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Sample records for clay based drilling

  1. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R {ge} 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275{degree}C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200{degree}C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100{degree}C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  3. Continental scientific drilling program data base: 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G.A.; Howard, N.; Hage, G.; Higuera; M.L.; Richardson, W.

    1982-05-18

    The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) data base maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. It is a central repository of information concerning approximately 1800 government funded and scientifically interesting drill holes in the United States. This data base can help reduce drilling costs and maximize scientific value of drilling efforts of government agencies and industry. The services of the CSDP data base are free of charge and available to all.

  4. Effects of Clay Mineral Provenance and Clay Diagenesis on the Hanging Wall of a Megasplay Fault: Results from Riser Drilling, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, M.; Song, C.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 348 set a new record for sampling depth by scientific ocean drilling. Cores were recovered from the Nankai accretionary prism (Site C0002) at depths of 2163-2218 mbsf; cuttings were recovered continuously to 3058 mbsf. Shallower strata near the top of the accretionary prism are as young as 5.6 Ma, but the deeper interval has an apparent depositional age of 9.56-10.73 Ma. The structural context is within the hanging wall of a megasplay fault. Quantitative analyses of the clay mineral assemblages (using X-ray diffraction) show that the most abundant clay mineral is smectite, followed by illite, chlorite, and kaolinite. The mudstones at Site C0002 contain significantly lower percentages of smectite (~40% of clay-size fraction) as compared to coeval Miocene strata at Sites C0011 and C0012 in the nearby subduction inputs of Shikoku Basin (>50% of clay-size fraction). One likely reason for the difference is an overprint of detrital assemblages by smectite-to-illite diagenesis, which results in a steady down-hole increase in illite within the I/S mixed-layer phase. Another possible reason, however, is a spatial shift in depositional environments and detrital provenance. The mud-dominant facies of the accretionary prism is enigmatic (when compared to the frontal prism), and its original depositional setting remains uncertain. The accreted mudstones might have been deposited in a trench during a period in which supplies of sandy sediment were restricted. Northwestward migration of a triple junction that joins the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and Nankai plate boundaries also might have played a role, either by reducing the rate of plate convergence at ~7-12 Ma or by shifting pre-accretion depositional settings from the NE side of the triple junction (subducting Pacific plate) to the SW side (Shikoku Basin, subducting Philippine Sea plate). Regardless of the exact paleogeography, we predict that lower initial percentages of detrital smectite and gradual diagenetic loss

  5. Placid shale weighting agent for water base drilling mud

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.P. Jr.

    1983-09-20

    An improved water base drilling mud composition comprises a placid shale clay from strata of the Pennsylvanian system of the Paleozoic Era which consists essentially of chlorite, illite and kaolinite mineral components, including at least trace amounts of a-quartz, calcium carbonate and gypsum. The placid shale clay is characterized by a relatively low volatile matter content, typically six percent by weight. Additionally, it is characterized by a relatively high percentage by weight of high density compounds such as aluminum oxide (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and a relatively small amount of low density compounds such as magnesium oxide (MgO) and sulfur trioxide (SO/sub 3/). The placid shale clay is preferably used in combination with a gel viscosifier such as bentonite. In addition to serving as a weighting agent for increasing the density of the mud, it has been discovered that the placid shale clay flocculates the bentonite which produces an increase in the viscosity of the mud.

  6. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option.

  7. Evaluation of generic types of drilling fluid using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir; Veitch, Brian; Bose, Neil

    2003-12-01

    The composition of drilling muds is based on a mixture of clays and additives in a base fluid. There are three generic categories of base fluid--water, oil, and synthetic. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are relatively environmentally benign, but drilling performance is better with oil-based fluids (OBFs). The oil and gas industry developed synthetic-based fluids (SBFs), such as vegetable esters, olefins, ethers, and others, which provide drilling performance comparable to OBFs, but with lower environmental and occupational health effects. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology to guide decision-making in the selection and evaluation of three generic types of drilling fluids using a risk-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). In this paper a comparison of drilling fluids is made considering various activities involved in the life cycle of drilling fluids. This paper evaluates OBFs, WBFs, and SBFs based on four major impacts--operations, resources, economics, and liabilities. Four major activities--drilling, discharging offshore, loading and transporting, and disposing onshore--cause the operational impacts. Each activity involves risks related to occupational injuries (safety), general public health, environmental impact, and energy use. A multicriteria analysis strategy was used for the selection and evaluation of drilling fluids using a risk-based AHP. A four-level hierarchical structure is developed to determine the final relative scores, and the SBFs are found to be the best option. PMID:15160901

  8. Cobalt-based age models of pelagic clay in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, Ann G.; Murray, Richard W.; Sauvage, Justine; Pockalny, Robert A.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Harris, Robert N.; D'Hondt, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Dating pelagic clay can be a challenge due to its slow sedimentation rate, post-depositional alteration, and lack of biogenic deposition. Co-based dating techniques have the potential to create age models in pelagic clay under the assumption that the flux of non-detrital Co to the seafloor is spatially and temporally constant, resulting in the non-detrital Co concentrations being inversely proportional to sedimentation rate. We apply a Co-based method to the pelagic clay sequences from Sites U1365, U1366, U1369, and U1370 drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329 in the South Pacific Gyre. We distinguished non-detrital Co from detrital Co using multivariate statistical partitioning techniques. We found that the non-detrital flux of Co at Site U1370 is approximately twice as high as that at the other sites, implying that the non-detrital Co flux is not regionally constant. This regional variation reflects the heterogeneous distribution of Co in the water column, as is observed in the present day. We present an improved approach to Co-based age modeling throughout the South Pacific Gyre and determine that the Co-based method can effectively date oxygenated pelagic clay deposited in the distal open ocean, but is less reliable for deposition closer to continents. When extending the method to geologically old sediment, it is important to consider the paleolocation of a given site to ensure these conditions are met.

  9. Overhead drilling: Comparing three bases for aligning a drilling jig to vertical

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Problem Drilling overhead into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task done by construction workers to hang ductwork, piping, and electrical equipment. The task is associated with upper body pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Previously, we described a field usability evaluation of a foot lever and inverted drill press intervention devices that were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. Both interventions were rated as inferior to the usual method based on poor setup time and mobility. Method Three new interventions, which differed on the design used for aligning the drilling column to vertical, were compared to the usual method for overhead drilling by commercial construction workers (n=16). Results The usual method was associated with the highest levels of regional body fatigue and the poorest usability ratings when compared to the three interventions. Conclusion Overall, the ‘Collar Base’ intervention design received the best usability ratings. Impact on Industry Intervention designs developed for overhead drilling may reduce shoulder fatigue and prevent subsequent musculoskeletal disorders. These designs may also be useful for other overhead work such as lifting and supporting materials (e.g., piping, ducts) that are installed near the ceiling. Workplace health and safety interventions may require multiple rounds of field-testing prior to achieving acceptable usability ratings by the end users. PMID:20630276

  10. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  11. Clay-based polymer nanocomposites: research and commercial development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q H; Yu, A B; Lu, G Q; Paul, D R

    2005-10-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of clay-based polymer nanocomposites. Clay minerals, due to their unique layered structure, rich intercalation chemistry and availability at low cost, are promising nanoparticle reinforcements for polymers to manufacture low-cost, lightweight and high performance nanocomposites. We introduce briefly the structure, properties and surface modification of clay minerals, followed by the processing and characterization techniques of polymer nanocomposites. The enhanced and novel properties of such nanocomposites are then discussed, including mechanical, thermal, barrier, electrical conductivity, biodegradability among others. In addition, their available commercial and potential applications in automotive, packaging, coating and pigment, electrical materials, and in particular biomedical fields are highlighted. Finally, the challenges for the future are discussed in terms of processing, characterization and the mechanisms governing the behaviour of these advanced materials. PMID:16245517

  12. Experiencing Clay: Inquiry-Based Learning and Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Ma So

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an examination of the effects of using an inquiry-based learning pedagogy to teach ceramics to pre-service teachers (my students) at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. At the beginning of the study the students were asked to conduct experiments on the properties of clay. The results indicate that half of them were able to…

  13. Transport in shales and the design of improved water-based shale drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.; Roy, S.

    1996-09-01

    Transport of water and ions in shales and its impact on shale stability were studied to facilitate the improvement of water-based muds as shale drilling fluids. Transport parameters associated with flows driven by gradients in pressure and chemical potential were quantified in key laboratory and full-scale experiments. The experimental results show that the low-permeability matrices of intact, clay-rich shales can act as imperfect or leaky membranes that will sustain osmotic flow of water. Moreover, the ability of shales to act as osmotic membranes is shown to provide a powerful new means for stabilizing these rocks when exposed to water-based drilling fluids. Guidelines are presented for effective exploitation of shale membrane action and induced osmotic flows through optimized water-based drilling fluid formulation. In addition, special attention is given to induced electro-osmotic water flow in shales driven by electric potential gradients, which may provide an exciting, new, environmentally benign means for stabilizing shale formations.

  14. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-07-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  15. Clay: Arizona HSST/CDA Competency Based Training Module #32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cheryl

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module indicates the values of craft activities with clay for preschool children. Classroom activities as well as instructional objectives for the CDA intern are provided. The module emphasizes (1) reasons for using clay in the preschool program, (2) types of clay and clay-like materials, and (3)…

  16. Polymer based nanocomposites with nanofibers and exfoliated clay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer solutions, containing clay sheets, were electrospun into nanofibers and microfibers that contained clay sheets inside. Controllable removal of polymer by plasma etching from the surface of fibers revealed the arrangement of clay. The shape, flexibility, size distribution and arrangement of clay sheets were observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The clay sheets were partially aligned in big fibers with normal direction of clay sheets perpendicular to fiber axis. Crumpling of clay sheets inside fibers was observed when the fiber diameter was comparable to the lateral size of clay sheets. Single sheets of clay were observed both by catching clay sheets dispersed in water with electrospun nanofiber mats and by the deliberate removal of most of the polymer in the fibers. Thin, flexible gas barrier films, that are reasonably strong, were assembled from clay sheets and polymer nanofibers. Structure of composite films was characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Continuous film of clay sheets were physically attached to the surface of fiber mats. Spincoating film of polymer and clay sheets was reinforced by electrospun fiber scaffold. Certain alignment of clay sheets was observed in the vicinity of fibers.

  17. Identification and characterization of hydrothermally altered zones in granite by combining synthetic clay content logs with magnetic mineralogical investigations of drilled rock cuttings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Carola; Kontny, Agnes; Kohl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    . Low magnetic susceptibility can also be attributed to primary low magnetite content, if the granite facies changes. In order to interpret magnetic susceptibility from cuttings, contaminations with iron from wear debris of the drilling tools must be eliminated. Provided that the magnetic mineralogy of the granite is known in detail, this method in combination with petrographic investigations is suited to indicate and characterize hydrothermal alteration and the appearance of clay.

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  19. Formulation of cracking catalyst based on zeolite and natural clays

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, R.R.; Lupina, M.I.

    1995-11-01

    Domestically manufactured cracking catalysts are based on a synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate matrix and Y zeolite. A multistage {open_quotes}gel{close_quotes} technology is used in manufacturing the catalysts. The process includes mixing solutions of sodium silicate and acidic aluminum sulfate, forming, syneresis, and activation of the beaded gel. In the manufacture of bead catalysts, the next steps in the process are washing, drying, and calcining; in the manufacture of microbead catalysts, the next steps are dispersion and formation of a hydrogel slurry, spray-drying, and calcining. The Y zeolite is either introduced into the alumina-silica sol in the stage of forming the beads, or introduced in the dispersion stage. With the aim of developing an active and selective cracking catalyst based on Y zeolite and natural clays, with improved physicomechanical properties, the authors carried out a series of studies, obtaining results that are set forth in the present article.

  20. Antimicrobial clay-based materials for wound care.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Elsie E; Hamilton, Ashley R

    2014-04-01

    The historical use of clay minerals for the treatment of wounds and other skin ailments is well documented and continues within numerous human cultures the world over. However, a more scientific inquiry into the chemistry and properties of clay minerals emerged in the 19th century with work investigating their role within health gathering pace since the second half of the 20th century. This review gives an overview of clay minerals and how their properties can be manipulated to facilitate the treatment of infected wounds. Evidence of the antimicrobial and healing effects of some natural clay minerals is presented alongside a range of chemical modifications including metal-ion exchange, the formation of clay-drug composites and the development of various polymer-clay systems. While the evidence for applying these materials to infected wounds is limited, we contextualize and discuss the future of this research. PMID:24895893

  1. Antimicrobial clay-based materials for wound care.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Elsie E; Hamilton, Ashley R

    2014-04-01

    The historical use of clay minerals for the treatment of wounds and other skin ailments is well documented and continues within numerous human cultures the world over. However, a more scientific inquiry into the chemistry and properties of clay minerals emerged in the 19th century with work investigating their role within health gathering pace since the second half of the 20th century. This review gives an overview of clay minerals and how their properties can be manipulated to facilitate the treatment of infected wounds. Evidence of the antimicrobial and healing effects of some natural clay minerals is presented alongside a range of chemical modifications including metal-ion exchange, the formation of clay-drug composites and the development of various polymer-clay systems. While the evidence for applying these materials to infected wounds is limited, we contextualize and discuss the future of this research.

  2. Compact fibre Bragg grating-based thermometer for on-line temperature monitoring of drill bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey Tow, Kenny; Llera, Miguel; Le Floch, Sébastien; Salvadé, Yves; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, a novel compact fibre Bragg grating-based thermometer for on-line temperature monitoring of drill bits is reported. Our proposed technique can potentially be used to optimize any drilling process, requiring the use of small drill bits, through direct temperature measurement at the drill bit instead of relying on indirect parameters (speed of rotation, applied force) in order to avoid an overheating as it is currently done nowadays.

  3. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  4. ARITHMETIC DRILLS AND REVIEW ON A COMPUTER-BASED TELETYPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUPPES, PATRICK; AND OTHERS

    FIFTEEN DAILY DRILLS EMPHASIZING MASTERY OF BASIC NUMBER FACTS, SUCH AS ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT WERE CONSTRUCTED TO ENCOMPASS 7 PREVIOUSLY REPORTED ATTRIBUTES OF AN EFFECTIVE DRILL. ATTRIBUTES ARE MIXED DRILL, TIME LIMIT, INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT EXAMPLES, THOROUGH COVERAGE, FREQUENT AND SMALL AMOUNTS, VERBAL PROBLEMS,…

  5. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  6. PAH composition of Water Based Drilling Mud and drill cuttings in the offshore region, east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jagwani, Devaanshi; Kulkarni, Atul; Shukla, Parth; Ramteke, Dilip S; Juneja, Harjeet D

    2011-11-01

    As a consequence of offshore drilling, used Water Based Drilling Muds (WBMs) are typically disposed off, by discharging into the sea; such a disposal does not fully eliminate the environmental hazards. Hence, in this study, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs i.e. naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene and benzo (a) pyrene) were determined from the WBMs and associated drill cuttings obtained from varying depths(viz. 150, 300 and 600 m) from three offshore wells present in East coast of India. In both WBMs and drill cuttings, concentration of naphthalene was maximum i.e. 81.59 ± 2.73 and 39.87 ± 2.40 mg/kg respectively, while benzo (a) pyrene was minimum i.e. 0.19 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.03 mg/kg respectively. The WBMs contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher PAH concentration than drill cuttings. The individual PAH concentration significantly (p < 0.01) increased with increasing depth in each well.

  7. PAH composition of Water Based Drilling Mud and drill cuttings in the offshore region, east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jagwani, Devaanshi; Kulkarni, Atul; Shukla, Parth; Ramteke, Dilip S; Juneja, Harjeet D

    2011-11-01

    As a consequence of offshore drilling, used Water Based Drilling Muds (WBMs) are typically disposed off, by discharging into the sea; such a disposal does not fully eliminate the environmental hazards. Hence, in this study, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs i.e. naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene and benzo (a) pyrene) were determined from the WBMs and associated drill cuttings obtained from varying depths(viz. 150, 300 and 600 m) from three offshore wells present in East coast of India. In both WBMs and drill cuttings, concentration of naphthalene was maximum i.e. 81.59 ± 2.73 and 39.87 ± 2.40 mg/kg respectively, while benzo (a) pyrene was minimum i.e. 0.19 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.03 mg/kg respectively. The WBMs contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher PAH concentration than drill cuttings. The individual PAH concentration significantly (p < 0.01) increased with increasing depth in each well. PMID:21691860

  8. Clay swelling — A challenge in the oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. L.; Ratcliffe, I.; Greenwell, H. C.; Williams, P. A.; Cliffe, S.; Coveney, P. V.

    2010-02-01

    Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration, and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. Unfortunately, their use facilitates clay hydration and swelling. Clay swelling, which occurs in exposed sedimentary rock formations, can have an adverse impact on drilling operations and may lead to significantly increased oil well construction costs. Minimizing clay swelling is therefore an important area attracting a large amount of interest from both academia and industry. To effectively reduce the extent of clay swelling the mechanism by which clay minerals swell needs to be understood so that efficient swelling inhibitors may be developed. Acceptable clay swelling inhibitors must not only significantly reduce clay hydration, but must also meet increasingly stringent environmental guidelines while remaining cost effective. The development of these inhibitors, which are generally based upon water soluble polymers, therefore represents a challenge to oilfield geochemistry. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism by which clay minerals swell and what steps have been taken in the development of effective and environmentally friendly clay swelling inhibitors.

  9. Epoxy based nanocomposites with fully exfoliated unmodified clay: mechanical and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gao, Jianming; Song, Zhihai; Qi, Guicun; Liu, Yiqun; Qiao, Jinliang

    2010-09-01

    The unmodified clay has been fully exfoliated in epoxy resin with the aid of a novel ultrafine full-vulcanized powdered rubber. Epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposites with exfoliated morphology have been successfully prepared. The microstructures of the nanocomposites were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the unmodified clay was fully exfoliated and uniformly dispersed in the resulting nanocomposite. Characterizations of mechanical properties revealed that the impact strength of this special epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposite increased up 107% over the neat epoxy resin. Thermal analyses showed that thermal stability of the nanocomposite was much better than that of epoxy nanocomposite based on organically modified clay. PMID:21133117

  10. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  11. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  12. 76 FR 39885 - Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) AGENCY... Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-06, Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs). This policy letter announces changes to the Coast Guard's system used to...

  13. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth.

  14. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  15. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  16. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  17. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  18. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  19. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications. PMID:22136134

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  1. New muds are specially tailored for deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, N.P.

    1998-04-01

    There are three things in life that are certain: death, taxes and encountering gumbo clay while drilling offshore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas fields. The concomitant torque and drag define the goals of offshore drilling fluid design. Additionally, some deepwater projects require hydrate suppression, resulting in a challenging list of barriers to drilling success confronting the aspiring engineer. Specially tailored water-base muds have been developed for deepwater drilling. Each DeepDrill{trademark} fluid is custom designed for the specific project, in accordance with the particular conditions and degree of difficulty that will be experienced. This family of engineered drilling fluids is based on New100N{trademark} polyol chemistry.

  2. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  3. Clay/latex mixture stops lost circulation in large carbonate fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, B.

    1995-08-28

    A mixture of latex and drilling mud clay controls lost circulation in large carbonate fractures by coagulating when it mixes with the formation fluids. The mixture forms large aggregates capable of plugging large formation fractures and is not prone to being washed out by formation water. The Scientific Research Institute of Drilling Techniques in Moscow (Vniibt) has developed a special lost circulation mixture combining a latex base and clay drilling mud for use in plugging these fractures. Mud powders of bentonite and calcium clays can be used to prepare the clay-latex mixture (GPC). The latex is mixed with drilling mud made from bentonite clay powder and is pumped to the lost circulation zone where it coagulates by reacting with the calcium ions in the formation water. The latex used to prepare GPC must be compatible with the mud being used. After coagulation, GPC changes to a rubber mixture. In the Tataria oil region, one of the drilling enterprises used GPC in 23 wells, with positive results in 20 of the wells. The bentonite powder base GPC mixture remains easily pumpable until the end of the operation. The mixture`s plastic strength increases over time as it is pumped into the lost circulation zone. This type of mixture is typically used to control lost circulation at depths greater than 1,000--1,500 m. GPC based on drilling mud made from calcium clay is used at shallower depths. For GPC pumped into a borehole, the latex/clay drilling mud ratio is typically between 1:1 and 1:2.

  4. Research on the processing technology of elongated holes based on rotary ultrasonic drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yi; Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Lipeng; Yu, Xin; Wang, Xin

    2014-08-01

    The optical glass is hard, brittle and difficult to process. Based on the method of rotating ultrasonic drilling, the study of single factor on drilling elongated holes was made in optical glass. The processing equipment was DAMA ultrasonic machine, and the machining tools were electroplated with diamond. Through the detection and analysis on the processing quality and surface roughness, the process parameters (the spindle speed, amplitude, feed rate) of rotary ultrasonic drilling were researched, and the influence of processing parameters on surface roughness was obtained, which will provide reference and basis for the actual processing.

  5. Bone drilling methodology and tool based on position measurements.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Iñaki; Gil, Jorge Juan; Louredo, Marcos

    2013-11-01

    Bone drilling, despite being a very common procedure in hospitals around the world, becomes very challenging when performed close to organs such as the cochlea or when depth control is critical for avoiding damage to surrounding tissue. To date, several mechatronic prototypes have been proposed to assist surgeons by automatically detecting bone layer transitions and breakthroughs. However, none of them is currently accurate enough to be part of the surgeon's standard equipment. The present paper shows a test bench specially designed to evaluate prior methodologies and analyze their drawbacks. Afterward, a new layer detection methodology with improved performance is described and tested. Finally, the prototype of a portable mechatronic bone drill that takes advantage of the proposed detection algorithm is presented. PMID:23522964

  6. The mechanics of active clays circulated by salts, acids and bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajo, Alessandro; Loret, Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    A model that accounts for electro-chemo-mechanical couplings in clays, due to the presence of dissolved salts and acids and bases, is developed and applied to simulate experimental data. Chemically sensitive clays are viewed as two-phase multi-species saturated porous media circulated by an electrolyte. To the authors' best knowledge, no other comprehensive project to embody the effects of pH in the elastic-plastic behavior of geomaterials has been attempted so far. The developments are embedded in the framework of the thermodynamics of multi-phase multi-species porous media. This approach serves to structure the model, and to motivate constitutive equations. The present extension capitalizes upon the earlier developments by Gajo et al. [2002. Electro-chemo-mechanical couplings in saturated porous media: elastic-plastic behaviour of heteroionic expansive clays. Int. J. Solids Struct. 39, 4327-4362] and Gajo and Loret [2004. Transient analysis of ionic replacement in elastic-plastic expansive clays. Int. J. Solids Struct. 41(26), 7493-7531], which were devoted to modeling chemo-mechanical couplings at constant pH. Four transfer mechanisms between the solid and fluid phases are delineated in the model: (1) hydration, (2) ion exchange, (3) acidification, (4) alkalinization. Thus all fundamental exchanges at particle level are fully taken into account. Only mineral dissolution is neglected, since experimental observations indicate a negligible role of mineral dissolution for active clays at room temperature. In particular, the newly considered mechanisms of acidification and alkalinization directly affect the electrical charge of clay particles and thus have a key role in the electro-chemo-mechanical couplings. These four mechanisms are seen as controlling both elastic and elasto-plastic behaviors. Depending on concentrations and ionic affinities to the clay mineral, the transfer mechanisms either compete or cooperate to modify the compressibility and strength of the

  7. Kinetic study of the immobilization of galvanic sludge in clay-based matrix.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Jorge M; Silva, João E; Castro, Fernando P; Labrincha, João A

    2005-05-20

    The viability of inertization of galvanic wastes through their incorporation in clay-based materials, such as common formulations for tiles and bricks, is here studied by determining the leaching kinetics in different media. Metals immobilization is assured by firing at reasonably high temperatures, since intimately contact and/or reaction between residue and clay particles is promoted but also due to formation of insoluble metal oxides that rest unreactive towards clay grains. For most metals, leaching rate follows a zero-order kinetic law, with values between 0.001 to 0.1 mg/(g day cm2). Leaching velocity tends to increase with rising atomic numbers: Zn < Cu < Ni < Cr. These values depend exponentially on the relative sludge content.

  8. Development of biodegradable foamlike materials based on casein and sodium montmorillonite clay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradable foamlike materials based on a naturally occurring polymer (casein protein) and sodium montmorillonite clay (Na+-MMT) were produced through a simple freeze-drying process. By utilizing DL-glyceraldehyde (GC) as a chemical cross-linking agent, the structural integrity of these new aeroge...

  9. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  10. Advanced clay nanocomposites based on in situ photopolymerization utilizing novel polymerizable organoclays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soon Ki

    Polymer nanocomposite technology has had significant impact on material design. With the environmental advantages of photopolymerization, a research has recently focused on producing nanocomposites utilizing inexpensive clay particles based on in situ photopolymerization. In this research, novel polymerizable organoclays and thiol-ene photopolymerization have been utilized to develop advanced photopolymer clay nanocomposites and to overcome several limitations in conventional free radical photopolymers. To this end, factors important in nanocomposite processes such as monomer composition, clay dispersion, and photopolymerization behavior in combination with the evolution of ultimate nanocomposite properties have been investigated. For monomer-organoclay compositions, higher chemical compatibility of components induces enhanced clay exfoliation, resulting in photopolymerization rate increases due to an amplified clay template effect. Additionally, by affecting the stoichiometric ratio between thiol and acrylate double bond in the clay gallery, thiolated organoclays enhance thiol-ene copolymerization with increased final thiol conversion while acrylated organoclays encourage acrylate homopolymerization. In accordance with the reaction behavior, incorporation of thiolated organoclays makes polymer chains more flexible with decreased glass transition temperature due to higher formation of thio-ether linkages while adding acrylated organoclays significantly increases the modulus. Photopolymer nanocomposites also help overcome two major drawbacks in conventional free radical photopolymerization, namely severe polymerization shrinkage and oxygen inhibition during polymerization. With addition of a low level of thiol monomers, the oxygen inhibition in various acrylate systems can be overcome by addition of only 5wt% thiolated organoclay. The same amount of polymerizable organoclay also induces up to 90% decreases in the shrinkage stress for acrylate or thiol

  11. Critical review of coupled flux formulations for clay membranes based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Malusis, Michael A; Shackelford, Charles D; Maneval, James E

    2012-09-01

    Extensive research conducted over the past several decades has indicated that semipermeable membrane behavior (i.e., the ability of a porous medium to restrict the passage of solutes) may have a significant influence on solute migration through a wide variety of clay-rich soils, including both natural clay formations (aquitards, aquicludes) and engineered clay barriers (e.g., landfill liners and vertical cutoff walls). Restricted solute migration through clay membranes generally has been described using coupled flux formulations based on nonequilibrium (irreversible) thermodynamics. However, these formulations have differed depending on the assumptions inherent in the theoretical development, resulting in some confusion regarding the applicability of the formulations. Accordingly, a critical review of coupled flux formulations for liquid, current, and solutes through a semipermeable clay membrane under isothermal conditions is undertaken with the goals of explicitly resolving differences among the formulations and illustrating the significance of the differences from theoretical and practical perspectives. Formulations based on single-solute systems (i.e., uncharged solute), single-salt systems, and general systems containing multiple cations or anions are presented. Also, expressions relating the phenomenological coefficients in the coupled flux equations to relevant soil properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity and effective diffusion coefficient) are summarized for each system. A major difference in the formulations is shown to exist depending on whether counter diffusion or salt diffusion is assumed. This difference between counter and salt diffusion is shown to affect the interpretation of values for the effective diffusion coefficient in a clay membrane based on previously published experimental data. Solute transport theories based on both counter and salt diffusion then are used to re-evaluate previously published column test data for the same clay membrane

  12. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of ball clay in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. Several companies mined ball call in the country including Old Hickey Clay Co., Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co., and H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Information on the decline in ball clay imports and exports is also presented.

  13. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  14. Earthquake drills and simulations in community-based training and preparedness programmes.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David M

    2002-03-01

    The San Francisco, California, bay area is subject to continuous seismic risk. One particular response has been the development of community-based training programmes designed to teach residents basic emergency response skills. Citizens are taught emergency medical techniques, search and rescue, fire suppression and other fundamental response skills. Current estimates in the Bay Area place the number of programmes at more than 100. Many programmes now include an annual community drill to reinforce the training and to evaluate the programme. The study described here is based on an evaluation of an effort initiated by BayNET (Bay Area Neighborhood Emergency Training), a voluntary association of communities with community-based disaster preparedness programmes. In April 1996, BayNET asked all of its members to hold a community earthquake drill. After the drill, a mail survey was conducted of all programme managers. The survey examined the structure and administration of the programmes, training efforts and other related components. This paper describes the typology of drill formats that communities used, the role of the simulation in the city's preparedness efforts, the qualitative costs and benefits, as well as an assessment of the drill based on survey respondents.

  15. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method. PMID:27483270

  16. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-07-28

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method.

  17. A Long-Term Performance Enhancement Method for FOG-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxi; Lin, Tie

    2016-01-01

    In the oil industry, the measurement-while-drilling (MWD) systems are usually used to provide the real-time position and orientation of the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling. However, the present MWD systems based on magnetic surveying technology can barely ensure good performance because of magnetic interference phenomena. In this paper, a MWD surveying system based on a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) was developed to replace the magnetic surveying system. To accommodate the size of the downhole drilling conditions, a new design method is adopted. In order to realize long-term and high position precision and orientation surveying, an integrated surveying algorithm is proposed based on inertial navigation system (INS) and drilling features. In addition, the FOG-based MWD error model is built and the drilling features are analyzed. The state-space system model and the observation updates model of the Kalman filter are built. To validate the availability and utility of the algorithm, the semi-physical simulation is conducted under laboratory conditions. The results comparison with the traditional algorithms show that the errors were suppressed and the measurement precision of the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional ones. In addition, the proposed method uses a lot less time than the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method. PMID:27483270

  18. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L.; Morris, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    A set of ``templates`` was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ``affinity effect`` cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SYNTHETIC-BASED DRILLING FLUIDS ON BENTHIC ORGANISMS IN TEMPERATE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to enhance the efficiency of oil/gas drilling operations and to minimize hazards to marine ecosystems have resulted in the increased use of synthetic-based fluids (SBF). SBFs have performance characteristics closely related to oil-based fluids (OBF) however their lower PA...

