Science.gov

Sample records for cleaner shipping trade

  1. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  2. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  3. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  4. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  5. 15 CFR 50.30 - Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shipping statistics. 50.30 Section 50.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... THE CENSUS § 50.30 Fee structure for foreign trade and shipping statistics. (a) The Bureau of the Census is willing to furnish on a cost basis foreign trade and shipping statistics provided there is...

  6. Automated Detection of Anomalous Shipping Manifests to Identify Illicit Trade

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2013-11-12

    We describe an approach to analyzing trade data which uses clustering to detect similarities across shipping manifest records, classification to evaluate clustering results and categorize new unseen shipping data records, and visual analytics to provide to support situation awareness in dynamic decision making to monitor and warn against the movement of radiological threat materials through search, analysis and forecasting capabilities. The evaluation of clustering results through classification and systematic inspection of the clusters show the clusters have strong semantic cohesion and offer novel ways to detect transactions related to nuclear smuggling.

  7. 77 FR 28569 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...; Gulf Ship, LLC, (Shipbuilding), Gulfport, MS The Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC (Gulf Ship), located in Gulfport, Mississippi. The Gulf Ship facility is located within Site 3 of FTZ 92....

  8. 77 FR 59890 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Ship, LLC (Shipbuilding); Gulfport, MS On May 10, 2012, the Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc... (FTZ) Board on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC, within FTZ 92--Site 3, in Gulfport, Mississippi....

  9. Potential effects of LNG trade shift on transfer of ballast water and biota by ships.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Kimberly K; Muirhead, Jim R; Minton, Mark S; Carney, Katharine J; Miller, A Whitman; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2017-02-15

    As the US natural gas surplus grows, so does the prospect of establishing new trade partnerships with buyers abroad, a process that has major consequences for global ship movement and ballast water delivery. Since US annual imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) peaked in 2004-2007, the country is rapidly transitioning from net importer to net exporter of LNG. Combining multiple datasets, we estimated changes in the associated flux of ships' ballast water to the US during 2015-2040, using existing scenarios for projected exports of domestic LNG by ships. Our analysis of the current market (2015) scenario predicts an approximate 90-fold annual increase in LNG-related ballast water discharge to the US by 2040 (42millionm(3)), with the potential to be even greater under high oil prices. We also described changes in geographic connectivity related to trade direction. These findings highlight how 21(st) century global energy markets could dramatically alter opportunities for seaborne introductions and invasions by nonnative species.

  10. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Older types of window cleaners may contain: Ammonia Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol Methanol New types of window cleaners ... pain Vomiting Vomiting blood HEART AND BLOOD Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly LUNGS AND AIRWAYS ...

  11. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  12. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A. I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved, while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario (ship fuel sulfur content of 2.7%) with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold the present-day fuel sulfur content (i.e. 5.4%) elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced effective radiative forcing (ERF) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the ERF to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing international treaties, could cause detrimental side-effects, and could be classified as geoengineering.

  13. Climate and air quality trade-offs in altering ship fuel sulfur content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, A.-I.; Laakso, A.; Schmidt, A.; Kokkola, H.; Kuokkanen, T.; Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laakso, L.; Korhonen, H.

    2013-08-01

    Aerosol particles from shipping emissions both cool the climate and cause adverse health effects. The cooling effect is, however, declining because of shipping emission controls aiming to improve air quality. We used an aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to test whether by altering ship fuel sulfur content, the present-day aerosol-induced cooling effect from shipping could be preserved while at the same time reducing premature mortality rates related to shipping emissions. We compared the climate and health effects of a present-day shipping emission scenario with (1) a simulation with strict emission controls in the coastal waters (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1%) and twofold ship fuel sulfur content compared to current global average of 2.7% elsewhere; and (2) a scenario with global strict shipping emission controls (ship fuel sulfur content of 0.1% in coastal waters and 0.5% elsewhere) roughly corresponding to international agreements to be enforced by the year 2020. Scenario 1 had a slightly stronger aerosol-induced radiative flux perturbation (RFP) from shipping than the present-day scenario (-0.43 W m-2 vs. -0.39 W m-2) while reducing premature mortality from shipping by 69% (globally 34 900 deaths avoided per year). Scenario 2 decreased the RFP to -0.06 W m-2 and annual deaths by 96% (globally 48 200 deaths avoided per year) compared to present-day. A small difference in radiative effect (global mean of 0.04 W m-2) in the coastal regions between Scenario 1 and the present-day scenario imply that shipping emission regulation in the existing emission control areas should not be removed in hope of climate cooling. Our results show that the cooling effect of present-day emissions could be retained with simultaneous notable improvements in air quality, even though the shipping emissions from the open ocean clearly have a significant effect on continental air quality. However, increasing ship fuel sulfur content in the open ocean would violate existing

  14. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... or breathes in its fumes. These cleaners contain chlorine and acids. Chlorine is more likely than the acids to cause ... are: Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  15. Evaluating the combined effects of ballast water management and trade dynamics on transfers of marine organisms by ships.

    PubMed

    Carney, Katharine J; Minton, Mark S; Holzer, Kimberly K; Miller, A Whitman; McCann, Linda D; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW) prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE), which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore). Studies have found BWE to generally reduce the abundance of organisms, and the amount of water exchanged has been estimated at 96-100%. Despite its widespread use, the overall effect of this management strategy on net propagule supply through time has not been explored. Here, temporal changes in zooplankton concentrations and the volume of BW discharged in Chesapeake Bay, U.S. were evaluated, comparing pre-management era and post-management era time periods. Chesapeake Bay is a large port system that receives extensive BW discharge, especially from bulk cargo vessels (bulkers) that export coal overseas. For bulkers arriving from overseas, mean zooplankton concentrations of total and coastal indicator taxa in BW did not decline between pre- (1993-2000) and post management (2012-2013) eras, when controlling for season and sampling method. Moreover, bulkers discharged 21 million tonnes (82% of total for Chesapeake Bay) of overseas BW in 2013, representing a 374% increase in volume when compared to 2005. The combination of BW discharge volume and zooplankton concentration data indicates that (a) net propagule supply by bulkers has increased since BWE began in Chesapeake Bay; and (b) changes in vessel behaviour and trade have contributed strongly to this outcome. Specifically, the coal-driven increase in BW discharge volume from 2005-2013, concurrent with the onset of BWE regulations, worked to counteract intended results from BW

  16. Evaluating the combined effects of ballast water management and trade dynamics on transfers of marine organisms by ships

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Katharine J.; Minton, Mark S.; Holzer, Kimberly K.; Miller, A. Whitman; McCann, Linda D.; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW) prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE), which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore). Studies have found BWE to generally reduce the abundance of organisms, and the amount of water exchanged has been estimated at 96–100%. Despite its widespread use, the overall effect of this management strategy on net propagule supply through time has not been explored. Here, temporal changes in zooplankton concentrations and the volume of BW discharged in Chesapeake Bay, U.S. were evaluated, comparing pre-management era and post-management era time periods. Chesapeake Bay is a large port system that receives extensive BW discharge, especially from bulk cargo vessels (bulkers) that export coal overseas. For bulkers arriving from overseas, mean zooplankton concentrations of total and coastal indicator taxa in BW did not decline between pre- (1993–2000) and post management (2012–2013) eras, when controlling for season and sampling method. Moreover, bulkers discharged 21 million tonnes (82% of total for Chesapeake Bay) of overseas BW in 2013, representing a 374% increase in volume when compared to 2005. The combination of BW discharge volume and zooplankton concentration data indicates that (a) net propagule supply by bulkers has increased since BWE began in Chesapeake Bay; and (b) changes in vessel behaviour and trade have contributed strongly to this outcome. Specifically, the coal-driven increase in BW discharge volume from 2005–2013, concurrent with the onset of BWE regulations, worked to counteract intended results

  17. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  18. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  19. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  20. Shipping Light: The Case-Oil Trade to Asia, 1870-1915 and Origins of the Supertanker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Robert Lloyd

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the origin and evolution of the America-to-Asia oil shipping business. Originally shipped in tin cans, two to a wooden case, the industry was revolutionized by the development of bulk tankers. Discusses the technological challenges faced by these vessels, safety concerns, and early competition from Russia. (MJP)

  1. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  2. Qualification of environmentally friendly cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    De Marquis, G.; Lopez, E.P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has traditionally used chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents for general degreasing applications. Many of these solvents have been labeled by the Federal Government as ozone depleting chemicals and as toxic and/or suspected carcinogens. As a result, these solvents will no longer be recommended for use within the DOE weapons complex. There are three major classes of materials that are of concern for cleaning: organics, metals and ceramics. Each of these materials has its own special cleaning problems. Solvents that were used in the past, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were extremely efficient at removing everything from oils and greases to salts without leaving corrosive residues or permanently absorbing into the materials. These traditional degreasing solvents were essentially ``all-inone`` cleaners: quick, reliable, and easy to use. Unfortunately, a ``drop-in`` cleaner for such a wide variety of materials and contaminants will probably never be identified. So far, it has been difficult to identify environmentally conscious cleaners that clean as well as TCE and TCA. Most alternative cleaners require more volume to do the job, and also require longer exposure to get the job done. With these things in mind, we are hoping to identify and qualify new cleaners that will take care of general classes of materials.

  3. Precision aqueous cleaner for RSRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, D. E.; Keen, J. M.; Doan, P. A.; Deweese, C. D.; Burns, H. D., Jr.; Vickers, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents such as freon and 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) are both environmental and physiological hazards which deplete stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are the primary degreasing solvents (vapor, vat, and hand operations) in redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) manufacturing. Due to the mandates of the Clean Air Act, substitutes must be identified for RSRM cleaning processes. The initial phase of laboratory testing identified candidate cleaners to replace 1,1,1 trichloroethane for cleaning, potentially reducing annual TCA consumption by 800,000 lbs. This paper describes RSRM testing which elucidated the effects of several interdependent variable including: definition of surface cleanliness criteria, validation of cleaning power of new candidates, the effect of immersion cleaning versus spray cleaning on cleaning, any effect of the cleaner and/or inhibitor upon bondline aging, and compatibility of the cleaners with nonmetallic tooling and processing materials.

  4. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  5. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  7. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  8. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  9. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  10. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section 750.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. Under some circumstances, you may use...

  11. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  12. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  13. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  16. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  17. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ALTERNATIVE METAL FINISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method applied to eliminate or significantly reduce the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant released to the environment. The emphasis of cleaner technologies is on process changes that can prevent poll...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  19. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  1. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  2. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  3. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Biegert, L.; Olsen, B.; Weber, B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10 % R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50 % R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on the chemical composition of TCA (1,1,1 trichloroethane) replacement solvents. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene-containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  4. Metal-detergent/cleaner compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hindin, B.; Ventresca, C.

    1994-01-14

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC), located at the Newark Air Force Base (NAFB) in Newark, Ohio, repairs and services inertial navigation and guidance equipment for the United States Air Force and other Department of Defense (DoD) agencies. Until recently, AGMC has used large quantities of environmentally unfriendly, ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) such as CFC-113 or 1,1,1 Trichloroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners. This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility of using aqueous cleaners to replace the ODCs without causing unacceptable degradation of metal components. A total of 15 metals and 7 aqueous or semiaqueous cleaners were evaluated. The results show that aqueous cleaners can be used to replace traditional ODCs in both ultrasonic and soak cleaning processes with one major limitation. This limitation is that no single aqueous or semiaqueous cleaner studied in this program was able to replace CFC-113 for cleaning all metals. Aqueous cleaners must be matched to the specific metal that is being cleaned. Compatibility criteria and compatibility tables were established for determining metal/cleaner pairs that can be used without causing unacceptable degradation of the metal surfaces.

  5. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs; Ren, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly.

  6. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  7. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  8. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  9. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  10. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.100 - Aircraft and boat cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft and boat cleaners. 3201.100 Section 3201.100... Designated Items § 3201.100 Aircraft and boat cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Aircraft and boat cleaners are... interior and exterior of aircraft and/or boats. (2) Aircraft and boat cleaners for which Federal...

  12. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  13. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  14. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  15. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  16. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  17. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  18. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  19. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  20. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46...

  1. Coal trade means shipbuilders' goldmine

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, J.

