. Forty native Turkish-speaking university students participated in the study.…

  7. RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanping; Yu, Sanhong; Zhu, Baogong; Bedoret, Denis; Bu, Xia; Francisco, Loise M.; Hua, Ping; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    We report that programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), a known ligand of PD-1, also binds to repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), which was originally identified in the nervous system as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PD-L2 and BMP-2/4 bind to distinct sites on RGMb. Normal resting lung interstitial macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells express high levels of RGMb mRNA, whereas lung dendritic cells express PD-L2. Blockade of the RGMb–PD-L2 interaction markedly impaired the development of respiratory tolerance by interfering with the initial T cell expansion required for respiratory tolerance. Experiments with PD-L2–deficient mice showed that PD-L2 expression on non–T cells was critical for respiratory tolerance, but expression on T cells was not required. Because PD-L2 binds to both PD-1, which inhibits antitumor immunity, and to RGMb, which regulates respiratory immunity, targeting the PD-L2 pathway has therapeutic potential for asthma, cancer, and other immune-mediated disorders. Understanding this pathway may provide insights into how to optimally modulate the PD-1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy while minimizing adverse events. PMID:24752301

  8. Deep Processing of Long-Distance Dependencies in L2 English: The Case of Anaphora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Alan Juffs, second language (L2) sentence processing has become a central research topic in the field of L2 acquisition. Beyond a general hunger for new data offered by new experimental techniques and designs, intellectual concerns with system-wide understanding of first-language (L1)-L2 differences extended to the…

  9. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  10. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  11. TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Lite Nadir (TL2MTLLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-24

    TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Lite Nadir (TL2MTLLN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Methanol Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir Spatial ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Methanol Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata Search ...

  12. The Development and Validation of Willingness-to-Listen in L2 (WTL) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdemir, Ahmet Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate a willingness to listen (WTL) scale for second language (L2) contexts. There are several studies on willingness to communicate (WTC) in L2. However, most of these studies are based on the speaking dimension of communication. As an ignored dimension, listening in L2 is underestimated in WTC research. The…

  13. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  14. On the Effects of L2 on Iranian Bilinguals' L1 Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agheshteh, Hessam

    2015-01-01

    While the effects of L1 on L2 have been extensively investigated, the effects of L2 on L1 have been largely ignored. The present study attempted to address this issue by investigating the effects of L2 English on Iranian Bilinguals' L1 writing ability. For this end, 61 participants, 30 bilinguals and 31 monolinguals, were assessed on an…

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In general... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  16. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  17. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  19. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  20. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(l)-2 Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. (a) Requirements—(1) In... contribution plan is permitted under section 401(l) and this section for a plan year only if the plan...

  2. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(2)-1 - Effective period of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective period of agreement. 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Section 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(2)-1 Effective period of agreement. (a) In general. An agreement entered into...

  3. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  4. Beyond Integrativeness: A Validation of the L2 Self Model among Francophone Learners of ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Troy; Guénette, Danielle; Simard, Daphnée

    2016-01-01

    According to Dörnyei's model of second language (L2) motivation, the motivated learner aims to incorporate the L2 into his or her self-concept, known as the ideal L2 self. This study examined the internal consistency of Dörnyei's model among ESL Francophone students in Quebec (n = 68) by means of a questionnaire. Correlations were calculated…

  5. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores…

  6. Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

  7. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  8. Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

  9. L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

  10. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  11. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kieback, Elisa; Mueller, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Mueller@dkfz.de

    2006-02-05

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation.

  12. Evidence for a "Wild" L2 Grammar: When PPs Rear Their Empty Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Elaine C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews several studies which suggest that some second-language (L2) learners stumble into rogue or "wild" grammars on the road to the L2. L2 learners who have subcategorization knowledge of verbs for their prepositions often omit those same prepositions in relative clauses and questions requiring pied-piping or preposition stranding.…

  13. TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Nadir (TL2NH3NS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Nadir (TL2NH3NS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Ammonia Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Ammonia Order Data:  Search and Order:   Order Data ...

  14. TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Nadir (TL2NH3N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-31

    TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Nadir (TL2NH3N) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Ammonia Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Ammonia Order Data:  Search and Order:   Order Data ...

  15. Learners' Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Pronunciation Accuracy: A Sociolinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…

  16. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers' Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika S.

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence grammatical and lexical complexity at the stage of L2

  17. Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

  18. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  19. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  20. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  1. Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Dybvig, K.