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.; Brown, Kyle M.; McGrath, Paul L.; Klein, Kerry J.; Cady, Ian W.; Lin, Justin Y.; Ramirez, Frank E.; Haberland, Matt

    2012-01-01

    This drill (see Figure 1) is the primary sample acquisition element of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that collects powdered samples from various types of rock (from clays to massive basalts) at depths up to 50 mm below the surface. A rotary-percussive sample acquisition device was developed with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. It is the first rover-based sample acquisition device to be flight-qualified (see Figure 2). This drill features an autonomous tool change-out on a mobile robot, and novel voice-coil-based percussion. The drill comprises seven subelements. Starting at the end of the drill, there is a bit assembly that cuts the rock and collects the sample. Supporting the bit is a subassembly comprising a chuck mechanism to engage and release the new and worn bits, respectively, and a spindle mechanism to rotate the bit. Just aft of that is a percussion mechanism, which generates hammer blows to break the rock and create the dynamic environment used to flow the powdered sample. These components are mounted to a translation mechanism, which provides linear motion and senses weight-on-bit with a force sensor. There is a passive-contact sensor/stabilizer mechanism that secures the drill fs position on the rock surface, and flex harness management hardware to provide the power and signals to the translating components. The drill housing serves as the primary structure of the turret, to which the additional tools and instruments are attached. The drill bit assembly (DBA) is a passive device that is rotated and hammered in order to cut rock (i.e. science targets) and collect the cuttings (powder) in a sample chamber until ready for transfer to the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for Interior Martian Rock Analysis). The DBA consists of a 5/8-in. (.1.6- cm) commercial hammer drill bit whose shank has been turned down and machined with deep flutes designed for aggressive cutting removal. Surrounding the shank of the

  1. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  2. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  3. Hole-cleaning capabilities of an ester-based drilling fluid system

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.; Hemphill, T.

    1996-03-01

    Well 33/9-C02, located in the Statfjord field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, held the world record in extended-reach drilling from 1993--95. To successfully drill a well of this type, an efficient drilling fluid is required to suspend the weighting material and provide good carrying capacity. The ester-based mud system used in the 12{1/4}- and 8{1/2}-in. hole sections of this well exhibited excellent hole-cleaning capabilities. This paper describes the fluid`s performance in the field and in the laboratory where the fluid was tested under down-hole conditions. Fluid rheological behavior is described with the more accurate yield-power law. (YPL) (Herschel-Bulkley) model.

  4. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  5. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  6. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives.

  7. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives. PMID:24717547

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    SciTech Connect

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  9. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  10. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  11. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers information on ball clay. Among the companies that mine ball clay in the U.S. are H.C. Spinks Clay, Kentucky-Tennessee Clay and Old Hickory Clay. In 2006, an estimated 1.2 million tons of the mineral was sold or used domestically and exported. Forty-percent of the total sales is accounted for ceramic floor and wall tile followed by sanitaryware and miscellaneous ceramics. Its average value was $ 45 per ton in 2006.

  12. Spreading and deposition of drill cuttings in the Barents Sea - Plans of the Barents Sea drill cuttings research initiative (BARCUT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junttila, Juho; Aagaard Sørensen, Steffen; Dijkstra, Noortje

    2016-04-01

    The increasing petroleum exploration activity in the Barents Sea will lead to increased release of drill cuttings onto the ocean bottom in the future. Drilling mud consists of both drilling fluid with contaminants and fine sediments. This increasing discharge of drill cuttings provides a need for further knowledge of ocean current transportation of both contaminants and fine sediment particles (clay and silt), their impact on microfauna and the prediction of their accumulation areas. The main object is to study the current status of the sediments and microfauna exposed to different types of drill cuttings in the proximity of drilled exploration wells. Detailed objectives are: 1) To identify the main physical and geochemical characteristics of the sediments near the drilled wells including main areas for drill cutting accumulation and the influence of ocean currents on sediments and drill cuttings; 2) To identify the influence of drill cutting discharge on benthic foraminifera; 3) Monitoring and prediction of future spreading, accumulation and distribution of drill cutting related pollutants. We have conducted two field sampling campaigns, and in total visited seven drilling sites, ranging in age from recently drilled (in 2015) to nearly 30 years since abandonment. In this project, we study mainly push cores taken with a remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV) in the close proximity of exploration wells in the SW Barents Sea. We will determine the modern sedimentation rates based on the ²¹°Pb dating method. We analyze sediment grain-size, heavy metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents. Additionally analysis on benthic foraminifera, smectite clay minerals and the total organic carbon (TOC) content will be performed.

  13. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.

    PubMed

    Proietto, R L; Hinckley, L S; Fox, L K; Andrew, S M

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner on sawdust bedding pH, dry matter (DM), environmental pathogen counts, and environmental bacterial counts on teat ends of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk yield, and milk somatic cell count, and were negative for the presence of an intramammary pathogen. Within each pair, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 3-wk periods in a crossover design. Treatment groups consisted of 9 freestalls per group bedded with either untreated sawdust or sawdust with a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner, added at 3- to 4-d intervals over each 21-d period. Bedding and teat ends were aseptically sampled on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 for determination of environmental bacterial counts. At the same time points, bedding was sampled for DM and pH determination. The bacteria identified in the bedding material were total gram-negative bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and coliform bacteria. The bacteria identified on the teat ends were Streptococcus spp., coliform bacteria, and Klebsiella spp. Teat end score, milk somatic cell count, and intramammary pathogen presence were measured weekly. Bedding and teat cleanliness, environmental high and low temperatures, and dew point data were collected daily. The bedding conditioner reduced the pH, but not the DM, of the sawdust bedding compared with untreated sawdust. Overall environmental bacterial counts in bedding were lower for treated sawdust. Total bacterial counts in bedding and on teat ends increased with time over both periods. Compared with untreated sawdust, the treated bedding had lower counts of total gram-negative bacteria and streptococci, but not coliform counts. Teat end bacterial counts were lower for cows bedded on treated sawdust for streptococci, coliforms, and Klebsiella spp. compared with cows bedded on untreated sawdust. The clay-based acidic bedding conditioner

  14. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V.; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-08-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed.

  15. Strain monitoring of drilling riser in deepwater based on fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Dexing; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Qin, Chuan; Liao, Wei; Zhao, Jianlin; Wang, Haiyan; Jiang, Shiquan

    2011-11-01

    It is very important to monitor the lateral and axial strains of drilling riser for evaluation its health in deepwater. An optical fiber strain sensing system based on optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) used for monitoring the strain of drilling riser is presented. The optical fiber strain sensors are made by embedding FBGs into thin columned fiber reinforced polymer which protect FBGs from seawater corrosion. Four optical fiber strain sensors are installed parallel to the riser axis and arranged at 90° angles around the riser by a home-made metal belt, at the same time, twelve resistance strain gauges are pasted near the sensors around the drilling riser at 30° angles as reference sensors. A scaled drilling riser about 1 meter long and 0.245m diameter is pressed in the lateral and axial direction in the range of 0-400KN, the experimental results show that the relative error between optical fiber strain sensors and resistance strain gauges is less than 6%.

  16. Rheological investigations of water based drilling fluid system developed using synthesized nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajat; Mahto, Triveni K.; Mahto, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PA-g-XG/MWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The polyacrylamide was grafted on xanthan gum backbone in the presence of MWCNT. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FT-IR). The morphological characteristics of the nanocomposite were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Also, its temperature resistance property was observed with Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of nanocomposite on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system was analyzed with a strain controlled rheometer and Fann viscometer. Flow curves were drawn for the developed water based drilling fluid system at elevated temperatures. The experimental data were fitted to Bingham, power-law, and Herschel Bulkley flow models. It was observed that the Herschel Bulkley flow model predict the flow behavior of the developed system more accurately. Further, nanocomposite exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning flow behavior in the developed drilling fluid system. Nanocomposite showed high temperature stability and had a significant effect on the rheological properties of the developed drilling fluid system as compared to conventionally used partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) polymer.

  17. Vital roles of nano silica in synthetic based mud for high temperature drilling operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Aslam Md; Hanafi, Nor Hazimastura

    2015-07-01

    At high temperature drilling, chemicals degradation occurs which reduce the effectiveness of the drilling fluid. There is a potential that by using nano sized particles which have thermal stability up to 2500°F to be used as a stabilizer to withstand the harsh condition. Therefore, this project aims to identify the performance of synthetic-based mud (SBM) with nano silica for high temperature drilling operation. A conventional SBM performance has been compared with additional percentages of nano silica. 20% and 40% of nano silica out of fluid loss weight has been added into the SBM and analyzed the rheological properties and other drilling fluid properties. The conventional SBM formulation has lost some amount of weighting material or solids in the mud and has been replaced by lighter and smaller size of nanoparticles. It has reduced the rheological properties of the mud but the gelation formed by nano silica material has given higher gel strength. Also, nano silica potentially plugs the porous media, resulted in lower filtration loss measurement and thinner mud cake ranged 20% to 50% respectively.

  18. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  19. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys, Old Hickory Clay Co. and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in five U.S. states in 2012. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 900 kt (992,000 st), with an estimated value of $42.3 million. This was a slight increase in tonnage from 886 kt (977,000 st), with a value of $40.9 million in 2011. Tennessee was the leading ball clay producing state, with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky and Indiana. Reported ball clay production from Indiana probably was fire clay rather than ball clay. About 69 percent of total ball clay production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  20. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications. PMID:26609925

  1. Chemically-bonded brick production based on burned clay by means of semidry pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilov, Ivan; Endzhievskaya, Irina; Vasilovskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We presented a study on the possibility of using the burnt rocks of the Krasnoyarsk Territory for production of chemically-bonded materials in the form of bricks which are so widely used in multistory housing and private house construction. The radiographic analysis of the composition of burnt rock was conducted and a modifier to adjust the composition uniformity was identified. The mixing moisture content was identified and optimal amount at 13-15% was determined. The method of semidry pressing has been chosen. The process of obtaining moldings has been theoretically proved; the advantages of chemically-bonded wall materials compared to ceramic brick were shown. The production of efficient artificial stone based on material burnt rocks, which is comparable with conventionally effective ceramic materials or effective with cell tile was proved, the density of the burned clay-based cell tile makes up to 1630-1785 kg m3, with compressive strength of 13.6-20.0 MPa depending on the compression ratio and cement consumption, frost resistance index is F50, and the thermal conductivity in the masonry is λ = 0,459-0,546 W m * °C. The clear geometric dimensions of pressed products allow the use of the chemically-bonded brick based on burnt clay as a facing brick.

  2. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications.

  3. Chloride ions promoted the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol over clay-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Zhang, Changbo; Xu, Rui; Gu, Chuantao; Song, Zhengguo; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol over clay-based catalysts in the presence and absence of NaCl was investigated. Changes in the H2O2, Cl(-), and dissolved metal ion concentration, as well as solution pH during phenol oxidation, were also studied. Additionally, the intermediates formed during phenol oxidation were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and the chemical bonding information of the catalyst surfaces was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the presence of Cl(-) increased the oxidation rate of phenol to 155%, and this phenomenon was ubiquitous during the oxidation of phenolic compounds by H2O2 over clay-based catalysts. Cl(-)-assisted oxidation of phenol was evidenced by several analytical techniques such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and XPS, and it was hypothesized that the rate-limiting step was accelerated in the presence of Cl(-). Based on the results of this study, the CWPO technology appears to be promising for applications in actual saline phenolic wastewater treatment. PMID:26942523

  4. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  5. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  6. An analytical drilling force model and GPU-accelerated haptics-based simulation framework of the pilot drilling procedure for micro-implants surgery training.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Lu, Wen Feng; Wong, Yoke San; Foong, Kelvin Weng Chiong

    2012-12-01

    The placement of micro-implants is a common but relatively new surgical procedure in clinical dentistry. This paper presents a haptics-based simulation framework for the pilot drilling of micro-implants surgery to train orthodontists to successfully perform this essential procedure by tactile sensation, without damaging tooth roots. A voxel-based approach was employed to model the inhomogeneous oral tissues. A preprocessing pipeline was designed to reduce imaging noise, smooth segmentation results and construct an anatomically correct oral model from patient-specific data. In order to provide a physically based haptic feedback, an analytical drilling force model based on metal cutting principles was developed and adapted for the voxel-based approach. To improve the real-time response, the parallel computing power of Graphics Processing Units is exploited through extra efforts for data structure design, algorithms parallelization, and graphic memory utilization. A prototype system has been developed based on the proposed framework. Preliminary results show that, by using this framework, proper drilling force can be rendered at different tissue layers with reduced cycle time, while the visual display has also been enhanced.

  7. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  8. Adsorption of nucleic Acid bases, ribose, and phosphate by some clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Besides having a large capacity for taking up organic molecules, clay minerals can catalyze a variety of organic reactions. Derived from rock weathering, clay minerals would have been abundant in the early Earth. As such, they might be expected to play a role in chemical evolution. The interactions of clay minerals with biopolymers, including RNA, have been the subject of many investigations. The behavior of RNA components at clay mineral surfaces needs to be assessed if we are to appreciate how clays might catalyze the formation of nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides in the "RNA world". The adsorption of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides from aqueous solution to clay minerals is affected by suspension pH. With montmorillonite, adsorption is also influenced by the nature of the exchangeable cations. Here, we review the interactions of some clay minerals with RNA components.

  9. Electrical properties of multiphase composites based on carbon nanotubes and an optimized clay content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiziano, Luigi; Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    The experimental results concerning the characterization of a multiphase nanocomposite systems based on epoxy matrix, loaded with different amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an optimized Hydrotalcite (HT) clay content (i.e. 0.6 wt%), duly identified by an our previous theoretical study based on Design of Experiment (DoE), are presented. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) reveal that even the introduction of higher HT loading (up to 1%wt) don't affect significantly the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites while morphological investigations show an effective synergy between clay and carbon nanotubes that leads to peculiar micro/nanostructures that favor the creation of the electrical conductive network inside the insulating resin. An electrical characterization is carried out in terms of DC electrical conductivity, percolation threshold (EPT) and frequency response in the range 10Hz-1MHz. In particular, the measurements of the DC conductivity allow to obtain the typical "percolation" curve also found for classical CNT-polymer mixtures and a value of about 2 S/m for the electrical conductivity is achieved at the highest considered CNTs concentration (i.e. 1 wt%). The results suggest that multiphase nanocomposites obtained incorporating dispersive nanofillers, in addition to the conductive one, may be a valid alternative to the polymer blends, to improve the properties of the polymeric materials thus able to meet high demands, particularly concerning their mechanical and thermal stability and electrical features required in the aircraft engineering.

  10. The location and extent of exfoliation of clay on the fracture mechanisms in nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu, Zhong-Zhen; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Yang, Mingshu

    2008-04-01

    The primary focus of this work is to elucidate the location and extent of exfoliation of clay on fracture (under both static and dynamic loading conditions) of melt-compounded nylon 66/clay/SEBS-g-MA ternary nanocomposites fabricated by different blending sequences. Distinct microstructures are obtained depending on the blending protocol employed. The state of exfoliation and dispersion of clay in nylon 66 matrix and SEBS-g-MA phase are quantified and the presence of clay in rubber is shown to have a negative effect on the toughness of the nanocomposites. The level of toughness enhancement of ternary nanocomposites depends on the blending protocol and the capability of different fillers to activate the plastic deformation mechanisms in the matrix. These mechanisms include: cavitation of SEBS-g-MA phase, stretching of voided matrix material, interfacial debonding of SEBS-g-MA particles, debonding of intercalated clay embedded inside the SEBS-g-MA phase, and delamination of intercalated clay platelets. Based on these results, new insights and approaches for the processing of better toughened polymer ternary nanocomposites are discussed. PMID:18572592

  11. In-field fast calibration of FOG-based MWD IMU for horizontal drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoguo; Lu, Jiazhen; Xiao, Wenhua; Lin, Tie

    2015-03-01

    A fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)-based measuring-while-drilling (MWD) device for horizontal drilling is developed and an in-field fast calibration method of the MWD inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented. The IMU consists of a FOG triad and a quartz accelerometer triad. An error model for the inertial sensors is established and 12 errors are confirmed as the main error sources for horizontal drilling after an analysis. A five-rotation-in-level-plane (5RILP) in-field fast calibration scheme for the main errors of the MWD IMU is illustrated. The scheme can be conveniently implemented on an almost level plane, such as a table plane, without any special external equipment. To solve the calibrated errors, a systematic approach based on specific force measurement observation is adopted. Observation equations of the IMU errors are derived according to the rotation sequence of the calibration scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method is effective even if there are 5° errors in level and 10° errors in heading. Calibration experiments using the developed FOG-based MWD equipment on a table plane confirm the validity of the proposed in-field calibration method. Inertial navigation tests show that the actual accuracy of the MWD IMU is greatly improved by 60.6% after in-field calibration.

  12. Novel nanohybrids of cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes and clay: Synthesis and structural determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianfar, Ali Hossein; Mahmood, Wan Ahmad Kamil; Dinari, Mohammad; Azarian, Mohammad Hossein; Khafri, Fatemeh Zare

    2014-06-01

    The [Co(Me2Salen)(PBu3)(OH2)]BF4 and [Co(Me2Salen)(PPh3)(Solv)]BF4, complexes were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques. The coordination geometry of [Co(Me2Salen)(PPh3)(H2O)]BF4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. It has been found that the complex is containing [Co(Me2Salen)(PPh3)(H2O)]BF4 and [Co(Me2Salen)(PPh3)(EtOH)]BF4 hexacoordinate species in the solid state. Cobalt atom exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry and the Me2Salen ligand has the N2O2 coordinated environment in the equatorial plane. The [Co(Me2Salen)(PPh3)(H2O)]BF4 complex shows a dimeric structure via hydrogen bonding between the phenolate oxygen and hydrogens of coordinated H2O molecule. These complexes were incorporated into Montmorillonite-K10 nanoclay. The modified clays were identified by FT-IR, XRD, EDX, TGA/DTA, SEM and TEM techniques. According to the XRD results of the new nanohybrid materials, the Schiff base complexes are intercalated in the interlayer spaces of the clay. SEM and TEM micrographs show that the resulting hybrid nanomaterials have layer structures. Also, TGA/DTG results show that the intercalation reaction was taken place successfully.

  13. Antimicrobial and in vitro wound healing properties of novel clay based bionanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Ramasamy, K; Lim, S M; Ismail, M F; Majeed, A B A

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates the development of methyl cellulose (MC)-sodium alginate (SA)-montmorillonite (MMT) clay based bionanocomposite films with interesting wound healing properties. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the composite films revealed presence of single glass transition temperature (Tg) confirming the miscible nature of the ternary blended films. The increase in MMT ratio in the composite films reduced the mobility of biopolymer chains (MC/SA) which increased the Tg of the film. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that dispersion of clay (MMT) at nano level significantly delayed the weight loss that correlated with higher thermal stability of the composite films. It was observed that the developed films were able to exhibit antimicrobial activity against four typical pathogenic bacteria found in the presence of wound. The developed films were able to significantly inhibit (10 mg/ml) the growth of Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro scratch assay indicated potential wound closure activities of MC-2-4 bionanocomposite films at their respective highest subtoxic doses. In conclusion, these ternary bionanocomposite films were found to be promising systems for wound healing applications.

  14. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  15. Multiscale Multiphysics-Based Modeling and Analysis on the Tool Wear in Micro Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhichao; Cheng, Kai

    2016-02-01

    In micro-cutting processes, process variables including cutting force, cutting temperature and drill-workpiece interfacing conditions (lubrication and interaction, etc.) significantly affect the tool wear in a dynamic interactive in-process manner. The resultant tool life and cutting performance directly affect the component surface roughness, material removal rate and form accuracy control, etc. In this paper, a multiscale multiphysics oriented approach to modeling and analysis is presented particularly on tooling performance in micro drilling processes. The process optimization is also taken account based on establishing the intrinsic relationship between process parameters and cutting performance. The modeling and analysis are evaluated and validated through well-designed machining trials, and further supported by metrology measurements and simulations. The paper is concluded with a further discussion on the potential and application of the approach for broad micro manufacturing purposes.

  16. Antimicrobial nanocomposites based on natural modified materials: a review of carbons and clays.

    PubMed

    Martynková, Grazyna Simha; Valásková, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The review is focused on the recent research and development of antimicrobial nanocomposites based on selected carbon nanomaterials and natural nanoclay minerals. The nanocomposites comprised of two or several components, where at least one presents antimicrobial properties, are discussed. Yet the most popular agent remains silver as nanoparticle or in ionic form. Second, broadly studied group, are organics as additives or polymeric matrices. Both carbons and clays in certain forms possess antimicrobial properties. A lot of interest is put on to research graphene oxide. The low-environmental impact technologies-based on sustainable biopolymers have been studied. Testing of antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials is performed most frequently on E. coli and S. aureus bacterias.

  17. Factors Affecting the Design of Slow Release Formulations of Herbicides Based on Clay-Surfactant Systems. A Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Jiménez, María del Carmen; Mishael, Yael-Golda; Nir, Shlomo; Morillo, Esmeralda; Undabeytia, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    A search for clay-surfactant based formulations with high percentage of the active ingredient, which can yield slow release of active molecules is described. The active ingredients were the herbicides metribuzin (MZ), mesotrione (MS) and flurtamone (FL), whose solubilities were examined in the presence of four commercial surfactants; (i) neutral: two berols (B048, B266) and an alkylpolyglucoside (AG6202); (ii) cationic: an ethoxylated amine (ET/15). Significant percent of active ingredient (a.i.) in the clay/surfactant/herbicide formulations could be achieved only when most of the surfactant was added as micelles. MZ and FL were well solubilized by berols, whereas MS by ET/15. Sorption of surfactants on the clay mineral sepiolite occurred mostly by sorption of micelles, and the loadings exceeded the CEC. Higher loadings were determined for B266 and ET/15. The sorption of surfactants was modeled by using the Langmuir-Scatchard equation which permitted the determination of binding coefficients that could be used for further predictions of the sorbed amounts of surfactants under a wide range of clay/surfactant ratios. A possibility was tested of designing clay-surfactant based formulations of certain herbicides by assuming the same ratio between herbicides and surfactants in the formulations as for herbicides incorporated in micelles in solution. Calculations indicated that satisfactory FL formulations could not be synthesized. The experimental fractions of herbicides in the formulations were in agreement with the predicted ones for MS and MZ. The validity of this approach was confirmed in in vitro release tests that showed a slowing down of the release of a.i. from the designed formulations relative to the technical products. Soil dissipation studies with MS formulations also showed improved bioactivity of the clay-surfactant formulation relative to the commercial one. This methodological approach can be extended to other clay-surfactant systems for encapsulation and

  18. Factors affecting the design of slow release formulations of herbicides based on clay-surfactant systems. A methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Galán-Jiménez, María Del Carmen; Mishael, Yael-Golda; Nir, Shlomo; Morillo, Esmeralda; Undabeytia, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    A search for clay-surfactant based formulations with high percentage of the active ingredient, which can yield slow release of active molecules is described. The active ingredients were the herbicides metribuzin (MZ), mesotrione (MS) and flurtamone (FL), whose solubilities were examined in the presence of four commercial surfactants; (i) neutral: two berols (B048, B266) and an alkylpolyglucoside (AG6202); (ii) cationic: an ethoxylated amine (ET/15). Significant percent of active ingredient (a.i.) in the clay/surfactant/herbicide formulations could be achieved only when most of the surfactant was added as micelles. MZ and FL were well solubilized by berols, whereas MS by ET/15. Sorption of surfactants on the clay mineral sepiolite occurred mostly by sorption of micelles, and the loadings exceeded the CEC. Higher loadings were determined for B266 and ET/15. The sorption of surfactants was modeled by using the Langmuir-Scatchard equation which permitted the determination of binding coefficients that could be used for further predictions of the sorbed amounts of surfactants under a wide range of clay/surfactant ratios. A possibility was tested of designing clay-surfactant based formulations of certain herbicides by assuming the same ratio between herbicides and surfactants in the formulations as for herbicides incorporated in micelles in solution. Calculations indicated that satisfactory FL formulations could not be synthesized. The experimental fractions of herbicides in the formulations were in agreement with the predicted ones for MS and MZ. The validity of this approach was confirmed in in vitro release tests that showed a slowing down of the release of a.i. from the designed formulations relative to the technical products. Soil dissipation studies with MS formulations also showed improved bioactivity of the clay-surfactant formulation relative to the commercial one. This methodological approach can be extended to other clay-surfactant systems for encapsulation and

  19. Sound velocity of drilling mud saturated with reservoir gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carcione, J.M.; Poletto, F.

    2000-04-01

    Knowledge of the in-situ sound velocity of drilling mud can be used in mud-pulse acoustic telemetry for evaluating the presence and amount of gas invasion in the drilling mud. The authors propose a model for calculating the in-situ density and sound velocity of water-based and oil-based drilling muds containing formation gas. Drilling muds are modeled as a suspension of clay particles and high-gravity solids in water or oil, with the acoustic properties of these fluids depending on pressure and temperature. Since mud at different depths experiences different pressures and temperatures, downhold mud weights can be significantly different from those measured at the surface. Taking this fact into consideration, the authors assume constant clay composition and obtained the fraction of high-gravity solids to balance the formation pressure corresponding to a given drilling plan. This gives the in-situ density of the drilling mud, which together with the bulk moduli of the single constituents allow one to compute the second velocity using Reuss's model. In the case of oil-based muds, they take into account the gas solubility in oil. When gas goes into solution, the mud is compassed of solid particles, live oil and, eventually, free gas. A phenomenological model based on a continuous spectrum of relaxation mechanisms is used to describe attenuation due to mud viscosity. The calculations for water-based and oil-based muds showed that the sound velocity is strongly dependent on gas saturation, fluid composition, and drilling depth.

  20. Sensitivity of the acid-base properties of clays to the methods of preparation and measurement. 1. Literature review.

    PubMed

    Duc, Myriam; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Thomas, Fabien

    2005-09-01

    Measuring and modeling the surface charge of clays, and more especially smectites, has become an important issue in the use of bentonites as a waste confinement material aimed at retarding migration of water and solutes. Therefore, many studies of the acid-base properties of montmorillonite have appeared recently in the literature, following older studies principally devoted to cation exchange. It is striking that beyond the consensus about the complex nature of the surface charge of clays, there are many discrepancies, especially concerning the dissociable charge, that prevents intercomparison among the published data. However, a general trend is observed regarding the absence of common intersection point on raw titration curves at different ionic strengths. Analysis of the literature shows that these discrepancies originate from the experimental procedures for the preparation of the clays and for the quantification of their surface charge. The present work is an attempt to understand how these procedures can impact the final results. Three critical operations can be identified as having significant effects on the surface properties of the studied clays. The first one is the preparation of purified clay from the raw material: the use of acid or chelation treatments, and the repeated washings in deionized water result in partial dissolution of the clays. Then storage of the purified clay in dry or wet conditions strongly influences the equilibria in the subsequent experiments respectively by precipitation or enhanced dissolution. The third critical operation is the quantification of the surface charge by potentiometric titration, which requires the use of strong acids and bases. As a consequence, besides dissociation of surface sites, many secondary titrant consuming reactions were described in the literature, such as cation exchange, dissolution, hydrolysis, or precipitation. The cumulated effects make it difficult to derive proper dissociation constants, and to

  1. Development of biodegradable foamlike materials based on casein and sodium montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Pojanavaraphan, Tassawuth; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Schiraldi, David A

    2010-10-11

    Biodegradable foamlike materials based on a naturally occurring polymer (casein protein) and sodium montmorillonite clay (Na+ -MMT) were produced through a simple freeze-drying process. By utilizing DL-glyceraldehyde (GC) as a chemical cross-linking agent, the structural integrity of these new aerogels were remarkably improved when compared to those of the control system (without GC), with a minimal increase in the density from 0.11 to 0.12 g cm⁻³. The degree of perfection of the foamlike structures was another parameter that had a significant influence on the physical and thermal performances of the low density composites. The biodegradability of the aerogels was investigated in terms of the carbon dioxide (CO₂) evolution for up to 8 weeks in compost media under controlled conditions.

  2. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites-"SOBM Filler 1".

    PubMed

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm(-1) and 1435 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties.

  3. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites-"SOBM Filler 1".

    PubMed

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm(-1) and 1435 cm(-1), respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  4. Novel Organically Modified Core-Shell Clay for Epoxy Composites—“SOBM Filler 1”

    PubMed Central

    Iheaturu, Nnamdi Chibuike; Madufor, Innocent Chimezie

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of a novel organically modified clay from spent oil base drilling mud (SOBM) that could serve as core-shell clay filler for polymers is herein reported. Due to the hydrophilic nature of clay, its compatibility with polymer matrix was made possible through modification of the surface of the core clay sample with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) compound prior to its use. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize clay surface modification. Electron dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to expose filler chemical composition and morphology, while electrophoresis measurement was used to examine level of filler dispersion. Results show an agglomerated core clay powder after high temperature treatment, while EDX analysis shows that the organically modified clay is composed of chemical inhomogeneities, wherein elemental compositions in weight percent vary from one point to the other in a probe of two points. Micrographs of the 3-APTES coupled SOBM core-shell clay filler clearly show cloudy appearance, while FT-IR indicates 25% and 5% increases in fundamental vibrations band at 1014 cm−1 and 1435 cm−1, respectively. Furthermore, 3-APTES coupled core-shell clay was used to prepare epoxy composites and tested for mechanical properties. PMID:27355022

  5. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities.