    1980-03-01

    Nowhere is the advent of a new international trade in coal more important than in the shipping industry. Since the middle of the last decade the world shipping industry has been in the doldrums. As the world switches slowly away from oil, the trade in coal probably will increase dramatically. As it does, the structure of the trade will change. Much of the coal will be shipped by water. During the past decade, US influence declined as the energy crisis changed the nature of the trade away from metallurgical coals to thermal coals. Shipping experts predict the dry bulk carriers that are used for coal, grain, and iron ore (a commodity whose trade is expected to increase) will replace the oil tankers as the most-important class of ships on the high seas by the year 2000.

  2. Substitutes for ozone depleting aerosol electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricants. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bevilacqua, P.; Clark, K.G.

    1996-01-24

    With the production of Class I Ozone Depleting Substances discontinued as of January 1996, it became necessary to identify suitable replacements for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethane (TCA) based electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricant products. Two hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-141b) blends were identified as substitutes and recommended for interim use.

  3. Ship Tracks

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

  4. Aerosol filtration efficiency of in-duct air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, J.T.; Ensor, D.S.; Sparks, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the evaluation of the fractional efficiency of several common ventilation air cleaners. The air cleaners included fiberglass furnace filters, paper-media filters, and electrostatically charged fiber cleaners. Results showed that filtration efficiency is highly particle size dependent over a 0.01-10 micrometer size range. Filtration efficiency was also seen to be dependent upon flow rate and the dust load condition of the air cleaner.

  5. Aqueous Alkaline Cleaners: An Alternative to Organic Solvents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    74 7.10 Econom ics ............................................. 75 7.11 Alkaline Cleaners vs. Terpene Cleaners...the financial burden of waste disposal. A previous study25 was performed by USACERL to determine if semi-aqueous terpene cleaner could be used as a...organic soivents. 5. Discuss results based on research. 6. Contrast the results of this study with the previous work examining terpene -based cleaners. 25

  6. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  14. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  15. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  16. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  17. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  18. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.104 - Metal cleaners and corrosion removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metal cleaners and corrosion removers. 3201.104... FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.104 Metal cleaners and corrosion removers. (a... from metal surfaces. (2) Metal cleaners and corrosion removers for which Federal preferred...

  5. Tobacco smoke removal with room air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Olander, L; Johansson, J; Johansson, R

    1988-12-01

    The ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke has been studied. Thirty-one air cleaners were tested. Various air-cleaning devices were used, ie, electrostatic precipitators, electret fiber filters, ionizers, activated carbon, impregnated alumina, ionizing lamps, and an electron generator. The airflow rates were in the range of 0-500 m3/h. The measurements covered particle sizes of 0.01-7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrogen cyanide. No formal standard procedure exists for testing room air cleaners; therefore the tests were made in the following way. Tobacco smoke was generated and mixed in a closed room. The room air cleaner was started, and the decay rates for the gases and particles were measured. The results were calculated as equivalent airflow rates, ie, the clean airflow rate causing the same decay rate for contaminant concentrations in a room. The equivalent airflow rates were 0-360 m3/h. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionizers was also measured. One general conclusion was that it is much more difficult to remove gases than particles.

  6. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  7. Ship Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  8. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  9. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section 8b... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license... employment on ships under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  10. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section 8b... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license... employment on ships under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  11. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section 8b... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license... employment on ships under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  12. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section 8b... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license... employment on ships under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  13. 15 CFR 8b.15 - Employment on ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment on ships. 8b.15 Section 8b... Practices § 8b.15 Employment on ships. No qualified handicapped individual possessing an appropriate license... employment on ships under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  14. Modern Maritime Trade Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    intergovernmental organizations impose both immediate and long term penalties for an enemy. Finally, tools such as cyber attacks and GPS spoofing ...Exclusion Zones to interfere with shipping networks, and GPS jamming or spoofing of merchant vessels are discussed and analyzed for potential...SUBJECT TERMS Maritime Trade Warfare, Commerce Warfare, China, Cyber, GPS , Jamming, Spoofing , Maritime Interdiction, Exclusion Zone. 16. SECURITY

  15. 7 CFR 2902.55 - Ink removers and cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ink removers and cleaners. 2902.55 Section 2902.55... Items § 2902.55 Ink removers and cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemical products designed to remove ink, haze, glaze, and other residual ink contaminants from the surfaces of equipment, such as rollers,...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  19. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  20. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    The CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory* initiative is a distributed network for research on complex environmental systems that focuses on the intersecting water-related issues of both the CUAHSI and CLEANER communities. It emphasizes research on the nation's water resources related to human-dominated natural and built environments. The network will be comprised of: interacting field sites with an integrated cyberinfrastructure; a centralized technical resource staff and management infrastructure to support interdisciplinary research through data collection from advanced sensor systems, data mining and aggregation from multiple sources and databases; cyber-tools for analysis, visualization, and predictive multi-scale modeling that is dynamically driven. As such, the network will transform 21st century workforce development in the water-related intersection of environmental science and engineering, as well as enable substantial educational and engagement opportunities for all age levels. The scientific goal and strategic intent of the CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Network is to transform our understanding of the earth's water cycle and associated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporal scales-enabling quantitative forecasts of critical water-related processes, especially those that affect and are affected by human activities. This strategy will develop scientific and engineering tools that will enable more effective adaptive approaches for resource management. The need for the network is based on three critical deficiencies in current abilities to understand large-scale environmental processes and thereby develop more effective management strategies. First we lack basic data and the infrastructure to collect them at the needed resolution. Second, we lack the means to integrate data across scales from different media (paper records, electronic worksheets, web-based) and sources (observations, experiments, simulations). Third, we lack sufficiently accurate

  1. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  2. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  3. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (<20 mm total length) were rarely (2 %) observed being cleaned in 20 min observations compared with larger damselfishes (58 %). Individual damselfish that were cleaned were significantly larger than the median size of the surrounding nearby non-cleaned conspecifics; this was consistent across four species. The selection by settlement-stage fish of a microhabitat adjacent to cleaner wrasse in the laboratory, despite only being rarely cleaned in the natural environment, suggests that even rare cleaning events and/or indirect benefits may drive their settlement choices. This behaviour may also explain the decreased abundance of young fishes on reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been experimentally removed. This study reinforces the potentially important role of

  4. Ship Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  5. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and... International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export (``EFS''), 102 E 3rd Avenue, Newark, NJ 07104-2706... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management;...

  6. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day! Air ... or try to delay using them when poor air quality is forecast. Pesticides Days when particle pollution is ...

  7. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  8. 16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL' CLEANER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL'- CLEANER FOR BUCKWHEAT, AND GRAIN CHUTES. GRAIN ELEVATOR TURN-AROUND AT BASE. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  9. LEAD CLEANER CELLS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. NOTE SMALL HANDWHEELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEAD CLEANER CELLS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. NOTE SMALL HANDWHEELS FOR GATE VALVES USED TO ADJUST FLOW BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL CELLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  10. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. Pesticide Reduction Campaign: Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. 22. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF RACK CLEANER & LOWER PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF RACK CLEANER & LOWER PART OF GANTRY (Drawing 49218-59008, Sheet 8) - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  13. Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in the center. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  14. Replacing Chlorinated-Solvent-Based Cleaners And Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Harley; Davidson, Fred

    1995-01-01

    Brief report describes tests conducted to assess feasibility of using selected chemicals as replacements for selected cleaners, primers, and adhesives containing chlorinated solvents. Cleaners, primers, and adhesives in question used in bonding insulating material in steel cases of solid-fuel rocket motors. Necessary to phase out use of chlorinated solvents because of concerns over toxicity and adverse effects on ozone layer in upper atmosphere.

  15. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  16. Towards cleaner technologies via heterogeneous catalytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, M.; Lednor, P.W.; Grift, C.J.G. van der

    1995-12-31

    In order to solve the environmental problems of many conventional processes and to secure the future of the chemical industry, a great deal of today`s research efforts is devoted to develop cleaner technologies. Oxidation/reduction is simply one of the most important tools to achieve such targets. On one hand, the challenging task is to develop such processes, where molecular oxygen can be economically utilized thereby minimising waste and/or the number of process steps. On the other hand, effluents already formed have to be efficiently treated to end up in products harmless for the environment. Both aspects are being actively pursued within Shell, for which examples will be given. Development and application of a versatile heterogeneous catalyst system will be discussed, that can be used to transform lower olefins to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone derivatives with very high, well above 90% selectivities in a gasphase oxidation process, as well as to effectively reduce nitrogen oxides in effluent gases.

  17. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf" vacuum cleaner has been used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating percent removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner

  18. The survival and recovery of bacteria in vacuum cleaner dust.

    PubMed

    Haysom, I W; Sharp, K

    2003-03-01

    The possibility exists that environmental dust could be a source of gastro-intestinal infection in the domestic environment and that the causative microbes are collected during vacuum cleaning. This study examines the survival of total bacterial populations, Enterobacteriaceae and salmonella species in vacuum cleaner dust in vitro and in use. Total counts remain constant at around 10(6)-10(8) colony forming units (cfu) g-1 for at least 60 days. Enterobacteriaceae showed only a slight decline over the same period. Recovery of salmonellae artificially inoculated into vacuum dust was dose and time dependent: even relatively small inocula (< 100 cfu g-1) were recoverable more than one month after inoculation. Questionnaires and vacuum cleaner dust samples were received from 76 households. A significant association was found between total bacterial counts and whether the household was in a rural or urban situation and the number of people in the household. No association was found between total bacterial counts and the number of children in the household, the presence of pets, wearing shoes indoors, the makes, model and age of the vacuum cleaner, the type of dust collector or dust bag, how often the vacuum cleaner was used and the length of time between sample collection and microbiological testing. Salmonella species were isolated from vacuum cleaner dust from three of the 76 households although no factors could be identified linking the homes. This study shows that vacuum cleaners are effective collectors and reservoirs of microbial contamination and that these contaminants are able to survive for up to two months. Vacuum cleaner dust could thus be a useful indicator of environmental contamination in the home.

  19. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  20. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  1. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  2. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  3. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  4. Dynamic monitoring of the dust pickup efficiency of vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Trakumas, Saulius; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a new method that uses an optical aerosol photometer for dynamically monitoring dust pickup efficiency during vacuuming. In the first stage of this study the new method was compared with built-in dirt sensors installed by vacuum cleaner manufacturers. Through parallel testing it has been shown that the widely available built-in dirt sensors are not sensitive enough to register small (< 53 microm) dust particles. Therefore, only the optical photometer was used in the rest of the experiments of this study to monitor the dust pickup efficiency while the vacuum cleaner was operated with different nozzles on clean and soiled carpet and vinyl sheet flooring. This method also was used to monitor dust pickup efficiency when vacuuming carpets originating from lead-contaminated homes. The dust pickup efficiencies obtained with the optical aerosol photometer have been compared with the surface lead concentrations found during different stages of cleaning. Results indicate that the dust mass concentration registered with the optical aerosol photometer at the nozzle outlet correlates well with the dust mass collected in the vacuum cleaner filter bag and with the surface lead level. Therefore, dynamic dust pickup monitoring can provide valuable information about the efficiency of cleaning when a vacuum cleaner is used. This suggests that a small aerosol photometer similar to a light-scattering smoke detector would be beneficial in vacuum cleaners used for cleaning surfaces contaminated with leaded dust and biological particles (including allergens).

  5. Benefits of two mitigation strategies for container vessels: cleaner engines and cleaner fuels.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Yusuf; Giordano, Michael; Gutierrez, James; Welch, William A; Asa-Awuku, A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2012-05-01

    Emissions from ocean-going vessels (OGVs) are a significant health concern for people near port communities. This paper reports the emission benefits for two mitigation strategies, cleaner engines and cleaner fuels, for a 2010 container vessel. In-use emissions were measured following International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. The overall in-use nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission factor was 16.1 ± 0.1 gkW(-1) h(-1), lower than the Tier 1 certification (17 gkW(-1) h(-1)) and significantly lower than the benchmark value of 18.7 gkW(-1) h(-1) commonly used for estimating emission inventories. The in-use particulate matter (PM(2.5)) emission was 1.42 ± 0.04 gkW(-1) h(-1) for heavy fuel oil (HFO) containing 2.51 wt % sulfur. Unimodal (∼30 nm) and bimodal (∼35 nm; ∼75 nm) particle number size distributions (NSDs) were observed when the vessel operated on marine gas oil (MGO) and HFO, respectively. First-time emission measurements during fuel switching (required 24 nautical miles from coastline) showed that concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and particle NSD took ∼55 min to reach steady-state when switching from MGO to HFO and ∼84 min in the opposite direction. Therefore, if OGVs commence fuel change at the regulated boundary, then vessels can travel up to 90% of the distance to the port before steady-state values are re-established. The transient behavior follows a classic, nonlinear mixing function driven by the amount of fuel in day tank and the fuel consumption rate. Hence, to achieve the maximum benefits from a fuel change regulation, fuel switch boundary should be further increased to provide the intended benefits for the people living near the ports.