    1981-01-01

    Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

  2. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  3. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  4. Learning to Learn in Years 1 and 2 of Hungarian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habók, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Learning to learn (L2L) is an important component of lifelong learning. First, the article discusses various possible definitions of L2L and identifies the most comprehensible definition, which provides the basis for the analysis. Subsequently, it presents the results of a pilot study carried out in the early stage of primary education. This study…

  5. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  6. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  7. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  8. PD-L2: A prognostic marker in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Weichert, Wilko; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Schrader, Andres Jan; Hartmann, Arndt; Ivanyi, Philipp; Steffens, Sandra

    2017-05-01

    In the context of cancer immunotherapy, PD-1 as well as PD-L1 has been widely studied in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PD-1 and PD-L1 play a significant role as prognostic markers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In contrast, little is known about PD-L2 expression patterns in RCC, especially in rarer subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of PD-L2 expression in chromophobe (ch)RCC. Eighty-one patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimens were analyzed for PD-L2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were associated with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS). Twenty-three (28.4%) patients showed a PD-L2 > median (PD-L2 high) staining intensity. No significant association between clinicopathological parameters and PD-L2 expression was identified. A significant difference between 5- and 10-year OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression was found (PD-L2 low 96.4 and 87.7% vs. PD-L2 high 87.1 and 56%; log rank, p = 0.029). However, in multivariate analysis PD-L2 expression failed to be proofed as an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the prognostic impact of PD-L2 in a considerably large cohort of chRCC. Our results showed a significant diminished OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression. This implicates that PD-L2 might play a role as prognostic marker in chRCC demanding further evaluation.

  9. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  10. Beyond the Test: L2 Dynamic Assessment and the Transcendence of Mediated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehner, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    A major preoccupation in assessment is connecting examinees' performance in assessment and nonassessment contexts. This preoccupation has traditionally been framed in terms of generalizability. This article reconceptualizes this problem from a qualitatively different perspective on human abilities and their development, namely, the Sociocultural…

  11. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

  12. Partial Lexical Knowledge in Tests of Incidental Vocabulary Learning from L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the receptive tests of targeted lexical knowledge in the written medium, which are typically used in empirical research into lexical acquisition from reading foreign/second language texts. Apart from the types of second language cues or prompts, and the language of the responses, the main issues revolve around: (a) the…

  13. Grammar Processing through English L2 E-Books: Distance vs. Face-to-Face Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar-Álvarez, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    For university teachers in Distance Education, e-books should be an optimum solution since they do not have the opportunity to flip through the pages of print texts together with their students in the same classroom. College students usually use criteria such as cost, efficiency and personal comfort. Working with e-textbooks can be a tough…

  14. The Role of Grammatical Competence in L2 Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jae-suk

    1999-01-01

    Presenting four types of evidence, this article argues that grammatical competence should not be a subcomponent of communicative competence in second-language instruction, but have a separate status. Focuses on the critical role of grammatical competence in the overall development of target-language proficiency. (Author/VWL)

  15. Reconceptualising "Identity Slippage": Additional Language Learning and (L2) Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…

  16. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  17. TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Nadir (TL2MTLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Nadir (TL2MTLN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Methanol Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Methanol Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  18. TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Nadir (TL2MTLNS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Methanol (MTL) Nadir (TL2MTLNS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Methanol Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Methanol Volume Mixing Ratio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  19. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata ...

  20. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.2 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata ...

  1. Time Transfer by Laser Link - T2L2: An Opportunity to Calibrate RF Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Detection of first SLR stations: CW background (sun albedo, higher value for penumbra, lower for daylight) in blue; energy of detected laser pulses in...40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting TIME TRANSFER BY LASER LINK − T2L2: AN OPPORTUNITY TO CALIBRATE RF LINKS...Paris, France Abstract The T2L2 instrument, The “Time Transfer by Laser Link” experiment T2L2 [1], under development at OCA (Observatoire de

  2. PD-L2 negatively regulates Th1-mediated immunopathology during Fasciola hepatica infection

    PubMed Central

    Stempin, Cinthia C.; Motrán, Claudia C.; Aoki, María P.; Falcón, Cristian R.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F. hepatica total extract (TE) injection increased the expression of PD-L2 on peritoneal macrophages. In addition, the absence of PD-L2 expression correlated with an increase in susceptibility to F. hepatica infection, as evidenced by the shorter survival and increased liver damage observed in PD-L2 deficient (KO) mice. We assessed the contribution of the PD-L2 pathway to Th2 polarization during this infection, and found that the absence of PD-L2 caused a diminished Th2 type cytokine production by TE stimulated splenocytes from PD-L2 KO infected compared with WT mice. Besides, splenocytes and intrahepatic leukocytes from infected PD-L2 KO mice showed higher levels of IFN-γ than those from WT mice. Arginase expression and activity and IL-10 production were reduced in macrophages from PD-L2 KO mice compared to those from WT mice, revealing a strong correlation between PD-L2 expression and AAM polarization. Taken together, our data indicate that PD-L2 expression in macrophages is critical for AAM induction and the maintenance of an optimal balance between the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses to assure host survival during F. hepatica infection. PMID:27783986

  3. TES/Aura L2 Ozone (O3) Lite Nadir (TL2O3LN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-08-26

    TES/Aura L2 Ozone (O3) Lite Nadir (TL2O3LN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Ozone Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir Spatial ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Ozone Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata Search ...