  6. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  7. Longhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

  8. Toxicity assessment of individual ingredients of synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs).

    PubMed

    Bakhtyar, Sajida; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) offer excellent technical characteristics while providing improved environmental performance over other drilling muds. The low acute toxicity and high biodegradability of SBMs suggest their discharge at sea would cause minimal impacts on marine ecosystems, however, chronic toxicity testing has demonstrated adverse effects of SBMs on fish health. Sparse environmental monitoring data indicate effects of SBMs on bottom invertebrates. However, no environmental toxicity assessment has been performed on fish attracted to the cutting piles. SBM formulations are mostly composed of synthetic base oils, weighting agents, and drilling additives such as emulsifiers, fluid loss agents, wetting agents, and brine. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to individual ingredients of SBMs on fish health. To do so, a suite of biomarkers [ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, biliary metabolites, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, DNA damage, and heat shock protein] have been measured in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) exposed for 21 days to individual ingredients of SBMs. The primary emulsifier (Emul S50) followed by the fluid loss agent (LSL 50) caused the strongest biochemical responses in fish. The synthetic base oil (Rheosyn) caused the least response in juvenile fish. The results suggest that the impact of Syndrill 80:20 on fish health might be reduced by replacement of the primary emulsifier Emul S50 with an alternative ingredient of less toxicity to aquatic biota. The research provides a basis for improving the environmental performance of SBMs by reducing the environmental risk of their discharge and providing environmental managers with information regarding the potential toxicity of individual ingredients. PMID:21928151

  9. Preparation and rheology of supercritical CO2-based dispersed polymer-clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Horsch, Steven; Gulari, Esin

    2007-03-01

    Effective dispersion of the fillers in a polymer matrix has been a key challenge in the field of nanocomposites. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) appears , PS/clay, The nanocomposites are characterized using WAXD, SEM, TEM, Rheology and DSC. The high degree of dispersion achieved through sc-CO2 appears to result in an order of magnitude increase in the rheological properties of PS, associated with an increase in the Tg of around 13 C, at 10% clay loading. These moduli improvements are significant better than those obtained with conventional, chemically-modified intercalated clay nanocomposites. The degree of enhancement in the properties appears to be strongly dependant on the polymer-clay interactions, and how it is promoted by the supercritical fluid. In the case of PDMS nanocomposites, where the clay-polymer interactions were weak, the modulus increase at low frequencies (for sc-CO2 processed system) was only a factor of 2. In the case of PVME- I30P clay nanocomposites, the modulus increase was substantial even at moderate loadings and dispersions, perhaps to be hydrogen-bonding interactions. Our results indicate that scCO2 can not only disperse nanoclays in polymers, it can also significantly enhance clay-polymer interactions.

  10. New magnetic organic inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Chiriac, Horia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2007-04-01

    The structural "memory effect" of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments.

  11. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting

  12. Preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties of clay-based nickel catalysts for methane reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.

    1998-08-01

    Naturally occurring clays and pillared clays are used as supports of nickel catalysts for the methane reforming reaction with carbon dioxide to synthesis gas. The structural and textural characteristics of the supports and catalysts are systematically examined by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is found that the pore structures and surface properties of supports greatly affect the catalytic activities of the catalysts prepared. The catalysts supported on the mesoporous clays or pillared clays are obviously superior to those on microporous supports because the mesoporous supports are highly thermal stable compared to the microporous ones. It is found that introducing lanthanum to the supports can improve the catalyst basicity and thus enhance the catalytic activities of these catalysts. Deactivation of catalysts prepared and factors influencing their stability are also discussed.

  13. Particle Filter with Novel Nonlinear Error Model for Miniature Gyroscope-Based Measurement While Drilling Navigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang

    2016-03-15

    The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition.

  14. Particle Filter with Novel Nonlinear Error Model for Miniature Gyroscope-Based Measurement While Drilling Navigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition. PMID:26999130

  15. Particle Filter with Novel Nonlinear Error Model for Miniature Gyroscope-Based Measurement While Drilling Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition. PMID:26999130

  16. Assessment of environmental risks from toxic and nontoxic stressors; a proposed concept for a risk-based management tool for offshore drilling discharges.

    PubMed

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Jak, Robbert G; Rye, Henrik; Frost, Tone Karin; Singsaas, Ivar; Karman, Chris C

    2008-04-01

    In order to improve the ecological status of aquatic systems, both toxic (e.g., chemical) and nontoxic stressors (e.g., suspended particles) should be evaluated. This paper describes an approach to environmental risk assessment of drilling discharges to the sea. These discharges might lead to concentrations of toxic compounds and suspended clay particles in the water compartment and concentrations of toxic compounds, burial of biota, change in sediment structure, and oxygen depletion in marine sediments. The main challenges were to apply existing protocols for environmental risk assessment to nontoxic stressors and to combine risks arising from exposure to these stressors with risk from chemical exposure. The defined approach is based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). In addition, precautionary principles from the EU-Technical Guidance Document were incorporated to assure that the method is acceptable in a regulatory context. For all stressors a protocol was defined to construct an SSD for no observed effect concentrations (or levels; NOEC(L)-SSD) to allow for the calculation of the potentially affected fraction of species from predicted exposures. Depending on the availability of data, a NOEC-SSD for toxicants can either be directly based on available NOECs or constructed from the predicted no effect concentration and the variation in sensitivity among species. For nontoxic stressors a NOEL-SSD can be extrapolated from an SSD based on effect or field data. Potentially affected fractions of species at predicted exposures are combined into an overall risk estimate. The developed approach facilitates environmental management of drilling discharges and can be applied to define risk-mitigating measures for both toxic and nontoxic stress.

  17. Assessment of environmental risks from toxic and nontoxic stressors; a proposed concept for a risk-based management tool for offshore drilling discharges.

    PubMed

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Jak, Robbert G; Rye, Henrik; Frost, Tone Karin; Singsaas, Ivar; Karman, Chris C

    2008-04-01

    In order to improve the ecological status of aquatic systems, both toxic (e.g., chemical) and nontoxic stressors (e.g., suspended particles) should be evaluated. This paper describes an approach to environmental risk assessment of drilling discharges to the sea. These discharges might lead to concentrations of toxic compounds and suspended clay particles in the water compartment and concentrations of toxic compounds, burial of biota, change in sediment structure, and oxygen depletion in marine sediments. The main challenges were to apply existing protocols for environmental risk assessment to nontoxic stressors and to combine risks arising from exposure to these stressors with risk from chemical exposure. The defined approach is based on species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). In addition, precautionary principles from the EU-Technical Guidance Document were incorporated to assure that the method is acceptable in a regulatory context. For all stressors a protocol was defined to construct an SSD for no observed effect concentrations (or levels; NOEC(L)-SSD) to allow for the calculation of the potentially affected fraction of species from predicted exposures. Depending on the availability of data, a NOEC-SSD for toxicants can either be directly based on available NOECs or constructed from the predicted no effect concentration and the variation in sensitivity among species. For nontoxic stressors a NOEL-SSD can be extrapolated from an SSD based on effect or field data. Potentially affected fractions of species at predicted exposures are combined into an overall risk estimate. The developed approach facilitates environmental management of drilling discharges and can be applied to define risk-mitigating measures for both toxic and nontoxic stress. PMID:18232721

  18. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  19. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  20. Drilling on midway atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, H.S.; Tracey, J.I., Jr.; Gross, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    Two holes drilled through reef sediments into basalt have established a geologic section through the Miocene. Midway was built above the sea by flows that were weathered and partially truncated in pre-Miocene time. After submergence, volcanic clays were reworked and covered by limestones. Overall submergence was interrupted at least twice by emergence. The limestones have been leached, recrystallized, and partially dolomitized.

  1. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  2. Laser micro-hole drilling in thermal barrier coated nickel based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Umashanker; Nath, A. K.; Bandyopadhyay, P. P.

    2016-09-01

    This investigation deals with laser drilling of micro holes in yttria stabilised zirconia coated nickel based superalloy using a power modulated fiber laser. The parameters taken into account are assist gas pressure, modulation frequency, pulse on time and hole inclination angle. These parameters affect the important geometrical characteristics of holes, e.g., hole diameter, hole wall smoothness, taper angle and recast layer thickness. It has been found that the assist gas pressure has a significant effect on hole entry and exit diameter, taper angle and hole wall smoothness. It has also been observed less number of pulses of higher energy produces a hole with smaller entry and exit diameter, smaller taper angle, smoother hole wall and a thin stretched recast layer (∼ 15μm). The minimum achieved hole entrance diameter, exit diameter and taper was 342 μm, 200 μm and 3.54° respectively. Off normal drilling produces a hole with elliptical entrance. The eccentricity of such holes increases with inclination angle. Thick recast layers are produced at high inclination angles.

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  4. Multifunctional nanocarrier based on clay nanotubes for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Chusen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jiahui; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing relating to disease has recently emerged as a powerful method in gene therapy. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. Halloysites are cheap and naturally available aluminosilicate clay nanotubes with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, a novel multifunctional nanocarrier based on functionalized halloysite nanotubes (f-HNTs) has been developed via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembling approach for loading and intracellular delivery of therapeutic antisurvivin siRNA and simultaneously tracking their intracellular transport, in which PEI-modified HNTs are used as gene vector, antisurvivin siRNA as gene therapeutic agent, and mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots as fluorescent labeling probes. The successful assembly of the f-HNTs-siRNA complexes was systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, Zeta potential measurement, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy, biological TEM, and flow cytometry studies revealed that the complexes enabled the efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA for cell-specific gene silencing. MTT assays exhibited that the complexes can enhance antitumor activity. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that f-HNTs-mediated siRNA delivery effectively knocked down gene expression of survivin and thereby decreased the levels of target proteins of PANC-1 cells. Therefore, this study suggested that the synthesized f-HNTs were a new effective drug delivery system for potential application in cancer gene therapy.

  5. Novel system for reducing leaching of the herbicide metribuzin using clay-gel-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Maqueda, Celia; Villaverde, Jaime; Sopeña, Fátima; Undabeytia, Tomás; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2008-12-24

    Metribuzin is an herbicide widely used for weed control that has been identified as a groundwater pollutant. It contaminates the environment even when it is used according to the manufacturer's instructions. To reduce herbicide leaching and increase weed control, new controlled release formulations were developed by entrapping metribuzin within a sepiolite-gel-based matrix using two clay/herbicide proportions (0.5/0.2 and 1/0.2) (loaded at 28.6 and 16.7% a.i.) as a gel (G28, G16) or as a powder after freeze-drying (LF28, LF16). The release of metribuzin from the control released formulations into water was retarded, when compared with commercial formulation (CF) except in the case of G28. The mobility of metribuzin from control released formulations into soil columns of sandy soil was greatly diminished in comparison with CF. Most of the metribuzin applied as control released formulations (G16, LF28 and LF16) was found at a depth of 0-8 cm depth. In contrast, residues from CF and G28 along the column were almost negligible. Bioassays from these control released formulations showed high efficacy at 0-12 cm depth. The use of these novel formulations could minimize the risk of groundwater contamination while maintaining weed control for a longer period.

  6. Induction and Tunability of Self-Healing Property of Dendron Based Hydrogel Using Clay Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Balachandran; Kumar, Prashant; Prasad, Edamana

    2016-06-16

    Low molecular weight gels have relatively poor self-healing capacity compared to that of polymeric gels. Induction and tuning of the healing capacity of low molecular weight gels to achieve desired applications are thus challenging tasks. The present work describes the achievement of remarkable tunability of self-healing property for a low molecular weight hybrid gel, based on poly(aryl ether) dendron derivative (PAD). The hybrid gel has been synthesized using PAD and poly(amido amine) {PAMAM} dendrimer derivative (QPD), which are intercalated in the montmorillonite clay (MMT) layers. The self-healing of the hybrid gel (QPD-MMT-PAD) was demonstrated through experiments where the distorted gel regained the initial value of storage modulus (G') within a few minutes. Further, the propensity of self-healing of the gel has been tuned as a function of QPD concentration. The mechanically stable QPD-MMT-PAD hybrid gel has been utilized for the adsorption of ppm level concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as β-naphthol, pyrene, and phenenathrene from water with excellent efficiency (80-98%). PMID:27193239

  7. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol Over Clay Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Jung, Jae-Sun; Yang, Eun-Hyeok; Lee, Kwan-Young; Moon, Dong Ju

    2015-11-01

    1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) is one of the promising product among the valuable products derived from glycerol and it can be obtained by the catalytic hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Copper-supported clay-based catalysts were prepared with different pore sizes using various ratios of kaolin, Mg, and Al by coprecipitation and applied in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-PDO. In recent research, variations of pore volume and pore size could affect the diffusion of reagents within the catalyst due to the collision between reagents or pore wall and reagents. It changes selectivities of each product in hydrogenolysis of glycerol reaction. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were analyzed by XRD, N2 physisorption, TPR, CO2-TPD, SEM, and a mercury porosimeter. The Cu/TALCITE 4 catalyst showed 98% 1,2-PDO selectivity with 65% glycerol conversion under the optimized condition of 190 degrees C, 25 bar, and 20 wt% glycerol aqueous solution. It was found that the basic strength and meso-macro pore structure of the catalysts play an important role in glycerol conversion and 1,2-PDO selectivity. PMID:26726594

  8. Depth estimation of laser glass drilling based on optical differential measurements of acoustic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodesky, Niv; Ozana, Nisan; Berg, Yuval; Dolev, Omer; Danan, Yossef; Kotler, Zvi; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We present the first steps of a device suitable for characterization of complex 3D micro-structures. This method is based on an optical approach allowing extraction and separation of high frequency ultrasonic sound waves induced to the analyzed samples. Rapid, non-destructive characterization of 3D micro-structures are limited in terms of geometrical features and optical properties of the sample. We suggest a method which is based on temporal tracking of secondary speckle patterns generated when illuminating a sample with a laser probe while applying known periodic vibration using an ultrasound transmitter. In this paper we investigated lasers drilled through glass vias. The large aspect ratios of the vias possess a challenge for traditional microscopy techniques in analyzing depth and taper profiles of the vias. The correlation of the amplitude vibrations to the vias depths is experimentally demonstrated.

  9. Electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay and a resistivity-based detection method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Liu, Songyu; Cai, Yi; Fang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    As the dielectric constant and conductivity of petroleum products are different from those of the pore water in soil, the electrical resistivity characteristics of oil-contaminated soil will be changed by the corresponding oil type and content. The contaminated soil specimens were manually prepared by static compaction method in the laboratory with commercial kaolin clay and diesel oil. The water content and dry density of the first group of soil specimens were controlled at 10 % and 1.58 g/cm(3). Corresponding electrical resistivities of the contaminated specimens were measured at the curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 and 90, 120, and 210 days on a modified oedometer cell with an LCR meter. Then, the electrical resistivity characteristics of diesel oil-contaminated kaolin clay were discussed. In order to realize a resistivity-based oil detection method, the other group of oil-contaminated kaolin clay specimens was also made and tested, but the initial water content, oil content, and dry density were controlled at 0~18 %, 0~18 %, 1.30~1.95 g/cm(3), respectively. Based on the test data, a resistivity-based artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. It was found that the electrical resistivity of kaolin clay decreased with the increase of oil content. Moreover, there was a good nonlinear relationship between electrical resistivity and corresponding oil content when the water content and dry density were kept constant. The decreasing velocity of the electrical resistivity of oil-contaminated kaolin clay was higher before the oil content of 12 % than after 12 %, which indicated a transition of the soil from pore water-controlled into oil-controlled electrical resistivity characteristics. Through microstructural analysis, the decrease of electrical resistivity could be explained by the increase of saturation degree together with the collapse of the electrical double layer. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) photos indicated that the diesel oil

  10. Environmentally friendly slow release formulations of alachlor based on clay-phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Verdejo, Trinidad; Undabeytia, Tomas; Nir, Shlomo; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2008-08-01

    A new clay-liposome complex was developed for reducing leaching of herbicides and contamination of groundwater. The liposomes were composed of the neutral and Environmental Protection Agency approved phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Adsorption of PC liposomes on the clay mineral montmorillonite could exceed the cation exchange capacity of the clay, and was well simulated by the Langmuir equation. X-ray diffraction results for 6 mM PC and 1.6 g/L clay (3 day incubation) yielded a basal spacing of 7.49 nm, which was interpreted as the formation of a supported planar bilayer on montmorillonite platelets. Fluorescence methods demonstrated structural changes which reflected adsorption of PC followed by loss of vesicle integrity as measured by the penetration of dithionite into the internal monolayer of fluorescently labeled liposomes, resulting in a decrease in fluorescence intensity to 18% of initial after 4 h. Energy transfer was demonstrated after 1 h from labeled liposomes to montmorillonite labeled by an acceptor. The neutral herbicide alachlor adsorbed on the liposome-clay complex, yielding a formulation of up to 40% active ingredient, and 1.6-fold reduction in herbicide release in comparison to the commercial formulation. Hence, the PC-montmorillonite complex can form a basis for environmentally friendly formulations of herbicides, which would yield reduced leaching.

  11. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition Using a Diglot Reader or a Computer-Based Drill and Practice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Elizabeth; Merrill, Paul; Yanchar, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This research study compares the impact of a computer-based diglot reader with that of a sophisticated, computer-based, drill and practice program on second language acquisition. The affective benefits as well as depth and breadth of vocabulary development were examined. The diglot method, originally conceived by Burling, introduces second…

  12. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  13. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys Group, Old Hickory Clay Co., and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in four states in 2011. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 940 kt (1.04 million st) with an estimated value of $44.2 million. This is a 3-percent increase in tonnage from 912 kt (1.01 million st) with a value of $41.3 million that was produced in 2010. Tennessee was the leading producing state with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi and Kentucky. About 69 percent of production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  14. Clay-based Formulations to Reduce the Environmental Impact of the Herbicide Terbuthylazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled release formulations of pesticides are receiving increasing attention as a way to reduce the environmental impact of pesticides after their application to agricultural soils. Natural and modified clay minerals have been proved to be efficient adsorbents for many pesticides and, accordingl...

  15. Development of porous clay-based composites for the sorption of lead from water.

    PubMed

    Ake, C L; Mayura, K; Huebner, H; Bratton, G R; Phillips, T D

    2001-07-20

    Lead contamination of water is a major health hazard, as illustrated by the fact that exposure to this metal has been associated with death and disease in humans, birds, and animals. The present research was aimed at the development of a porous, solid-phase sorbent that can be used in the remediation of lead-contaminated water. A suitable sorbent was identified by screening various clays and other materials for their ability to effectively bind lead. The clay was adhered to a solid support using an aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose. The binary composite was then tested for its ability to bind lead from solution, while providing void volume, increased surface area, and considerably enhanced hydraulic conductivity. The results suggested that a combination of sodium montmorillonite clay and carbon exhibited enhanced sorption of lead compared to carbon alone, and also supported the potential application of various combinations of sorbent materials. This value-added combination of clay, solid support, and adhesive will allow for the construction of column filtration systems that are multifunctional and capable of purifying large volumes of contaminated water.

  16. Development of porous clay-based composites for the sorption of lead from water.

    PubMed

    Ake, C L; Mayura, K; Huebner, H; Bratton, G R; Phillips, T D

    2001-07-20

    Lead contamination of water is a major health hazard, as illustrated by the fact that exposure to this metal has been associated with death and disease in humans, birds, and animals. The present research was aimed at the development of a porous, solid-phase sorbent that can be used in the remediation of lead-contaminated water. A suitable sorbent was identified by screening various clays and other materials for their ability to effectively bind lead. The clay was adhered to a solid support using an aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose. The binary composite was then tested for its ability to bind lead from solution, while providing void volume, increased surface area, and considerably enhanced hydraulic conductivity. The results suggested that a combination of sodium montmorillonite clay and carbon exhibited enhanced sorption of lead compared to carbon alone, and also supported the potential application of various combinations of sorbent materials. This value-added combination of clay, solid support, and adhesive will allow for the construction of column filtration systems that are multifunctional and capable of purifying large volumes of contaminated water. PMID:11482800

  17. Formation-damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and a comparison with polymer-base fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L.J.; Reid, P.I.; Williamson, L.D.; Enriquez, F.P. Jr.

    1999-09-01

    Horizontal wells are commonly completed without casing and the fluids used to drill said sections can have a significant effect on the production outcome. Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH)/bentonite-based fluids are compared to two commonly used reservoir drill-in fluids (DIFs) with respect to filter-cake characteristics and regain in permeability. The MMH fluids are found to produce filter cakes with unique features which result in efficient backflow without need for chemical treatment. Return permeability results which equal or exceed those for more commonly used DIFs raise questions over the conventional view that bentonite-containing DIFs are harmful to reservoirs.

  18. Pedostratigraphy of pre-Quaternary/Quaternary red paleosols from Central Europe based on geochemical and clay mineralogical proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, János; Újvári, Gábor; Seelos, Klemens; Varga, György; Ottner, Franz; Lukoczki, Georgina

    2013-04-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical studies of paleosols provide essential information for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretation of continental deposits and can present a high-resolution proxy for paleoclimate. Consequently, paleosols can help to interpret the history of sediment deposition and the autogenic and allogenic processes that influenced a sedimentary basin. Paleosols are also helpful in stratigraphic studies, including sequence stratigraphic analyses. They are used for stratigraphic correlations at the local and basinal scale, and some workers have calculated sediment accumulation rates based on the degree of paleosol development. The horizons of paleosols are widely used as key horizons for the stratigraphic subdivision of continental sedimentary series. The reliability of usage of paleopedologic data has increased, especially with the development of methods of absolute and relative dating: radiocarbon, luminescent, paleomagnetic, amino acid, and paleontological (palynological and paleofaunistic) with geochemical and clay mineralogical data. The use of paleosols as components of the stratigraphic record has increased, especially after paleosols morphotypical features of different ages were studied. Paleosols in various sediment sections were once compound units of soil covers of different ages. Results from geochemical climofunctions applied to Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene red clays and paleosols located in East-Central Europe (Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia and Romania) together with other geochemical data, clay mineralogy and fossil record, indicate that there were three major periods of their development. 1. The older type red clay/paleosol (age ~4.2-3.2 Ma) is red kaolinitic clay containing typically disordered kaolinite, mixed-layer smectite/kaolinite, smectite and little gibbsite. It was formed in the local subaerial weathering crust in warm, humid, subtropical or monsoon climate. 2. The younger type (age ~3.2-2.5 Ma) contains red

  19. Transitions between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in Learning Meaningful Unrelated Paired Associates Using Computer Based Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Tzvika Y.; Turnure, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of short-term and long-term memory in learning paired associates focuses on two microcomputer-based instructional design experiments with eleventh and twelfth graders that were modeled after traditional drill and practice routines. Research questions are presented, treatment conditions are explained, and additional research is…

  20. Numerical evaluation of sequential bone drilling strategies based on thermal damage.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Palmisano, Andrew C; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert J

    2015-09-01

    Sequentially drilling multiple holes in bone is used clinically for surface preparation to aid in fusion of a joint, typically under non-irrigated conditions. Drilling induces a significant amount of heat and accumulates after multiple passes, which can result in thermal osteonecrosis and various complications. To understand the heat propagation over time, a 3D finite element model was developed to simulate sequential bone drilling. By incorporating proper material properties and a modified bone necrosis criteria, this model can visualize the propagation of damaged areas. For this study, comparisons between a 2.0 mm Kirschner wire and 2.0 mm twist drill were conducted with their heat sources determined using an inverse method and experimentally measured bone temperatures. Three clinically viable solutions to reduce thermally-induced bone damage were evaluated using finite element analysis, including tool selection, time interval between passes, and different drilling sequences. Results show that the ideal solution would be using twist drills rather than Kirschner wires if the situation allows. A shorter time interval between passes was also found to be beneficial as it reduces the total heat exposure time. Lastly, optimizing the drilling sequence reduced the thermal damage of bone, but the effect may be limited. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the proposed model to study clinical issues and find potential solutions prior to clinical trials.

  1. Montmorillonite-based porous clay heterostructures (PCHs) intercalated with silica-titania pillars-synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielarz, Lucjan; Gil, Barbara; Kustrowski, Piotr; Piwowarska, Zofia; Dudek, Barbara; Michalik, Marek

    2009-05-15

    Porous clay heterostructures (PCHs) were synthesized using natural montmorillonite as a raw material. Apart from pure silica pillars also silica-titania pillars were intercalated into the interlayer space of the parent clay. The detailed studies of the calcination process of the as-prepared PCH samples as well as thermal stability of the pillared structure of these materials were performed. The pillared structure of PCHs intercalated with both silica and silica-titania clusters was found to be thermally stable up to temperatures exceeding 600 deg. C. It was found that titanium incorporated into the silica pillars was present mainly in the form of separated tetracoordinated cations. For the samples with the higher Ti loading also small contribution of titanium in the form of the polymeric oxide species was detected. Titanium incorporated into the PCH materials significantly increased their surface acidity forming mainly Bronsted acid sites. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of the montmorillonite based porous clay heterostructures (PCHs) intercalated with silica-titania pillars has been performed. The mechanism of the thermal degradation of organic templates in the pore system of PCHs was studied. PCHs were characterized with respect to structure, texture, composition, surface acidity, thermal stability and form of introduced titanium.

  2. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  3. Drilling disturbance and constraints on the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary carbon isotope excursion in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, P. N.; Thomas, E.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE; approx. 56 Mya) was geologically abrupt, but it is debated whether it took thousands of years or was effectively instantaneous. Wright and Schaller (2013) published a significant new record of the onset of the CIE, and claimed that it could be resolved across 13 annual layers in a drill core through the Marlboro clay at Millville, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 174X). Supporting evidence for similar layering was reported from another New Jersey drill site, Wilson Lake B, and a photograph of the Marlboro clay in outcrop (Wright and Schaller, 2014). Such a short duration would imply an instantaneous perturbation of the atmosphere and surface ocean and the impact of a comet or asteroid as the likely cause. However, Pearson and Nicholas (2014) suggested, based on the published core photographs, that the layers in the Marlboro clay cores could be artifacts of drilling disturbance, so-called biscuiting, wherein the formation is fractured into layers or biscuits and drilling mud is injected in between the layers. (We now prefer the term core discing following Kidd, 1978.) Here we report new observations on the cores which support that interpretation, including concentric grooves on the surfaces of the core discs caused by spinning in the bit, micro-fracturing at their edges, and injected drilling mud. We re-interpret the limited outcrop evidence as showing joints rather than sedimentary layers. We argue that foraminifer concentrations in the sediments are far too high for the layers to have been annually deposited in turbid waters at depths of 40-70 m, indicating that the onset of the CIE in the Marlboro clay likely took on the order of millennia, not years (Zeebe et al., 2014). Re-coring of Millville aimed at minimizing drilling disturbance to allow a higher-resolution study of the carbon isotope excursion is highly desirable.

  4. Electrochemical nitrate biosensor based on poly(pyrrole-viologen) film-nitrate reductase-clay composite.

    PubMed

    Cosnier, S; Da Silva, S; Shan, D; Gorgy, K

    2008-11-01

    The immobilization of nitrate reductase (NR) was performed by entrapment in a laponite clay gel and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde. In presence of nitrate and methyl viologen, a catalytic current appeared at -0.60 V illustrating the enzymatic reduction of nitrate into nitrite via the reduced form of the freely diffusing methyl viologen. The electropolymerization of a water-soluble pyrrole viologen derivative within the interlamellar spaces and channels of the host clay matrix successfully carried out the electrical wiring of the entrapped NR. Rotating disk measurements led to the determination of kinetic constants, namely k(2)=10.7 s(-1) and K(M)=7 microM. These parameters reflect the efficiency of the electro-enzymatic reduction of nitrate and the substrate affinity for the immobilized enzyme.

  5. Influence of clay particles on microfluidic-based preparation of hydrogel composite microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Joung Sook

    2016-05-01

    For the successful fabrication of a hydrogel composite microsphere, this study aimed to investigate the influence of clay particles on microsphere formation in a microfluidic device which has flow focusing and a 4.5:1 contraction channel. A poly alginic acid solution (2.0 wt.%) with clay particles was used as the dispersed phase to generate drops in an oil medium, which then merged with drops of a CaCl2 solution for gelation. Drop generations were observed with different flow rates and particles types. When the flow rate increased, drop generation was enhanced and drop size decreased by the build-up of more favorable hydrodynamic flow conditions to detach the droplets. The addition of a small amount of particles insignificantly changed the drop generation behavior even though it reduced interfacial tension and increased the viscosity of the solution. Instead, clays particles significantly affected hydro-gelation depending on the hydrophobicity of particles, which produced further heterogeneity in the shape and size of microsphere.

  6. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  7. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  8. Clay for Little Fingers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Joan Bouza

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the renewed interest in clay as a modeling compound in early childhood programs; describes the nature of clay and presents a working vocabulary. Suggests methods of working with clay, including introducing clay to children, discovering its uses, clean up, firing clay, and finishing baked clay. Includes activity suggestions and…

  9. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications. PMID:26492498

  10. Detection of drilling mud-base oil in the bile of trout, Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Hollou, J.; King, A.

    1988-07-01

    Crude and refined petroleum oils contain saturated as well as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and the latter exist in minor amounts. However, drilling mud-base oils have predominantly and in the present case, almost exclusively saturated components. Studies on the fate and effects of petroleum oil in fish have concentrated on the aromatics. A recent investigation of the mutagenicity vs toxicity of the various water soluble fractions of Kuwait crude oil suggests that much of the toxicity of that fractionated oil is due to alkanes, alkenes, aliphatics and one-ring cyclic compounds. Aliphatic molecules such as dodecane and docosane have been shown to bioaccumulate in fish with a bioaccumulation factor of 50 and 10, which is close to that found for aromatic molecules. In view of all these observations and since /sup 13/C NMR analysis of the metabolites found in the gall bladder bile of cunners exposed to No. 2 fuel oil indicated the presence of an aliphatic moiety in the bile mixture, it was deemed of interest to determine if the gall bladder bile would act as a bioconcentrator of an oil quasi-free of aromatics.