  6. Development of a high-capacity extractor cleaner for cotton stripper harvesters - Machine design and optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers have used extractor type cleaners for many years to remove large foreign material from harvested seed cotton. These machines are commonly referred to as "field cleaners" and are similar in design and operation to stick machines used in gins. The field cleaners used on modern cotton ...

  7. Development of a high-capacity extractor cleaner for cotton strippers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers have used extractor type cleaners for many years to remove large foreign material from harvested seed cotton. These machines are commonly referred to as "field cleaners" and are similar in design and operation to stick machines used in gins. The field cleaners used on modern cotton ...

  8. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: fiber quality analysis after 3rd year of field testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After two years of field testing a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner, the Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC), a final year of field evaluation was conducted at commercial cotton gin in West Texas located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Lubbock, Texas.The cotton lint cleaner was tested in a ...

  9. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  10. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or to multiple surface types. They are available both in concentrated and ready-to-use forms. (b... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean...

  11. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or to multiple surface types. They are available both in concentrated and ready-to-use forms. (b... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean...

  12. RESIDENTIAL AIR CLEANERS: A SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication will provide up-to-date information on the types of air cleaners available to the consumer, provides available information on their general effectiveness in removing indoor air pollutants, discusses some factors to consider in deciding whether to use an air-clean...

  13. Cleaner fish drives local fish diversity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Murphy, Jan Maree; Choat, J Howard

    2003-01-08

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse habitats in the world, yet our understanding of the processes affecting their biodiversity is limited. At the local scale, cleaner fish are thought to have a disproportionate effect, in relation to their abundance and size, on the activity of many other fish species, but confirmation of this species' effect on local fish diversity has proved elusive. The cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus has major effects on fish activity patterns and may indirectly affect fish demography through the removal of large numbers of parasites. Here we show that small reefs where L. dimidiatus had been experimentally excluded for 18 months had half the species diversity of fish and one-fourth the abundance of individuals. Only fish that move among reefs, however, were affected. These fish include large species that themselves can affect other reef organisms. In contrast, the distribution of resident fish was not affected by cleaner fish. Thus, many fish appear to choose reefs based on the presence of cleaner fish. Our findings indicate that a single small and not very abundant fish has a strong influence on the movement patterns, habitat choice, activity, and local diversity and abundance of a wide variety of reef fish species.

  14. U.S. EPA POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CLEANER PRODUCTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was made at the 2002 annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes, held on May 12-16, 2002 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The presentation covered six pollution prevention and cleaner production tools developed by NRMRL.

  15. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  16. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products formulated specifically for use in cleaning carpets and upholstery, through a dry or wet process, found...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products formulated specifically for use in cleaning carpets and upholstery, through a dry or wet process, found...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... formulated for use as disinfectants. Task-specific cleaning products, such as spot and stain removers... AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... formulated for use as disinfectants. Task-specific cleaning products, such as spot and stain removers... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... formulated for use as disinfectants. Task-specific cleaning products, such as spot and stain removers... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products formulated specifically for use in cleaning carpets and upholstery, through a dry or wet process, found...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products formulated specifically for use in cleaning carpets and upholstery, through a dry or wet process, found...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... formulated for use as disinfectants. Task-specific cleaning products, such as spot and stain removers... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and upholstery cleaners. (a) Definition. (1) Cleaning products formulated specifically for use in cleaning carpets and upholstery, through a dry or wet process, found...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean multiple common household surfaces. This designated item does not include products that...

  6. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  7. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  8. Hospital Ship Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    designed to operate primarily when anchored to reduce the effects of roll. Quantum markets two separate zero speed active roll fin models for small ...ships. Feasibility of scaling fins to the size of the hospital ship requires validation. 3.12 Lifeboats and Liferafts The safety appliances designated ...for Innovation in Ship Design Technical Report Hospital Ship Replacement By Hannah Allison, Christopher Mehrvarzi, Rebecca Piks, Beau Lovdahl

  9. Mega-supramolecules for safer, cleaner fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfield, Julie

    Guided by the statistical mechanics of ring-chain equilibrium, we designed and synthesized polymers that self-assemble into ``mega-supramolecules'' (>=5,000 kg/mol) at low concentration (<=0.3%wt) in hydrocarbon liquids. Experimental results accord with model predictions that end-functional polymers, which distribute among cyclic and linear supramolecules, can form a significant population of mega-supramolecules at low total polymer concentration--if, and only if , the backbones are long (>400 kg/mol) and end-association strength is optimal (16-18kT). Hydrocarbon liquid fuels are the world's dominant power source (34% of global energy consumption). Transportation relies heavily on such liquids, presenting the risk of explosive post-impact fires. The collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 inspired us to revisit polymers for mist control to mitigate post-impact fuel explosions. Rheological and both light and neutron scattering measurements of long end-functional polymers having polycyclooctadiene backbones and acid or amine end groups verify formation of mega-supramolecules. Post-impact flame propagations experiments show that mega-supramolecules control misting. Turbulent flow measurements show that mega-supramolecules reduce drag like ultra-long covalent polymers. With individual building blocks short enough to avoid hydrodynamic chain scission (400

  10. Cleaner production in a remanufacturing process of air compressors.

    PubMed

    Esquer, Javier; Arvayo, Jose Angel; Alvarez-Chavez, Clara Rosalia; Munguia-Vega, Nora Elba; Velazquez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This article provides relevant results of a cleaner production program conducted in a company dedicated to remanufacturing air compressors in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The overall study design was based on an integration of acknowledged cleaner production and pollution prevention programs. Although this kind of program also involves environmental issues, this study focused on occupational health and safety by addressing different aspects of the work environment: ergonomic, physical (noise and lighting), and chemical. Particularly, ergonomic aspects were evaluated through the Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards (MODAPTS) method. For physical aspects, noise and lighting were addressed through Standard No. NOM-011-STPS-2001 and Standard No. NOM-025-STPS-2008 respectively. In addition, chemical aspects were analyzed through material safety data sheets and different search tools. Root causes of each risk were identified, and options to prevent, eliminate, and/or reduce each risk have been provided.

  11. Arctic air may become cleaner as temperatures rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The air in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the air during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the air most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm temperatures, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the air and snow might also become cleaner.

  12. Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image-scoring client reef fish.

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Redouan

    2002-01-01

    Humans are more likely to help those who they have observed helping others previously. Individuals may thus benefit from being altruistic without direct reciprocity of recipients but due to gains in 'image' and associated indirect reciprocity. I suggest, however, that image-scoring individuals may be exploitable by cheaters if pay-offs vary between interactions. I illustrate this point with data on cleaner-client reef fish interactions. I show the following: (i) there is strong variation between cleaners with respect to cheating of clients (i.e. feeding on client tissue instead of parasites); (ii) clients approach cleaners, that they observe cooperating with their current client and avoid cleaners that they observe cheating; (iii) cleaners that cheat frequently are avoided more frequently than more cooperative cleaners (iv) cleaners that cheat frequently behave altruistically towards their smallest client species; (v) altruistic acts are followed by exploitative interactions. Thus, it appears that cleaners indeed have an image score, which selects for cooperative cleaners. However, cheating cleaners use altruism in potentially low-pay-off interactions to deceive and attract image-scoring clients that will be exploited. PMID:12396482

  13. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  14. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  15. Comparative in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of commercial ear cleaners.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Alison; Fazakerley, Jennifer; McEwan, Neil; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ear cleaners against Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis. Single isolates of each organism were incubated in duplicate at 38 degrees C for 30 min with each ear cleaner diluted 1/2 to 1/256 in phosphate-buffered saline. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Malassezia) at 38 degrees C. The lowest dilutions exhibiting 100% antimicrobial efficacy for S. intermedius were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum 1/16; Otoclean 1/4; EpiOtic 1/2; MalAcetic 1/2; and Triz Plus 1/2. The results for P. aeruginosa were Sancerum and Triz Plus 1/16; Cleanaural Dog and EpiOtic 1/8; Otoclean 1/4; and MalAcetic 1/2. Results for M. pachydermatis were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum, Otoclean, EpiOtic and Triz Plus 1/8; and MalAcetic 1/4. Cleanaural Cat, MalAcetic HC and Triz EDTA did not display any antimicrobial activity at any dilution. Antimicrobial activity appeared to be associated with the presence of isopropyl alcohol, parachlorometaxylenol and a low pH. The results of this study may help clinicians make evidence-based decisions when selecting ear cleaners for use in individual cases.

  16. 46 CFR Appendix V to Part 390 - Sample Qualified Trade Affidavit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sample Qualified Trade Affidavit V Appendix V to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. V Appendix V to Part 390—Sample Qualified Trade...

  17. 46 CFR Appendix V to Part 390 - Sample Qualified Trade Affidavit

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sample Qualified Trade Affidavit V Appendix V to Part 390 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Pt. 390, App. V Appendix V to Part 390—Sample Qualified Trade...

  18. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  19. An Arsenal Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    and dental services underway. 5. Disbursing Office In addition to being paperless, the Arsenal Ship is also a cashless ship. The ship does not have...Vending Machines Cashless ship (i.e. Use MARC card) O 10.4.3 Provide Crew Entertainment O 10.4.3.1 Closed Circuit TV Shipboard Multi-Media Resource Center...Administration MARC (Multi-technology Automated Reader Card) O 10.5.2 Distribution of Pay/Banking/Postal Services Shifting to Cashless Services

  20. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  1. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  2. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Michael P.

    1994-02-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  3. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production potential: a case of three industries in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Mlilo, Sipho; Broome, Jeff; Lumbroso, Darren

    The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. The biggest challenge for developing countries is how to retrofit the industrial processes, which at times are based on obsolete technology, within financial, institutional and legal constraints. Processes in closed circuits can reduce water intake substantially and minimise resource input and the subsequent waste thereby reducing pollution of finite fresh water resources. Three industries were studied in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe to identify potential opportunities for reducing water intake and material usage and minimising waste. The industries comprised of a wire galvanising company, soft drink manufacturing and sugar refining industry. The results show that the wire galvanising industry could save up to 17% of water by recycling hot quench water through a cooling system. The industry can eliminate by substitution the use of toxic materials, namely lead and ammonium chloride and reduce the use of hydrochloric acid by half through using an induction heating chamber instead of lead during the annealing step. For the soft drink manufacturing industry water intake could be reduced by 5% through recycling filter-backwash water via the water treatment plant. Use of the pig system could save approximately 12 m 3/month of syrup and help reduce trade effluent fees by Z30/m 3 of “soft drink”. Use of a heat exchanger system in the sugar refining industry can reduce water intake by approximately 57 m 3/100 t “raw sugar” effluent volume by about 28 m 3/100 t “raw sugar”. The water charges would effectively be reduced by 52% and trade effluent fees by Z3384/100 t “raw sugar” (57%). Proper equipment selection, equipment modification and good house-keeping procedures could further help industries reduce water intake and minimise waste.

  4. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in…

  5. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  6. Maritime Trade Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    2009, UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009, 53. 24 Michael C. Grubb, "Merchant Shipping...Maritime Transport 2009. UNCTAD/ RMT /2009, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2009. U. S

  7. The inkjet cleaner "Hurricane"--another GhB recipe.

    PubMed

    Yambo, C M; McFee, R B; Caraccio, T R; McGuigan, M

    2004-12-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is widey used as a sexual enhancement drug, a euphoriant, muscle building agent, a sleep aid, a weight loss agent, and as a date rapeagent. Precursor ingredients such as gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and GHB recipes are available, especially via the Internet. This is a report of an organic inkjet cleaner containing a GHB precursor 1,4-butanediol and butylenegycol. A 26-y-o male fell unconscious during work being unresponsive, with constricted pupils, and convulsing, he did not respond to naloxone. A bottle labeled "Hurricane" was found in his pocket. Five h later the patient awoke and was subsequently discharged with all vitals normal. The patient had recently purchased "Hurricane" as a sleep aid and to treat his panic attacks. It is an organic product with active ingredients similar to ink jet cleaner, the key ingredient being 1,4butanediol, which is metabolized to GHB. In spite of legislative changes restricting GHB, the precursors remain available and continue a public health threat.