  4. On Improved Exact Algorithms for L(2,1)-Labeling of Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junosza-Szaniawski, Konstanty; Rzążewski, Paweł

    L(2,1)-labeling is graph labeling model where adjacent vertices get labels that differ by at least 2 and vertices in distance 2 get different labels. In this paper we present an algorithm for finding an optimal L(2,1)-labeling (i.e. an L(2,1)-labeling in which largest label is the least possible) of a graph with time complexity O * ( 3.5616 n ), which improves a previous best result: O * ( 3.8739 n ).

  5. TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Lite Nadir (TL2NH3LN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-08-26

    TES/Aura L2 Ammonia (NH3) Lite Nadir (TL2NH3LN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Ammonia Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir Spatial ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Ammonia Order Data:  Search and Order:   Order Data ...

  6. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  7. Transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 is a regulator of macroautophagy genes.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Marta; Jiménez-Moreno, Natalia; García-Yagüe, Ángel J; Escoll, Maribel; de Ceballos, María L; Van Leuven, Fred; Rábano, Alberto; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Rojo, Ana I; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2016-10-02

    Autophagy is a highly coordinated process that is controlled at several levels including transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) as a regulator of autophagy gene expression and its relevance in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD) that reproduces impaired APP (amyloid β precursor protein) and human (Hs)MAPT/TAU processing, clearance and aggregation. We screened the chromatin immunoprecipitation database ENCODE for 2 proteins, MAFK and BACH1, that bind the NFE2L2-regulated enhancer antioxidant response element (ARE). Using a script generated from the JASPAR's consensus ARE sequence, we identified 27 putative AREs in 16 autophagy-related genes. Twelve of these sequences were validated as NFE2L2 regulated AREs in 9 autophagy genes by additional ChIP assays and quantitative RT-PCR on human and mouse cells after NFE2L2 activation with sulforaphane. Mouse embryo fibroblasts of nfe2l2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of autophagy genes, which was rescued by an NFE2L2 expressing lentivirus, and impaired autophagy flux when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. NFE2L2-deficient mice co-expressing HsAPP(V717I) and HsMAPT(P301L), exhibited more intracellular aggregates of these proteins and reduced neuronal levels of SQSTM1/p62, CALCOCO2/NDP52, ULK1, ATG5 and GABARAPL1. Also, colocalization of HsAPP(V717I) and HsMAPT(P301L) with the NFE2L2-regulated autophagy marker SQSTM1/p62 was reduced in the absence of NFE2L2. In AD patients, neurons expressing high levels of APP or MAPT also expressed SQSTM1/p62 and nuclear NFE2L2, suggesting their attempt to degrade intraneuronal aggregates through autophagy. This study shows that NFE2L2 modulates autophagy gene expression and suggests a new strategy to combat proteinopathies.

  8. Transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 is a regulator of macroautophagy genes

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Marta; Jiménez-Moreno, Natalia; García-Yagüe, Ángel J.; Escoll, Maribel; de Ceballos, María L.; Van Leuven, Fred; Rábano, Alberto; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Rojo, Ana I.; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a highly coordinated process that is controlled at several levels including transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) as a regulator of autophagy gene expression and its relevance in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD) that reproduces impaired APP (amyloid β precursor protein) and human (Hs)MAPT/TAU processing, clearance and aggregation. We screened the chromatin immunoprecipitation database ENCODE for 2 proteins, MAFK and BACH1, that bind the NFE2L2-regulated enhancer antioxidant response element (ARE). Using a script generated from the JASPAR's consensus ARE sequence, we identified 27 putative AREs in 16 autophagy-related genes. Twelve of these sequences were validated as NFE2L2 regulated AREs in 9 autophagy genes by additional ChIP assays and quantitative RT-PCR on human and mouse cells after NFE2L2 activation with sulforaphane. Mouse embryo fibroblasts of nfe2l2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of autophagy genes, which was rescued by an NFE2L2 expressing lentivirus, and impaired autophagy flux when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. NFE2L2-deficient mice co-expressing HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L, exhibited more intracellular aggregates of these proteins and reduced neuronal levels of SQSTM1/p62, CALCOCO2/NDP52, ULK1, ATG5 and GABARAPL1. Also, colocalization of HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L with the NFE2L2-regulated autophagy marker SQSTM1/p62 was reduced in the absence of NFE2L2. In AD patients, neurons expressing high levels of APP or MAPT also expressed SQSTM1/p62 and nuclear NFE2L2, suggesting their attempt to degrade intraneuronal aggregates through autophagy. This study shows that NFE2L2 modulates autophagy gene expression and suggests a new strategy to combat proteinopathies. PMID:27427974

  9. Processing Strategies by Beginning L2 Learners of English and Spanish: A Crosslinguistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandl, Anel

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in second language acquisition (SLA) research is the relationship between morphosyntactic and lexical-semantic knowledge among L2 learners. It has been proposed that, L2 language acquisition starts with transfer of L1 semantic and morphosyntactic processing strategies; however, it has been observed that, at lower proficiency…