  11. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  12. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  13. Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfgat, M.Y.; Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N.

    1995-12-31

    Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

  14. Production drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

  15. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 1, Analytical Method: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal, resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project -- Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery.''

  16. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 2: Application in Hawaii: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was planned, funded, and initiated in 1988 by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, an institute within the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Initial funding for the SOH program was $3.25 million supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a/bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project-Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential discovery.

  17. Model-Based Hookload Monitoring and Prediction at Drilling Rigs using Neural Networks and Forward-Selection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaout, A.; Fruhwirth, R.; Winter, M.; Esmael, B.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    The use of neural networks and advanced machine learning techniques in the oil & gas industry is a growing trend in the market. Especially in drilling oil & gas wells, prediction and monitoring different drilling parameters is an essential task to prevent serious problems like "Kick", "Lost Circulation" or "Stuck Pipe" among others. The hookload represents the weight load of the drill string at the crane hook. It is one of the most important parameters. During drilling the parameter "Weight on Bit" is controlled by the driller whereby the hookload is the only measure to monitor how much weight on bit is applied to the bit to generate the hole. Any changes in weight on bit will be directly reflected at the hookload. Furthermore any unwanted contact between the drill string and the wellbore - potentially leading to stuck pipe problem - will appear directly in the measurements of the hookload. Therefore comparison of the measured to the predicted hookload will not only give a clear idea on what is happening down-hole, it also enables the prediction of a number of important events that may cause problems in the borehole and yield in some - fortunately rare - cases in catastrophes like blow-outs. Heuristic models using highly sophisticated neural networks were designed for the hookload prediction; the training data sets were prepared in cooperation with drilling experts. Sensor measurements as well as a set of derived feature channels were used as input to the models. The contents of the final data set can be separated into (1) features based on rig operation states, (2) real-time sensors features and (3) features based on physics. A combination of novel neural network architecture - the Completely Connected Perceptron and parallel learning techniques which avoid trapping into local error minima - was used for building the models. In addition automatic network growing algorithms and highly sophisticated stopping criterions offer robust and efficient estimation of the

  18. The multiphase flow system used in exploiting depleted reservoirs: water-based Micro-bubble drilling fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-hui, Zheng; Xiao-qing, He; Li-xia, Fu; Xiang-chun, Wang

    2009-02-01

    Water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid, which is used to exploit depleted reservoirs, is a complicated multiphase flow system that is composed of gas, water, oil, polymer, surfactants and solids. The gas phase is separate from bulk water by two layers and three membranes. They are "surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer", "high viscosity fixing membrane", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of liner high polymer (LHP) & surfactants" from every gas phase centre to the bulk water. "Surface tension reducing membrane", "high viscosity layer" and "high viscosity fixing membrane" bond closely to pack air forming "air-bag", "compatibility enhancing membrane" and "concentration transition layer of LHP & surfactants" absorb outside "air-bag" to form "incompact zone". From another point of view, "air-bag" and "incompact zone" compose micro-bubble. Dynamic changes of "incompact zone" enable micro-bubble to exist lonely or aggregate together, and lead the whole fluid, which can wet both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, to possess very high viscosity at an extremely low shear rate but to possess good fluidity at a higher shear rate. When the water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid encounters leakage zones, it will automatically regulate the sizes and shapes of the bubbles according to the slot width of fracture, the height of cavern as well as the aperture of openings, or seal them by making use of high viscosity of the system at a very low shear rate. Measurements of the rheological parameters indicate that water-based micro-bubble drilling fluid has very high plastic viscosity, yield point, initial gel, final gel and high ratio of yield point and plastic viscosity. All of these properties make the multiphase flow system meet the requirements of petroleum drilling industry. Research on interface between gas and bulk water of this multiphase flow system can provide us with information of synthesizing effective agents to

  19. The effects of diesel oil-based drilling mud extracts on immune responses of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tahir, A; Secombes, C J

    1995-07-01

    The potential suppressive effect of oil-pollution in the aquatic environment on fish immune responses was investigated by injecting rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) with an extract obtained from diesel oil-based drilling mud. To investigate the effect of the extract dose, 4 groups of 6 fish were exposed to 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL extract/Kg body weight (B.W.). To keep the injection volume constant, each extract dose was made up 2.4 mL/Kg B.W. with olive oil. Six weeks later the fish were sacrificed and a number of immmune parameters monitored. In a second experiment, the effect of exposure times was investigated. Fish wee exposed to 2.4 mL extract/Kg B.W., 2.4 mL olive oil/Kg B.W., or 2.4 mL saline/Kg B.W. and immune parameters were monitored 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injection. In the dose response experiment, there was no significant effect of the extract on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and haemolytic complement (CH50) activity, but a suppressive effect on serum lysozyme level was found using the 0.6 mL/Kg dose. This dose also elevated proliferative activity of head kidney lymphocytes in response to the mitogen PHA. In the second experiment, investigating exposure time, again no significant overall effect on serum Ig or lysozyme level and CH50 activity was observed, although Ig levels were significantly lower at week two relative to the other groups. However, both extract- and olive oil-injected fish showed significantly lower lysozyme levels compared with the saline-injected (control) fish throughout the experiment. In contrast, at week six post-exposure, head kidney lymphocyte proliferation was significantly elevated in both the extract- and olive oil-exposed fish relative to the control fish. PMID:7605517

  20. The effects of diesel oil-based drilling mud extracts on immune responses of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Tahir, A; Secombes, C J

    1995-07-01

    The potential suppressive effect of oil-pollution in the aquatic environment on fish immune responses was investigated by injecting rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) with an extract obtained from diesel oil-based drilling mud. To investigate the effect of the extract dose, 4 groups of 6 fish were exposed to 0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mL extract/Kg body weight (B.W.). To keep the injection volume constant, each extract dose was made up 2.4 mL/Kg B.W. with olive oil. Six weeks later the fish were sacrificed and a number of immmune parameters monitored. In a second experiment, the effect of exposure times was investigated. Fish wee exposed to 2.4 mL extract/Kg B.W., 2.4 mL olive oil/Kg B.W., or 2.4 mL saline/Kg B.W. and immune parameters were monitored 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injection. In the dose response experiment, there was no significant effect of the extract on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and haemolytic complement (CH50) activity, but a suppressive effect on serum lysozyme level was found using the 0.6 mL/Kg dose. This dose also elevated proliferative activity of head kidney lymphocytes in response to the mitogen PHA. In the second experiment, investigating exposure time, again no significant overall effect on serum Ig or lysozyme level and CH50 activity was observed, although Ig levels were significantly lower at week two relative to the other groups. However, both extract- and olive oil-injected fish showed significantly lower lysozyme levels compared with the saline-injected (control) fish throughout the experiment. In contrast, at week six post-exposure, head kidney lymphocyte proliferation was significantly elevated in both the extract- and olive oil-exposed fish relative to the control fish.

  1. Drilling fluid effects on crop growth and iron and zinc availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bauder, T.A.; Barbarick, K.A.; Ayers, P.D.; Chapman, P.L.; Shanahan, J.F.

    1999-05-01

    Waste drilling fluids are often land-farmed following completion of an oil or gas well in Colorado. This material usually contains production water, bentonitic clays, formation cuttings, barite, Na compounds, and synthetic organic polymers. The authors investigated the effects of 5 to 60 dry g drilling fluid kg{sup {minus}1} soil on the growth and trace metal concentration of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench DeKalb ST-6-S sudanense) in the greenhouse. A nonlinear regression exponential-rise model fit the increased plant total dry matter yield response to increasing drilling fluid rates. Increased plant tissue Fe concentration and uptake indicated that increased plant-available Fe was primarily responsible for the yield response, but increased Zn availability was also suspected. Results from a second greenhouse study confirmed that drilling fluid can also correct Zn deficiency in corn (Zea mays L.). Soil SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) was higher with increasing drilling fluid, but was still < 1. Other trace-element concentrations in sudangrass tissue and soil pH and EC{sub sat} were not significantly increased due to application of drilling fluid. This study showed that application of controlled rates of water-based drilling fluid from operations in Weld County, Colorado, was beneficial to the growth of sorghum-sudangrass and provided evidence that land application is an acceptable method of disposal.

  2. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  3. Digital Game-Based Learning: A Supplement for Medication Calculation Drills in Nurse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Brynjar; Lokken, Atle; Leland, Arne; Stordalen, Jorn; Mordt, Petter; Oftedal, Bjorg F.

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses, globally, appear to struggle with medication calculations. In order to improve these skills among student nurses, the authors developed The Medication Game--an online computer game that aims to provide simple mathematical and medical calculation drills, and help students practise standard medical units and expressions. The aim of…

  4. A novel enzyme-based acidizing system: Matrix acidizing and drilling fluid damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.E.; McKay, D.M.; Moses, V.

    1995-12-31

    A novel acidizing process is used to increase the permeability of carbonate rock cores in the laboratory and to remove drilling fluid damage from cores and wafers. Field results show the benefits of the technology as applied both to injector and producer wells.

  5. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  6. 20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Hydraulic and diffusive properties of clay-based backfill material for a low- and intermediate-level waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, W.J.; Lee, J.O.; Hahn, P.S.; Park, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    The results of experimental studies performed to determine the radionuclide diffusion coefficients in a compacted clay and the hydraulic conductivities of clay/crushed granite mixtures with various clay contents are presented. Clay used in the experiments is a natural clay from the southeastern part of Korea, and it contains mainly calcium bentonite. The hydraulic conductivities of clay/crushed granite mixtures decreased with increasing clay content. In case of clay content of 50 wt.%, they maintain the considerably lower values even at the dry density of 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3}. The diffusion coefficients for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 125}I in water saturated clay at a dry density of 1.4 Mg/m{sup 3} were measured at room temperature. The average apparent diffusion coefficients obtained are 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}/s, 9.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2}/s, 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} m{sup 2}/s, and 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}I, respectively.

  8. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  9. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite. PMID:25439870

  10. Interaction between chitosan-based clay nanocomposites and cellulose in a chemical pulp suspension.

    PubMed

    Lai, Minghua; Liu, Pai; Lin, Huanbin; Luo, Yuqiong; Li, Houbin; Wang, Xiaoying; Sun, Runcang

    2016-02-10

    Quaternized chitosan/organic montmorillonite (QCS/OMMT) nanocomposites were synthesized under microwave irradiation. XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that QCS intercalated into the interlayer of OMMT and clay layers distributed uniformly in QCS matrix. QCS/OMMT nanocomposites were used as retention and drainage-aid agents in pulp suspension, during which the interface behavior of positively charged QCS/OMMT nanocomposites on negatively charged cellulosic substrate and CaCO3 substrate was investigated. With the addition of QCS/OMMT nanocomposites, the particle size of cellulosic substrate increased, while the beating degree and the total residual carbohydrate concentration decreased. The results indicated that QCS/OMMT nanocomposite made a difference in paper making process through the charge patch interaction. Moreover, QCS/OMMT nanocomposites had a strong interaction with CaCO3, which was significant in fiber fines retention and paper production. When the mass ratio of QCS to OMMT was 8:1, the QCS/OMMT nanocomposite demonstrated the strongest retention and drainage-aid effect. PMID:26686141

  11. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite.

  12. Clay-based nanocomposite coating for flexible optoelectronics applying commercial polymers.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Daniel A; Schmid, Jasmin; Feicht, Patrick; Erath, Johann; Fery, Andreas; Breu, Josef

    2013-05-28

    Transparency, flexibility, and especially ultralow oxygen (OTR) and water vapor (WVTR) transmission rates are the key issues to be addressed for packaging of flexible organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. Concomitant optimization of all essential features is still a big challenge. Here we present a thin (1.5 μm), highly transparent, and at the same time flexible nanocomposite coating with an exceptionally low OTR and WVTR (1.0 × 10(-2) cm(3) m(-2) day(-1) bar(-1) and <0.05 g m(-2) day(-1) at 50% RH, respectively). A commercially available polyurethane (Desmodur N 3600 and Desmophen 670 BA, Bayer MaterialScience AG) was filled with a delaminated synthetic layered silicate exhibiting huge aspect ratios of about 25,000. Functional films were prepared by simple doctor-blading a suspension of the matrix and the organophilized clay. This preparation procedure is technically benign, is easy to scale up, and may readily be applied for encapsulation of sensitive flexible electronics. PMID:23544864

  13. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  14. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS. THIS OVERVIEW DESCRIBES THE SALIENT STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CLAY MATERIALS AND EXTENDS THE DISCUSSION TO PILLARED CLAYS AND REAGENTS SUPPORTED ON CLAY MATERIALS. A VARIET...

  15. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates from South Asian Clay Brick Production Based on Direct Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyant, C.; Athalye, V.; Ragavan, S.; Rajarathnam, U.; Kr, B.; Lalchandani, D.; Maithel, S.; Malhotra, G.; Bhanware, P.; Thoa, V.; Phuong, N.; Baum, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    About 150-200 billion clay bricks are produced in India every year. Most of these bricks are fired in small-scale traditional kilns that burn coal or biomass without pollution controls. Reddy and Venkataraman (2001) estimated that 8% of fossil fuel related PM2.5 emissions and 23% of black carbon emissions in India are released from brick production. Few direct emissions measurements have been done in this industry and black carbon emissions, in particular, have not been previously measured. In this study, 9 kilns representing five common brick kiln technologies were tested for aerosol properties and gaseous pollutant emissions, including optical scattering and absorption and thermal-optical OC/EC. Simple relationships are then used to estimate the radiative-forcing impact. Kiln design and fuel quality greatly affect the overall emission profiles and relative climate warming. Batch production kilns, such as the Downdraft kiln, produce the most PM2.5 (0.97 gPM2.5/fired brick) with an OC/EC fraction of 0.3. Vertical Shaft Brick kilns using internally mixed fuels produce the least PM (0.09 gPM2.5/kg fired brick) with the least EC (OC/EC = 16.5), but these kilns are expensive to implement and their use throughout Southern Asia is minimal. The most popular kiln in India, the Bull's Trench kiln, had fewer emissions per brick than the Downdraft kiln, but an even higher EC fraction (OC/EC = 0.05). The Zig-zag kiln is similar in structure to the Bull's Trench kiln, but the emission factors are significantly lower: 50% reduction for CO, 17% for PM2.5 and 60% for black carbon. This difference in emissions suggests that converting traditional Bull's Trench kilns into less polluting Zig-zag kilns would result in reduced atmospheric warming from brick production.

  16. Remediation of oil-based drill cuttings through a biosurfactant-based washing followed by a biodegradation treatment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Lu, Mang; Guan, Yueming; Zhang, Weimu; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2011-11-01

    In this study, oil-based drill cuttings were washed by a rhamnolipid solution and then subjected to bioremediation in stainless steel boxes using sawdust as bulking agent. A mixed bacterial culture, mainly containing Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Agrobacterium, and Comamonas, was used as inoculums. Approximately 83% of organics were removed after washing under optimal conditions (liquid/solid ratio, 3:1; washing time, 20 min; stirring speed, 200 rpm; rhamnolipid concentration, 360 mg/L; temperature, 60 °C), and the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the cuttings dropped from 85,000 to 12,600 mg/kg. In the bioremediation stage, concentrations of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons decreased to 2140 and 1290 mg/kg, respectively, after 120 days. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds had undergone biodegradation. The results of this study indicate that this two-stage remedial system can reduce treatment time and increase treatment efficiency as compared with a single bioremediation or washing treatment.

  17. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    part of it is reduced, another is formed. This is the fundamental geochemical aspect of the genesis of green clay minerals; they contain iron in both oxidation states.Unfortunately modern methods of mineral analysis on a microscopic scale, electron microbeam and others, do not allow the determination of the different oxidation states of iron especially for nonstoichiometric minerals. One can use Mössbauer spectral analysis, but the scales of observations are not the same (Mössbauer needing more material); one method used for observations on a microscale, the other on a macroscale. Given the problems of micro- and macroscale observations, oxidation state information is almost excluded from data gathered since the 1980s or so, and hence information concerning the relations of iron reduction and clay genesis must be taken from older studies. A second, much greater problem is that little X-ray diffraction (XRD) work is done on samples which are analyzed chemically by electron microbeam studies. In the past both types of information, structural and chemical, were available for the same sample. Hence not only do we have no precise chemical data for many samples (oxidation state of iron), but there is a rarity of mineral structural information to go along with the incomplete chemistry. This is critical for the study of clay minerals, because slight chemical changes in a clay mineral are frequently accompanied by changes in its structure, especially when one deals with interstratified clay minerals (mica/smectites for example). In fact, the tendency to obtain more and more precision (analysis of a smaller and smaller sized sample) has led to a total loss of mineralogical data. The Heisenberg principle is unwittingly verified by geologists. We know more about a small part of a sample, but we know less about its whole. As a result, the following discussion is based largely upon old data, those which combine iron oxidation states and XRD information.

  19. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  20. Comparison of anxiety prevalence among based and offshore National Iranian Drilling Company staff's children in Ahvaz, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Shahba, Zohre; Abedi, Heidarali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is one of the most common psychological issues among all age groups including children. The main role of parents has been known to support their children. Being far away from a source of support has been shown to be a potential trigger for childhood anxiety. Periodical jobs, including offshore work, are among the main reasons for absence of one of the parents. Therefore, this study aims to assess anxiety in children of National Iranian Drilling Company offshore staff. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 160 students including 80 boys and 80 girls were selected through convenient random sampling from the schools of National Iranian Drilling Company. Data were collected using Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Inventory (by Reynolds and Richmond), consisting 37 items and a demographic questionnaire. The collected data were statistically analyzed by t-test and logistic regression tests through SPSS software. Results: The mean anxiety score was 12.80 among offshore staff's children and 11.67 among the children of the based staff. The ratio of manifest anxiety among the offshore workers’ children was significantly more than the based ones’. Conclusions: Based on the findings, offshore fathers’ job affects the anxiety of the children. PMID:26097851

  1. Offshore environmental concerns mitigated by onshore-based, extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    Extended-reach drilling may alleviate California environmental concerns by targeting distant offshore plays using onshore localities adjacent to preexisting facilities. If successful, it may set a precedent for offshore development without the use of new offshore platforms, thereby reducing the risk of offshore spills. Politicians, environmentalists, and the industry will closely watch the Gaviota No. 7 well, an extended-reach well operated by Benton Oil and Gas Co. in partnership with Molino Energy Co. The companies aim to find sweet gas in the Gaviota structure, an anticline hemmed in by two faults, located abut 1 1/4 miles offshore in the Santa Barbara Channel. Frank Reiber, project manager for Benton, characterizes the technologies used in the Gaviota No. 7, as fairly routine. However, state officials hail this onshore-to-offshore technique as the only practical way to develop oil or gas in state waters, given the political and environmental constraints that have virtually closed all waters within the 3-mile limit for decades. The paper describes the drilling and production program.

  2. Nanoalloys based on clays: intercalated semicrystalline blends of syndiotactic polystyrene with poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arup K; Woo, E M; Su, Chean C

    2005-02-01

    Nanoalloys of syndiotactic polystyrene with poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) clay were prepared by a solution intercalation technique using 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane. A mixed intercalated/exfoliated morphology in the nanoalloys containing organo-clays is evinced by transmission electron microscopy. Thermal stability is found to improve with 5% by weight of organo-clays, but a reverse trend is observed by increasing the concentration of clay. The influence of montmorillonite clays in isothermal melt-crystallization behavior of blends was thoroughly investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. A considerable change in polymorphic behavior of syndiotactic polystyrene is observed by the incorporation of different clays into the blends, and the temperature window of isothermal crystallization for the formation of a-crystals of syndiotactic polystyrene is found to broaden in the presence of organo-clays. In contrast, the pristine clay is found to induce only the beta-crystal of syndiotactic polystyrene at all the crystallization temperatures studied in this work. The amorphous component poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) affects the crystallinity of syndiotactic polystyrene adversely and favors the beta-form of syndiotactic polystyrene in blends; a-crystals are observed in the nano-alloys containing 20 wt% of poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide). The crystalline morphology, as characterized by polarized optical microscopy, clearly indicates rapid formation of the alpha-form induced by the nanoscale dispersion of organo-clays in spherulites of smaller dimension.

  3. Is the geological concept of clay minerals appropriate for soil science? A literature-based and philosophical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchman, G. Jock

    Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, ‘geological’ environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment

  4. SOLID2: An Antibody Array-Based Life-Detector Instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  5. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life. PMID:19105755

  6. PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

    1983-02-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

  7. Proposed Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  8. Comparison of benthic foraminifera and macrofaunal indicators of the impact of oil-based drill mud disposal.

    PubMed

    Denoyelle, Mariéva; Jorissen, Frans J; Martin, Daniel; Galgani, François; Miné, Jacques

    2010-11-01

    We compare foraminifera and macrofauna as bio-indicators of oil-based drill mud disposal site off Congo. The most polluted sites are characterized by poor faunas, dominated by some very tolerant taxa. Slightly further from the disposal site, there is an area with strongly increased densities, heavily dominated by opportunistic taxa. Still further, macrofauna appears to be similar to that at the reference area, but the foraminiferal meiofauna still suggests a slight environmental perturbation. The foraminiferal FIEI index, based on the species distribution in the study area, appears to be more discriminative than the macrofaunal ITI index, based on a priori definitions of the trophic guilds of the various taxa. Our comparative approach allows us to point out the benefits of (1) the use of macrofauna and foraminifera together and (2) the definition of the species groups used in biotic indices on the basis of observations made directly in the study area. PMID:20825954

  9. Advantages and limitations of the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopy in the study of the clay aggregate structure in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Frost, Ray L; Song, Yen-Fang

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports new application of new transmission X-ray microscopy powered by a synchrotron source for the study of aqueous based clay suspensions. This paper delineates the advantages and limitations of this method. The tested transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) technique has shown good agreement with the cryo-stage SEM technique. The spacial resolution of this TXM technique is 60 nm and clay particles with diameter below 500 nm are clearly visible and their pseudohexagonal symmetry is recognizable in detail. It is clearly demonstrated the methodology of implementing TXM to study aqueous based clay suspensions that are close to approximately 60 nm tomographic resolution. The technique enables us to study discrete structure of clay suspensions in water and within aggregates. This has never been previously possible. Larger crystals, more compact aggregates and less colloidal fraction present in kaolinite from Georgia has impact on faster settling and gelling in denser suspension than for Birdwood kaolinite in which colloidal particles create gel-like networking in less dense aqueous suspension. PMID:18067907

  10. Colorimetric Humidity and Solvent Recognition Based on a Cation-Exchange Clay Mineral Incorporating Nickel(II)-Chelate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Hitoshi; Mochida, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    Solvatochromic nickel(II) complexes with diketonato and diamine ligands were incorporated into a saponite clay by ion exchange, and their colorimetric humidity- and solvent-recognition properties were investigated. These powders exhibit color change from red to blue-green depending on humidity, and the detection range can be controlled by modifying the metal complex. The humidity response takes advantage of the humidity-dependent water content in clay and the coordination of water molecules to the metal complex in equilibrium. The addition of organic solvents to the powders causes a color change to occur, varying from red to blue-green depending on the donor number of the solvent, thereby enabling solvent recognition. In the clay, the affinity of less sterically hindered complexes to water or solvent molecules is decreased compared with that in solution because the cationic complexes interact with the anionic layers in the clay. Incorporating diethylene glycol into the materials produced thermochromic powders.

  11. Clay and pillard clay membranes: Synthesis, characterization and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, Sven

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of ceramic multilayer membranes with an Alsb2Osb3-pillared montmorillonite (Al-PILC) and a Laponite separating layer have been studied. Al-PILC is a pillared clay prepared by intercalation of polyoxo cations of aluminium between the montmorillonite clay sheets, followed by a thermal treatment (400sp°C) to obtain rigid oxide pillars. The free spacing between the clay plates is about 0.8 nm. Laponite is a synthetic clay with a pore structure formed by the stacking of very small clay plates. To deposit an Al-PILC top layer on a macro- or mesoporous aluminiumoxide support membrane, two preparation routes were considered. According to the standard preparation route of a pillared clay, the easiest way is to use a suspension of clay mixed with the pillaring solution in which the support membrane is dipped. However, it is not possible to deposit uniform and crack-free top layers in this way because of the formation of unstable suspensions. A second preparation route is based on an indirect pillaring procedure. By dipping a support membrane in a stable clay suspension, a thin clay film is deposited in a first step. Pillaring is achieved via immersion of the supported clay film in the pillaring solution in a second step. After a washing procedure, the membrane is dried and calcined at 400sp°C. Laponite membranes were simply prepared by dipping a support membrane in a suspension of this synthetic clay in water. Afterwards a drying at room temperature and a calcination at 400 ar 500sp°C is performed. Both membrane types were tested for gas separation and pervaporation purposes. Transport of permanent gases (He, N2) occurs by means of Knudsen diffusion. Diffusion is kinetically controlled and for a binary mixture, the maximum separation factor is determined by the difference in molecular weight of both components. From pervaporation experiments with water/alcohol mixtures it was found that Al-PILC membranes can be used for

  12. Pre-drilling calculation of geomechanical parameters for safe geothermal wells based on outcrop analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Philipp, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    It is desirable to enlarge the profit margin of geothermal projects by reducing the total drilling costs considerably. Substantiated assumptions on uniaxial compressive strengths and failure criteria are important to avoid borehole instabilities and adapt the drilling plan to rock mechanical conditions to minimise non-productive time. Because core material is rare we aim at predicting in situ rock properties from outcrop analogue samples which are easy and cheap to provide. The comparability of properties determined from analogue samples with samples from depths is analysed by performing physical characterisation (P-wave velocities, densities), conventional triaxial tests, and uniaxial compressive strength tests of both quarry and equivalent core samples. "Equivalent" means that the quarry sample is of the same stratigraphic age and of comparable sedimentary facies and composition as the correspondent core sample. We determined the parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 equivalent core samples from the North German Basin. A subgroup of these samples was used for triaxial tests. For UCS versus Young's modulus, density and P-wave velocity, linear- and non-linear regression analyses were performed. We repeated regression separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples only as well as for quarry samples or core samples only. Empirical relations were used to calculate UCS values from existing logs of sampled wellbore. Calculated UCS values were then compared with measured UCS of core samples of the same wellbore. With triaxial tests we determined linearized Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, expressed in both principal stresses and shear and normal stresses, for quarry samples. Comparison with samples from larger depths shows that it is possible to apply the obtained principal stress failure criteria to clastic and volcanic rocks, but less so for carbonates. Carbonate core samples have higher

  13. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-04-15

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) the relationship among feed pressure, penetration rate and rotation rate seems to be a good indicator for estimating rock strength when both penetration rate and rotation rate are controlled or kept constant, (4) the empirical equations for eliminating the machine effect on drilling parameters were developed and verified, and (5) a real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, performs very well in underground production condition.

  14. Permafrost Organic Matter Study in the Lower Kolyma Lowland (Eastern Siberia) Based on Drilling Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spawn, S.; Schade, J. D.; Natali, S.; Davydov, S.; Bulygina, E.; Khokhlova, G.

    2013-12-01

    In 2012-2013, a complex study of perennially frozen mineral soils of MIS 3-2 and MIS 1 as well as soils of modern active layer was conducted on the Kolyma River Lowland (North-East Russia) in the vicinity of town Chersky (N68°44' E161°23'). For this investigation, five boreholes, ranging from 13 to 22 m in depths, were drilled on different elevations on yedoma surface, thermokarst depression (alas), and modern floodplain of the Kolyma River. The study focuses on reconstruction of environmental conditions during and after the formation of Pleistocene Ice complex (yedoma). Special attention is drawn to extent of transformation of organic matter by TOC, %N, C/N, d13C, d15N, and enzyme analysis corresponding to changes of climate established by spore and pollen analysis and AMS 14C dates. For instance, the deepest silt layers (15 m) from the BH 12/1 drilled in yedoma near Chersky are characterized by a pollen complex peculiar to open landscapes with domination of gramineous and mixed herbs associations, formed in the conditions of severe climate. AMS 14 C dates attest that its formation took place ca. 42 kyr (MIS 3). Along the profile of the BH 12/1, %N varies between 0.1-0.11, %C is 0.5-1.59, C/N ratio is 10-19.8, d13C/12C is -26.4...-41.7, d15N/14N is 2.3-4.5. Acknowledgements. The work is supported by The Polaris Project of National Science Foundation USA and Integrational Progam #9 of the Siberian and Far East Branches of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  15. Hydrogeologic investigations based on drill-stem test data: Palo Duro Basin Area, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.S.; O'Donnell, T.P.; Picking, L.W.

    1985-02-01

    Drill-stem test (DST) data were compiled from wildcat wells and DOE-sponsored wells in the Palo Duro Basin area of Texas and New Mexico. The data were used to construct pressure-depth diagrams and to map regional potentiometric surfaces, based on equivalent freshwater heads calculated from initial shut-in pressures of the Wolfcamp and Pennsylvanian brine aquifers, the two regionally important deep-basin aquifers downgradient of the proposed repository host rock. Eighty percent of the 5502 DSTs were screened from the data base containing DST data from various deep-basin geologic units because they did not comply with shut-in time and shut-in pressure agreement criteria. After screening, three sets of pressure-depth diagrams and potentiometric surfaces were constructed, corresponding to three levels of data refinement. These results indicate the possible need for more data from an areally extended study area.