  8. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  9. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance - Screening tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extractor type cleaners are used on cotton strippers and in the seed cotton cleaning machinery in the ginning process to remove large foreign material such as burrs and sticks. Previous research on the development of extractor type cleaners focused on machine design and operating parameters that max...

  10. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance - field testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A test was conducted to evaluate the influence of grid bar cross sectional shape on cotton stripper field cleaner performance in terms of cleaning efficiency, seed cotton loss, and fiber and yarn quality. Three field cleaner configurations were tested on a cotton stripper harvester operating under f...

  11. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  12. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  13. [Psychopathology service on ships].

    PubMed

    Nowosielski, Radosław; Mazurek, Tomasz; Florkowski, Antoni

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific engineering services and suitability of candidates for the psychophysical performance. Navy ships are equipped with equipment and weapons are controlled by electronic devices ship and crew. Advanced technology puts high demands on operator. For the ship's staff are recruited soldiers of the psychophysical characteristics predisposing to this kind of action. The paper uses personal experience to work in military units of the Navy, and data from the literature. Terms of sailing ships off the summer season are defined as difficult. The crew during a combat mission felt the risks associated with movements of the ship in difficult meteorological conditions, and associated with the implementation of the task. The development of ship's technical equipment, working in isolated groups, functioning within a limited space, noise, vibration, electromagnetic waves heighten the emotional burden on crew members. Military service on Navy ships require high psycho-physical predisposition, resistance to stress. The crucial factor is proper selection among the candidates based on psychiatric and psychological counseling for military and medical jurisprudence. Also plays a significant role for training doctors and specialists in psychoprophylaxy of military units in the field of mental hygiene.

  14. 77 FR 64576 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... items to be considered include: --Adoption of the agenda; report on credentials. --Decisions of other IMO bodies. --Consideration and adoption of proposed amendments to the Convention. --General review of... Trade Recovery. --Ship/port interface. A. Facilitation of shipments of dangerous cargoes. --Technical...

  15. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2008-10-01

    globally. In certain coastal regions the contributions may be in the range 15 50%. In general we find that ship emissions have a large impact on acidic deposition and surface ozone in western North America, Scandinavia, western Europe, western North Africa and Malaysia/Indonesia. For most of these regions container traffic, the largest emitter by ship type, has the largest impact. This is the case especially for the Pacific and the related container trade routes between Asia and North America. However, the contributions from bulk ships and tank vessels are also significant in the above mentioned impact regions. Though the total ship impact at low latitudes is lower, the tank vessels have a quite large contribution at low latitudes and near the Gulf of Mexico and Middle East. The bulk ships are characterized by large impact in Oceania compared to other ship types. In Scandinavia and north-western Europe, one of the major ship impact regions, the three largest ship types have rather small relative contributions. The impact in this region is probably dominated by smaller ships operating closer to the coast. For emissions in ports impacts on NO2 and SO2 seem to be of significance. For most ports the contribution to the two components is in the range 0.5 5%, for a few ports it exceeds 10%. The approach presented provides an improvement in characterizing fleet operational patterns, and thereby ship emissions and impacts. Furthermore, the study shows where emission reductions can be applied to most effectively minimize the impacts by different ship types.

  16. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2009-03-01

    globally. In certain coastal regions the contributions may be in the range 15-50%. In general we find that ship emissions have a large impact on acidic deposition and surface ozone in Western North America, Scandinavia, Western Europe, western North Africa and Malaysia/Indonesia. For most of these regions container traffic, the largest emitter by ship type, has the largest impact. This is the case especially for the Pacific and the related container trade routes between Asia and North America. However, the contributions from bulk ships and tank vessels are also significant in the above mentioned impact regions. Though the total ship impact at low latitudes is lower, the tank vessels have a quite large contribution at low latitudes and near the Gulf of Mexico and Middle East. The bulk ships are characterized by large impact in Oceania compared to other ship types. In Scandinavia and north-Western Europe, one of the major ship impact regions, the three largest ship types have rather small relative contributions. The impact in this region is probably dominated by smaller ships operating closer to the coast. For emissions in ports impacts on NO2 and SO2 seem to be of significance. For most ports the contribution to the two components is in the range 0.5-5%, for a few ports it exceeds 10%. The approach presented provides an improvement in characterizing fleet operational patterns, and thereby ship emissions and impacts. Furthermore, the study shows where emission reductions can be applied to most effectively minimize the impacts by different ship types.

  17. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  18. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  19. Total Ship System Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    LONG LEAD PRODUCTION I PROCUREMENT / SUPPORT / (IF REQUIRED) / A PMR *~~~ IA AI COR AWARD (L" d Ship) .. . pi .. ., f X .. = ,,.f A.. ,, .. . . D ...in place of Combat Control. With this convention, the partitioning shown is applicable to all ship types. System of Systems As indicated earlier, the...tablishment of this framework begins with domain analysis, to es- tablish a common foun- dation for specifying system concepts and requirements. Next, in

  20. Faster and cleaner real-time pure shift NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Mauhart, Johannes; Glanzer, Simon; Sakhaii, Peyman; Bermel, Wolfgang; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Real-time pure shift experiments provide highly resolved proton NMR spectra which do not require any special processing. Although being more sensitive than their pseudo 2D counterparts, their signal intensities per unit time are still far below regular NMR spectra. In addition, scalar coupling evolution during the individual data chunks produces decoupling sidebands. Here we show that faster and cleaner real-time pure shift spectra can be obtained through the implementation of two parameter alterations. Variation of the FID chunk lengths between individual transients significantly suppresses decoupling sidebands for any kind of real-time pure shift spectra and thus allows for example the analysis of minor components in compound mixtures. Shifting the excitation frequency between individual scans of real-time slice-selective pure shift spectra increases their sensitivity obtainable in unit time by allowing faster repetitions of acquisitions.

  1. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  2. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  3. Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner – Client Reef Fish Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Essler, Jennifer; Pinto, Ana I.; Wismer, Sharon; Stoinski, Tara; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The insight that animals' cognitive abilities are linked to their evolutionary history, and hence their ecology, provides the framework for the comparative approach. Despite primates renowned dietary complexity and social cognition, including cooperative abilities, we here demonstrate that cleaner wrasse outperform three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orang-utans, in a foraging task involving a choice between two actions, both of which yield identical immediate rewards, but only one of which yields an additional delayed reward. The foraging task decisions involve partner choice in cleaners: they must service visiting client reef fish before resident clients to access both; otherwise the former switch to a different cleaner. Wild caught adult, but not juvenile, cleaners learned to solve the task quickly and relearned the task when it was reversed. The majority of primates failed to perform above chance after 100 trials, which is in sharp contrast to previous studies showing that primates easily learn to choose an action that yields immediate double rewards compared to an alternative action. In conclusion, the adult cleaners' ability to choose a superior action with initially neutral consequences is likely due to repeated exposure in nature, which leads to specific learned optimal foraging decision rules. PMID:23185293

  4. Simulators for Safer Shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Each year one ship out of every five afloat collides with another vessel, rams a dock, or runs a ground. CAORF (Computer Aided Operations Research Facility), designed and built by Sperry Rand Corporation, incorporates technology developed in a wide variety of aerospace simulation and technical training programs. CAORF can be set up to duplicate the exact handling qualities of any vessel under various conditions of wind, tide and current. Currently a dozen different ships can be "plugged in." Bridge instrumentation is typical of modern shipboard equipment including radar, internal and external c.ommunications and new collision avoidance systems. From repetitive operation of simulated ships, MarAd is building a valuable data base for improving marine safety.

  5. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  6. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  7. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at a former dry cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, wh...

  8. Adhesion Performance of Solid Film Lubricants on Substrates Cleaned With Environmentally Compliant Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. B.; Thom, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Solid film adhesion testing was used to determine the effect different environmentally compliant cleaners have on the adhesion properties of solid film lubricants used for several NASA programs. In an action to remove ozone depleting chemicals from aerospace processes, a replacement cleaner must be identified that does not affect the adhesion of solid film lubricants used on flight critical NASA hardware. ASTM D251083 Standard Test Method for Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants was used to evaluate the cleaners. Two different lubricants - Inlox 88 and Boosterlube - were tested using various commercially available cleaners. Inlox 88 is produced by E/M Corporation and is a liquid oxygen compatible lubricant used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine, and Boosterlube is a new lubricant being implemented for use on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. These lubricants were selected because of their specific use on flight critical NASA components. Results of this testing are presented in the paper.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF STACHYBOTRYS REGROWTH ON CONTAMINATED WALLBOARD AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON SURFACE CLEANERS/DISINFECTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of experiments assessing the efficacy of treating mold-contaminated gypsum wallboard with cleaners and/or disinfectants. Although the accepted recommendations for handling Stachybotrys chartarum contaminated gypsum wallboard are removal and replacement...

  10. COMPUTATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PARTICLE FILTERS AND ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses computations on the performance of particle filters and electronic air cleaners (EACs). The collection efficiency of particle filters and ACs is calculable if certain factors can be assumed or calibrated. For fibrous particulate filters, measurement of colle...

  11. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  12. Activity of an alkaline 'cleaner' in the inactivation of the scrapie agent.

    PubMed

    Baier, M; Schwarz, A; Mielke, M

    2004-05-01

    The capacity of a routinely available alkaline cleaner for medical devices to inactivate the causative agent of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) was tested. The co-incubation of brain homogenates, prepared from terminally ill scrapie-infected hamsters, with the cleaner led to the denaturation of misfolded protein as the proteinase K-resistant prion protein was no longer detectable after such treatment. In addition, intra-cerebral inoculation of hamsters with the alkaline cleaner-treated and subsequently neutralized samples reduced the level of infectivity of the material below the limit of detection. This report shows the possibility that a routinely available alkaline cleaner could reduce the infectivity of TSE agents and so minimize the risk of iatrogenic transmission of TSEs by asymptomatic carriers. This study is intended to encourage further investigations in this field.

  13. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    1996-11-01

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and movements that the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull. The first part of the book is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections and wings, and to propellers in uniform flow, with guidance for design and pragmatic analysis of performance. The second part covers the development of unsteady forces arising from operation in nonuniform hull wakes. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. Researchers in ocean technology and naval architecture will find this book appealing.

  14. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    design full- power speed and all on a per shaft basis, plus the pertinent hull form and propulsion data for the similar ships. A sample of this type of...more appropriate. Based on the studies of Hadler and Cheng [10], the hull form chosen for the T-AO 187, the twin-screw open transom design, appears to...Rate Peak-to-Peak Hull Pressure Over Propeller Tip versus Ship Speed for U.S. Navy Oiler, Based on Model Tests ................................... 3

  15. Typical Household Vacuum Cleaners: The Collection Efficiency and Emissions Characteristics for Fine Particles.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Wainman, Thomas; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Goldsmith, Susan

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM25) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2 5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2 5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KC1) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 mg/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 mm in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KC1particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KC1 collection efficiency

  16. Typical household vacuum cleaners: the collection efficiency and emissions characteristics for fine particles.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J; Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Goldsmith, S

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM2.5) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KCl) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130 A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 micrograms/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 micron in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KCl particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KCl

  17. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  18. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  19. Seasonal and geographical differences in cleaner fish activity in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Dieter C.; Sötje, Ilka

    2002-02-01

    Investigations into symbioses may be important in order to analyse the grade of stability in ecosystems. Host-cleaner relationships were investigated in two localities of the Mediterranean Sea: Giglio (Tuscany, Italy) and Banyuls-sur-Mer (France). The cleaner wrasse, Symphodus melanocercus, was the main cleaner. Supplementary cleaners, such as the young of several wrasses, Symphodus mediterraneus, Symphodus ocellatus, Symphodus tinca, Coris julis and Ctenolabrus rupestris, are able to help out in times when there is a shortage of cleaners. Differences between the localities were obvious by a greater fish (host) density in Banyuls, which is probably due to eutrophication and might improve and increase cleaner activities. Regarding two seasons, spring and late summer, the fishes presented a lower degree of activity in Giglio, but a higher one in Banyuls - in late summer compared with spring. The main hosts were Chromis chromis, Symphodus tinca and Coris julis; additionally Diplodus sargus in Banyuls and Apogon imberbis in Giglio. Chromis chromis may be a key host species because of its distribution in large groups in the whole Mediterranean; Coris julis is of similar abundance. Symphodus melanocercus additionally came into contact with Symphodus tinca in order to partake of the food of the peacock wrasse. During cleaning activities, Diplodus sargus and other sparids present hesitant behaviour, where the cleaner probably picks more than parasites (skin, scales?) from the body surface. Apogon imberbis (which prefers dark habitats such as caves) totally rejects the main cleaner but was cleaned exclusively by Coris julis which, unlike Symphodus melanocercus, is regularly present near cave entrances. The investigations may present models of the evolutionary processes on specialised partnerships in ecosystems.