  10. Judicious Use of L1 in L2 Arabic Speaking Practice Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Masaeed, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contexts for "optimal" use of first language (L1) in second language (L2) one-on-one speaking practice sessions in a study abroad program where English was the L1 and Arabic was the L2 of students, and the opposite applied to their speaking partners. Drawing on insights from sociocultural theory to investigate…

  11. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  12. Acquisition of L2 Vowel Duration in Japanese by Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuno, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that focused perceptual training facilitates L2 learners' segmental perception and spoken word identification. Hardison (2003) and Motohashi-Saigo and Hardison (2009) found benefits of visual cues in the training for acquisition of L2 contrasts. The present study examined factors affecting perception and production…

  13. Factors Affecting the Processing of Japanese Relative Clauses by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a crosslinguistic comparative study of the processing of Japanese relative clauses (RCs) by Chinese-, Sinhalese-, Vietnamese-, Thai-, and Indonesian-speaking second language (L2) learners. A robust finding in studies on the acquisition of RCs in L2 English and other European languages is that subject-gap RCs are easier than…

  14. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  15. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  16. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  17. L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

  18. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  19. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  20. L2 Acquisition of Bulgarian Clitic Doubling: A Test Case for the Interface Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the testing ground of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace, 2006) by investigating the degree to which second language (L2) learners of Bulgarian with English as their first language (L1) had acquired the pragmatic function of clitic doubling as a topicality marker. Advanced and intermediate L2 speakers of…

  1. Russian Speakers' L2 Chinese Acquisition of "Wh"-Topicalization at the Syntax-Discourse Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugarova, Esuna

    2014-01-01

    In recent second language (L2) research it has been proposed that unlike linguistic phenomena pertaining to internal interfaces, those at external interfaces pose greater difficulty to adult L2 learners and may not be fully acquired. It has further been pointed out that such problematic acquisition at the interface level should not be attributed…

  2. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

  3. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  4. The Complexity of Second Language Reading: Investigating the L1-L2 Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevik, Lisbeth M.; Olsen, Rolf Vegar; Hellekjaer, Glenn Ole

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of reading assessment in English as a second language (L2). Few reading studies have been carried out at the upper secondary school level, and the present study provides insight into upper secondary school students' L2 reading proficiency. It examines whether such proficiency can be explained by reading…

  5. The Impact of Discourse Signaling Devices on the Listening Comprehension of L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajabadi, Fahimeh; Taghizadeh, Mahboubeh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, it aimed at examining the impact of expository text topics on the listening comprehension of L2 learners; second, it aimed to investigate the impact of macro, micro, and macro-micro discourse markers on the listening comprehension of expository texts by L2 learners. The participants (N =105) were male…

  6. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2

  7. The Impact of Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Written Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimpour, Massoud; Hosseini, Pakhshan

    2010-01-01

    This main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of task complexity on L2 learners' written narratives. It is argued that L2 learners' written performance is influenced by the complexity of task regarding accuracy, fluency, and complexity. 52 Iranian English learners were selected as the participants of the study. They were asked to…

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…

  9. Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amicucci, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

  10. Structural basis for acyl-group discrimination by human Gcn5L2

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Alison E.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Gcn5 is a conserved acetyltransferase that regulates transcription by acetylating the N-terminal tails of histones. Motivated by recent studies identifying a chemically diverse array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo, the acyl-chain specificity of the acetyltransferase human Gcn5 (Gcn5L2) was examined. Whereas Gcn5L2 robustly catalyzes lysine acetylation, the acyltransferase activity of Gcn5L2 becomes progressively weaker with increasing acyl-chain length. To understand how Gcn5 discriminates between different acyl-CoA molecules, structures of the catalytic domain of human Gcn5L2 bound to propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA were determined. Although the active site of Gcn5L2 can accommodate propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA without major structural rearrangements, butyryl-CoA adopts a conformation incompatible with catalysis that obstructs the path of the incoming lysine residue and acts as a competitive inhibitor of Gcn5L2 versus acetyl-CoA. These structures demonstrate how Gcn5L2 discriminates between acyl-chain donors and explain why Gcn5L2 has weak activity for acyl moieties that are larger than an acetyl group. PMID:27377381

  11. Developing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers and L2 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potowski, Kim; Parada, MaryAnn; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and piloting of an adaptive, online placement exam that will be administered to L2 and heritage learners of Spanish at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Particular attention is given to the structure of the exam and the linguistic strategies employed to distinguish heritage speakers from L2 learners.…

  12. A Usage-Based Investigation of L2 Lexical Acquisition: The Role of Input and Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Kyle, Kristopher; Salsbury, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relations between second language (L2) lexical input and output in terms of word information properties (i.e., lexical salience; Ellis, 2006a). The data for this study come from a longitudinal corpus of naturalistic spoken data between L2 learners and first language (L1) interlocutors collected over a year's time. The…