  16. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    at the upper right, the small mesa -- a flat-topped hill -- at the center of the image is a remnant of an overlying rock layer that was eroded away. The greenish clay areas at the base of the hill were exposed by erosion of the overlying rock. The images at the upper right and lower left both show that the reddish-toned olivine occurs as sand dunes on top of the greenish clay deposits. The image at the lower right shows details of the clay-rich rock, including that they are extensively fractured into small, polygonal blocks just a few meters in size. Taken together, the CRISM and HiRISE data show that the clay-rich rocks are the oldest at the site, that they are exposed where overlying rock has been eroded away, and that the olivine is not part of the clay-rich rock. Rather it occurs in sand dunes blowing across the clay.

    Many more images of Nili Fossae and other clay-rich areas will be taken over the next two years. They will be used to try to understand the earliest climate of Mars that is recorded in the planet's rocks.

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials o leading to new understanding of the climate.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Califonia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor and built the spacecraft.

  17. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature.

  18. An efficient strategy of managing irrigation water based on formulating highly absorbent polymer-inorganic clay composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Minagawa, Keiji; Tanaka, Masami; Mori, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe management of irrigation water presents a great challenge for the agriculture field. In view of increasing soil water-holding capacity and increasing water-use efficiency, an efficient strategy of managing irrigation water based on formulating highly absorbent polymer-inorganic clay composite (polyacrylic acid-layered double hydroxide; PAA-LDH) was offered. The PAA-LDH composite was synthesized by an incorporation/in situ polymerization technique. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the composite structure. The thermal gravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the polymer thermal stability after the composite formation. The irrigation experiments were conducted in a wooden soil box with a transparent plexiglas side by using a subsurface drip irrigation system. The X-ray patterns and infrared spectra confirmed the incorporation of acrylic acid monomer (AA) into the gallery of LDH. The SEM images emphasized the composite structure of PAA-LDH and indicated its ability to absorb and keep water. The stability of PAA was promoted against the thermal decomposition after the composite formation. The composite structure of PAA-LDH worked as water barrier and secondary water source during the irrigation process. The soil moisture distribution patterns were enhanced after the application of PAA-LDH composites as a soil conditioner.

  19. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. PMID:26252997

  20. Advances in core drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  1. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  2. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  3. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  4. Clay-filled bio-based blends of poly(lactic acid) and polyamide 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzzo, Anna; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the effect of small amounts of organoclay on the crystallinity and dynamic-mechanical properties of bio-based blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyamide 11 (PA11). Virgin and filled blends were prepared by melt-compounding the constituents using a twin-screw extruder. Wettability considerations suggest that the filler unevenly distribute inside the material. This affect both the crystallinity of each phase and the blend microstructure. Controlling such phenomena can lead to highly "engineerized" materials with tailored properties. In particular, the typically poor mechanical performances of bio-based polymers can be overcame owing to the synergism among reinforcing action of the filler, its possible compatibilizing action and its impact on the crystallinity of the hosting phase.

  5. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  6. Development of a risk-based environmental management tool for drilling discharges. Summary of a four-year project.

    PubMed

    Singsaas, Ivar; Rye, Henrik; Frost, Tone Karin; Smit, Mathijs G D; Garpestad, Eimund; Skare, Ingvild; Bakke, Knut; Veiga, Leticia Falcao; Buffagni, Melania; Follum, Odd-Arne; Johnsen, Ståle; Moltu, Ulf-Einar; Reed, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the ERMS project and presents the developed model by showing results from environmental fates and risk calculations of a discharge from offshore drilling operations. The developed model calculates environmental risks for the water column and sediments resulting from exposure to toxic stressors (e.g., chemicals) and nontoxic stressors (e.g., suspended particles, sediment burial). The approach is based on existing risk assessment techniques described in the European Union technical guidance document on risk assessment and species sensitivity distributions. The model calculates an environmental impact factor, which characterizes the overall potential impact on the marine environment in terms of potentially impacted water volume and sediment area. The ERMS project started in 2003 and was finalized in 2007. In total, 28 scientific reports and 9 scientific papers have been delivered from the ERMS project (http://www.sintef.no/erms).

  7. Development of a risk-based environmental management tool for drilling discharges. Summary of a four-year project.

    PubMed

    Singsaas, Ivar; Rye, Henrik; Frost, Tone Karin; Smit, Mathijs G D; Garpestad, Eimund; Skare, Ingvild; Bakke, Knut; Veiga, Leticia Falcao; Buffagni, Melania; Follum, Odd-Arne; Johnsen, Ståle; Moltu, Ulf-Einar; Reed, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the ERMS project and presents the developed model by showing results from environmental fates and risk calculations of a discharge from offshore drilling operations. The developed model calculates environmental risks for the water column and sediments resulting from exposure to toxic stressors (e.g., chemicals) and nontoxic stressors (e.g., suspended particles, sediment burial). The approach is based on existing risk assessment techniques described in the European Union technical guidance document on risk assessment and species sensitivity distributions. The model calculates an environmental impact factor, which characterizes the overall potential impact on the marine environment in terms of potentially impacted water volume and sediment area. The ERMS project started in 2003 and was finalized in 2007. In total, 28 scientific reports and 9 scientific papers have been delivered from the ERMS project (http://www.sintef.no/erms). PMID:18494116

  8. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  9. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  10. Membrane behavior of clay liner materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong Beom

    Membrane behavior represents the ability of porous media to restrict the migration of solutes, leading to the existence of chemico-osmosis, or the flow of liquid in response to a chemical concentration gradient. Membrane behavior is an important consideration with respect to clay soils with small pores and interactive electric diffuse double layers associated with individual particles, such as bentonite. The results of recent studies indicate the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based hydraulic barriers used in waste containment applications. Thus, measurement of the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior in such clay soils is becoming increasingly important. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior for three clay-based materials that typically are considered for use as liners for waste containment applications, such as landfills. The three clay-based liner materials included a commercially available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) consisting of sodium bentonite sandwiched between two geotextiles, a compacted natural clay known locally as Nelson Farm Clay, and compacted NFC amended with 5% (dry wt.) of a sodium bentonite. The study also included the development and evaluation of a new flexible-wall cell for clay membrane testing that was used subsequently to measure the membrane behaviors of the three clay liner materials. The consolidation behavior of the GCL under isotropic states of stress also was evaluated as a preliminary step in the determination of the membrane behavior of the GCL under different effective consolidation stresses.

  11. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  12. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  13. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  14. Synthesis of clay-based superabsorbent composite and its sorption capability.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Yasemin; Akçay, Gülten; Elma, Duygu; Serhatli, I Ersin

    2009-11-15

    A novel superabsorbent composite was synthesized by copolymerization reaction of partially neutralized acrylic acid (AA) on bentonite micropowder using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulfate as an initiator in aqueous solution. The superabsorbent composite (SAC) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water retention test of SAC was also performed. The water absorbency of SAC synthesized was found to be 352 and 110 g H(2)Og(-1) in distilled water and 0.2% NaCl, respectively. Sorption capacity of SAC was investigated for heavy metal ions (HMI) using Langmuir and Freundlich model of adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q(m)) of HMI onto the bentonite-based SAC from their solution was 1666.67, 270.27, 416.67 and 222.22 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively. All results suggested that SAC offers excellent potential for HMI removal from contaminated water. PMID:19683869

  15. Montmorillonite clay based polyurethane nanocomposite as substrate for retinal pigment epithelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Gisele Rodrigues; Da Silva-Cunha, Armando; Vieira, Lorena Carla; Silva, Lívia Mara; Ayres, Eliane; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Fialho, Silvia Ligório; Saliba, Juliana Barbosa; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2013-05-01

    The subretinal transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) grown on polymeric supports may have interest in retinal diseases affecting RPE cells. In this study, montmorillonite based polyurethane nanocomposite (PU-NC) was investigated as substrate for human RPE cell growth (ARPE-19 cells). The ARPE-19 cells were seeded on the PU-NC, and cell viability, proliferation and differentiation were investigated. The results indicated that ARPE-19 cells attached, proliferated onto the PU-NC, and expressed occludin. The in vivo ocular biocompatibility of the PU-NC was assessed by using the HET-CAM; and through its implantation under the retina. The direct application of the nanocomposite onto the CAM did not compromise the vascular tissue in the CAM surface, suggesting no ocular irritancy of the PU-NC film. The nanocomposite did not elicit any inflammatory response when implanted into the eye of rats. The PU-NC may have potential application as a substrate for RPE cell transplantation.

  16. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  17. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  18. An evaluated list of Cenozic-Recent radiolarian species names (Polycystinea), based on those used in the DSDP, ODP and IODP deep-sea drilling programs.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, David; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Caulet, Jean-Pierre; Nigrini, Catherine; Goll, Irina; Goll, Robert; Dolven, Jane K; Diver, Patrick; Sanfilippo, Annika

    2015-01-01

    A first reasonably comprehensive evaluated list of radiolarian names in current use is presented, covering Cenozoic fossil to Recent species of the primary fossilising subgroup Polycystinea. It is based on those species names that have appeared in the literature of the Deep Sea Drilling Project and its successor programs, the Ocean Drilling Program and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, plus additional information from the published literature, and several unpublished taxonomic database projects. 1192 names are recognised as valid, and several hundred additional names including synonyms and mispellings are given as well. A brief list of valid names is provided in the main paper, while the full list, with synonyms, author, year of publication, family assignment, geologic age interval and notes is provided as a SOM spreadsheet table. PMID:26623580

  19. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  20. Worldwide drilling: Drilling improves in eastern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This paper provides forecast drilling information for oil and gas producing countries excluding the US. It provides a forecast on the number of wells expected to be drilled and contrasts that to actual figures of wells drilled during 1995. Major countries have narratives to explain the causes of any significant changes, including geopolitical and economic issues.

  1. Sub-lethal effects of water-based drilling muds on the deep-water sponge Geodia barretti.

    PubMed

    Edge, Katelyn J; Johnston, Emma L; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities can result in the discharge of large amounts of drilling muds. While these materials have generally been regarded as non-toxic to marine organisms, recent studies have demonstrated negative impacts to suspension feeding organisms. We exposed the arctic-boreal sponge Geodia barretti to the primary particulate components of two water-based drilling muds; barite and bentonite. Sponges were exposed to barite, bentonite and a natural reference sediment at a range of total suspended solid concentrations (TSS = 0, 10, 50 or 100 mg/L) for 12 h after which we measured a suite of biomarker responses (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and glutathione). In addition, we compared biomarker responses, organic energy content and metal accumulation in sponges, which had been continuously or intermittently exposed to suspended barite and natural sediment for 14 d at relevant concentrations (10 and 30 mg TSS/L). Lysosomal membrane stability was reduced in the sponges exposed to barite at 50 and 100 mg TSS/L after just 12 h and at 30 mg TSS/L for both continuous and intermittent exposures over 14 d. Evidence of compromised cellular viability was accompanied by barite analysis revealing concentrations of Cu and Pb well above reference sediments and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines. Metal bioaccumulation in sponge tissues was low and the total organic energy content (determined by the elemental composition of organic tissue) was not affected. Intermittent exposures to barite resulted in less toxicity than continuous exposure to barite. Short term exposures to bentonite did not alter any biomarker responses. This is the first time that these biomarkers have been used to indicate contaminant exposure in an arctic-boreal sponge. Our results illustrate the potential toxicity of barite and the importance of assessments that reflect the ways in which these contaminants are delivered under environmentally realistic conditions.

  2. Sub-lethal effects of water-based drilling muds on the deep-water sponge Geodia barretti.

    PubMed

    Edge, Katelyn J; Johnston, Emma L; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities can result in the discharge of large amounts of drilling muds. While these materials have generally been regarded as non-toxic to marine organisms, recent studies have demonstrated negative impacts to suspension feeding organisms. We exposed the arctic-boreal sponge Geodia barretti to the primary particulate components of two water-based drilling muds; barite and bentonite. Sponges were exposed to barite, bentonite and a natural reference sediment at a range of total suspended solid concentrations (TSS = 0, 10, 50 or 100 mg/L) for 12 h after which we measured a suite of biomarker responses (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and glutathione). In addition, we compared biomarker responses, organic energy content and metal accumulation in sponges, which had been continuously or intermittently exposed to suspended barite and natural sediment for 14 d at relevant concentrations (10 and 30 mg TSS/L). Lysosomal membrane stability was reduced in the sponges exposed to barite at 50 and 100 mg TSS/L after just 12 h and at 30 mg TSS/L for both continuous and intermittent exposures over 14 d. Evidence of compromised cellular viability was accompanied by barite analysis revealing concentrations of Cu and Pb well above reference sediments and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines. Metal bioaccumulation in sponge tissues was low and the total organic energy content (determined by the elemental composition of organic tissue) was not affected. Intermittent exposures to barite resulted in less toxicity than continuous exposure to barite. Short term exposures to bentonite did not alter any biomarker responses. This is the first time that these biomarkers have been used to indicate contaminant exposure in an arctic-boreal sponge. Our results illustrate the potential toxicity of barite and the importance of assessments that reflect the ways in which these contaminants are delivered under environmentally realistic conditions. PMID

  3. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  4. Stochastic modeling of filtrate alkalinity in water filtration devices: Transport through micro/nano porous clay based ceramic materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clay and plant materials such as wood are the raw materials used in manufacture of ceramic water filtration devices around the world. A step by step manufacturing procedure which includes initial mixing, molding and sintering is used. The manufactured ceramic filters have numerous pores which help i...

  5. Sensitivity of the acid-base properties of clays to the methods of preparation and measurement. 2. Evidence from continuous potentiometric titrations.

    PubMed

    Duc, Myriam; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Thomas, Fabien

    2005-09-01

    The effects of experimental procedures on the acid-base consumption titration curves of montmorillonite suspension were studied using continuous potentiometric titration. For that purpose, the hysteresis amplitudes between the acid and base branches were found to be useful to systematically evaluate the impacts of storage conditions (wet or dried), the atmosphere in titration reactor, the solid-liquid ratio, the time interval between successive increments, and the ionic strength. In the case of storage conditions, the increase of the hysteresis was significantly higher for longer storage of clay in suspension and drying procedures compared to "fresh" clay suspension. The titration carried out under air demonstrated carbonate contamination that could only be cancelled by performing experiments under inert gas. Interestingly, the increase of the time intervals between successive increments of titrant strongly emphasized the amplitude of hysteresis, which could be correlated with the slow kinetic process specifically observed for acid addition in acid media. Thus, such kinetic behavior is probably associated with dissolution processes of clay particles. However, the resulting curves recorded at different ionic strengths under optimized conditions did not show the common intersection point required to define point of zero charge. Nevertheless, the ionic strength dependence of the point of zero net proton charge suggested that the point of zero charge of sodic montmorillonite could be estimated as lower than 5.

  6. Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this

  7. Proceedings of the 1991 SPE/IADC drilling conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1991 Drilling Conference. Included are the following papers: Performance auditing system for drilling units and platforms, Slimhole continuous coring and drilling the tertiary sediments, Hydrodynamics of the drilling in deep, thick, abnormal pressure reservoirs, Optimization of rock-bit life based on bearing failure criteria.

  8. Biodegradable pectin/clay aerogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Schiraldi, David A

    2013-03-13

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The addition of multivalent cations (Ca(2+) and Al(3+)) resulted in apparent cross-linking of the polymer and enhancement of aerogel properties. The compressive properties increased as the solid contents (both pectin and clay) increased; moduli in the range of 0.04-114 MPa were obtained for materials with bulk densities ranging from 0.03 g/cm(3) to 0.19 g/cm(3), accompanied by microstructural changes from a lamellar structure to a cellular structure. Biodegradability of the aerogels was investigated by detecting CO2 release for 4 weeks in compost media. The results revealed that pectin aerogels possess higher biodegradation rates than wheat starch, which is often used as a standard for effective biodegradation. The addition of clay and multivalent cations surprisingly increased the biodegradation rates. PMID:23406325

  9. Temperature Prediction Model for Bone Drilling Based on Density Distribution and In Vivo Experiments for Minimally Invasive Robotic Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Arne; Anso, Juan; Bell, Brett; Williamson, Tom; Gavaghan, Kate; Gerber, Nicolas; Rohrbach, Helene; Weber, Stefan; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Surgical robots have been proposed ex vivo to drill precise holes in the temporal bone for minimally invasive cochlear implantation. The main risk of the procedure is damage of the facial nerve due to mechanical interaction or due to temperature elevation during the drilling process. To evaluate the thermal risk of the drilling process, a simplified model is proposed which aims to enable an assessment of risk posed to the facial nerve for a given set of constant process parameters for different mastoid bone densities. The model uses the bone density distribution along the drilling trajectory in the mastoid bone to calculate a time dependent heat production function at the tip of the drill bit. Using a time dependent moving point source Green's function, the heat equation can be solved at a certain point in space so that the resulting temperatures can be calculated over time. The model was calibrated and initially verified with in vivo temperature data. The data was collected in minimally invasive robotic drilling of 12 holes in four different sheep. The sheep were anesthetized and the temperature elevations were measured with a thermocouple which was inserted in a previously drilled hole next to the planned drilling trajectory. Bone density distributions were extracted from pre-operative CT data by averaging Hounsfield values over the drill bit diameter. Post-operative [Formula: see text]CT data was used to verify the drilling accuracy of the trajectories. The comparison of measured and calculated temperatures shows a very good match for both heating and cooling phases. The average prediction error of the maximum temperature was less than 0.7 °C and the average root mean square error was approximately 0.5 °C. To analyze potential thermal damage, the model was used to calculate temperature profiles and cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C at a minimal distance to the facial nerve. For the selected drilling parameters, temperature elevation profiles and

  10. Temperature Prediction Model for Bone Drilling Based on Density Distribution and In Vivo Experiments for Minimally Invasive Robotic Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Arne; Anso, Juan; Bell, Brett; Williamson, Tom; Gavaghan, Kate; Gerber, Nicolas; Rohrbach, Helene; Weber, Stefan; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Surgical robots have been proposed ex vivo to drill precise holes in the temporal bone for minimally invasive cochlear implantation. The main risk of the procedure is damage of the facial nerve due to mechanical interaction or due to temperature elevation during the drilling process. To evaluate the thermal risk of the drilling process, a simplified model is proposed which aims to enable an assessment of risk posed to the facial nerve for a given set of constant process parameters for different mastoid bone densities. The model uses the bone density distribution along the drilling trajectory in the mastoid bone to calculate a time dependent heat production function at the tip of the drill bit. Using a time dependent moving point source Green's function, the heat equation can be solved at a certain point in space so that the resulting temperatures can be calculated over time. The model was calibrated and initially verified with in vivo temperature data. The data was collected in minimally invasive robotic drilling of 12 holes in four different sheep. The sheep were anesthetized and the temperature elevations were measured with a thermocouple which was inserted in a previously drilled hole next to the planned drilling trajectory. Bone density distributions were extracted from pre-operative CT data by averaging Hounsfield values over the drill bit diameter. Post-operative [Formula: see text]CT data was used to verify the drilling accuracy of the trajectories. The comparison of measured and calculated temperatures shows a very good match for both heating and cooling phases. The average prediction error of the maximum temperature was less than 0.7 °C and the average root mean square error was approximately 0.5 °C. To analyze potential thermal damage, the model was used to calculate temperature profiles and cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C at a minimal distance to the facial nerve. For the selected drilling parameters, temperature elevation profiles and

  11. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  12. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  13. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-01

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  14. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  15. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  16. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  17. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  18. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  19. Geothermal drilling research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1996-04-10

    Sandia conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy. The program currently consists of eight program areas: lost circulation technology; advanced synthetic-diamond drill bit technology, high-temperature logging technology; acoustic technology; slimhole drilling technology; drilling systems studies; Geothermal Drilling Organization projects; and geothermal heat pump technology. This paper provides justification and describes the projects underway in each program area.

  20. Montmorillonite-based porous clay heterostructures (PCHs) intercalated with silica-titania pillars—synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielarz, Lucjan; Gil, Barbara; Kuśtrowski, Piotr; Piwowarska, Zofia; Dudek, Barbara; Michalik, Marek

    2009-05-01

    Porous clay heterostructures (PCHs) were synthesized using natural montmorillonite as a raw material. Apart from pure silica pillars also silica-titania pillars were intercalated into the interlayer space of the parent clay. The detailed studies of the calcination process of the as-prepared PCH samples as well as thermal stability of the pillared structure of these materials were performed. The pillared structure of PCHs intercalated with both silica and silica-titania clusters was found to be thermally stable up to temperatures exceeding 600 °C. It was found that titanium incorporated into the silica pillars was present mainly in the form of separated tetracoordinated cations. For the samples with the higher Ti loading also small contribution of titanium in the form of the polymeric oxide species was detected. Titanium incorporated into the PCH materials significantly increased their surface acidity forming mainly Brønsted acid sites.

  1. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  2. An Adaptive Feedback and Review Paradigm for Computer-Based Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martin A.; Misselt, A. Lynn

    The Corrective Feedback Paradigm (CFP), which has been refined and expanded through use on the PLATO IV Computer-Based Education System, is based on instructional design strategies implied by stimulus-locus analyses, direct instruction, and instructional feedback methods. Features of the paradigm include adaptive feedback techniques with…

  3. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  5. Evaluation of saponite and saponite/sepiolite fluids for geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Panfil, D.J.; Carney, L.L. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    The rheology and other properties of drilling fluids containing saponite and a saponite-sepiolite mixture as the main vicosifier have been systematically evaluated in the temperature range of 300-600{degree}F under appropriate confining pressures up to 16,000 psi. Saponite represents the magnesium analog of the clay mineral montmorillonite, which is the main constituent in conventional bentonite-based fluids. The fluid with 6% saponite exhibits a prominent viscosity enhancement at temperatures above 250{degree}F. This viscosity enhancement is easily controlled by salts and hydroxides of Na and K. The addition of Na-polyacrylates (low- and high-molecular weight polymers) eliminates the viscosity anomaly of pure saponite fluids. These polymers also increase the filtration control of saponite. The anomalous viscosity enhancement of saponite is significantly reduced by the addition of sepiolite (a clay mineral with a fibrous morphology). 12 refs., 31 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Air-void embedded GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on laser drilling patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Xiong, Han; Su, Xilin; Yun, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Air-void structure was introduced in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LED) with one-step growth on periodic laser drilling patterned sapphire substrate, which free of any photolithography or wet/dry etching process. The influence of filling factors (FF) of air-void on crystal quality and optical performance were investigate. Transmission electron microscopy images and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the dislocation was bended and the partially compressed strain was released. When FF was 55.43%, compared with the LED structure grown on flat sapphire substrate, the incorporation of air-void was observed to reduce the compressed stress of ˜20% and the luminance intensity has improved by 128%. Together with the simulated reflection intensity enhancement by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we attribute the enhanced optical performance to the combined contribution of strong back-side light reflection of air-void and better GaN epitaxial quality. This approach provides a simple replacement to the conventional air-void embedded LED process.

  7. Research on Drill String Vibration based on the Cepstrum Analysis and Abstracting of SWD Bit Source Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Lan, X.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    From the vibration drilling information of the surface, we can not only provide the drill bit source signal for the SWD(Seismic While Drilling)data interpretation, estimate the condition under the well, but also get such information as the stratum character, the attrited status of the aiguille and the rotating status of the drill string. In SWD pilot data preprocessing, it is very important that effective signals are abstracted from bit. Also, noises are abstracted from rigs and machines on ground. Source signal from bit, because of the broad range of frequencies and short time duration, can be easily affected by noises from rigs and machines. In order to avoid the affection and recover the bit source signals, the source function associated with the surface record is the key approach for processing the SWD signals. Cepstrum analysis is a nonlinear filtering technology, can change the convoluted signals in time domain to added signals in frequency domain. This method can remove the structural reverberation to abstract the source signals by selecting a window function. We discussed the cepstral filtering and abstracted the transient source signals according to the data of drill string simulated experiment. Indoor simulation experiment verifies reliability of cepstrum analysis technology, stifles reverberation of pipe string, and obtains source signal and transfer function. On the basis of noise elimination, analyze vibration signals received by the top of drilling string using cepstrum, stifles long time cycle reverberation, highlights periodic characteristics of signals, which supplies convenience for analysis of drill bit feeble vibration and spreading characteristics. Correlate extracted drill bit source signal with ground records, which improves signal-to-noise ratio of SWD data processing. Although cepstrum can not recover exact source signals, preliminary estimates can still be given for transient source signal in accordance with amplitude and width of the

  8. Dispersant for water-based solids-containing fluids and a drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, H. III

    1986-04-08

    A dispersant is described for water-based, solids-containing fluids comprising a copolymer of a solufonated styrene monomer and a second monomer neutralized into having an amide substituent and being originally selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride, maleimide and dimethyl maleate, the copolymer having from 2 to 100 monomer units.

  9. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  10. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  11. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  12. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  14. Finicky clay divers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    1998-02-01

    Clay spheres dropped into a dilute vinegar/baking-soda solution accumulate CO2 bubbles on their surfaces. Spheres below a certain size will then float, otherwise they remain sunken. Students must determine the maximum size that will float by considering the net density of the clay/bubble system.

  15. The Science of Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students' natural curiosity provides a rich opportunity for teachers to make meaningful scientific connections between art and ceramics that will enhance the understanding of both natural forces and scientific aspects at work in the creation of clay artworks. This article discusses the scientific areas of study related to clay, which include…

  16. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  17. Clay Portrait Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  18. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  19. A novel band-pass filter based on a periodically drilled SIW structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coves, A.; Torregrosa-Penalva, G.; San-Blas, A. A.; Sánchez-Soriano, M. A.; Martellosio, A.; Bronchalo, E.; Bozzi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The design and fabrication of a band-pass step impedance filter based on high and low dielectric constant sections has been realized on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology. The overall process includes the design of the ideal band-pass prototype filter, where the implementation of the impedance inverters has been carried out by means of waveguide sections of lower permittivity. This can be practically achieved by implementing arrays of air holes along the waveguide. Several SIW structures with and without arrays of air holes have been simulated and fabricated in order to experimentally evaluate their relative permittivity. Additionally, the equivalent filter in SIW technology has been designed and optimized. Finally, a prototype of the designed filter has been fabricated and measured, showing a good agreement between measurements and simulations, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed design approach.

  20. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  1. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  2. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  3. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

    2007-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications.

  4. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

    2007-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications. PMID:17985664

  5. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  6. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  7. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  8. Clays as prebiotic photocatalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J.; Lahav, N.; Sutton, S.; Sweeney, M.

    1981-01-01

    Clay minerals catalyze peptide bond formation in fluctuating environments. A number of plausible mechanisms have been proposed and tested. The possibility that clays may actually be energizing the reaction by means of electronic excitation, creating mobile or trapped holes and electrons in the lattice, is explored. It has been discovered that clays emit light upon dehydration. The correlation between dehydration-induced, or thermoluminescent, processes and the yield of glycine oligomers after treatments known to affect the luminescent yields is being tested, in an effort to understand the catalytic mechanism

  9. Intercalated clay catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnavaia, T.J.

    1983-04-22

    Recent advances in the intercalation of metal complex cations in smectite clay minerals are leading to the development of new classes of selective heterogeneous catalysts. The selectivity of both metal-catalyzed and proton-catalyzed chemical conversions in clay intercalates can often be regulated by controlling surface chemical equilibria, interlamellar swelling, or reactant pair proximity in the interlayer regions. Also, the intercalation of polynuclear hydroxy metal cations and metal cluster cations in smectites affords new pillared clay catalysts with pore sizes that can be made larger than those of conventional zeolite catalysts.

  10. Intercalated Clay Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnavaia, Thomas J.

    1983-04-01

    Recent advances in the intercalation of metal complex cations in smectite clay minerals are leading to the development of new classes of selective heterogeneous catalysts. The selectivity of both metal-catalyzed and proton-catalyzed chemical conversions in clay intercalates can often be regulated by controlling surface chemical equilibria, interlamellar swelling, or reactant pair proximity in the interlayer regions. Also, the intercalation of polynuclear hydroxy metal cations and metal cluster cations in smectites affords new pillared clay catalysts with pore sizes that can be made larger than those of conventional zeolite catalysts.

  11. Archean spherule classification of CT3 drill core, Barberton Greenstone Belt (South Africa) based on petrography and mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Seda; Koeberl, Christian; Mohr-Westheide, Tanja; Reimold, W. Uwe; Hofmann, Axel

    2016-04-01

    The impact history of the Early Archean Earth is not well documented. The oldest known impact structure is about 2 Ga years old; impact-related signatures in Precambrian rocks are scarce. The possible impact signature might be the Archean spherule layers that occur in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, and in the Pilbara Craton Western Australia, with ages of 3.2-3.4 and around 2.5 Ga [1]. These spherules were interpreted as impact-generated and ballistically emplaced silicate melt droplets [2]. This study is focused on petrographic and mineralogical characteristics from a set of newly drilled Archean spherule layers in drill core CT3 from the northeastern part of the BGB. The investigation of the three main intervals (A, B, and C, which include 2, 13, and 2 individual spherule layers, respectively) within CT3, contains the classification of spherules based on their shapes, textural features, deformation types, and mineral content. All of the intervals show spherule variation in those features. Therefore, the classification helps to understand if the spherules underwent processes such as tectonic deformation or if multiple impact events occurred in the area, which both might a reason of spherule layer duplications. The aim of the work is to differentiate various spherule types and the groundmasses in which they are embedded. The spherules within 17 identified spherule layers have been examined by optical microscopy (polarized and reflected) and secondary electron microscopy and were classified by shape and textural features. Subsequently, mineral phases and the chemical composition of the spherules and their matrices were investigated by using electron microprobe analysis. Regarding the shapes of the spherules they were divided into two main groups: undeformed and deformed. Undeformed spherules have spherical to ovoid as well as tear-drop shapes; deformed spherules were further subdivided into three main groups; flattened, crushed

  12. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.