  20. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    web page). v Contents Preface...55 Contents vii... integrated into the new design while reducing the construction cost of the ship. Recommendations We offer both short-term, ship-specific recommendations and

  1. Arginine vasotocin reduces levels of cooperative behaviour in a cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Paitio, José R; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan; Soares, Marta C

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals usually involves investments that often mean a decrease in immediate payoffs, but ensure future benefits. Here we investigated the potential role of the neuropeptides Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) as proximate agents affecting individuals' cooperative levels in the Indo-pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Their 'client' reef fish partners only benefit from interacting if cleaners eat ectoparasites and refrain from gleaning preferred client mucus. Thus, cleaners must control their impulse to eat according to their preference, and eat less preferred items to maintain ongoing interactions and avoid clients' leaving or punishing. We found that solely the experimental transient higher dosage of AVT led to a decrease of cleaners' willingness to feed against their preference, while IT and AVT antagonists had no significant effects. The sole effect of AVT on cleaner's performance may imply a link between AVT's influence and a potential activation of a stress response. Our results confirm the importance of the AVT/AVP system as an agent affecting levels of cooperation, offering a potential mechanistic pathway for the reported flexible service quality that cleaners provide their clients.

  2. Forebrain neuropeptide regulation of pair association and behavior in cooperating cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Grutter, Alexandra S; Paula, José R; André, Gonçalo I; Messias, João P; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Soares, Marta C

    2015-06-01

    Animals establish privileged relationships with specific partners, which are treated differently from other conspecifics, and contribute to behavioral variation. However, there is limited information on the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in the establishment of these privileged ties and their relationship to individual cooperation levels. The Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus often forages in mixed-sex pairs when cleaning fish clients. Intra-couple conflicts often arise during a joint client inspection, which may alter the overall quality of cleaning service provided. Here we tested two hypotheses: a) whether intra-pair association (i.e. association index), measured with joint interspecific cleaning and intraspecific behavior, is correlated with neuroendocrine mechanisms involving forebrain neuropeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and b) whether these neuropeptide level shifts relate to an individual's interspecific service quality. We found that partner support (number of cleaning interactions and tactile stimulation) received by male cleaners increased with association index. When cleaners inspected clients alone, cleaners' cheating decreased with association index for females but not males. AVT levels did not differ according to sex or association level. Forebrain IT levels increased with association index for males, whereas no relationship was found for females. Finally, cleaner cheating varied between sex and forebrain IT levels. Findings indicate that variation in pairs' relationships influences male and female cleaner fish differently and contributes to the variation of brain neuropeptide levels, which is linked to distinct cooperative outcomes.

  3. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources.

  4. The effect of rigid gas permeable lens cleaners on lens parameter stability.

    PubMed

    Carrell, B A; Bennett, E S; Henry, V A; Grohe, R M

    1992-03-01

    The introduction of fluoro-silicone/acrylate rigid lens materials has provided wearers with benefits that include, among others, enhanced surface wettability. However, several reports have associated these lens materials with lens power, base curve radius and center thickness changes over time, especially with long-term use of an abrasive cleaner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of abrasive and non-abrasive cleaners on these specific lens parameters. Twenty-four fluoro-silicone/acrylate lenses, 12 low minus and 12 high minus in power, were cleaned a total of 200 times each. Each lens was cleaned with one of-three different cleaners (1 non-abrasive and 2 abrasive) using one of two cleaning methods; palm of the hand or between the fingers (digital). Lens power was changed on 14/24 lenses (58.3 percent); the primary changes occurred with use of one of the abrasive cleaners. In addition, a slight reduction in center thickness was observed after abrasive cleaner use. Warpage occurred at a much higher rate with the digital cleaning method and with the use of an abrasive cleaner. It was concluded that practitioners should routinely reverify rigid lens power, center thickness and base curve radius; patients should be educated to carefully handle their lenses, notably cleaning them in the palm of the hand.

  5. The Good Ship Lollipop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    A cruise ship converted into a college took students to many foreign countries giving them the opportunity to study other cultures, politics, mores, and histories through their own observations and experiences under the guidance of teachers using a planned curriculum. (JD)

  6. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  7. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners.

    PubMed

    Satti, M Z; Lind, P; Vennervald, B J; Sulaiman, S M; Daffalla, A A; Ghalib, H W

    1996-10-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal cleaners (n = 17), normally exposed adults (n = 31), school children (n = 46) and Sudanese negative controls (n = 48). Previous studies of the same canal cleaners have demonstrated that chronically infected canal cleaners were more resistant to reinfection than newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection was correlated with IgE antibody response, the resistant group of canal cleaners (those who stopped passing ova after treatment) showed a significant positive correlation between intensity of infection and specific IgE to WWH (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.49, P < 0.05) compared with a highly significant negative correlation in the susceptible group (acquired new infection after treatment, Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.94, P < 0.01). Normally exposed adults and school children had significantly less specific IgE to WWH than canal cleaners, while chronically infected canal cleaners had significantly higher levels of specific IgG1 to WWH than newly recruited canal cleaners and school children, and significantly higher levels of specific IgG4 to WWH than school children. There was a significant increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to WWH, 3 months after treatment, in newly recruited canal cleaners and a significant decrease, 1 year after treatment, in normally exposed adults. None of the groups studied after treatment showed a significant change in their specific IgE to WWH

  8. Hardware and circuit design of a vibrational cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fhong Soon, Chin; Thong, Kok Tung; Sek Tee, Kian; Nayan, Nafarizal; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Nurashikin Nordin, Anis

    2016-11-01

    Microtissue can be grown on soft substrates of hydrogel or liquid crystal gel. These gels are adherent to the microtissues and they may interfere fluorescence imaging as background noise due to their absorbance property. A microfluidic vibrational cleaner with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip platform was proposed and developed to remove the residual gel of liquid crystal adhered to the microtissues. The microtissues were placed in a microfluidic chip attaching to a microfluidic vibrational platform. In the system design, two motorised vibrators vibrating attached to a microfluidic platform and generating vibration signals at 148 Hz and 0.89 Grms to clean the microtissues. The acceleration of the vibration increased gradually from 0 to 0.96 Grms when the duty cycle of PWM pulses increased from 50 - 90%. It dropped slightly to 0.89 Grms at 100% duty cycle. Irrigation water valve was designed to control the fluid flow from water pump during cleaning process. Water pumps were included to flush the channels of the microfluidic device. The signals in controlling the pump, motor and valve were linearly proportional to the duty cycles of the pulse width modulation signals generated from a microcontroller.

  9. Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, A; Demirer, G N

    2007-09-01

    Possible cleaner production (CP) opportunities for a milk processing facility were examined in this study. The CP concept and its key tools of implementation were used to assess the potential CP opportunities in the facility studied. The general production process and its resulting environmental loads were investigated by taking possible CP opportunities as the basis of study. The methodology developed for CP opportunity assessment in the milk processing facility covered two major steps: preparation of checklists to assist auditing and CP opportunity assessment, and implementation of the mass-balance analysis. For mass-balance analysis, measurements and experimental analysis of the mass flows were utilized to determine the inputs and outputs. Prepared checklists were utilized to determine waste reduction options that could be implemented. Selected opportunities were evaluated considering their environmental benefits and economic feasibility. The results of the study indicated that 50% of the service water used, 9.3% of the current wastewater (WW) discharge, 65.36% of the chemical use and the discharge of 181.9 kg/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20.7 kg/day of total suspended solids (TSS) could be eliminated and 19.6% of the service water used could be recycled/reused.

  10. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    PubMed

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  11. New Technology Sparks Smoother Engines and Cleaner Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Automotive Resources, Inc. (ARI) has developed a new device for igniting fuel in engines-the SmartPlug.TM SmartPlug is a self-contained ignition system that may be retrofitted to existing spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The SmartPlug needs as little as six watts of power for warm-up, and requires no electricity at all when the engine is running. Unlike traditional spark plugs, once the SmartPlug ignites the engine, and the engine heats up, the power supply for the plug is no longer necessary. In the utility industry, SmartPlugs can be used in tractors, portable generators, compressors, and pumps. In addition to general-purpose applications, such as lawn mowers and chainsaws, SmartPlugs can also be used in the recreational, marine, aviation, and automotive industries. Unlike traditional ignition systems, the SmartPlug system requires no distributor, coil points, or moving parts. SmartPlugs are non-fouling, with a faster and cleaner burn than traditional spark plugs. They prevent detonation and are not sensitive to moisture, allowing them to be used on a variety of engines. Other advantages include no electrical noise, no high voltage, exceptionally high altitude capabilities, and better cold-start statistics than those of standard spark ignition systems. Future applications for the SmartPlug are being evaluated by manufacturers in the snowmobile industry.

  12. [Solvent power of new denture cleaner for denture calculus and the influence of this cleaner on the denture materials].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, C; Hosoi, T; Morito, M; Miwa, E; Tsuchida, F; Ohtsuki, M; Hirono, I; Sawada, O

    1989-09-01

    In order to chemically remove the calculus adhering to a denture, new denture cleaner was prepared on an experimental basis. The principal ingredient of this solution was a chilating agent which contained the phosphoric acid. This study consisted of the fundamental and the clinical examinations of this solution the purpose of which was to test the solvent power of this solution on the calculus and to evaluate its influence on the denture materials and its effectiveness in clinical practice. 1. the fundamental study 1) method (1) The test for the solvent power of this solution. The powder of tricalcium phosphate (T.C.P. powder: Wakohjunyaku Co.) was substituted for the calculus adhering to a denture. (1) The influence of the solution temperature on the solvent power. The T.C.P. powder was dissolved at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C temperature in 10 g of the solution within 10 minutes and the amount of dissolved powder was weighted. The time was measured with a stop watch (Seiko Co.) until 0.5 g of T.C.P. powder had been dissolved in 10 g of the solution. (2) The effect of using it with an ultrasonic cleaner. The time to dissolve 0.1 g of T.C.P. powder in 10 g of this solution was compared with that of the 15% EDTA solution. The measurement was repeated 5 times and the arithmetic mean of the 5 sample values was calculated in order to show the experimental results. The room temperature was 19 +/- 2 degrees C, the humidity was 56 +/- 3%. (2) The influence of this solution on the denture materials. (1) resin specimen. In order to test the transverse strength, transverse deflection, Young's modulus and Knoop hardness, resin specimens were processed in the manner specified in I.S.O. 1567. The data were compared the resin specimens steeped in this solution and with the control sample that was steeped in water. The specimens were immersed up to 24 hours. Furthermore the existence of tarnish was observed with a 40 times microscope

  13. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  14. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  15. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  16. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  17. CLEANER SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING SEMICONDUCTER PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical industry is a significant component of the domestic economy, generating well over $250 billion in sales and a trade surplus exceeding $15 billion in each of the last 5 years. The industry is also a major source of industrial waste and is the dominant source of hazard...

  18. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-374 Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition...Frigates, and down- select to one variant in FY 2019. The FY 2017 acquisition strategy supporting the final procurement of LCS is currently under review

  19. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  20. Innovative Naval Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. In 2013 PI completed the follow-on textbook Innovation in Ship Design . Whereas the first work forms the core of an...In 2011 PI completed a textbook on Practical Design of Advanced Marine Vehicles and has commenced a follow-on work on Tools for Innovation in Naval...Engineering Design . The completed textbook was made available as a PDF file with private distribution on the members-only website of the Society of

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  6. Wave energy propelling marine ship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabayashi, S.