  13. Looking for the Big Picture: Macrostrategies for L2 Teacher Observation and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Mercado, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive body of literature in TESOL studies the different paradigms that drive second language (L2) teachers' conceptualizations of their professional identities and practice, there is still a need for more research into how L2 supervisors construct the realities of supervision and how their interpretations of those realities inform…

  14. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Jeehwan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines (1) the effects of hypertext gloss use on L2 vocabulary acquisition in computerized reading contexts; (2) which specific combination of either text-only (single) or text + visual (multiple) hypertext glosses is more effective on L2 vocabulary acquisition; and (3) potential moderators to systematically account for between study…

  15. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  16. Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

  17. Exploring Learner Factors in Second Language (L2) Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…

  18. Unconventional Expressions: Productive Syntax in the L2 Acquisition of Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Stringer, David

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a generative analysis of the acquisition of formulaic language as an alternative to current usage-based proposals. One influential view of the role of formulaic expressions in second language (L2) development is that they are a bootstrapping mechanism into the L2 grammar; an initial repertoire of constructions allows for…

  19. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  20. Investigating the Pedagogical Potential of Recasts for L2 Vowel Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya; Lyster, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Whereas second language (L2) education research has extensively examined how different types of interactional feedback can be facilitative of L2 development in meaning-oriented classrooms, most of these primary studies have focused on recasts (i.e., teachers' reformulations of students' errors). Some researchers have claimed that recasts serve an…

  1. Descriptive and Criterion-Referenced Self-Assessment with L2 Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Vanderplank, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Brantmeier [Brantmeier, C., 2006. "Advanced L2 learners and reading placement: self-assessment, computer-based testing, and subsequent performance." 'System 34" (1), 15-35] found that self-assessment (SA) of second language (L2) reading ability is not an accurate predictor for computer-based testing or subsequent classroom performance. With 359…

  2. Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In postgraduate study, students including L2 students are often required to write a thesis and, as a growing literature reveals, L2 students often experience difficulties in the writing of this genre. While most of this research has involved surveys (questionnaires and interviews) and case studies of supervisor perceptions, only a few studies have…

  3. The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Marije C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2

  4. Exploring the Potential Relationship between Eye Gaze and English L2 Speakers' Responses to Recasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…

  5. Bilingual Writers' Awareness of Audience in L1 and L2 Persuasive Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    First (L1) and second language (L2) composing studies have documented similarities between skilled and unskilled native L1 writers and L2 writers. To date, there have been very few investigations on how bilingual writers attend to audience when composing in two languages. This study reports how four bilingual writers attended to audience in…

  6. Islands and Objects in L2 Spanish: Do You Know the Learners Who Drop___?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study tests native Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers of second language (L2) Spanish in the domain of phonologically null object pronouns. This is a worthwhile first language (L1)-L2 pairing given that these languages are historically and typologically related and both seemingly allow for object drop. Nevertheless, the underlying syntax of…

  7. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  8. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  9. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  10. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  11. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  12. Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and Achievement in Second Language (L2) Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Implicit and explicit knowledge of the second language (L2) are two central constructs in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in obtaining valid and reliable measures of L2 learners' implicit and explicit knowledge (e.g., Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005). The purpose of the present study…

  13. The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Mami

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

  14. Working Memory Effects in the L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether and how L2 sentence processing is affected by memory constraints that force serial parsing. Monitoring eye movements, we test effects of working memory on L2 relative-clause attachment preferences in a sample of 75 late-adult German learners of English and 25 native English controls. Mixed linear regression…

  15. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  16. Near soliton dynamics and singularity formation for L^2 critical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Y.; Merle, F.; Raphaël, P.; Szeftel, J.

    2014-04-01

    This survey reviews the state of the art concerning singularity formation for two canonical dispersive problems: the L^2 critical non-linear Schrödinger equation and the L^2 critical generalized KdV equation. In particular, the currently very topical question of classifying flows with initial data near a soliton is addressed. Bibliography: 72 titles.

  17. Child L2 English Acquisition of Subject Properties in an Immersion Bilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballester, Elizabet Pladevall

    2012-01-01

    Although thoroughly analysed in adult second language acquisition (L2A), the acquisition of subject properties in child L2A has not received so much attention and the majority of studies deal with longitudinal data or only with a single subject property. This study contributes new cross-sectional data from 5-year-old Spanish children acquiring…

  18. Diction and Expression in Error Analysis Can Enhance Academic Writing of L2 University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Without proper linguistic competence in English language, academic writing is one of the most challenging tasks, especially, in various genre specific disciplines by L2 novice writers. This paper examines the role of diction and expression through error analysis in English language of L2 novice writers' academic writing in interdisciplinary texts…

  19. Early Child L2 Acquisition: Age or Input Effects? Neither, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores whether there is evidence for age and/or input effects in child L2 acquisition across three different linguistic domains, namely morphosyntax, vocabulary, and syntax-semantics. More specifically, it compares data from English-speaking children whose age of onset to L2 Dutch was between one and three years with data from…