    2016-08-01

    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  13. Environmental rock-magnetism of Cenozoic red clay in the South Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimono, Takaya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    2016-04-01

    Nonfossiliferous red clay can be used for elucidating long-range environmental changes, although such studies were limited so far because of the difficulty in precise age estimation and extremely low sedimentation rates. We conducted an environmental rock-magnetic study of Cenozoic red clay at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1365 in the South Pacific Gyre. Magnetostratigraphy could be established only above ˜6 m below the seafloor (mbsf) (˜5 Ma). Below ˜6 mbsf, the ages of the cores were transferred from the published ages of nearby Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 596, which is based mainly on a constant Cobalt flux model, by intercore correlation using magnetic susceptibility and rare earth element content variation patterns. Rock-magnetic analyses including first-order reversal curve diagrams, the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and IRM component analyses revealed that magnetic minerals consist mainly of biogenic magnetite and terrigenous maghemite, and that the proportion of the terrigenous component increased since ˜23 Ma. We consider that the increase reflects a growth of eolian dust flux associated with a northward shift of Australia and the site to an arid region of the middle latitudes. The increase of the terrigenous component accelerated after ˜5 Ma, which may be associated with a further growth of the Antarctic glaciation at that time. This is coeval with the onset of the preservation of magnetostratigraphy, suggesting that the primary remanent magnetization is carried by the terrigenous component.

  14. Chew Bahir: A Key Site within the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, towards a Half Million-Year Climate Record from Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaebitz, F.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Trauth, M. H.; Foerster, V. E.; Junginger, A.; Raub, T. D.; Gromig, R.; Viehberg, F. A.; Roberts, H. M.; Cohen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Chew Bahir, a saline mudflat today, is one of the five sites in East Africa, drilled within the framework of HSPDP (Hominin Site and Paleolakes Drilling Project). It is also one of the key sites of the Collaborative Research Centre (CRC-806) "Our way to Europe" aiming at the reconstruction of environmental conditions in the source region of modern man (H. sapiens). It is suggested that a changing environment could have triggered the mobility and dispersal of modern man. The oldest known fossils of anatomical modern humans (~195 ka BP) were found in the Omo basin, not more than 90km westwards of our drill site. The deposits in the tectonic basin of Chew Bahir in southern Ethiopia were cored in Nov. 2014 in two boreholes down to 280 m and 260 m below surface respectively. The overlapping long cores (drilled ~20 m apart from each other), were opened, scanned, described and sampled in low resolution in April 2015. The recovered sediments mostly contain green-greyish to light coloured and brown to reddish clays and silty clays, interbedded with some laminated mica-rich sand layers and occurrences of carbonate concretions and nodules, which decrease upcore. Here we will present a first set of results on the composite core, comprising mainly lithology and magnetic susceptibility (MS). Based on known sedimentation rates from pre-studies performed on short cores across the basin, we anticipate the deep drilled cores to cover at least 500 ka BP. Moreover, new insights into the role of post-depositional alteration, especially of clay minerals and zeolites, will be presented as a contribution to an improved understanding of formation processes. The results support the identification of wet and dry climate periods in the past. Those pronounced variations of moisture availability, are thought to have influenced the evolution and mobility of Homo sapiens sapiens.

  15. Introduction to drilling research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to research projects in the area of drilling technology. A technical panel, composed of representatives of geothermal operators, drilling contractors, and service companies, met in Albuquerque, and heard presentations on various drilling related projects which are ongoing or planned. These projects are fairly small scale, partially funded by DOE, administered through Sandia National Laboratory, and generally cooperative in nature between industry and the laboratory. The author briefly discusses the seven highest rated projects, both by the researchers and the conferees. They are: hard rock bits, slimhole drilling, memory logging tools, lost circulation, the Geothermal Drilling Organization, the Long Valley Exploratory Well, and acoustic telemetry.

  16. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  17. Designing in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1977-01-01

    What can be done to transform a lump of wet clay into something more than a lump of glaze-fired clay? It is at this point when forming techniques have been mastered that good design becomes most important. Discusses six criteria involved in the search for good design so that students can discover what good design is and how important it is.…

  18. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  19. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  20. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, O.

    2013-12-01

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features.

  1. Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )

    1989-07-31

    Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.

  2. Optimizing the preventive maintenance scheduling by genetic algorithm based on cost and reliability in National Iranian Drilling Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanmard, Habibollah; Koraeizadeh, Abd al-Wahhab

    2016-06-01

    The present research aims at predicting the required activities for preventive maintenance in terms of equipment optimal cost and reliability. The research sample includes all offshore drilling equipment of FATH 59 Derrick Site affiliated with National Iranian Drilling Company. Regarding the method, the research uses a field methodology and in terms of its objectives, it is classified as an applied research. Some of the data are extracted from the documents available in the equipment and maintenance department of FATH 59 Derrick site, and other needed data are resulted from experts' estimates through genetic algorithm method. The research result is provided as the prediction of downtimes, costs, and reliability in a predetermined time interval. The findings of the method are applicable for all manufacturing and non-manufacturing equipment.

  3. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  4. Ductile damage Cam-Clay plasticity and fracture modeling of shale based on nano-characterization experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2015-12-01

    A finite strain ductile damage formulation of Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) plasticity has been developed in order to model the observed elastoplastic behavior of shale at nano- to micro-scales. Nano-indentation combined with both 2D and 3D imaging was performed on a sample of Woodford shale. Significant plastic deformation was observed in the nano-indentation testing, and nano-scale resolution FIB-SEM imaging of the post-indented regions has revealed that the plastic deformation is accompanied by extensive micro-fracture of the shale's highly heterogeneous micro-structure. A spatial tensor that is similar to Eshelby's energy momentum tensor is shown to be energy conjugate to the plastic velocity gradient under large inelastic volume strain. These results are cast in MCC framework drawing on the concept of continuum damage. The resulting formulation provides a connection between density (porosity), elastic (and plastic) moduli, and micro damage/healing. Nonlinear finite element modeling is used for implementation of the constitutive model in simulation of both laboratory-scale and nano- to micro-scale experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the inception and propagation of micro-fractures around inhomogeneities, as well as capture the resulting behavior observed at the much larger laboratory scale.

  5. A review of exposure conditions and possible health effects associated with aerosol and vapour from low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Eide, I

    1990-04-01

    This paper reviews investigations on possible health effects after inhalation of aerosol and vapour from the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids which have replaced the diesel-based fluids. The main advantage of the low-aromatic base oils with respect to health hazard is their lower volatility. However, some aliphatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons are distributed more efficiently to the brain than are the corresponding aromatic ones. Reducing the content of aromatic hydrocarbons becomes particularly important when the upper end of the boiling point range is sufficiently high for the base oil to contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). As a result of enclosure and local extract ventilation it has been possible to reduce time-weighted average concentrations of aerosol and vapour to below 100 mg m-3. Effects on the central nervous system have only been observed at higher concentrations of the actual hydrocarbons, and male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy is not considered predictive of a normal human response. Insufficient information is available on possible long-term effects of exposure to the low-aromatic oil-based drilling fluids, especially regarding carcinogenicity and changes in the lungs. PMID:2205144

  6. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  7. OIL WELL REMEDIATION IN CLAY AND WAYNE COUNTIES, IL

    SciTech Connect

    Peter L. Dakuras; Larry Stieber; Dick Young

    2003-02-01

    This is the first technical progress report of the remediation of two wells and a water injection well in Clay County, Illinois. The location is identified as the Routt lease and the wells will be identified as the Routt No.3 and Routt No.4 respectively throughout this report. The Clay County portion of this project has met all legal, financial, and environmental requirements to drill and /or pump oil at this lease. We have also obtained all available information about this site and have taken the necessary steps to improve access roads, dig the necessary pits and build the necessary firewalls. Both wells have been drilled to the Salem formation. Gas gun technology was used to stimulate the reservoir of the Routt No.3. This report will address the technical aspects of the remediation.

  8. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  9. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  10. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  11. Remote drill bit loader

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  12. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  13. A flexible method for residual stress measurement of spray coated layers by laser made hole drilling and SLM based beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, W.; Pedrini, G.; Weidmann, P.; Gadow, R.

    2015-08-01

    A minimum invasive but high resolution method for residual stress analysis of ceramic coatings made by thermal spraycoating using a pulsed laser for flexible hole drilling is described. The residual stresses are retrieved by applying the measured surface data for a model-based reconstruction procedure. While the 3D deformations and the profile of the machined area are measured with digital holography, the residual stresses are calculated by FE analysis. To improve the sensitivity of the method, a SLM is applied to control the distribution and the shape of the holes. The paper presents the complete measurement and reconstruction procedure and discusses the advantages and challenges of the new technology.

  14. Bacterial diversity in a deep-subsurface clay environment.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin-Jahns, V; Ruimy, R; Bianchi, A; Daumas, S; Christen, R

    1996-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in a deep clay sediment was analyzed in a 20-m-long core horizontally drilled from a mine gallery at a depth of 224 m in the Boom clay formation (Mol, Belgium). This clay deposit is the result of a marine sedimentary process that occurred 35 million years ago. Bacterial activities were estimated by measuring respiration on [14C]glucose. Using the same samples, universal primers for the genes coding for eubacterial 16S rRNA were used to amplify extracted DNA. PCR products were then cloned, sequenced, and analyzed by molecular phylogeny. Our data showed a decrease in bacterial densities as a function of distance from the gallery, with few bacteria detectable by culture at more than 80 cm from the gallery wall. PCR experiments showed the presence of bacteria in all samples, and phylogenetic analyses were then used to tentatively identify these organisms. Because of low bacterial densities in deep clay samples, direct counts and enumeration of viable bacteria on diverse culture media remained negative. All experiments, both cultures and PCR, demonstrated the difficulty of analyzing samples that contain only a few poorly active bacteria as it is difficult to avoid a small contamination by active bacteria during sampling. Since the porosity of the Boom clay formation is less than the expected size of bacteria, it is possible that some of the bacteria present in this 35-million-year-old deep clay deposit derive from cells initially trapped during the sedimentation process. PMID:8795233

  15. Technologies for measurement while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

  16. Drilling technology -- 1994. PD-Volume 56

    SciTech Connect

    Vizniak, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    The drilling technology division of the ASME focuses on various aspects of drilling technology under research and development that is advanced in nature and may not yet have reached the commercial stage. Tools or processes that have reached commercialization are still in a proving stage but have shown promising results to date which can expand the state of the art in the oil and gas industry. The 1994 Conference consists of papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from drilling bits to slim-hole and coiled tubing drilling. Advanced topics such as laser water jet drilling, rock melting drilling, and automatic closed-loop steering for directional drilling will be presented. A new session on Environmental Drilling will be held for the first time this year. The authors belong to academia as well as industry and come from the US, France, Brazil, and China. The papers will provide a forum for discussion of a good mix of both fundamental and applied research. Thirty papers from this conference have been prepared for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Ocean drilling program sets FY 92 schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, James A., ames A. Austin, Jr.

    At its November 28-December 1, 1990, meeting in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, the Planning Committee (PCOM) of the Ocean Drilling Program, in association with chairpersons of ODP's scientific advisory structure, has established its Program Plan for Fiscal Year 1992 (approximately mid-November 1991 through mid-January 1993). ODP is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project and the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, and is a consortium of countries led by the United States with a broad mandate to conduct scientific ocean drilling in the world's ocean basins. Based upon ODP's Long Range Plan (available from Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Washington, D.C.) and the scientific priorities set by ODP's thematic panels, PCOM has placed seven 56-day drilling legs on the proposed schedule, beginning with Leg 141.The new schedule is generally consistent with long-term ODP planning, which has stipulated that drilling operations will be concentrated in the eastern Pacific until late 1992, when the drill ship JOIDES Resolution will transit to the North Atlantic for operations there during calendar 1993. Each program in FY 1992 is briefly summarized below (see also Figure 1), both to alert the Earth sciences community to future opportunities for direct participation aboard the drill ship and to publicize a new ODP policy for “supplemental science” (see accompanying sidebar), which will be initiated for the period covered by legs 141-147.

  18. Clay Formation and Fabric Development in the DFDP-1 Borehole, Central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, A.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Toy, V.; van der Pluijm, B.

    2015-12-01

    Samples retrieved by shallow drilling into two principal slip zones of the central Alpine Fault, New Zealand, offer an excellent opportunity to investigate clay formation, fabric development and fluid-rock interaction in an active fault zone. Here, we provide lithological and structural observations of five samples from borehole DFDP-1B, drilled during Phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) in 2011. Each sample's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the preferred orientation of the clays was analyzed by x-ray texture goniometry (XTG). The dominant clay mineral phases are illite and chlorite/kaolinite. Newly formed smectitic clays are observed solely in the cm-thick zones of fault gouge, indicating that these mineral reactions are restricted to the fault zone. We observe that smectite forms by transformation of very fine-grained material produced by cataclasis during slip. Clay fabric intensity of both illite and chlorite reveal that relatively strong fabrics are present in the cataclasites above the principal slip zone, but that the clay minerals in the gouge have a very weak preferred orientation. The weak fabric supports the notion that clay orientation is a result of authigenic mineral growth and not of strain-induced particle reorientation. It also indicates that fluids are able to pass through the gouge, presumably along variably spaced and interconnected fracture networks or between particle boundaries. Our analysis of samples retrieved by DFDP-1 drilling and sampling demonstrates intimate association of localized shear, comminution, and rapid fluid-rock interaction. It thus contributes to a growing body of evidence that alteration processes, particularly formation of frictionally weak smectitic clay minerals, may be a significant weakening mechanism within active shallow faults.

  19. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  20. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  1. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  2. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  3. Rattles of Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Using the rattles of Native American cultures as inspiration, students used pinching, coiling, and slab and molding techniques to form the bodies of rattles and clay pellets for sound. Surface decoration included glazed and unglazed areas as well as added handles, feathers, and leather. (IS)

  4. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  5. Modeling in Ceramic Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louis J.

    1976-01-01

    Modeling is an additive process of building up a sculpture with some plastic material like clay. It affords the student an opportunity to work in three dimensions, a creative relief from the general two-dimensional drawing and design activities that occupy a large segment of time in the art curriculum. (Author/RK)

  6. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  7. Magnificent Clay Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2007-01-01

    Each August, third grade artists at Apple Glen Elementary in Bentonville, Arkansas, start the school year planning, creating, and exhibiting a clay relief mural. These mural projects have helped students to acquire not only art knowledge and techniques, but an even more important kind of knowledge: what it means to plan and successfully complete a…

  8. Geothermal Drilling in Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B. D.; Garcia, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    To date, 71 geothermal wells have been drilled in Cerro Prieto. The activity has been divided into several stages, and, in each stage, attempts have been made to correct deficiencies that were gradually detected. Some of these problems have been solved; others, such as those pertaining to well casing, cement, and cementing jobs, have persisted. The procedures for well completion--the most important aspect for the success of a well--that were based on conventional oil well criteria have been improved to meet the conditions of the geothermal reservoir. Several technical aspects that have improved should be further optimized, even though the resolutions are considered to be reasonably satisfactory. Particular attention has been given to the development of a high-temperature drilling fluid capable of being used in drilling through lost circulation zones. Conventional oil well drilling techniques have been used except where hole-sloughing is a problem. Sulfonate lignitic mud systems have been used with good results. When temperatures exceed 300 C (572 F), it has been necessary to use an organic polymer to stabilize the mud properties.

  9. Innovative hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based techniques applied to end-of-life concrete drill core characterization for optimal dismantling and materials recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of EOL concrete disposal in landfills, together with a lower exploitation of primary raw materials, generates a strong interest to develop, set-up and apply innovative technologies to maximize Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) conversion into useful secondary raw materials. Such a goal can be reached starting from a punctual in-situ efficient characterization of the objects to dismantle in order to develop demolition actions aimed to set up innovative mechanical-physical processes to recover the different materials and products to recycle. In this paper an innovative recycling-oriented characterization strategy based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is described in order to identify aggregates and mortar in drill core samples from end-of-life concrete. To reach this goal, concrete drill cores from a demolition site were systematically investigated by HSI in the short wave infrared field (1000-2500 nm). Results obtained by the adoption of the HSI approach showed as this technology can be successfully applied to analyze quality and characteristics of C&DW before dismantling and as final product to reutilise after demolition-milling-classification actions. The proposed technique and the related recognition logics, through the spectral signature detection of finite physical domains (i.e. concrete slice and/or particle) of different nature and composition, allows; i) to develop characterization procedures able to quantitatively assess end-of-life concrete compositional/textural characteristics and ii) to set up innovative sorting strategies to qualify the different materials constituting drill core samples.

  10. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  11. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  12. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  13. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  14. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  15. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  16. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  17. Preliminary Results of the Permafrost Carbon Study in the Lower Kolyma Lowland (Eastern Siberia) Based on Drilling Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V. V.; Kholodov, A. L.; Bulygina, E. B.; Andreeva, V.; Broderick, D.; Spawn, S.; Natali, S.; Davydova, A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2012, the Polaris Project (thepolarisproject.org, Director R.M. Holmes) has conducted the permafrost drilling on the Kolyma Lowland for a complex study of permafrost carbon as a potential source for microbial decomposition. In July 2012, the first two boreholes, 15.1 and 13.4 m in depth, were drilled. The first borehole (BH 12/1) was drilled in the stratum of ice complex (yedoma) on the local watershed near the Schuch'e lake in the vicinity of the town Chersky (N68°44.7' E161°23'). The depth of active layer is 45 cm. The permafrost to the depth of 15.1 m represents grey and brown silts with predominant homogeneous structure. Silts contain numerous thread-like roots, scarce plant macrofossils, and in places are colored with unclear spots of ferrugination. Cryostructure is mainly pore ice or thin lense-like ice layers. Wedge ice is observed in the interval 12.5-12.9 m. The moisture volumetric percentage of silts varies along the stratum, mainly, between 40-50%. The organic content, defined in every 20 cm of the core as a loss on ignition, varies between 2-4%. The second borehole (BH 12/2), located in the Pleistocene Park (N68°30.8' E161°30') was drilled through modern floodplain sediments (0-0.6 m) of the Kolyma River with polygonal network at the surface, underlain by peat (0.6-1.3 m), silt deposits of thermokarst lake (1.3-12.0 m), and river grey sands (12.0-13.4 m). The active layer thickness is 65 cm. The cryostructure is predominantly lattice-like. Silts contain modern wedge ice at the depth of 2.5-2.7 m. Mollusk shells and large amount of plant macrofossils are observed in the interval 5.7-8.0 m. The organic content in the thermokarst deposits varies in average within 2-3 %, but is about 1% in the underlying river sands. To investigate permafrost carbon, samples for microbial and enzyme activities, as well as samples of trapped gases were collected from different horizons of frozen cores. Samples for palynological, diatom, and lithological analyses, as

  18. The effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kaam-Peters, Heidy M. E.; Köster, Jürgen; van der Gaast, Sjierk J.; Dekker, Marlèn; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    1998-09-01

    To examine the effect of clay minerals on diasterane/sterane ratios, the mineral compositions of three sample sets of sedimentary rocks displaying a wide range of diasterane/sterane ratios were analysed quantitatively. Diasterane/sterane ratios do not to correlate with clay content but depend on the amount of clay relative to the amount of organic matter (clay/TOC ratios). This correlation may explain the high diasterane/sterane ratios in crude oils and extracts derived from certain carbonate source rocks. Based on the concentrations of regular and rearranged steroids in the sample sets, it is proposed that diasterenes are partly reduced to diasteranes and partly degraded during diagenesis in a ratio largely determined by the availability of clay minerals. It is suggested that the hydrogen atoms required for reduction of the diasterenes originate from the water in the interlayers of clay minerals.

  19. Clay facial masks: physicochemical stability at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zague, Vivian; de Almeida Silva, Diego; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2007-01-01

    Clay facial masks--formulations that contain a high percentage of solids dispersed in a liquid vehicle--have become of special interest due to specific properties presented by clays, such as particle size, cooling index, high adsorption capacity, and plasticity. Although most of the physicochemical properties of clay dispersions have been studied, specific aspects concerning the physicochemical stability of clay mask products remain unclear. This work aimed at investigating the accelerated physicochemical stability of clay mask formulations stored at different temperatures. Formulations were subjected to centrifuge testing and to thermal treatment for 15 days, during which temperature was varied from -5.0 degrees to 45.0 degrees C. The apparent viscosity and visual aspect (homogeneity) of all formulations were affected by temperature variation, whereas color, odor, and pH value remained unaltered. These results, besides the estimation of physicochemical stability under aging, can be useful in determining the best storage conditions for clay-based formulations.

  20. The rock melting approach to drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

    1993-09-01

    During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

  1. Age depth model construction of the upper section of ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project based on the high-resolution 14C dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, H.; Nakamura, T.; Neugebauer, I.; Schwab, M. J.; Brauer, A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    To reconstruct environmental, climatic and tectonic histories of the Levant, a deep drilling has been accomplished in the northern basin of the Dead Sea during the fall winter of 2010-2011 by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) in the framework of the ICDP program. The sediment cores from site 5017-1 (water depth of ~300 m) recorded the paleoenvironmental and paleohydrological changes in the Dead Sea and the Levant during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles (Neugebauer et al., QSR in press). To provide precise timing of sedimentological - limnological events in the lake and its watershed, and more critically the relative timing of these events, radiocarbon dating of >70 well-preserved terrestrial plants and some carbonate deposits from the upper 150 m long section of the sediment core were performed. Based on the high-resolution radiocarbon dating, a statistical age-depth model was constructed with assumptions on the deposition condition and the radiocarbon age offset of carbonate samples. We discuss the practicality and the limitation of the age-depth model toward interpreting the high-resolution records of environmental, climatic and tectonic events recorded in the long sediment cores from site 5017-1.

  2. Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Libo; Wei, Qiaoqiao; Zhao, Yuyan; Lu, Jilong; Zhao, Xinyun

    2015-04-01

    Determination of types and amounts for clay minerals in soil are important in environmental, agricultural, and geological investigations. Many reliable methods have been established to identify clay mineral types. However, no reliable method for quantitative analysis of clay minerals has been established so far. In this study, an attempt was made to propose an optimization method for the quantitative determination of clay minerals in soil based on bulk chemical composition data. The fundamental principles and processes of the calculation are elucidated. Some samples were used for reliability verification of the method and the results prove the simplicity and efficacy of the approach.

  3. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  4. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  5. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  6. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  7. HYDROTHERMAL MINERALOGY OF RESEARCH DRILL HOLE Y-3, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.; Beeson, Melvin H.

    1984-01-01

    The approximate paragenetic sequence of hydrothermal minerals in the Y-3 U. S. Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is: hydrothermal chalcedony, hematite, pyrite, quartz, clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite), calcite, chlorite, fluorite, pyrite, quartz, zeolite minerals (analcime, dachiardite, laumontite, stilbite, and yugawaralite), and clay minerals (smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite). A few hydrothermal minerals that were identified in drill core Y-3 (lepidolite, aegirine, pectolite, and truscottite) are rarely found in modern geothermal areas. The alteration minerals occur primarily as vug and fracture fillings that were deposited from cooling thermal water. Refs.

  8. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  9. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  10. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  11. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  12. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  13. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  14. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  15. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  16. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  17. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

    1994-05-03

    A method is described for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalates or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalate or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalates or templates may be introduced. The intercalates or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays. 22 figures.

  18. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    A method is given for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and LiF for 2 days with an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by US patent No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, June 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have water-solubility, positive charge, and thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  19. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  20. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  1. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  2. A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

  3. In situ interaction between different concretes and Opalinus Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenni, A.; Mäder, U.; Lerouge, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Schwyn, B.

    Interactions between cementitious materials and claystone are driven by chemical gradients in pore water and might lead to mineralogical modifications in both materials. In the context of a radioactive waste repository, this alteration might influence safety-relevant clay properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention. In this study, interfaces of Opalinus Clay, a potential host-rock in Switzerland, and three concrete formulations emplaced in the Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) were analysed after 2.2 years of interaction. Sampling techniques with interface stabilisation followed by inclined intersection drilling were developed. Element distribution maps of the concrete-clay interfaces show complex zonations like sulphur enrichment, zones depleted in Ca but enriched in Mg, strong Mg enrichment adjacent to the interface, or carbonation. Consistently, the carbonated zone shows a reduced porosity. Properties of the complex zonation strongly depend on cement properties like water content and pH (ordinary Portland cement vs. low-pH cement). An increased Ca or Mg content in the first 100 μm next to the interface is observed in Opalinus Clay. The cation occupancy of clay exchanger phases next to the ordinary Portland cement interface is depleted in Mg, but enriched in Na, whereas porosity shows no changes at all. The current data suggests migration of CO2/HCO3-, SO42-, and Mg species from clay into cement. pH decrease in the cement next to the interface leads to instability of ettringite, and the sulphate liberated diffuses towards higher pH regions (away from the interface), where additional ettringite can form.

  4. Dual-wavelength moisture meter for clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgia, Michele; Pesatori, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    An optical sensor for measuring the moisture level of clay has been realized by a couple of telecommunications lasers at 1300 and 1550 nm. The sensor can operate directly during building material production. The measurement principle is based on the measurement of the optical reflection at different wavelengths in the infrared region. Custom low-noise electronics allows rejecting disturbances of ambient light, and a digital processing makes the system independent on the clay distance. By means of a proper calibration, the sensor can monitor the moisture level during brick production, without moving parts or optical filters.

  5. Numerical Modelling of Embankment on Soft Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nujid, M. M.; Taha, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to predict deformation of embankment on soft clay of Muar. The prediction performance focusing on displacement at critical fill height of 5.5 m. The study was based on reported result in 1992. With the aid of computer intelligence, the advanced constitutive soil models could be adopted to analyze the soft clay behavior. The COMSOL Multiphysics (v4.4) has been used to simulate the problem with coupled physics available in the software. The vertical displacements are in good agreement close to published result.

  6. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  7. Innovations aid frontier offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, C.

    1986-04-14

    In the past 3 years, new water-depth records have been established for the drilling of exploration wells and for the installation of subsea completion systems. In addition, development of equipment for drilling and completing wells in harsh environments has been accelerating. Three significant systems, manufactured and installed during this time, have enabled the industry to expand its capabilities and extend its frontiers. The three developments, with the points that will be discussed, are: A riser system used in world-record water depth off the U.S. East Coast (major system components, computer analysis of flanged riser coupling, and modifications based on field input); A caisson drilling system installed off the East Coast of Canada designed for iceberg scouring conditions (design philosophy, unique design); Further riser system developments for deep-water and severe environmental conditions (design of riser tensioning ring that eliminates goosenecks and does not require removal of drape hoses when running/retrieving riser). Primary among the conclusions drawn from these and other developments is the solid technological base being developed for use in further extending industry hardware capabilities.

  8. Characterization of clay from northern of Morocco for their industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Fagel, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Clays are a natural resource used for millennia. Currently applications such as industrial minerals are diversified. In this context, our goal is to estimate the potential of the many clay deposits in northern of Morocco. The choice of this region is justified by the particular abundance of clay deposits used to manufacture building materials (brick, ceramic and refractories) and pottery. This study focuses on the mineralogical, chemical and geotechnical characterization tests carried out on Tangier-Tetouan and Meknes clays from northern of Morocco. The suitability of raw clay material from those regions in order to produce ceramic and brick has not been tested yet. The results revealed that the studied samples are diversified, kaolinite and illite (Tetouan clay) and kaolinite and illite and smectite and vermiculite (Tangier and Meknes clay) based materials. There were no major differences in grain-size distribution, whereas Meknes clay was more plastic than Tetouan-Tangier clay. The cation exchange capacity show that Meknes and Tangier clay were more important than Tetouan clay. Specific surface area and thermal analaysis complete this caracterization. It was found that almost all technological properties of the Meknes clay deposit are led to the manufacture of ceramic floor tile, and Tetouan-Tangier clay provide opportunities to making brick and ceramic floor. The Tetouan-Tangier and Meknes clay are a potential ceramic raw material for growing Morrocan ceramic tile and brick industries.

  9. Impacts on seafloor geology of drilling disturbance in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Iran C S; Toldo, Elírio E; Toledo, Felipe A L

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the effects of drilling disturbance on the seafloor of the upper continental slope of the Campos Basin, Brazil, as a result of the project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration--MAPEM. Field sampling was carried out surrounding wells, operated by the company PETROBRAS, to compare sediment properties of the seafloor, including grain-size distribution, total organic carbon, and clay mineral composition, prior to drilling with samples obtained 3 and 22 months after drilling. The sampling grid used had 74 stations, 68 of which were located along 7 radials from the well up to a distance of 500 m. The other 6 stations were used as reference, and were located 2,500 m from the well. The results show no significant sedimentological variation in the area affected by drilling activity. The observed sedimentological changes include a fining of grain size, increase in total organic carbon, an increase in gibbsite, illite, and smectite, and a decrease in kaolinite after drilling took place.

  10. Impacts on seafloor geology of drilling disturbance in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Iran C S; Toldo, Elírio E; Toledo, Felipe A L

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the effects of drilling disturbance on the seafloor of the upper continental slope of the Campos Basin, Brazil, as a result of the project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration--MAPEM. Field sampling was carried out surrounding wells, operated by the company PETROBRAS, to compare sediment properties of the seafloor, including grain-size distribution, total organic carbon, and clay mineral composition, prior to drilling with samples obtained 3 and 22 months after drilling. The sampling grid used had 74 stations, 68 of which were located along 7 radials from the well up to a distance of 500 m. The other 6 stations were used as reference, and were located 2,500 m from the well. The results show no significant sedimentological variation in the area affected by drilling activity. The observed sedimentological changes include a fining of grain size, increase in total organic carbon, an increase in gibbsite, illite, and smectite, and a decrease in kaolinite after drilling took place. PMID:20532617

  11. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  12. Layer Charge of Clay Minerals; Selected papers from the Symposium on Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Special issue contains papers based on the contributions presented during the workshop “Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals”, held on September 18 and 19, 2004, in the Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. Layer charge is one of the most important characteristics of clay minerals as it...