    1982-06-29

    A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least one rotary device which includes a plurality of compartments which are each partitioned into a plurality of water chambers by a plurality of radial plates, and a plurality of water charge and/or discharge ports, wherein wave energy is converted into mechanical energy; and device for adjusting buoyancy of the marine ship so that the rotary device is positioned advantageously on the sea surface.

  7. Cortisol mediates cleaner wrasse switch from cooperation to cheating and tactical deception.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Grutter, Alexandra S; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan

    2014-07-01

    Recent empirical research, mostly done on humans, recognizes that individuals' physiological state affects levels of cooperation. An individual's internal state may affect the payoffs of behavioural alternatives, which in turn could influence the decision to either cooperate or to defect. However, little is known about the physiology underlying condition dependent cooperation. Here, we demonstrate that shifts in cortisol levels affect levels of cooperation in wild cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners cooperate by removing ectoparasites from visiting 'client' reef fishes but prefer to eat client mucus, which constitutes cheating. We exogenously administrated one of three different compounds to adults, that is, (a) cortisol, (b) glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone RU486 or (c) sham (saline), and observed their cleaning behaviour during the following 45min. The effects of cortisol match an earlier observational study that first described the existence of "cheating" cleaners: such cleaners provide small clients with more tactile stimulation with their pectoral and pelvic fins, a behaviour that attracts larger clients that are then bitten to obtain mucus. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors led to more tactile stimulation to large clients. As energy demands and associated cortisol concentration level shifts affect cleaner wrasse behavioural patterns, cortisol potentially offers a general mechanism for condition dependent cooperation in vertebrates.

  8. Presence of cleaner wrasse increases the recruitment of damselfishes to coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Derek; Cheney, Karen L; Werminghausen, Johanna; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I; Cribb, Thomas H; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2015-08-01

    Mutualisms affect the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of biological communities. However, ecological processes that drive mutualism-related shifts in population structure are often unclear and must be examined to elucidate how complex, multi-species mutualistic networks are formed and structured. In this study, we investigated how the presence of key marine mutualistic partners can drive the organisation of local communities on coral reefs. The cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, removes ectoparasites and reduces stress hormones for multiple reef fish species, and their presence on coral reefs increases fish abundance and diversity. Such changes in population structure could be driven by increased recruitment of larval fish at settlement, or by post-settlement processes such as modified levels of migration or predation. We conducted a controlled field experiment to examine the effect of cleaners on recruitment processes of a common group of reef fishes, and showed that small patch reefs (61-285 m(2)) with cleaner wrasse had higher abundances of damselfish recruits than reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been removed over a 12-year period. However, the presence of cleaner wrasse did not affect species diversity of damselfish recruits. Our study provides evidence of the ecological processes that underpin changes in local population structure in the presence of a key mutualistic partner.

  9. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses.

  10. Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism.

    PubMed

    Gingins, Simon; Werminghausen, Johanna; Johnstone, Rufus A; Grutter, Alexandra S; Bshary, Redouan

    2013-06-22

    In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to 'cheat' and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively against their preference (which corresponds to cooperatively eating client fish ectoparasites), provided that their preference for alternative food was weak. Under opposite conditions, cleaners fed selectively according to their own preference (which corresponds to cheating by eating client mucus). By contrast, a non-cleaning fish species, Halichoeres melanurus, failed to adjust its foraging behaviour under these same conditions. Thus, cleaners appear to have evolved the power to strategically adjust their levels of cooperation according to the circumstances.

  11. Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rupesh; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Lundberg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

  12. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  13. Rough Sea Transfer Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    GROUP 2.3 2.36003 TRIAGE 20.00 60.00 GROUP 2.4 2.41005 VENDING MACHINE AREA 1.84 5.53 2.42001 LAUNDRY 27.15 81.44 GROUP 2.5...Research Enterprise Intern Program Rough Seas Transfer Ship Acknowledgements This report is the culmination of work conducted by students hired...under the National Research Enterprise Intern Program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. This program provides an opportunity for students to

  14. Biofilm removal by medical device cleaners: comparison of two bioreactor detection assays.

    PubMed

    Hadi, R; Vickery, K; Deva, A; Charlton, T

    2010-02-01

    Currently there are no standards for testing efficacy of medical device cleaners. With fears of prion transmission, residual protein on medical devices needs to be minimised. A bioreactor model was used to grow Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on polytetrafluoroethylene coupons. The biofilm was subjected to various cleaners and residual biofilm was detected either by Crystal Violet assay (CrV) or a commercially available protein assay (PA) following hydrolysis of the biofilm. Percentage reduction of biofilm was compared with untreated controls in three independent tests. There was no significant difference in percentage biofilm reduction irrespective of whether the CrV or PA was used to detect residual biofilm. Processing of coupons attached to the bioreactor rod and position of coupon within the rod had no significant effect on cleaning efficiency or detection of residual biofilm. Both within-run and between-run variation was very low for good cleaners such as 10g/L NaOH, Zen, and 3M Rapid Multi-Enzyme Cleaner (RMEC) 70500 but was higher for poor cleaners such as Tween 20 which removed less than 20% of the biofilm. Confocal microscopy and electron microscopy provided visual confirmation of the assay results. We propose that this method is suitable as a test method for evaluating the efficacy of surgical instrument cleaners in removing biofilm, as both within-run and between-run variation was low, detection of residual biofilm can be done using either CrV or PA, and the apparatus is easy to use, cheap and readily available.

  15. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2008-01-01

    Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.

  16. A New Propulsion System for Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    complex relationships involving ship propulsion , ship control and a host of independent problems related to hydrodynamics, structural mechanics, efficiency...namely ship configuration and ship con- trol in addition to ship propulsion . The transmission pump can 1be used for boundary layer control on the...possibly overcome the limitation and performance shortcomings of existing ship propulsion systems. Light weight propulsion systems for naval ship

  17. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  18. Ships Lounge Burnout Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Johns Manville Corporation under the trade name Marinite. It was surfaced with a thin plastic veneer on either side. The non-combustible nature...Six lounges were constructed as follows: Ceiling: 3/4" Marinite 36 paneling lined with 1" Microlite fiber- glass insulation and Johns ... Manville acoustical celling tile. Walls: 3/4" Marinite 36 paneling lined with Westinghouse general purpose Micarta plastic laminate held in place

  19. Acute toxicity of oil and bilge cleaners to larval American oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, M.; Leibovitz, L.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the toxicities to oyster larvae of three bilge cleaners and No. 2 fuel oil, as well as a detergent which is used to clean larval culture containers. The three bilge cleaners and the one detergent were tested alone and in combination with No. 2 fuel oil. No. 2 fuel oil was also tested alone. The toxicity of these compounds to oyster larvae was determined in the laboratory under simulated hatchery conditions. Water levels of petroleum hydrocarbons were found to cause significant larval mortality. (JMT)

  20. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  1. Linking cranial morphology to prey capture kinematics in three cleaner wrasses: Labroides dimidiatus, Larabicus quadrilineatus, and Thalassoma lutescens.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Vikram B; Mehta, Rita S

    2015-11-01

    Cleaner fishes are well known for removing and consuming ectoparasites off other taxa. Observers have noted that cleaners continuously "pick" ectoparasites from the bodies of their respective client organisms, but little is known about the kinematics of cleaning. While a recent study described the jaw morphology of cleaners as having small jaw-closing muscles and weak bite forces, it is unknown how these traits translate into jaw movements during feeding to capture and remove ectoparasites embedded in their clients. Here, we describe cranial morphology and kinematic patterns of feeding for three species of cleaner wrasses. Through high-speed videography of cleaner fishes feeding in two experimental treatments, we document prey capture kinematic profiles for Labroides dimidiatus, Larabicus quadrilineatus, and Thalassoma lutescens. Our results indicate that cleaning in labrids may be associated with the ability to perform low-displacement, fast jaw movements that allow for rapid and multiple gape cycles on individually targeted items. Finally, while the feeding kinematics of cleaners show notable similarities to those of "picker" cyprinodontiforms, we find key differences in the timing of events. In fact, cleaners generally seem to be able to capture prey twice as fast as cyprinodontiforms. We thus suggest that the kinematic patterns exhibited by cleaners are indicative of picking behavior, but that "pickers" may be more kinematically diverse than previously thought.

  2. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  3. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  4. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Beuchat, Larry R

    2004-03-01

    The effects of seven commercially available alkaline cleaners used in the food processing industry, 0.025 M NaOH, and 0.025 M KOH on viability of wild-type (EDL 933) and rpoS-deficient (FRIK 816-3) strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in logarithmic and stationary phases of growth were determined. Cells were treated at 4 or 23 degrees C for 2, 10, or 30 min. Cleaners 2, 4, 6, and 7, which contained hypochlorite and <11% NaOH and/or KOH (pH 11.2 to 11.7), killed significantly higher numbers of cells than treatment with cleaner 3, containing sodium metasilicate (pH 11.4) and <10% KOH, and cleaner 5, containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (pH 10.4). There were no differences in the sensitivities of logarithmic and stationary-phase cells to the alkaline cleaners. Treatment with KOH or NaOH (pH 12.2) was not as effective as four out of seven commercial cleaners in killing E. coli O157:H7, indicating that chlorine and other cleaner components have bactericidal activity at high pH. Stationary-phase cells of strain EDL 933 that had been exposed to cleaner 7 at 4 or 23 degrees C and strain FRIK 816-3 exposed to cleaner 7 at 23 degrees C had significantly higher D(55 degrees C) (decimal reduction time, minutes at 55 degrees C) values than control cells or cells exposed to cleaner 5, indicating that exposure to cleaner 7 confers cross-protection to heat. Cells of EDL 933 treated with cleaner 7 at 12 degrees C showed significantly higher D(55 degrees C) values than cells of FRIK 816-3, indicating that rpoS may play a role in cross-protection. Stationary-phase cells treated with cleaner 5 or cleaner 7 at 4 or 12 degrees C were not cross-protected against subsequent exposure to sanitizers containing quaternary ammonium compounds or sodium hypochlorite, or to cetylpyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride.

  5. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  6. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultraviolet imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultraviolet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical emission rates ~ 1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical emission rates ~ 10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and emission rates. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and emission rates of SO2 (typical emission rates ~ 0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the emission rates and path concentrations can be retrieved in real time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where SO2 emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and emission rates determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (> 10 Hz) from a single camera. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 emission rates from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes. A dual-camera system or a single, dual-filter camera is required in order to properly correct for the effects of particulates in ship plumes.

  7. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  8. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  9. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  10. 46 CFR 148.60 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.60 Section 148.60 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.60 Shipping papers. The shipper... appropriate information on the cargo in the form of a shipping paper, in English, prior to...

  11. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  12. Updated emissions from ocean shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James J.; Koehler, Horst W.

    2003-10-01

    Marine vessel inventories demonstrate that ship emissions cannot be neglected in assessing environmental impacts of air pollution, although significant uncertainty in these inventories remains. We address this uncertainty by employing a bottom-up estimate of fuel consumption and vessel activity for internationally registered fleets, including cargo vessels, other commercial vessels, and military vessels. We identify model bias in previous work, which assumed internationally registered ships primarily consume international marine fuels. Updated results suggest fuel consumption is ˜289 million metric tons per year, more than twice the quantity reported as international fuel. According to our analysis, fuel used by internationally registered fleets is apparently allocated to both international and domestic fuel statistics; this implies either that ships operate along domestic routes much of the time or that marine fuel sales to these ships may be misassigned. If the former is true, then allocation of emissions to international shipping routes may underestimate near-coastal emissions from ships. Our updated inventories increases previous ship emissions inventories for all pollutants; for example, global NOx emissions (˜6.87 Tg N) are more than doubled. This work also produces detailed sensitivity analyses of inputs to these estimates, identifying uncertainty in vessel duty-cycle as critical to overall emissions estimates. We discuss implications for assessing ship emissions impacts.

  13. Cruise Ship Port Planning Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    The cruise ship industry started off like a healthy plant in a small pot. When it was small, it struggled, survived and flourished in the small pot... cruise ship port planning issues, and demonstrates that the market demand will continue to increase in the future. This increase in demand will be driven

  14. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  15. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  16. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River..., Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a... of receipt of notice by the Settling Party that EPA has signed the CERCLA 122(h), 42 U.S.C....