  20. Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…

  1. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

  2. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bu, Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  3. Grammatical Gender in L2: A Production or a Real-Time Processing Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruter, Theres; Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of grammatical gender is difficult to achieve in a second language (L2). This study investigates whether persistent difficulty with grammatical gender often observed in the speech of otherwise highly proficient L2 learners is best characterized as a production-specific performance problem, or as difficulty with the retrieval of gender…

  4. How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

  5. The Interaction of Instruction and Learner-Internal Factors in the Acquisition of L2 Morphosyntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of instruction, second language (L2) input, first language (L1) transfer, and universal grammar in development of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge. Specifically investigates the acquisition of the Spanish morpheme "se" by English-speaking adult learners. (Author/VWL)

  6. Negative Feedback and Positive Evidence in Task-Based Interaction: Differential Effects on L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the acquisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Australian tertiary…

  7. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2

  8. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  9. Incidental Acquisition of Grammatical Features during Reading in L1 and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Opitz, Andreas; Rogahn, Maria; Tschirner, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the initial stages of incidental acquisition of two grammatical properties of verbs (subcategorization and [ir]regularity) during reading in first language (L1) and second language (L2) German using an adjusted self-paced reading paradigm. The results indicate that L1 speakers are superior to L2 speakers in the…

  10. [Boot colonization of wheat by lux-AB genes marked Pseudomonas fluorescens Xl6L2].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Hu, Z; Li, F

    2000-04-01

    Colonization density of Pseudomonas fluorescens Xl6L2 marked with luxAB genes in wheat rhizosphere in asepsis rhizobox-Calcareous chao soil microcosms reached the maximum(4.60 log cfu.g-1 root) 3 days after seeds coated with Pf.Xl6L2 sown, then declined to a relatively stable lower level(2.45 log cfu.g-1 root) in 0-2 cm root segment. Dynamics of colonization of Pf.Xl6L2 in wheat rhizosphere under field conditions was the same as in microcosms, Pf.Xl6L2 could move to the place of 10 cm of root from seeds under field conditions, distance of horizontal movement of Pf.Xl6L2 in field soil was not over 40 cm during 125 days of plant growth.

  11. Status of the L2 and Lunar Charged Particle Environment Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The L2 Charged Particle Environment (L2-CPE) model is an engineering tool which provides free field charged particle environments for distant magnetotail, magnetosheath, and solar wind environments. L2-CPE is intended for use in assessing contributions from low energy radiation environments (4.1 keV to few MeV) to radiation dose in thin materials used in construction of spacecraft to be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point. This paper describes the status of the current version of the L2-CPE model including structure of the model used to organize plasma environments into solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail environments, the algorithms used to estimate radiation fluence in sparsely sampled environments, the updated graphical user interface, and output options for flux and fluence environments. In addition, we describe the status and plans for updating the model to include environments relevant to lunar programs.

  12. Topography of the Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Vesicular Trafficking of Infectious Entry

    PubMed Central

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Guion, Lucile G. M.; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking. IMPORTANCE In order to complete infectious entry, nonenveloped viruses have to pass cellular membranes. This is often achieved through the viral capsid protein associating with or integrating into intracellular membrane. Here, we determine the topography of HPV L2 protein in the endocytic vesicular compartment, suggesting that L2 becomes a transmembrane protein with a short luminal portion and with the majority facing the cytosolic side for interaction with host cell transport factors. PMID:26246568

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes...

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes...

  15. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes...

  16. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  17. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2010-02-17

    This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either first-person singular present-tense or imperfect forms, in separate tasks. In the present tense, the L1 speakers showed inflected-form frequency effects (i.e., higher frequency forms were produced faster, which is taken as a reflection of storage) for stem-changing (irregular) verb-forms from both Class I (e.g., pensar-pienso) and Classes II and III (e.g., perder-pierdo), as well as for non-stem-changing (regular) forms in Classes II/III (e.g., vender-vendo), in which the regular transformation does not appear to constitute a default. In contrast, Class I regulars (e.g., pescar-pesco), whose non-stem-changing transformation constitutes a default (e.g., it is applied to new verbs), showed no frequency effects. L2 speakers showed frequency effects for all four conditions (Classes I and II/III, regulars and irregulars). In the imperfect tense, the L1 speakers showed frequency effects for Class II/III (-ía-suffixed) but not Class I (-aba-suffixed) forms, even though both involve non-stem-change (regular) default transformations. The L2 speakers showed frequency effects for both types of forms. The pattern of results was not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding experimental and statistical factors, and does not appear to be compatible with single-mechanism models, which argue that all linguistic forms are learned and processed in associative memory. The findings are consistent with a dual-system view in which both verb class and regularity influence the storage vs