  13. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  14. Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S.A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Evidence for Smectite Clays from MSL SAM Analyses of Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Brunner, Anna; Archer, Paul Douglas; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Atreya, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Drilled samples of mudstone from the Sheepbed unit at Yellowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL instruments including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments in MSL's Analytical Laboratory. CheMin analyses revealed the first in situ X-ray diffraction based evidence of clay minerals on Mars, which are likely trioctahedral smectites (e.g., saponite) and comprise approx 20% of the mudstone sample (e.g., Bristow et al., this meeting). SAM analyses, which heated the mudstone samples to 1000 C and monitored volatiles evolved to perform in situ evolved gas analysis mass spectrometry (EGA-MS), resulted in a H2O trace exhibiting a wide evolution at temperatures < 500 C, and an evolution peak at higher temperatures near approx 750 C. The low temperature H2O evolution has many potential contributors, including adsorbed H2O, smectite interlayer H2O, and structural H2O/OH from bassanite and akaganeite (identified by CheMin) and H2O/OH from amorphous phases in the sample. The high temperature H2O is consistent with the evolution of H2O from the dehydroxylation of the smectite clay mineral. Comparison to EGA-MS data collected under SAM-like conditions on a variety of clay mineral reference materials indicate that a trioctahedral smectite, such as saponite, is most consistent with the high temperature H2O evolution observed. There may also be SAM EGA-MS evidence for a small high temperature H2O evolution from scoop samples from the Yellowknife Bay Rocknest sand shadow bedform. As in the mudstone samples, this evolution may indicate the detection of smectite clays, and the idea that minor clays may be present in Rocknest materials that could be expected to be at least partially derived from local sources is reasonable. But, because smectite clays were not definitively observed in CheMin analyses of Rocknest materials, they must be present at much lower abundances than the approx 20% observed in the mudstone samples. This potential detection

  16. Dual phase polymer gel electrolyte based on non-woven poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)–layered clay nanocomposite fibrous membranes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shubha, Nageswaran; Prasanth, Raghavan; Hoon, Hng Huey; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► P(VdF-co-HFP)–clay nanocomposite based electrospun membranes are prepared. ► The membranes are used as polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) in lithium ion batteries. ► The composite PGE shows ionic conductivity of 5.5 mS cm{sup −1} at room temperature. ► Li/PGE/LiFePO{sub 4} cell delivers initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1}. ► The use of prepared electrolyte significantly improved the cell performance. -- Abstract: A new approach for fabricating polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) based on electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) incorporated with layered nanoclay has been employed to enhance the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of P(VdF-co-HFP) without compromising its mechanical strength. The effect of layered nanoclay on properties of membranes has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface morphology of the membranes has been studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Polymer gel electrolytes are prepared by soaking the fibrous membrane into 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/DEC. The electrochemical studies show that incorporation of layered nanoclay into the polymer matrix greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and compatibility with lithium electrodes. The charge–discharge properties and cycling performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells comprising nanocomposite polymer gel electrolytes have been evaluated at room temperature.

  17. Mechanistic investigation of the formation damaging characteristics of mixed metal hydroxide drill-in fluids and comparison with polymer-base fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L.J.; Reid, D.P.; Williamson, D.

    1995-12-31

    Mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluids are highly thixotropic and have shown exceptional abilities in the areas of hole cleaning, suspension, and maintenance of good hole gauge even through very poorly consolidated sandstones. When a drill-in fluid based on an MMH has been used in reservoir sections, the ease of cleanup and the production rates have both exceeded expectations. Results have been better than those achieved on offsets where more conventional fluids have been used. Laboratory results have also shown properly formulated MMH fluids to have a low potential for formation damage. The primary objectives of the laboratory project presented in this paper were to (1) investigate the mechanisms by which filter cakes develop against sandstone faces, (2) study the natures of the cakes produced with different types of drill-in fluids, and (3) investigate the implications for cake cleanup. In a group of unweighted fluids an MMH fluid was found to be unique in its ability to form a predominantly external cake. It was further shown that the strong interactions between the MMH crystals and the bentonite platelets, which interactions provide the characteristic high shear thinning and almost instantaneous gelling behavior of such fluids, also contribute to the avoidance of damaging internal cake formation. This study demonstrates by dynamic fluid-loss measurements, imaging of dried filter cakes using an SEM, and direct imaging of wet filter cakes using an environmental SEM that the fluid is able to form mineral bridges over pore throats in a wide range of reservoir rocks. The external cake formed by the MMH fluid is easily removed by wash fluids or simply by application of backpressure as occurs when a well is brought on to production.

  18. Functionalized synthetic clays designed for polymer-clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastek, Thuy Truong

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites have many advantageous properties such as their light weight, transparency, flame retardency, barrier properties, and low cost. Exfoliation of natural clays into commercially important non-polar polymers such as polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) melts has been limited due to the immiscibility of these polymers with highly polar clays. Current means of addressing this problem, such as treating clays with surfactants, has met with limited success. Motivated by the need for synthetic clays that can be dispersed and exfoliated in non-polar polymer melts without added compatibilizers, we synthesized lamellar silicates and aluminosilicates to act as clay analogs. The flexibility of the sol-gel syntheses allowed hexadecyl and isobutyl functional groups to be covalently attached to the surface of the clays. Incorporating a high content of octahedral aluminum also strengthened the clay layers. The strength and surface functionalities of the layered silicates improved exfoliation during melt blending with PS and PP. We studied the effects of clay layer composition (silicate and alumino-silicate), layer thickness, organic functional groups, aluminum coordination, and covalent linking of surfactants on the performance of the nanocomposites. The lamellar morphology was determined from XRD and TEM. Organic functionalization was determined with solid state NMR and IR spectroscopy. The synthetic clays were mixed with various solvents to help predict their miscibility with PS and PP. Composites were prepared with different molecular weight polymers, which subjected the clays to a wide range of shear stresses. The clays were also pretreated by mixing in a master batch or dispersing in an organic solvent. The effects of PS and PP molecular weight, master batch, and solvent dispersion on the exfoliation of synthetic clays in PS are examined. Rheology and TEM were used to observe the quality of exfoliation and the final aspect ratio of the clay layers

  19. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  20. Novel semi-IPN based on crosslinked carboxymethyl starch and clay for the in vitro release of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Parvathy, J

    2014-06-01

    A novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) based on crosslinked carboxymethyl starch (CL-CMS) and montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared, where carboxymethylation occurs as a result of the reaction between native starch and monochloroacetic acid in isopropanol/water medium at 60°C. The carboxymethyl starch is further crosslinked and made into a semi-IPN with MMT for the release of theophylline. The drug carrier was characterized using FTIR, XRD and surface analysis using SEM. Studies including physio-chemical analysis, swelling behavior, encapsulation efficiency, effect of MMT content, effect of ionic strength and in vitro drug release were carried out. Theophylline encapsulation of up to 74% was achieved and drug release was monitored in SGF (pH 1.2) and SIF (pH 7.4). Results show that the matrix releases drug at a much faster rate in the basic medium than in the acidic medium, thereby holding the promise of developing the semi-IPN system as a potential candidate for the release of theophylline.

  1. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  2. High-velocity frictional strength across the Tohoku-Oki megathrust determined from surface drilling torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, K.; Inoue, T.; Ishiwata, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional strength at seismic slip rates is a key to evaluate fault weakening and rupture propagation during earthquakes. The Japan Trench First Drilling Project (JFAST) drilled through the shallow plate-boundary thrust, where huge displacements of ~50 m occurred during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To determine the downhole frictional strength at drilled site (Site C0019), we analyzed surface drilling data. The equivalent slip rate estimated from the rotation rate and inner and outer radiuses of the drill bit ranges from 0.8 to 1.3 m/s. The measured torque includes the frictional torque between the drilling string and borehole wall, the viscous torque between the drilling string and seawater/drilling fluid, and the drilling torque between the drill bit and sediments. We subtracted the former two from the measured torque using the torque data during bottom-up rotating operations at several depths. Then, the shear stress was calculated from the drilling torque taking the configuration of the drill bit into consideration. The normal stress was estimated from the weight on bit data and the projected area of the drill bit. Assuming negligible cohesion, the frictional strength was obtained by dividing shear stress by normal stress. The results show a clear contrast in high-velocity frictional strength across the plate-boundary thrust: the friction coefficient of frontal prism sediments (hemipelagic mudstones) in hanging wall is 0.1-0.2, while that in subducting sediments (hemipelagic to pelagic mudstones and chert) in footwall increases to 0.2-0.4. The friction coefficient of smectite-rich pelagic clay in the plate-boundary thrust is ~0.1, which is consistent with that obtained from high-velocity (1.3 m/s) friction experiments and temperature measurements. We conclude that surface drilling torque provides useful data to obtain a continuous downhole frictional strength.

  3. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  4. Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-01-01

    This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.

  5. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  6. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  7. Built-up edge investigation in vibration drilling of Al2024-T6.

    PubMed

    Barani, A; Amini, S; Paktinat, H; Fadaei Tehrani, A

    2014-07-01

    Adding ultrasonic vibrations to drilling process results in an advanced hybrid machining process, entitled "vibration drilling". This study presents the design and fabrication of a vibration drilling tool by which both rotary and vibrating motions are applied to drill simultaneously. High frequency and low amplitude vibrations were generated by an ultrasonic transducer with frequency of 19.65 kHz. Ultrasonic transducer was controlled by a MPI ultrasonic generator with 3 kW power. The drilling tool and workpiece material were HSS two-flute twist drill and Al2024-T6, respectively. The aim of this study was investigating on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on built-up edge, surface quality, chip morphology and wear mechanisms of drill edges. Therefore, these factors were studied in both vibration and ordinary drilling. Based on the achieved results, vibration drilling offers less built-up edge and better surface quality compared to ordinary drilling.

  8. Built-up edge investigation in vibration drilling of Al2024-T6.

    PubMed

    Barani, A; Amini, S; Paktinat, H; Fadaei Tehrani, A

    2014-07-01

    Adding ultrasonic vibrations to drilling process results in an advanced hybrid machining process, entitled "vibration drilling". This study presents the design and fabrication of a vibration drilling tool by which both rotary and vibrating motions are applied to drill simultaneously. High frequency and low amplitude vibrations were generated by an ultrasonic transducer with frequency of 19.65 kHz. Ultrasonic transducer was controlled by a MPI ultrasonic generator with 3 kW power. The drilling tool and workpiece material were HSS two-flute twist drill and Al2024-T6, respectively. The aim of this study was investigating on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on built-up edge, surface quality, chip morphology and wear mechanisms of drill edges. Therefore, these factors were studied in both vibration and ordinary drilling. Based on the achieved results, vibration drilling offers less built-up edge and better surface quality compared to ordinary drilling. PMID:24582556

  9. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  10. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  11. Barriers to slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.

    1994-03-01

    Over the years, interest in slimhole drilling has ebbed and flowed on about a 10-year cycle. But recent interest in slimhole has been different. There has been a more concerted effort to develop techniques embodying an engineered approach emphasizing state-of-the-art technology. Material strengths are being pushed to the limit to reduce size without loss of strength, integrity and reliability. As a result of this effort, slimhole wells have been drilled in a number of diverse areas, from frontier locations to mature provinces. In most applications, savings have been undeniable, ranging from 40% in remote areas to 10--15% in more mature provinces. Yet, despite the savings, and reduction in environmental impact, adoption of the technique has not met expectations. This article examines the issue by looking at barriers to slimhole drilling and suggesting possible solutions.

  12. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  13. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  14. A performance-based method for calculating the design thickness of compacted clay liners exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Safari, Edwin; Jalili Ghazizade, Mahdi; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2012-09-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) when feasible, are preferred to composite geosynthetic liners. The thickness of CCLs is typically prescribed by each country's environmental protection regulations. However, considering the fact that construction of CCLs represents a significant portion of overall landfill construction costs; a performance based design of liner thickness would be preferable to 'one size fits all' prescriptive standards. In this study researchers analyzed the hydraulic behaviour of a compacted clayey soil in three laboratory pilot scale columns exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions. The temperature of the simulated CCL at the surface was maintained at 40 ± 2 °C and a vertical pressure of 250 kPa was applied to the soil through a gravel layer on top of the 50 cm thick CCL where high strength fresh leachate was circulated at heads of 15 and 30 cm simulating the flow over the CCL. Inverse modelling using HYDRUS-1D indicated that the hydraulic conductivity after 180 days was decreased about three orders of magnitude in comparison with the values measured prior to the experiment. A number of scenarios of different leachate heads and persistence time were considered and saturation depth of the CCL was predicted through modelling. Under a typical leachate head of 30 cm, the saturation depth was predicted to be less than 60 cm for a persistence time of 3 years. This approach can be generalized to estimate an effective thickness of a CCL instead of using prescribed values, which may be conservatively overdesigned and thus unduly costly. PMID:22617473

  15. A performance-based method for calculating the design thickness of compacted clay liners exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Safari, Edwin; Jalili Ghazizade, Mahdi; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2012-09-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) when feasible, are preferred to composite geosynthetic liners. The thickness of CCLs is typically prescribed by each country's environmental protection regulations. However, considering the fact that construction of CCLs represents a significant portion of overall landfill construction costs; a performance based design of liner thickness would be preferable to 'one size fits all' prescriptive standards. In this study researchers analyzed the hydraulic behaviour of a compacted clayey soil in three laboratory pilot scale columns exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions. The temperature of the simulated CCL at the surface was maintained at 40 ± 2 °C and a vertical pressure of 250 kPa was applied to the soil through a gravel layer on top of the 50 cm thick CCL where high strength fresh leachate was circulated at heads of 15 and 30 cm simulating the flow over the CCL. Inverse modelling using HYDRUS-1D indicated that the hydraulic conductivity after 180 days was decreased about three orders of magnitude in comparison with the values measured prior to the experiment. A number of scenarios of different leachate heads and persistence time were considered and saturation depth of the CCL was predicted through modelling. Under a typical leachate head of 30 cm, the saturation depth was predicted to be less than 60 cm for a persistence time of 3 years. This approach can be generalized to estimate an effective thickness of a CCL instead of using prescribed values, which may be conservatively overdesigned and thus unduly costly.

  16. Modified Hydra Bioassay to Evaluate the Toxicity of Multiple Mycotoxins and Predict the Detoxification Efficacy of a Clay-Based Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Brown, KA; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, NJ; Elmore, SE; Phillips, TD

    2013-01-01

    Food shortages and lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. UPSN) has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present work were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB1 and FB1at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB1 and FB1 toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB1 binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB1 bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB1, AFB1 and FB1/AFB1 combinations with and without UPSN. Toxic response over 92 hours was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 μg/mLfor AFB1, while the MEC for FB1 was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 μg/mL FB1 + 10 μg/mL AFB1. This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin binding agents. PMID:23047854

  17. Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Elmore, S E; Phillips, T D

    2014-01-01

    Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1), AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1), whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1) + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1). This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents.

  18. Critique of Drilling Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, Jerry

    1992-03-24

    For a number of years the Department of Energy has been funding research to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Generally that research has been effective and helped to make geothermal energy economically attractive to developers. With the increased competition for the electrical market, geothermal energy needs every advantage it can acquire to allow it to continue as a viable force in the marketplace. In drilling related research, there is essentially continuous dialogue between industry and the national laboratories. Therefore, the projects presented in the Program Review are focused on subjects that were previously recommended or approved by industry.

  19. Study of the mechanical properties of clay containing smectite and carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhamdi, M.; Gasmi, N.; Elaloui, E.; Kbir-Ariguib, N.; Trabelsi-Ayadi, M.

    2010-11-01

    The correlation between physicochemical properties and mechanical behavior of clays is the subject of many studies [1,2]. The mechanical properties of clays are particularly significant insofar as they involve several disciplines, remediation, drilling muds, civil engineering, storage of toxic and radioactive waste. The smectite used in this work is from the southern west of Tunisia, particularly from Oued Tfal near the town of Gafsa is noted OT. Work included action on the characterization, physicochemical and mechanical properties of the raw clay treated with hydrochloric acid and purified. This work aims at studying the influence of pure clay fraction, including compensating cations on the hydromechanical properties of clay. The thermal study sample gives a percentage of 32.5% of carbonate in the raw clay. The elimination of carbonates by acid attack controlled the following results: If treatment by 0.5M represents a departure total of carbonates, there are probably altered layers of the clay fraction. To eliminate the excess of carbonate (6.03%), the sample was treated by 0.4 M HCl without deterioration of the structure of the silicate fraction. The hydromechanical study of three samples of raw clay (OT) purified (OTNa) and treated by (0.4M) hydrochloric acid put it clearly the relationship between the cation exchange capacity the percentage of carbonate and the swelling pressure.

  20. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  1. Drill Bits: Education and Outreach for Scientific Drilling Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prose, D. V.; Lamacchia, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Drill Bits is a series of short, three- to five-minute videos that explore the research and capture the challenging nature of large scientific drilling projects occurring around the world. The drilling projects, conducted under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), address fundamental earth science topics, including those of significant societal relevance such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and global climate change. The videos are filmed on location and aimed at nonscientific audiences. The purpose of the Drill Bits series is to provide scientific drilling organizations, scientists, and educators with a versatile tool to help educate the public, students, the media, and public officials about scientific drilling. The videos are designed to be viewed in multiple formats: on DVD; videotape; and science-related web sites, where they can be streamed or downloaded as video podcasts. Several Drill Bits videos will be screened, and their uses for outreach and education will be discussed.

  2. The First X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Clay Minerals from Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, T.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Chipera, S.; Rampe, E. B.; Farmer, J. D.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R.; Morrison, S.; Achilles, C.; Des Marais, D. J.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P.; Morookian, J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent ~150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (~3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of ~20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at ~10A with a slight inflexion at ~12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and heating >60°C in the presence of water

  3. CEC-normalized clay-water sorption isotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.

    2011-11-01

    A normalized clay-water isotherm model based on BET theory and describing the sorption and desorption of the bound water in clays, sand-clay mixtures, and shales is presented. Clay-water sorption isotherms (sorption and desorption) of clayey materials are normalized by their cation exchange capacity (CEC) accounting for a correction factor depending on the type of counterion sorbed on the mineral surface in the so-called Stern layer. With such normalizations, all the data collapse into two master curves, one for sorption and one for desorption, independent of the clay mineralogy, crystallographic considerations, and bound cation type; therefore, neglecting the true heterogeneity of water sorption/desorption in smectite. The two master curves show the general hysteretic behavior of the capillary pressure curve at low relative humidity (below 70%). The model is validated against several data sets obtained from the literature comprising a broad range of clay types and clay mineralogies. The CEC values, derived by inverting the sorption/adsorption curves using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, are consistent with the CEC associated with the clay mineralogy.

  4. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  6. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  7. A new anti-slough drilling fluid study and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. Y.; Meng, Y. F.; Hou, X. T.; Xiao, C.; Li, G.; Niu, C. C.

    2016-08-01

    Currently the BIOCAT drilling fluid system adopted in oil field results in wellbore collapsing frequently, borehole enlargement rate over 100%. In order to settle these problems, the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System is developed by optimizing the inhibitors with high anti-collapsing inhibitive instead of BIOCAT inhibitor, adding impermeable agent SMT3, sealing materials such as graphite, calcium carbonate, etc. Laboratory experiments results show that the developed drilling fluid system has stronger inhibitive and anti-collapse capacity. The swelling increment decreases by over 10% and recovery rate increases by 60%-70%, also, it can efficiently prolong the borehole wall stable period by over 100%. 24 wells applications with the Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System achieved good results, comparing to adjacent wells with BIOCAT drilling fluid system, wellbore collapsing decreasing significantly and borehole diameter enlargement of unstable hole section in wells decreased from 100% to 10%, well drilling time decreased by 15%, drilling cost decreased by 10%. It shows that the developed Impermeable anti-collapsing inhibitive Polymer Drilling Fluids System KPAM-NH4PAN can provide strong and long-term inhibition, close to oil-based drilling fluid. so it is suggested that it be used in subsequent drilling operations to enhance the wellbore stability in an oilfield.

  8. Qualification of a computer program for drill string dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.; Carne, T.G.; Caskey, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A four point plan for the qualification of the GEODYN drill string dynamics computer program is described. The qualification plan investigates both modal response and transient response of a short drill string subjected to simulated cutting loads applied through a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit. The experimentally based qualification shows that the analytical techniques included in Phase 1 GEODYN correctly simulate the dynamic response of the bit-drill string system. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Clay deposits of the Tierra Colorado district, southern Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daviess, Steven Norman; Bramlette, M.N.

    1953-01-01

    The clay of this district is being mined for fire brick by the Vitrofrax Corporation. Much of the clay contains 35 percent or more of alumina and between 1 and 2 percent of iron oxide. Production is largely from an underground mine as the best clay deposit known in the district occurs on the side of a steep hill with more than 100 feet of sandstone overlying most of it. The good clay deposits occur at the base of an Eocene sandstone formation, and overlie mottled clays with a high iron content that are residual deposits formed on an old weathered surface. Mapping indicates that the clay deposits are very lenticular, though all occur at the same stratigraphic position, and they grade laterally into sandy clay and quartz sand. Topographic relief and the dip of the strata preclude finding large areas where the clay strata have relatively little overburden.

  10. Organic Pillared Clays.

    PubMed

    Meier, L. P.; Nueesch, R.; Madsen, F. T.

    2001-06-01

    Commonly used organophilic clays are modified by alkylammonium cations which hold apart the aluminosilicate layers permanently. The cations fill the interlayer space and are contemplated as flexible pillars, resulting from the mobility of the alkyl chains. Therefore, the interlayer distance varies depending on the layer charge and on the alkyl chain length. Contrary to these cations, rigid pillaring cations guarantee a constant interlayer distance without occupying the interlayer by themselves and show special adsorption properties such as hydrophilic behavior contrary to the generally hydrophobic ones. Smectites were modified by flexible organic cations, e.g., dimethyldioctadecylammonium, and by rigid ones, e.g., tetraphenylphosphonium. Their adsorption properties are compared. Our investigations showed improved adsorption properties for rigid organic cations on smectites using 2-chlorophenol as pollutant. Best adsorption results are achieved using pillaring cations in combination with low charged smectites, especially at low pollutant concentrations. The properties of organic modified smectites are discussed by a pollution intercalation model. The intercalation process of an organic pollutant into an organic modified smectite is expressed by a two-step Born-Haber cycle process: (i) the formation of an adsorbing position by layer expansion and (ii) the occupation of the adsorbing position by the pollutant. The first step of the formation of the adsorbing position is an endothermal transition state which lowers the total intercalation energy and therefore worsens the adsorption behavior. Thus, an already expanded organophilic smectite will show improved adsorption behavior. The formed adsorbing position state on organic modified smectites is comparable to the pillared state of inorganic pillared clays. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11350131

  11. Clay Mineral Assemblages as Proxies for Reconstructing Messinian Paleoenvironments in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca; Comas, Menchu; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2014-05-01

    Significant tectonic and climate changes at time of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) led to a complex sedimentation involving marked changes in sediment composition, particularly in clay mineral assemblages. One of the noticeable mineralogical changes across this time interval is the strong smectite increase in Messinian deposits in comparison to the underlying Tortonian and overlaying Pliocene sediments. As no break in the clay mineralogy is recognized in the open ocean (Chamley et al., 1978), such changes are also distinctive of the Mediterranean basins. Since the early discoveries of the giant Messinian evaporite formation (DSDP Legs 13 and 42A), a vast literature contributed, during the last decades, to the continuous debate and re-examination of the actual Messinian paleoenvironment. Drilled records in the westernmost Mediterranean (Alboran Sea) have shown significant changes in the mineralogical assemblages associated to the Messinian events. This basin is depleted of significant salt deposits. Site 976 (ODP Leg 161) recovered a 670-m-thick, middle Miocene (Serravallian) to Pleistocene/Holocene sedimentary sequence, including a thin interval of Messinian sediment, lying directly upon the metamorphic basement. Analysis of clay mineral assemblages from the sedimentary cover of Hole 976B revealed an homogeneous clay association composed of illite, smectite, chlorite and kaolinite with no major changes in clay mineral abundances except for the sediment interval dated as Messinian, which is characterized by a sharp smectite increase (Martinez-Ruiz et al., 1999). Transmission Electron Microscope analyses of clay minerals revealed that smectite composition corresponds to Al-rich beidellites, which supports the existence of such smectites in peri-Mediterranean soils. Smectite formation was favored by the climate conditions at that time, comprising progressive aridification and the alternation of wet and dry climatic episodes. Diagenesis in these smectites is

  12. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  13. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  14. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  15. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  16. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  17. Major and Trace Element Variations in Impact Crater Clay from Chicxulub, Lonar, and Mistastin, Implications for the Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Gakin, R.; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic Chicxulub event should have generated a large hydrothermal system with volatile element mobilization, producing interesting alteration materials and clays. The Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX) drill hole is located in the annular trough, about 70 km southwest of the crater center, in an area where the impactite layers are relatively thin (approx. 100 m thick). We have analyzed samples from the YAX drill core and from other impact craters including Mistastin and Lonar to determine the nature of alteration and trace element mobilization.

  18. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  19. OIL WELL REMEDIATION IN CLAY AND WAYNE COUNTIES, IL

    SciTech Connect

    Peter L. Dakuras; Larry Stieber; Dick Young

    2003-07-09

    This is the second progress and final technical report of the remediation of abandoned wells in Clay and Wayne Counties in Illinois. The wells will be identified as the Routt No.3 and No.4 and the Bates Hosselton 1 and 2. Both sites have met all legal, financial and environmental requirements to drill and/or pump oil on both leases. We have also obtained all available information about both leases. All steps were taken to improve access roads, dig the necessary pits, and build the necessary firewalls. This progress and final technical report will address the remediation efforts as well as our results and conclusions.

  20. Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Diamond-Cutter Drill Bits Diamond-cutter drill bits cut through tough rock quicker, reducing the cost of drilling for energy resources The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contributed markedly to the geothermal, oil, and gas industries through the development of the advanced polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit. Introduced in the 1970s by General Electric Company (GE), the PDC bit uses thin, diamond layers bonded to t

  1. Horizontal drilling in the Austin Chalk: Stratigraphic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr. ); Bobigian, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling has renewed interest in the Austin chalk in south-central Texas. Large fields on opposite sides of the San Marcos arch Giddings to the northeast and Pearsall to the southwest were active with vertical drilling 10 years ago. Giddings' 4,500 Austin wells produced 209 million BO and 934 bcfg of gas through 1988; Pearsall's 1,440 wells produced 57 million BO and 35 bcfg of gas. Most vertical wells were completed, 20% were economic successes, 40% were marginal, 40% were uneconomic due to uneven areal distribution of near-vertical fractures and small faults, which provide reservoirs in otherwise tight chalk. Horizontal drilling, led by Amoco in Giddings and Oryx in Pearsall, enhances the chances of encountering the fractures by drilling perpendicular to the fracture trend. Horizontal drilling requires preselection of the stratigraphic horizon to be penetrated. One must understand the variable Austin stratigraphy to choose the zone with the most brittle character and best matrix porosity, both reduced by increased clay content. Chalk 130 ft thick on the San Marcos arch thickens to 600 to 800 ft in central Giddings field where middle marl separates lower and upper chalk Northeastward only lower chalk is preserved beneath a post-Austin submarine channel. The Austin thickens to 300-500 ft in Pearsall field where middle member ash beds separate lower and upper chalk inhibiting vertical reservoir communication. Locally, on the Pearsall arch, ash is missing, lower chalk thickens, and upper chalk thins.

  2. New insights into the radiocarbon calibration based on 14C and U-Th dating of corals drilled offshore Tahiti (IODP Expedition #310)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Nicolas; Deschamps, Pierre; Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Camoin, Gilbert; Thomas, Alexander L.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2010-05-01

    Beyond the high-precision tree-ring calibration, the fossil corals are the most reliable archive that can be used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale. In this contribution, we present a new radiocarbon dataset based on paired 14C and U-Th dating of fossil shallow-water tropical corals drilled offshore Tahiti during the IODP Expedition 310 'Tahiti Sea-Level'. Before 14C and U-Th analyses, rigorous screening criteria have been applied in order to select pristine aragonitic coral skeletons and avoid those displaying any post-mortem diagenesis that alters original ages. In particular, we made a significant effort to improve detection and quantification of very small amount of secondary calcite in the aragonitic coral lattice using X-ray diffraction measurements [1]. In addition, we apply a strict screening criterion based on δ234U. However, the new Tahiti dataset allow to refine the previous tolerance ranges previously adopted. More than 60 radiocarbon dates were processed at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (Saclay, France) with the ARTEMIS AMS facility. This new Tahiti record provides new data to the radiocarbon calibration for two distinct time windows: for the interval between 29,200 and 36,200 years BP and for the last deglaciation period, with especially, a higher resolution (40 data) for the 14,000 - 16,000 years BP time interval. These new data extend the previous Tahiti record beyond 13,900 years BP which was the oldest U-Th age obtained on cores drilled onshore in the modern Tahiti barrier reef [2, 3]. These new results are compared with 14C chronologies from other corals, those of Barbados [4, 5] and those from other Pacific islands (Mururoa, Vanuatu, Marquesas, Christmas), and from the Cariaco Basin sediment [6, 7], the Iberian Margin sediment [8, 9] and the Bahamian speleothem [10] records. The new 14C dataset from the corals drilled offshore Tahiti allows to validate the precision and accuracy of other records either directly dated by U-Th or

  3. Using an admittance algorithm for bone drilling procedures.

    PubMed

    Accini, Fernando; Díaz, Iñaki; Gil, Jorge Juan

    2016-01-01

    Bone drilling is a common procedure in many types of surgeries, including orthopedic, neurological and otologic surgeries. Several technologies and control algorithms have been developed to help the surgeon automatically stop the drill before it goes through the boundary of the tissue being drilled. However, most of them rely on thrust force and cutting torque to detect bone layer transitions which has many drawbacks that affect the reliability of the process. This paper describes in detail a bone-drilling algorithm based only on the position control of the drill bit that overcomes such problems and presents additional advantages. The implication of each component of the algorithm in the drilling procedure is analyzed and the efficacy of the algorithm is experimentally validated with two types of bones. PMID:26516110

  4. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  5. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  6. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  7. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  8. An overview of McKittrick coiled tubing drilling project

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, D.P.; Ramagno, R.A.; Hurkmans, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to reduce drilling costs on thermal wells, service companies began reducing casing sizes and well pad location sizes in 1993. Based on a successful four-well pilot project completed in early 1994 at the Belridge Field, a 115-well steam injector project was completed in the McKittrick Field in late 1994, of which 68 wells were drilled with coiled tubing. This paper will discuss why slimhole completions and coiled tubing drilling were selected for this project, the operational aspects of drilling 68 wells in 92 working days, and conclusions about the project.