  17. 75 FR 146 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; David Benvenuti and Howe Cleaners, Howe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ...: E9-31176] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9099-6] Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery... (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past costs concerning the Howe Cleaners Superfund Site in Barre, Vermont with the...

  18. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR DEPTH OF FIELD PURPOSES). NOTE GALIGHER STYLE BAFFLES AND TENDENCY OF ZINC TO BUILD UP ON CELL COMPONENTS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  20. Charting the collision between a seed coat fragment and newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was run to determine how a seed coat fragment (SCF) reacts after colliding with newly-designed grid bars mounted on a saw-type lint cleaner simulator. A high-speed video camera recorded the action that took place. Ten experimental grid bars were tested. The included angle of the sha...

  1. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance - Laboratory screening test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extractor type cleaners are used on cotton strippers and in the seed cotton cleaning machinery in the ginning process to remove large foreign material such as burrs and sticks. Early research indicated that the shape of the grid bars used in extractors may influence the performance of these machines...

  2. POTENTIAL INHALATION EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE CHEMICALS IN WATER-BASED HARD-SURFACE CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential inhalation exposure of building occupants to volatile chemicals in water-based hard-surface cleaners was evaluated by analyzing 267 material safety data sheets (MSDSs). Among the 154 chemicals reported, 44 are volatile or semi-volatile. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) r...

  3. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  4. Using newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars to remove seed coat fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to remove seed coat fragments at the saw-type lint cleaner using newly-designed grid bars. The test consisted of five experimental grid bar designs and one control. The experimental grid bars had angles from the sharp toe of the grid bar (or the angle from vertical) of ...

  5. Observing the motion of seed coat fragments on a saw-type lint cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to observe how seed coat fragments (in ginned lint) reacted after colliding with grid bars mounted on a full-size saw-type lint cleaner. A high-speed video camera recorded the collision. A 45° and 105° grid bar were used in the study. The grid bars were labeled to describe t...

  6. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)...

  7. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. 761.378 Section 761.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)...

  8. Cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus are more cooperative in the presence of an audience.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana; Oates, Jennifer; Grutter, Alexandra; Bshary, Redouan

    2011-07-12

    Humans may help others even in situations where the recipient will not reciprocate [1-5]. In some cases, such behavior can be explained by the helpers increasing their image score, which will increase the probability that bystanders will help them in the future [5-7]. For other animals, the notion that many interactions take place in an environment containing an audience of eavesdropping bystanders has also been proposed to have important consequences for social behavior, including levels of cooperation [8]. However, experimental evidence is currently restricted to the demonstration that cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus can learn to solve a foraging task [9]. The cleaners learned to feed against their preference on artificial clients if that allowed them to access additional artificial clients, which would translate into cooperatively eating ectoparasites rather than cheating by eating client mucus under natural conditions [10]. Here we show that cleaners immediately increase current levels of cooperation in the presence of bystander client reef fish. Furthermore, we find that bystanders respond to any occurrence of cleaners cheating their current client with avoidance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate, for the first time, that image scoring by an audience indeed leads to increased levels of cooperation in a nonhuman animal.

  9. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  10. Use of a foaming disinfectant and cleaner to reduce aerobic bacteria on poultry transport coops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry transportation coops are rarely washed and have been demonstrated to be a point of cross-contamination of broiler carcasses. Foaming disinfectants and cleaners, commonly used within processing plants, may be used to clean and disinfect poultry transportation coops. In this study, homogeniz...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROSOLS FROM A WATER-BASED CLEANER APPLIED WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests that were performed in a controlled-environment test room to measure particle concentrations and size distributions and concentrations of selected volatily organic compounds during, and following, application of water-based cleaners to realistic s...

  12. Evaluation of efficacy of four commercial enzyme-based cleaners of ultrafiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Bradley, R L

    1987-06-01

    Use of UF and RO in the dairy industry is rapidly expanding. Because the dairy industry demands high levels of cleanliness, this new technology requires close evaluation to assure adherence to these standards. Efficacy of four commercial enzyme-based cleaners (pH 7.0 to 8.4) in UF systems was determined by microbiological evaluation and permeate flux restoration. The UF system containing two polysulfone UF membranes in parallel, was soiled by recycling 380 L of sweet whey (40 degrees C) for 2.0 h followed by concentrating whey for .5 h. The cleaning cycle consisted of acid cleaner (.5 h, 40 degrees C), followed by enzyme cleaner (10.0 h, 40 degrees C), and rinsing (2.0 h, 40 degrees C). A chlorine sanitizer was circulated (5 min, 40 degrees C) and the unit containing sanitizing solution left idle overnight. Flux was determined and swabs and rinse water samples were taken immediately after soiling, after cleaning, and the next morning to check sanitizing. The four enzyme-based cleaners were unsatisfactory when microbiological criteria were considered. Loss of sanitizer strength and problems with yeast and especially mold growth over time also indicated lack of effective cleaning. Flux, however, was restored easily and did not correlate with efficacy of cleaning based on numbers of microorganisms remaining.

  13. Evaluation of a sporicidal peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based daily disinfectant cleaner.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Mana, Thriveen S C; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Jencson, Annette C; Sitzlar, Brett; Fertelli, Dennis; Hurless, Kelly; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-11-01

    OxyCide Daily Disinfectant Cleaner, a novel peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based sporicidal disinfectant, was as effective as sodium hypochlorite for in vitro killing of Clostridium difficile spores, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomcyin-resistant enterococci. OxyCide was minimally affected by organic load and was effective in reducing pathogen contamination in isolation rooms.

  14. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  15. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  16. Nuclear criticality safety calculations for a K-25 site vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, J.T.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    A modified Nilfisk model GSJ dry vacuum cleaner is used throughout the K-25 Site to collect dry forms of highly enriched uranium (HEU). When vacuuming, solids are collected in a cyclone-type separator vacuum cleaner body. Calculations were done with the SCALE (KENO V.a) computer code to establish conditions at which a nuclear criticality event might occur if the vacuum cleaner was filled with fissile solution. Conditions evaluated included full (12-in. water) reflection and nominal (1-in. water) reflection, and full (100%) and 20% {sup 235}U enrichment. Validation analyses of SCALE/KENO and the SCALE 27-group cross sections for nuclear criticality safety applications indicate that a calculated k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.9605 may be considered safely subcritical. Thus, a system with a calculated k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {ge} 0.9605 is considered unsafe and may be critical. Critical conditions were calculated to be 70 g U/L for 100% {sup 235}U and full 12-in. water reflection. This corresponds to a minimum critical mass of approximately 1,400 g {sup 235}U for the approximate 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. The actual volume of the vacuum cleaner is smaller than the modeled volume because some internal materials of construction were assumed to be fissile solution. The model was an overestimate, for conservatism, of fissile solution occupancy. At nominal reflection conditions, the critical concentration in a vacuum cleaner full of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution was calculated to be 100 g{sup 235}U/L, or 2,000 g mass of 100% {sup 235}U. At 20% {sup 235}U for the 20.0-L volume of the vacuum cleaner. At 15% {sup 235}U enrichment and full reflection, critical conditions were not reached at any possible concentration of uranium as a uranyl fluoride solution. At 17.5% {sup 235}U enrichment, criticality was reached at approximately 1,300 g U/L which is beyond saturation at 25 C.

  17. Particle resuspension during the use of vacuum cleaners on residential carpet.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Richard L; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Chiang, Chunyi

    2008-04-01

    Vacuuming is generally considered to be an important activity with respect to the cleanliness of indoor environments but may lead to short-term resuspension of particulate matter and elevated particle mass in indoor air. Because resuspended particles often contain toxicants, such as lead and pesticides, or consist of biological agents that can trigger allergic reactions, it is important to understand the role of vacuuming on short-term variations in indoor particulate matter concentrations. The inhalation of particles during vacuuming events may affect adversely those whose occupation requires them to clean a wide range of indoor environments, from homes to schools and offices, as well as those who occupy those environments. In response, a series of 46 experiments was completed to determine time-variant concentrations of both PM(10) and PM(2.5) during various vacuuming activities in 12 separate apartments. Experiments involved the use of two different non-HEPA vacuum cleaners and were completed with a vacuum cleaner activated (switched on) as well as deactivated (switched off). The latter was intended to provide insight on the potential for resuspension of particles by the mechanical agitation of vacuum cleaner movement across carpet. Separate experiments were completed also using "mock" vacuuming simulations, that is, walking on the carpet in a manner consistent with using a vacuum cleaner. Results are presented as incremental particulate matter concentration increases, relative to background (prevacuum) concentrations, and peak-to-background particle concentration ratios. Results indicate significant resuspension of PM(10) mass during vacuum cleaning, with a mean time-averaged PM(10) increase of greater than 17 mu g/m(3) above background. Resuspension of PM(2.5) mass was determined to be small, that is, PM(10) mass was dominated by particles greater than 2.5 mu m. The frequency of vacuuming (between a 10-day standard frequency and several experiments at > 24 days

  18. Emissions Trading Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  19. A Capability-Based, Meta-Model Approach to Combatant Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    2009) applied multi-criteria objective decision-making methods to define an Overall Measure of Effectiveness ( OMOE ) score for a series of discrete...ship designs, and then used RSM techniques to show trade-offs between the different MOEs and how they impacted the OMOE . However, the MOEs in that

  20. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  1. Metal Trades Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a metal trades technology course of study at the high school level. Its stated purpose is to help students acquire the trade knowledge necessary to function effectively in the shipfitting, welding, and piping trades. Contents include: a course description, a list of general objectives; lists of…

  2. Ship and Installation Program: Optimal Stationing of Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    calculate their CGE value [ Keenan 2004]. These instructions are subject to interpretation, and therefore could lead to inconsistencies between the...a specific pier space requirement given in CGEs, as indicated in Table 1.3 [ Keenan 2004]. SHIP allows individual ships to be moved between...complex 0.686 12. Relative Pierside Crane Lift Capability 1.671 13. Relative value of specialized security / emergency services capabilities

  3. Special Operations Forces (SOF) Support Ship. Ship Conversion Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    sequence was performed with the goal of maximizing Overall Measure of Effectiveness (OMOE) for minimum cost. The OMOE and cost of the ship were...lists the ROCs for the SOF ship. Measures of effectiveness (MOE) assess the degree to which the various design concepts meet these ROCs. The MOE...Maintain health and well-being of crew 15 Provide upkeep and maintenance of own unit 10 Table 3. Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) MOE # Associated

  4. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  6. The Surface Warfare Test Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-26

    dedicated test platform with a schedule determined by test requirements rather than ship operational tempo. The current SDTS, ex- USS DECATUR (Ex- DDG 31), is...current engineering services in the DD 963 hull, which are to be retained. The SWTS sensor/weapons payload is reduced compared to a DD 963 or DDG 993 ...developed a plan to convert ex- USS DECATUR ( DDG 31) into the Self Defense Test Ship (SDTS). In April 1988, Chief of Naval Operations authorized

  7. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    The physical fatigue associated with ship motions has significant consequences for today’s minimally manned ships. “Because of minimally sized...a deployment. The inefficiencies in performance may develop from lack of training, different personal aptitude, and individual’s mental or physical ...exacerbation of symptoms known as the avalanche phenomenon follows which includes: increased salivation, bodily warmth , and light- headedness” (Stevens

  8. Primary particles in ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  9. Manipulating ship fuel sulfur content and modeling the effects on air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Laakso, Anton; Schmidt, Anja; Kokkola, Harri; Kuokkanen, Tuomas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Laakso, Lauri; Korhonen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    order to assess the health effects of different emission scenarios we diagnose PM2.5 concentrations from each simulation. Then, we use PM2.5 concentrations and C-R functions to calculate the changes in mortality related to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. Our preliminary analysis suggests that mortality in geo-ships would be lower than in std-ships. Strict sulfur content limits also in the open oceans (future-ships) would decrease the mortality even more. Idea of deliberately increasing fuel sulfur content in order to produce a cooling effect can be classified as one form of solar radiation management (SRM). There are several scientific, ethical and political problems associated with SRM technologies and a number of them would be applicable to the idea we present here. For example, there would be a conflict between the existing international treaties and the proposed increase in ship fuel sulfur content. However, our study is increasing the knowledge of air quality and climate trade-offs related to ship emission controls. If the cooling effect of ship traffic is considered too precious to lose, there might be ways to preserve it, while still notably increasing the continental air quality.

  10. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF... of the defense agency in provision of equipment, loading, ocean transport and delivery; and...