  18. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P.; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either first-person singular present-tense or imperfect forms, in separate tasks. In the present tense, the L1 speakers showed inflected-form frequency effects (i.e., higher frequency forms were produced faster, which is taken as a reflection of storage) for stem-changing (irregular) verb-forms from both Class I (e.g., pensar-pienso) and Classes II and III (e.g., perder-pierdo), as well as for non-stem-changing (regular) forms in Classes II/III (e.g., vender-vendo), in which the regular transformation does not appear to constitute a default. In contrast, Class I regulars (e.g., pescar-pesco), whose non-stem-changing transformation constitutes a default (e.g., it is applied to new verbs), showed no frequency effects. L2 speakers showed frequency effects for all four conditions (Classes I and II/III, regulars and irregulars). In the imperfect tense, the L1 speakers showed frequency effects for Class II/III (-ía-suffixed) but not Class I (-aba-suffixed) forms, even though both involve non-stem-change (regular) default transformations. The L2 speakers showed frequency effects for both types of forms. The pattern of results was not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding experimental and statistical factors, and does not appear to be compatible with single-mechanism models, which argue that all linguistic forms are learned and processed in associative memory. The findings are consistent with a dual-system view in which both verb class and regularity influence the storage vs

  19. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome as a presenting feature of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Céline; Born, Mark; Salomons, Gajja S; Jakobs, Cornelis; Woelfle, Joachim

    2006-06-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria was diagnosed in a 9-month-old female infant after a complex febrile convulsion with subsequent transient left-sided hemiplegia. The symptoms were consistent with acute hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed distinct white-matter abnormalities in the bifrontal and bioccipital periventricular area and increased signal intensity in the lenticular, caudate, and dentate nuclei, consistent with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Increased concentrations of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid were detected in the urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was homozyous for the p.Lys81Glu (c.241A>G) missense mutation in the L-2-HGA gene, confirming the diagnosis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Acute hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome has not been reported as a presenting feature in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. In patients with prolonged or complicated febrile seizures such as hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome, L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in children with concomitant macrocephaly.

  20. MPV17L2 is required for ribosome assembly in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; Hirst, Elizabeth M.A.; Vidoni, Sara; Reyes, Aurelio; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ0 cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid. PMID:24948607

  1. Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Klucevsek, K.; Daley, J.; Darshan, M.S.; Bordeaux, J.; Moroianu, J. . E-mail: moroianu@bc.edu

    2006-08-15

    We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap {alpha}{sub 2} adapter, and Kap {beta}{sub 2} and Kap {beta}{sub 3} nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap {beta}{sub 2} or Kap {beta}{sub 3} inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap {beta}/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap {beta}{sub 2} and Kap {beta}{sub 3}. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} heterodimers, Kap {beta}{sub 2} and Kap {beta}{sub 3}.

  2. TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

    2014-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D.

  3. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua; Xiong, Linjie; Zhao, Huijiang

    2013-12-01

    We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., "A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians," (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., "L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657-688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. ["Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497-1546 (2011)] and Guo ["The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians," Invent. Math. 153(3), 593-630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions.

  4. Morphosyntactic Processing in Advanced Second Language (L2) Learners: An Event-Related Potential Investigation of the Effects of L1-l2 Similarity and Structural Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemán Bañón, José; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Different theoretical accounts of second language (L2) acquisition differ with respect to whether or not advanced learners are predicted to show native-like processing for features not instantiated in the native language (L1). We examined how native speakers of English, a language with number but not gender agreement, process number and gender…

  5. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  6. Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

  7. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1.

  8. Learning to Learn: Improving Attainment, Closing the Gap at Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannion, James; Mercer, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a comprehensive secondary school in the south of England implemented a whole-school approach to "learning to learn" (L2L). Drawing on a range of evidence-based practices, a team of teachers worked collaboratively to design and deliver a taught L2L curriculum to all students throughout Key Stage 3. In total, the first cohort of…

  9. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  10. An NMF-L2,1-Norm Constraint Method for Characteristic Gene Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Jin-Xing; Gao, Ying-Lian; Yu, Jiguo; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that characteristic gene selection based on gene expression data remains faced with considerable challenges. This is primarily because gene expression data are typically high dimensional, negative, non-sparse and noisy. However, existing methods for data analysis are able to cope with only some of these challenges. In this paper, we address all of these challenges with a unified method: nonnegative matrix factorization via the L2,1-norm (NMF-L2,1). While L2,1-norm minimization is applied to both the error function and the regularization term, our method is robust to outliers and noise in the data and generates sparse results. The application of our method to plant and tumor gene expression data demonstrates that NMF-L2,1 can extract more characteristic genes than other existing state-of-the-art methods.

  11. TES/Aura L2 Carbonyl Sulfide Nadir (TL2OCSN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-01

    ... TES/Aura L2 Carbonyl Sulfide Nadir (TL2OCSN) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Air Quality Atmospheric Chemistry/Sulfur Compounds Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   ...

  12. TES/Aura L2 Peroxyacyl Nitrate Nadir (TL2PANN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-01

    ... TES/Aura L2 Peroxyacyl Nitrate Nadir (TL2PANN) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Air Quality Atmospheric Chemistry/Nitrogen Compounds Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   ...