  9. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates. PMID:16091622

  10. Soil properties affecting wheat yields following drilling-fluid application.

    PubMed

    Bauder, T A; Barbarick, K A; Ippolito, J A; Shanahan, J F; Ayers, P D

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling operations use drilling fluids (mud) to lubricate the drill bit and stem, transport formation cuttings to the surface, and seal off porous geologic formations. Following completion of the well, waste drilling fluid is often applied to cropland. We studied potential changes in soil compaction as indicated by cone penetration resistance, pH, electrical conductivity (EC(e)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), extractable soil and total straw and grain trace metal and nutrient concentrations, and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'TAM 107') grain yield following water-based, bentonitic drilling-fluid application (0-94 Mg ha(-1)) to field test plots. Three methods of application (normal, splash-plate, and spreader-bar) were used to study compaction effects. We measured increasing SAR, EC(e), and pH with drilling-fluid rates, but not to levels detrimental to crop production. Field measurements revealed significantly higher compaction within areas affected by truck travel, but also not enough to affect crop yield. In three of four site years, neither drilling-fluid rate nor application method affected grain yield. Extractions representing plant availability and plant analyses results indicated that drilling fluid did not significantly increase most trace elements or nutrient concentrations. These results support land application of water-based bentonitic drilling fluids as an acceptable practice on well-drained soils using controlled rates.

  11. Clay energetics in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Clays have been implicated in the origin of terrestrial life since the 1950's. Originally they were considered agents which aid in selecting, concentrating and promoting oligomerization of the organic monomeric substituents of cellular life forms. However, more recently, it has been suggested that minerals, with particular emphasis on clays, may have played a yet more fundamental role. It has been suggested that clays are prototypic life forms in themselves and that they served as a template which directed the self-assembly of cellular life. If the clay-life theory is to have other than conceptual credibility, clays must be shown by experiment to execute the operations of cellular life, not only individually, but also in a sufficiently concerted manner as to produce some semblance of the functional attributes of living cells. Current studies are focussed on the ability of clays to absorb, store and transfer energy under plausible prebiotic conditions and to use this energy to drive chemistry of prebiotic relevance. Conclusions of the work are applicable to the role of clays either as substrates for organic chemistry, or in fueling their own life-mimetic processes.

  12. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  17. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  18. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a...

  3. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  4. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of clays and clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Hughes, R.E.

    1971-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) proves to be ideally suited for studying the configuration, texture, and fabric of clay samples. Growth mechanics of crystalline units-interpenetration and interlocking of crystallites, crystal habits, twinning, helical growth, and topotaxis-also are uniquely revealed by the SEM. Authigenic kaolins make up the bulk of the examples because their larger crystallite size, better crystallinity, and open texture make them more suited to examination by the SEM than most other clay mineral types. ?? 1971.

  6. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  7. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  8. Laser drilling for improving circuit board manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Zhang, Jincheng; Gao, Chunlin; Wang, Honcai; Li, Ping; An, Yongqiang; Zhang, Guiqiu

    1998-08-01

    We reported here a novel technique for laser high speed drillings on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). A CNC solid laser based system is developed to drill through and blind vias as an alternative to mechanical drilling. The system employs an Acousto-Optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, a computer control system and an X-Y moving table which can handle up to 400 X 400 mm PCB. With a special designed cavity the laser system works in a pulsed operation in order to generate pulses with width down to 0.5 microseconds and maximum peak power over 10 kW at 10 k repetition rate. Delivered by an improved optical beam transforming system, the focused laser beam can drill holes including blind vias on PCBs with diameter in the range of 0.1 - 0.4 mm and at up to 300 - 500 vias per second (depending on the construction of PCBs). By means of a CNC X-Y moving system, laser pulses with pulse-to-pulse superior repeatability can be fired at desired location on a PCBs with high accuracy. This alternative technology for drilling through or blind vias on PCBs or PWBs (printed wiring boards) will obviously enhance the capability to printed boards manufacturing.

  9. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  10. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  11. SAXS Study of Reversibly Crosslinked Isotactic Polypropylene/clay Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhelal, S.; Cagiao, M; Benachour, D; Djellouli, B; Rong, L; Hsiao, B; Baltá-Calleja, F

    2010-01-01

    A new route based on reversibly crosslinking reactive extrusion is applied for the development of iPP/clay nanocomposites. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reflections of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/clay nanocomposites, prepared by two different mixing and chemical crosslinking methods (i.e., conventional and in situ), is presented and results are compared with preceding wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) results. It is shown that the presence of clay significantly affects the value of long spacing in iPP, as well as the coherence length of lamellar stacks. Results show that the size of the coherently diffracting nanodomains decreases in two stages, first rapidly and then slowly as a function of increasing clay content. This can be attributed to the influence of confined iPP lamellae under the effect of rising number of clay particles. The appearance of the {gamma}-crystalline form in the crosslinked iPP/clay nanocomposites is related with the difficulty in chain folding of iPP chains introduced by the chemical crosslinking process, as well as by the presence of clay particles.

  12. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  13. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  14. Fault imprint in clay units: magnetic fabric, structural and mineralogical signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Eva; Homberg, Catherine; Schnyder, Johann; Person, Alain; du Peloux1, Arthur; Dick, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Fault-induced deformations in clay units can be difficult to decipher because strain markers are not always visible at outcrop scale or using geophysical methods. Previous studies have indicated that the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (ASM) provides a powerful and rapid technique to investigate tectonic deformation in clay units even when they appear quite homogenous and undeformed at the outcrop scale (Lee et al. 1990, Mattei et al. 1997). We report here a study based on ASM, structural analysis and magnetic and clay mineralogy from two boreholes (TF1 and ASM1)drilled horizontally in the Experimental Station of Tournemire of the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in Aveyron (France). The boreholes intersect a N-S trending strike-slip fault from west to east. The ASM study indicates the evolution of the magnetic fabric from the undeformed host rock to the fault core. Also, all the fractures cutting the studied interval of the core have been measured as well as the slip vectors which are generally well preserved. In the two boreholes, the undeformed sediments outside the fault zone are characterized by an oblate fabric, a sub-vertical minimum susceptibility axis (k3) perpendicular to the bedding plane and without magnetic lineation. Within the fault zone, a tilt in the bedding plane has been observed in two boreholes TF1 and ASM1. In addition, in the TF1 core, the fault area presents a tectonic fabric characterized by a triaxial AMS ellipsoid. Moreover, the magnetic lineation increases and k3 switches from a vertical to a sub-horizontal plane. This kind of fabric has not been observed in borehole ASM1. The structural analysis of the individual fractures making the fault zone indicates a complex tectonic history with different imprint in the two fault segments cut by the two boreholes. The large majority of fractures correspond to dextral strike-slip faults but normal and reverse movements were observed and are more or less

  15. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  16. 8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Frictional Temperature of Chelungpu Seismic Faulting Estimated from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Kuo, L.; Chou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Two holes, named Hole-A and Hole-B with the depths of 2,003 m and 1,350 m, respectively, were raised by the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) which recovered continuous fresh core samples across the rupture zone of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw7.6). To investigate the coseismic frictional temperature in seismogenic fault zones, we examine the characteristics of core materials including clay, carbonate and magnetic minerals and carbonaceous materials with optical, SEM, TEM and TXM for mineral identifications, and chemical analyses by ICP-MS for geochemical modeling in the Chelungpu-fault zones. The primary slip zone (PSZ), characterized by the isotropic layer in black gouge of those two holes can be recognized at the depth around 1,111 m and 1,136 m with ~20 mm and ~3 mm in thickness, respectively. For the Hole-A, the frictional temperature was calculated from the clay mineral assemblages of FZ1111, which show evidence of melting, and the temperature in a ~2 cm band within the black gouge zone is estimated to be from 900 °C to 1100 °C by comparing the SEM images of in situ natural samples with those of heated materials, and the finding of no recrystallization of kaolinite-amorphous aluminosilicates-spinel in the fault samples. For the Hole-B, the frictional temperature in the FZ1136 was calculated as 400 °C to 900 °C, based on the magnetic mineral variations, de-carbonation of calcite, clay mineral assemblages, and geochemical modeling on trace element variations.

  18. Drill hole logging with infrared spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Solum, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify rocks and minerals for over 40 years. The technique is sensitive to primary silicates as well as alteration products. Minerals can be uniquely identified based on multiple absorption features at wavelengths from the visible to the thermal infrared. We are currently establishing methods and protocols in order to use the technique for rapid assessment of downhole lithology on samples obtained during drilling operations. Initial work performed includes spectral analysis of chip cuttings and core sections from drill sites around Desert Peak, NV. In this paper, we report on a survey of 10,000 feet of drill cuttings, at 100 foot intervals, from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Data from Blue Mountain geothermal wells will also be acquired. We will describe the utility of the technique for rapid assessment of lithologic and mineralogic discrimination.

  19. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  20. A simple approach for calculating pile skin friction in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, U.A.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simple method is presented for calculating static shaft resistance of a pile driven into clay. The method is based on correlations established for North Sea clays between index properties and strengths. Application of the method to half a dozen full scale pile load tests which are part of the API RP2A`s data base and include a wide range of plasticity properties, overconsolidation ratios and strengths, is described. Except for short piles in very stiff to hard clays, the predictions agree very well with the measurements. The correlations presented allows an assessment of residual skin friction and indicate the importance of the liquidity index of the clay in static capacity calculations.

  1. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  2. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery. PMID:26356212

  3. Effects of shock metamorphism on clay mineralogy: Implications for remote sensing of martian clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Glotch, T. D.; Friedlander, L.; Bish, D. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Dyar, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important discoveries in recent exploration of Mars has been the detection of clay minerals within materials exhumed by meteor impact, which point to ancient subsurface alteration and possible habitable conditions at depth. These "crustal clays" occur within central peaks, ejecta, and uplifted rims of many large craters (Ehlmann et al., Nature 2011). The geologic context of phyllosilicates in these settings suggests that most of these deposits represent clays that formed in the subsurface and were later exhumed by impact, rather than clays that formed as a consequence of impact. Therefore, crustal clays exposed at the surface are likely to have experienced some effects of shock metamorphism and/or thermal alteration related to meteor impact. We are investigating the effects of shock metamorphism on the mineralogy of phyllosilicates in the laboratory. Purified, size-separated clay mineral samples were pressed into pellets to decrease internal porosity and were subsequently shocked using the Flat Plate Accelerator at NASA Johnson Space Center. Five minerals (nontronite, saponite, serpentine, chlorite, and kaolinite) were shocked to six pressure steps (10, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 GPa). The recovered, shocked samples are being analyzed by thermal infrared emission, visible/near-infrared reflectance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results thus far suggest that shock metamorphism has little effect on the structure or infrared signature of the clay minerals at pressures <20 GPa. One exception is the decrease in 3-D ordering in chlorite at 10 GPa, which steadily decreases until it is essentially lost at 30 GPa. At shock pressures of 20 GPa and higher, all minerals show evidence for broadening of the basal 001 reflection, indicative of progressive decrease in crystallite size. Above 30 GPa, the structures are intensely altered and by 40 GPa, most structural order is lost, based on both XRD and TEM

  4. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC's existing electromagnetic (e-m) CABLELESS''{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  5. Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

  6. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  7. Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

    2003-02-19

    Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

  8. Insightful understanding of the role of clay topology on the stability of biomimetic hybrid chitosan-clay thin films and CO2-dried porous aerogel microspheres.

    PubMed

    Frindy, Sana; Primo, Ana; Qaiss, Abou El Kacem; Bouhfid, Rachid; Lahcini, Mohamed; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2016-08-01

    Three natural clay-based microstructures, namely layered montmorillonite (MMT), nanotubular halloysite (HNT) and micro-fibrillar sepiolite (SP) were used for the synthesis of hybrid chitosan-clay thin films and porous aerogel microspheres. At a first glance, a decrease in the viscosity of the three gel-forming solutions was noticed as a result of breaking the mutual polymeric chains interaction by the clay microstructure. Upon casting, chitosan-clay films displayed enhanced hydrophilicity in the order CSclay microstructure, an improvement in the mechanical properties of the chitosan-clay films has been substantiated with CS-SP reaching the highest value at 5% clay loading. While clay addition provides a way to resist the shrinkage occurring for native chitosan, the enhanced hydrophilicity associated to the water content affects the efficacy of the CO2 super-critical drying as the most hydrophilic CS-SP microspheres face the highest shrinkage, resulting in a lowest specific surface area compared to CS-HNT and CS-MMT. Chitosan-clay exhibits enhanced thermal properties with the degradation delayed in the order CSclay compared to native chitosan, evidencing the beneficial protective effect of the clay particulates for the biopolymer. However, under hydrothermal treatment, the presence of clay was found to be detrimental to the material stability as a significant shrinkage occurs in hybrid CS-clay microspheres, which is attributed again to their increased hydrophilicity compared to the native polymeric microspheres. In this framework, a peculiar behavior was observed for CS-MMT, with the microspheres standing both against contraction during CO2 gel drying and under hydrothermal conditions. The knowledge gained from this rational design will constitute a guideline toward the preparation of ultra-stable, practically-optimized food

  9. The Silent Canyon caldera complex: a three-dimensional model based on drill-hole stratigraphy and gravity inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Anderson, Megan L.; Rowley, Peter D.; Sawyer, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The structural framework of Pahute Mesa, Nevada, is dominated by the Silent Canyon caldera complex, a buried, multiple collapse caldera complex. Using the boundary surface between low density Tertiary volcanogenic rocks and denser granitic and weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks (basement) as the outer fault surfaces for the modeled collapse caldera complex, it is postulated that the caldera complex collapsed on steeply- dipping arcuate faults two, possibly three, times following eruption of at least two major ash-flow tuffs. The caldera and most of its eruptive products are now deeply buried below the surface of Pahute Mesa. Relatively low-density rocks in the caldera complex produce one of the largest gravity lows in the western conterminous United States. Gravity modeling defines a steep sided, cup-shaped depression as much as 6,000 meters (19,800 feet) deep that is surrounded and floored by denser rocks. The steeply dipping surface located between the low-density basin fill and the higher density external rocks is considered to be the surface of the ring faults of the multiple calderas. Extrapolation of this surface upward to the outer, or topographic rim, of the Silent Canyon caldera complex defines the upper part of the caldera collapse structure. Rock units within and outside the Silent Canyon caldera complex are combined into seven hydrostratigraphic units based on their predominant hydrologic characteristics. The caldera structures and other faults on Pahute Mesa are used with the seven hydrostratigraphic units to make a three-dimensional geologic model of Pahute Mesa using the "EarthVision" (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) modeling computer program. This method allows graphic representation of the geometry of the rocks and produces computer generated cross sections, isopach maps, and three-dimensional oriented diagrams. These products have been created to aid in visualizing and modeling the ground-water flow system beneath Pahute Mesa.

  10. Investigating thickness and physical properties of forest soil along headwater hillslopes by hole drilling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaole; Liu, Jintao

    2015-04-01

    Mountain torrents along headwater hillslopes usually occur during heavy rainfall and bring damage to people's lives and properties. Thus, the mechanism for flood generation process in mountain areas must be well studied. Soil acts as an important factor controlling this process. However, systematic studies the spatial distribution of soil properties, including soil thickness, bulky density, texture and infiltration rate along headwater hillslopes are rarely obtained. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the variation trend of these soil properties in a 3-D perspective. To do this, a total of 39 probe measurements were made by using a 70-mm-diameter gasoline vibrating drill in a small catchment (0.42 hectare). Measurements were made by push the gasoline drill into the soil until the bedrock was encounted. Then, the drill was pushed out from the soil and the undisturbed soil was obtained. The main results of the experiment show that: (a) soil thickness decreased significantly from the valley to the ridge (e.g., the maximum soil thickness in the valley and ridge are 164cm and 81 cm, respectively). (b)Vertically, taking borehole #1 as an example (148cm deep), the saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased significantly from 1.5 mm/min (0cm deep) to 0.01 mm/min (140cm deep). Spatially, the saturated hydraulic conductivity at same depth increased with the elevation increasing. (c) Particle size analysis indicated that the soil clay content increased with increasing sampling depth. To conclude, our study reveals the spatial distribution of soil properties which can help us to explore flowpaths and store in three-dimensional at hillslope scale and develop a parsimonious 3-D physics-based model to simulate hillslope hydrological response.

  11. Humidity Dependent Extinction of Clay Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of aerosol forcing can be altered by changes in relative humidity which cause aerosol size, shape and refractive index to vary. To quantify these effects, a custom cavity ring down instrument operated at 532 nm with two sample channels measures aerosols extinction under dry conditions and at elevated humidity. The optical growth, fRH(ext), is determined as a ratio of the extinction cross section at high relative humidity to that under dry conditions. Three key clay components of mineral dust and mixtures of clay components with ammonium sulfate are investigated using this method. Experimentally obtained optical growth is compared with physical growth factors from the literature and our work determined using several different techniques. Further, Mie theory calculations based on published optical constants are compared with experimental results. Differences between theory and experiment will be discussed.

  12. Clay exfoliation and polymer/clay aerogels by supercritical carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Simona; Mauro, Marco; Daniel, Christophe; Galimberti, Maurizio; Guerra, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) treatments of a montmorillonite (MMT) intercalated with ammonium cations bearing two long hydrocarbon tails (organo-modified MMT, OMMT) led to OMMT exfoliation, with loss of the long-range order in the packing of the hydrocarbon tails and maintenance of the long-range order in the clay layers. The intercalated and the derived exfoliated OMMT have been deeply characterized, mainly by X-ray diffraction analyses. Monolithic composite aerogels, with large amounts of both intercalated and exfoliated OMMT and including the nanoporous-crystalline δ form of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS), have been prepared, by scCO2 extractions of s-PS-based gels. Also for high OMMT content, the gel and aerogel preparation procedures occur without re-aggregation of the exfoliated clay, which is instead observed for other kinds of polymer processing. Aerogels with the exfoliated OMMT have more even dispersion of the clay layers, higher elastic modulus and larger surface area than aerogels with the intercalated OMMT. Extremely light materials with relevant transport properties could be prepared. Moreover, s-PS-based aerogels with exfoliated OMMT could be helpful for the handling of exfoliated clay minerals. PMID:24790956

  13. Method for detecting drilling events from measuremt while drilling sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, M.; Lesage, M., Falconer, I.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a method for determining subsurface conditions encountered by a drill bit while drilling a borehole. It comprises: during the drilling process, determining rate of penetration and generation a signal indicative thereof; during the drilling process, determining downhole torque and generating a signal indicative thereof; in response to signals indicative of rate of penetration and downhole torque, generating an indication of the occurrence of a subsurface condition selected from the group comprising high formation porosity, a damaged bit bearing and the development of an undergauge bit.

  14. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  15. Bioremediation of PAHs and VOCs: Advances in clay mineral-microbial interaction.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Bioremediation is an effective strategy for cleaning up organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Advanced bioremediation implies that biotic agents are more efficient in degrading the contaminants completely. Bioremediation by microbial degradation is often employed and to make this process efficient, natural and cost-effective materials can serve as supportive matrices. Clay/modified clay minerals are effective adsorbents of PAHs/VOCs, and readily available substrate and habitat for microorganisms in the natural soil and sediment. However, the mechanism underpinning clay-mediated biodegradation of organic compounds is often unclear, and this requires critical investigation. This review describes the role of clay/modified clay minerals in hydrocarbon bioremediation through interaction with microbial agents in specific scenarios. The vision is on a faster, more efficient and cost-effective bioremediation technique using clay-based products. This review also proposes future research directions in the field of clay modulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbons.

  16. Apparatus in a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Dahlgren, Scott; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

  17. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  18. Portable rapid and quiet drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mireca (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Chang, Zenshea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A hand-held drilling device, and method for drilling using the device, has a housing, a transducer within the housing, with the transducer effectively operating at ultrasonic frequencies, a rotating motor component within the housing and rigid cutting end-effector rotationally connected to the rotating motor component and vibrationally connected to the transducer. The hand-held drilling device of the present invention operates at a noise level of from about 50 decibels or less.

  19. The thermal spallation drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Holes can be produced in very hard rock more easily and less expensively by thermal spallation than by conventional means. This drilling process has been used for producing blast holes in the taconite iron mines and for quarrying granite. It is potentially valuable for drilling holes in very hard rock for the exploitation of geothermal energy and the storage of various commodities. However, investigation and development of the thermal spallation drilling process is proceeding slowly.

  20. MWD aids vital drilling decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, J.E.; Rao, M.V.

    1988-03-14

    Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) sensors can supply much of the critical downhole information needed in a systems approach to improving drilling efficiency. The author looks at some areas where MWD information has helped to improve drilling efficiency. To date, most use of MWD has been for directional survey, pressure prediction, and formation evaluation. As MWD systems become more reliable and cost effective, their applications will expand.

  1. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessment of organomodified clays potentially used in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jordá-Beneyto, María; Aucejo, Susana; Jos, Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Modern food packaging has made great advances as result of global trends and consumer preferences, which are oriented to obtain improved food quality and safety. In this regard, clay minerals, and mainly Montmorillonite (Mt) are attracting considerable interest in food packaging because of the improvements developed in mechanical and barrier properties. Hence, the present work aim to assess the toxicity of four Montmorillonite-based clay minerals, an unmodified clay, Cloisite®Na+ (CNa+), and three modified Mt clays: Cloisite®30B (C30B), a commercial clay, and Clay1 and Clay2, two novel modified organoclays developed by the Packaging, Transport, & Logistics Research Institute (ITENE). First, the cytotoxic effects were studied in the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). In addition, the potential mutagenicity of the clays was evaluated by the Ames test. Clay1 did not induce any cytotoxic effects in HUVEC, although it exhibited potential mutagenicity in TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain. In contrast, Clay2 produced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells but no mutagenicity was recorded. However, CNa+ was not cytotoxic neither mutagenic. And finally, C30B showed positive results in both assays. Therefore, results showed that clay minerals have a different toxicity profile and a case by case toxicity evaluation is required.

  2. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Latham, T.; McConnell, D.; Frye, M.; Hunt, J.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Ruppel, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Collett, T.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand

  3. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  4. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  5. Lunar drill and test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrington, David W.; Ardoin, Didier C.; Alexander, Stephen G.; Rowland, Philip N.; Vastakis, Frank N.; Linsey, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experimental lunar drill and a facility to test the drill under simulated lunar conditions is described. The drill utilizes a polycrystalline diamond compact drag bit and an auger to mechanically remove cuttings from the hole. The drill will be tested in a vacuum chamber and powered through a vacuum seal by a drive mechanism located above the chamber. A general description of the design is provided followed by a detailed description and analysis of each component. Recommendations for the further development of the design are included.

  6. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-04-27

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  7. Drilling the ``perfect'' well

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-01

    In northeastern British Columbia, near Fort St. John, Calahoo Petroleum is chasing the elusive finger channels of a vast alluvial fan formed by runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The Cadomin formation is a thin, shallow, tight Cretaceous sandstore lying about 1,150m below the surface and loaded with gas at virgin pressure. Reserves are estimated at 3 Bcf per section. The formation is extremely fragile, and subject to damage if drilled improperly. Pores are lined with a thin layer of kaolinite, which when invaded will flocculate and clog pore throats, reducing permeability is estimated at 1 to 2 md, and wells that strike a channel can produce up to 3 MMcf/d of gas. Miss the sweet spot in the channel, and the best one can hope for is 0.5 md and 0.5 MMcf/d of gas. Finding the channels is a real challenge. There are only a few 2D spec seismic lines criss-crossing the play, few offset wells to correlate and a blanket of shallow coal seams above the Cadomin that tunes the seismic image and makes interpretation difficult. The combination of limited formation data and drilling challenges presents a complex set of problems. The paper discusses these challenges and what Calahoo is doing to meet them using a multidisciplinary team approach.

  8. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  9. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  10. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's rules... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... from China. For further information concerning the conduct of this proceeding and rules of...

  11. Visualization of Stress Distribution on Ultrasonic Vibration Aided Drilling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Hiromi; Uehara, Yusuke; Okada, Manabu; Horiuchi, Tomio; Hara, Keisuke

    The ultrasonically assisted machining is suitable to achieve sub-millimeter drilling on difficult-to-cut materials such as ceramics, hardened steel, glass and heat-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to observe the high-frequency and micron-scale phenomenon of ultrasonic cutting. In this report, high speed camera based on photoelastic analysis realized the visualization of stress distribution on drilling process. For the conventional drilling, the stress distribution diagram showed the intensive stress occurred under the chisel because the chisel edge of drill produces large plastic deformation. On the other hand, the ultrasonic drilling produced spread stress distribution and stress boundary far away from the chisel. Furthermore, chipping or cracking of inner wall of silica glass was influenced considerably by cutting fluid.

  12. Gulf Canada moves ahead with unique drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1982-12-01

    Describes a system developed for Gulf's Beaufort Sea exploration program, which consists of a mobile arctic caisson (MAC), conical drilling unit (CDU), 2 icebreakers, and 2 supply boats, all designed for heavy ice conditions. The MAC will operate in water depths between 60 and 110 ft, while the CDU is destined for deeper waters. The CDU, a circular barge with a special ice-deflecting hull, has a main hull angle sloping at 31 degrees to deflect ice downward. The MAC will replace conventional artificial islands. The 2 icebreakers' primary function is to manage the ice surrounding the drilling units, protecting the drilling system and providing an escort to new well sites. In addition to moving bulk materials and equipment from the northern supply base to the drilling units, the vessels will help in anchoring or setting the drilling units.

  13. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  16. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling requirements. 250.1605 Section 250... Operations § 250.1605 Drilling requirements. (a) Lessees of OCS sulphur leases shall conduct drilling... this part, as appropriate. (b) Fitness of drilling unit. (1) Drilling units shall be capable...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  5. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is...

  9. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7004 Drill mast. Persons shall not be on a mast while the drill-bit is in operation...

  11. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  12. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  13. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  14. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS) :

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Gaither, Katherine N.; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Costin, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  15. Drilling disturbance and constraints on the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene boundary carbon isotope excursion in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, P. N.; Thomas, E.

    2014-08-01

    The onset of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE; about 56 million years ago) was geologically abrupt but it is debated whether it took thousands of years or was effectively instantaneous. A significant new record of the onset of the CIE was published by Wright and Schaller (2013) who claimed that it could be resolved across 13 annual layers in a drill core through the Marlboro Clay at Millville, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 174X). Supporting evidence of similar layering was also reported from another New Jersey drill site, Wilson Lake B, and a photograph of the Marlboro Clay in outcrop. Such a short duration would imply an instantaneous perturbation of the atmosphere and surface ocean, and the impact of a comet or asteroid as the likely cause. However it was suggested by Pearson and Nicholas (2014) from the published photographs that the layers in the Marlboro Clay could be artifacts of drilling disturbance (so-called "biscuiting", wherein the formation is fractured into layers or "biscuits" and drilling mud is injected in between). Here we report new observations on the cores which support that interpretation, including concentric grooves on the surfaces of the biscuits caused by spinning in the bit, micro-fracturing at their edges, and injected drilling mud. We re-interpret the outcrop evidence as showing joints rather than sedimentary layers. We argue that foraminifer concentrations in the sediments are far too high for the layers to be annually deposited in turbid waters at depths of 40-70 m, indicating that the onset of the CIE in the Marlboro Clay likely took on the order of millennia, not years. Re-coring of Millville to minimize drilling disturbance and allow a higher resolution study of the carbon isotope excursion is highly desirable.

  16. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  17. Interaction of polymer with clays.

    SciTech Connect

    Auvray, L.; Lal, J.

    1999-07-02

    Normally synthetic well defined monodisperse discotic laponite clays are known to form a gel phase at mass concentrations as low as a few percent in distilled water. Hydrosoluble polymer polyethylene oxide was added to this intriguing clay system, it was observed that it either prevents gelation or slows it down extremely depending on the polymer weight, concentration or the laponite concentration. Small Angle Neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study these systems because only by isotopic labelling can the structure of the adsorbed polymer layers be determined. The contrast variation technique is specifically used to determine separately the different partial structure factors of the clay and polymer. In this way the signal of the adsorbed chains is separated from the signal of the free chains.

  18. Energy week `96: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The papers of Section 1, Drilling Technology, relate to advanced materials for downhole tools, underbalanced drilling, horizontal drilling technology/new trajectory control device, horizontal drilling HP/HT well control, advances in drill bits, slim-hole drill bits and tubulars, novel/scientific drilling, and coiled tubing/slim-hole drilling/short radius. The topics of Section 2, Ocean Engineering, include marine pollution and diving equipment. Section 3, Petroleum Production Technology, relate to what`s new in regulations and standards in petroleum production. Papers in Section 4, Offshore and Arctic Operations, cover offshore platforms, floating production systems, offshore pipelines, offshore construction and installation, offshore facilities, and environmental and safety issues. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. MAX--An Interactive Computer Program for Teaching Identification of Clay Minerals by X-ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Connie K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses MAX, an interactive computer program for teaching identification of clay minerals based on standard x-ray diffraction characteristics. The program provides tutorial-type exercises for identification of 16 clay standards, self-evaluation exercises, diffractograms of 28 soil clay minerals, and identification of nonclay minerals. (MDH)

  20. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242