  13. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    ... TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Atmospheric Chemistry/Carbon and Hydrocarbon Compounds Order Data:  ...

  14. TES/Aura L2 Peroxyacyl Nitrate Nadir (TL2PANNS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-01

    ... TES/Aura L2 Peroxyacyl Nitrate Nadir (TL2PANNS) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Air Quality Atmospheric Chemistry/Nitrogen Compounds Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   ...

  15. TES/Aura L2 Carbonyl Sulfide Nadir (TL2OCSNS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-01

    ... TES/Aura L2 Carbonyl Sulfide Nadir (TL2OCSNS) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Air Quality Atmospheric Chemistry/Sulfur Compounds Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   ...

  16. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  17. Multi-view L2-SVM and its multi-view core vector machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengquan; Chung, Fu-lai; Wang, Shitong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel L2-SVM based classifier Multi-view L2-SVM is proposed to address multi-view classification tasks. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier does not have any bias in its objective function and hence has the flexibility like μ-SVC in the sense that the number of the yielded support vectors can be controlled by a pre-specified parameter. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier can make full use of the coherence and the difference of different views through imposing the consensus among multiple views to improve the overall classification performance. Besides, based on the generalized core vector machine GCVM, the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier is extended into its GCVM version MvCVM which can realize its fast training on large scale multi-view datasets, with its asymptotic linear time complexity with the sample size and its space complexity independent of the sample size. Our experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier for small scale multi-view datasets and the proposed MvCVM classifier for large scale multi-view datasets.

  18. The Nearby Evolved Star L2 Puppis as a Portrait of the Future Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, P.; Montargès, M.; Richards, A. M. S.; Homan, W.; Decin, L.; Lagadec, E.; Ridgway, S. T.; Perrin, G.; McDonald, I.; Ohnaka, K.

    2017-03-01

    The impact of the dramatic terminal phases of the lives of Sun-like stars on their orbiting planets is currently uncertain. Observations with NAOS CONICA and SPHERE/ZIMPOL in 2014–2015 have revealed that the nearby red giant star L2 Puppis is surrounded by an almost edge-on disc of dust and gas. We have observed several remarkable features in L2 Pup: plumes, spirals, and a secondary source (L2 Pup B) which is embedded in the disc at a projected separation of 2 au. ALMA observations have allowed us to measure a mass of 0.659 ± 0.043 M⊙ for the central star. This indicates that L2 Pup is a close analogue of the future Sun at an age of 10 Gyr. We also estimate the mass of L2 Pup B to be 12 ± 16 MJup, implying that it is likely a planet or a brown dwarf. L2 Pup therefore offers us a remarkable preview of the distant future of our Solar System.

  19. PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in mouse prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shijie; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Wang, Alun R; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 play critical roles in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in mouse prostate tumors. A total of 33 mouse prostate tumors derived from Pten-null mice were examined using immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2. The animals were either with interleukin-17 receptor c (Il-17rc) wild-type or knockout genotype, or fed with regular diet or high-fat diet to 30 weeks of age. We found that Il-17rc wild-type mouse prostate tumors had significantly higher levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 than Il-17rc knockout mouse prostate tumors. High-fat diet-induced obese mice had significantly higher levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in their prostate tumors than lean mice fed with regular diet. Increased expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 was associated with increased number of invasive prostate tumors formed in the Il-17rc wild-type and obese mice compared to the Il-17rc knockout and lean mice, respectively. Our findings suggest that expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 may enhance development of mouse prostate cancer through creating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  20. Participation of Vaccinia Virus L2 Protein in the Formation of Crescent Membranes and Immature Virions▿

    PubMed Central

    Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Domi, Arban; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of vaccinia virus begins with the appearance of crescent-shaped membrane precursors of immature virions in cytoplasmic factories. During the initial characterization of the product of the L2R reading frame, we discovered that it plays an important role in crescent formation. The L2 protein was expressed early in infection and was associated with the detergent-soluble membrane fraction of mature virions, consistent with two potential membrane-spanning domains. All chordopoxviruses have L2 homologs, suggesting an important function. Indeed, we were unable to isolate an infectious L2R deletion mutant. Consequently, we constructed an inducible mutant with a conditional lethal phenotype. When L2 expression was repressed, proteolytic processing of the major core proteins and the A17 protein, which is an essential component of the immature virion membrane, failed to occur, suggesting an early block in viral morphogenesis. At 8 h after infection in the presence of inducer, immature and mature virions were abundantly seen by electron microscopy. In contrast, those structures were rare in the absence of inducer and were replaced by large, dense aggregates of viroplasm. A minority of these aggregates had short spicule-coated membranes, which resembled the beginnings of crescent formation, at their periphery. These short membrane segments at the edge of the dense viroplasm increased in number at later times, and some immature virions were seen. Although the L2 protein was not detected under nonpermissive conditions, minute amounts could account for stunted and delayed viral membrane formation. These findings suggested that L2 is required for the formation or elongation of crescent membranes. PMID:21228235