  11. Math Model for Naval Ship Handling Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golovcsenko, Igor V.

    The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…

  12. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  13. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Karin; Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-08-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions.

  14. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    PubMed

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings.

  15. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation.

    PubMed

    Suwanpayak, N; Jalil, M A; Aziz, M S; Ismail, F D; Ali, J; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney), and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.

  16. Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactions it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.

  17. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  18. Evaluation of cleaners for photovoltaic modules exposed in an outdoor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Power recovery of silicone encapsulated and glass covered photovoltaic modules, exposed for two years to a suburban environment, was measured after washing with a variety of cleaners including detergents, abrasive soap, and hydrocarbon solvents. Silicone encapsulated modules in operating environments may experience significant power losses or require extensive periodic cleaning. Glass front-faced modules in similar situations are much less affected. Organic hydrocarbon solvents or abrasives were found to be about five times more effective than mild detergents in cleaning encapsulated modules.

  19. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N.

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  20. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  2. Anthropogenic pressure on the open ocean: The growth of ship traffic revealed by altimeter data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournadre, J.

    2014-11-01

    Marine ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressures from marine and terrestrial activities. Ship traffic, the major cause of change in the open ocean, and its temporal evolution are still largely unknown because of lack of data. Altimeter data provide a new powerful tool to detect and monitor the ship traffic through a method of analysis of echo waveform. The archive of seven altimeter missions has been processed to create a two decade database of ship locations. The estimated annual density maps compare well with the ones obtained from Automatic Identification System. The ship traffic analysis shows a global fourfold growth between 1992 and 2012, the largest increase being observed in the Indian Ocean and the Chinese seas reflecting the world trade change. Although mainly concentrated along lanes, the traffic has a direct impact on the atmosphere, e.g., on the growth of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide in the Indian Ocean.

  3. Control of respirable particles in indoor air with portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offermann, F. J.; Sextro, R. G.; Fisk, W. J.; Grimsrud, D. T.; Nazaroff, W. W.; Nero, A. V.; Revzan, K. L.; Yater, J.

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h -1. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was most efficient air cleaner studied.

  4. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  5. Stimulation of dopamine D₁ receptor improves learning capacity in cooperating cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Messias, João P M; Santos, Teresa P; Pinto, Maria; Soares, Marta C

    2016-01-27

    Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context. The Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is a highly social teleost fish species with a complex network of interactions with its 'client' reef fish. We asked if changes in DA signalling would affect individual learning ability by presenting cleaner fish two ecologically different tasks that simulated a natural situation requiring accurate decision-making. We demonstrate that there is an involvement of the DA system and D1 receptor pathways on cleaners' natural abilities to learn both tasks. Our results add significantly to the growing literature on the physiological mechanisms that underlie and facilitate the expression of cooperative abilities.

  6. Visualization of vacuum cleaner-induced flow in a carpet by using magnetic resonance velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Understanding characteristics of in-carpet flow induced by a vacuum cleaner nozzle is important to improve the design and performance of the cleaner nozzle. However, optical visualization techniques like PIV are limited to uncover the flow details because a carpet is opaque porous media. We have visualized a mean flow field in a cut-pile type carpet by magnetic resonance velocimetry. The flow was generated by a static vacuum cleaner nozzle, and the working fluid is a copper sulfate aqueous solution. Three dimensional, three component velocity vectors were obtained in a measurement domain of 336 x 128 x 14 mm3 covering the entire nozzle span and a 7-mm thick carpet below the nozzle. The voxel size was 1 x 1 x 0.5 (depthwise) mm3. Based on the visualization data, the permeability, the Forchheimer coefficient and pressure distribution were calculated for the carpet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  7. Vacuum cleaner emissions as a source of indoor exposure to airborne particles and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; He, Congrong; Duchaine, Caroline; Morawska, Lidia

    2012-01-03

    Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself. We therefore sought to quantify emission rates of particles and bacteria from a large group of vacuum cleaners and investigate their potential determinants, including temperature, dust bags, exhaust filters, price, and age. Emissions of particles between 0.009 and 20 μm and bacteria were measured from 21 vacuums. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particle emission rates ranged from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.1 × 10(11) particles min(-1). Emission of 0.54-20 μm particles ranged from 4.0 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(9) particles min(-1). PM(2.5) emissions were between 2.4 × 10(-1) and 5.4 × 10(3) μg min(-1). Bacteria emissions ranged from 0 to 7.4 × 10(5) bacteria min(-1) and were poorly correlated with dust bag bacteria content and particle emissions. Large variability in emission of all parameters was observed across the 21 vacuums, which was largely not attributable to the range of determinant factors we assessed. Vacuum cleaner emissions contribute to indoor exposure to nonbiological and biological aerosols when vacuuming, and this may vary markedly depending on the vacuum used.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Biosecur® Citrus Extract Surface Cleaner Against Vibrio Vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Jiemin; Scott, Ronson; Janes, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Biosecur® citrus extract surface cleaner against Vibrio vulnificus using plate count method. Two concentrations, 0.5% and 2% of Biosecur® surface cleaner were plated on Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA) and tested for reduction of Vibrio vulnificus. In order to investigate the lasting residual activity of Biosecur®, antibacterial activity tests were also performed at time intervals up to 2.5 h after Biosecur® was plated on VVA. Biosecur® showed 6-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 2%, and 3-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 0.5%. The antibacterial activity of 2% Biosecur® against Vibrio vulnificus was shown to be equivalent to that of tetracycline. The residual activity of 2% Biosecur® was shown to maintain for at least 2.5 h after application. This study confirmed the high activity and long lasting residual effect of a safe, non-toxic organic food grade surface cleaner. PMID:24302976

  9. Constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using OMI NO2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, G. C. M.; Boersma, K. F.

    2012-04-01

    About 90% of world trade is transported by oceangoing ships, and seaborne trade has been shown to have increased by about 5% per year in the past decade. Global ship traffic is currently not regulated under international treaties (e.g. Kyoto protocol) and ships are still allowed to burn low-grade bunker fuel. As a result, ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Previous studies indicated that the global NOx emissions from shipping are in the range 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total global NOx emissions). Because most ships sail within 400 km of the coast, it is important to understand the contribution of ship emissions to atmospheric composition in the densely populated coastal regions. Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs), in combination with emission inventories, are used to simulate atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants to assess the impact of ship emissions. However, these bottom-up inventories, based on extrapolation of a few engine measurements and strong assumptions, suffer from large uncertainties. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using satellite observations of NO2 columns. We use the nested version of the GEOS-Chem model (0.5°-0.667°) to simulate tropospheric NO2 columns over Europe for the years 2005-2006, using our plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions. We improve the NO2 retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI v2.0) by replacing the coarse a priori (TM4) vertical NO2 profiles (2°-3°) with the high-resolution GEOS-Chem profiles. This ensures consistency between the retrievals and model simulations. GEOS-Chem simulations of tropospheric NO2 columns show remarkable quantitative agreement with the observed OMI columns over Europe (R2=0.89, RMS difference < 0.2-1015 molec. cm-2), providing confidence in the ability of the model to simulate NO2 pollution over the European mainland. We

  10. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Larson, Timothy; Noullett, Melanie; Kennedy, Susan; Copes, Ray; Brauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P<0.001). No significant predictors of ACE were identified. Our findings show that remaining indoors combined with use of air cleaner can effectively reduce PM(2.5) exposure during forest fires and residential wood burning.

  11. Trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services.

  12. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  13. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  14. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  15. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  16. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms...

  17. Japanese wind ship proves successful

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, D.

    1982-04-01

    A new sail-equipped cargo ship (699 gross ton, 66 x 10.6 meter) is described with emphasis on fuel conservation and innovative features. With the rigid sails in use, fuel consumption is reduced by 10%. Making use of other fuel conservation techniques, total fuel consumption is reported to be one half of that of a similar size ship. Computer control of the two rigid sails (which are automatically folded when they would not benefit locomotion) is described as well as test procedures used. Research is mentioned which led to other fuel conservation measures (waste heat utilization, ship operation and design features, propeller modifications, engine design, bottom paint, etc.). Plans are discussed for the production of other energy efficient, sail-equipped vessels. (MJJ)

  18. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  19. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  20. Shipping container for fissile material

    DOEpatents

    Crowder, H.E.

    1984-12-17

    The present invention is directed to a shipping container for the interstate transportation of enriched uranium materials. The shipping container is comprised of a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical-shaped outer vessel lined with thermal insulation. Disposed inside the thermal insulation and spaced apart from the inner walls of the outer vessel is a rigid, high-strength, cylindrical inner vessel impervious to liquid and gaseous substances and having the inner surfaces coated with a layer of cadmium to prevent nuclear criticality. The cadmium is, in turn, lined with a protective shield of high-density urethane for corrosion and wear protection. 2 figs.

  1. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  2. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  3. Free Trade: A Misnomer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    Billions of dollars are lost each year in our balance of payments because U.S. multinationals have not entered foreign markets due to trade restrictions and restrictions on the remittance of profits and royalties. Formal and informal government obstructions to free trade are examined. (RM)

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  5. Bee health and international trade.

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, H; Knox, D A

    1997-04-01

    The international trade in bee products is a complex issue as a result of the diverse uses of these products. This is especially true with regard to honey. In most cases, honey is imported for human consumption: the high purchase and shipping costs preclude the use of honey as feed for bees. For these reasons, the risk of transmitting disease through honey is minimal. However, this risk should not be ignored, especially in those countries where American foulbrood is not known to occur. The importation of pollen for bee feed poses a definite risk, especially since there are no acceptable procedures for determining whether pollen is free from pathogens, insects and mites. Routine drying of pollen would reduce the survival of mites and insects, but would not have any impact on bacterial spores. Phytosanitary certificates should be required for the importation of honey and pollen when destined for bee feed. The declaration on the phytosanitary certificate should include country of origin, and should state whether the following bee diseases and parasitic mites are present: American foulbrood disease, European foulbrood disease, chalkbrood disease, Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae.

  6. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  7. Cruise-ship astronomy lecturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, Garry

    2005-06-01

    In December 2004 I was invited to present a series of lectures in Astronomy aboard "Discovery", a cruise-ship operated by World Discovery Cruises Ltd of London. Discovery left Tahiti on 15th of February 2005, and arrived in Auckland on 2nd of March 2005.

  8. How To Improve You Shipping and Receiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how two universities improved their shipping and receiving operations and cut costs. Examples from the University of Texas at Dallas and John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, illustrate how they established greater shipping and receiving department efficiencies. (GR)

  9. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory ... 100 Variances About Inspections Facts About Noroviruses on Cruise Ships Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Noroviruses Norovirus ...

  10. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature is required for the sample to be tested. (d) Containers for frozen samples should contain dry ice... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  11. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature is required for the sample to be tested. (d) Containers for frozen samples should contain dry ice... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  12. Long-Term Effects of the Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus on Coral Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Waldie, Peter A.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Cheney, Karen L.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour is deemed a mutualism, however the benefit of cleaning interactions to client individuals is unknown. Furthermore, mechanisms that may shift fish community structure in the presence of cleaning organisms are unclear. Here we show that on patch reefs (61–285 m2) which had all cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) experimentally removed (1–5 adults reef−1) and which were then maintained cleaner-fish free over 8.5 years, individuals of two site-attached (resident) client damselfishes (Pomacentridae) were smaller compared to those on control reefs. Furthermore, resident fishes were 37% less abundant and 23% less species rich per reef, compared to control reefs. Such changes in site-attached fish may reflect lower fish growth rates and/or survivorship. Additionally, juveniles of visitors (fish likely to move between reefs) were 65% less abundant on removal reefs suggesting cleaners may also affect recruitment. This may, in part, explain the 23% lower abundance and 33% lower species richness of visitor fishes, and 66% lower abundance of visitor herbivores (Acanthuridae) on removal reefs that we also observed. This is the first study to demonstrate a benefit of cleaning behaviour to client individuals, in the form of increased size, and to elucidate potential mechanisms leading to community-wide effects on the fish population. Many of the fish groups affected may also indirectly affect other reef organisms, thus further impacting the reef community. The large-scale effect of the presence of the relatively small and uncommon fish, Labroides dimidiadus, on other fishes is unparalleled on coral reefs. PMID:21731670

  13. Arginine Vasotocin Regulation of Interspecific Cooperative Behaviour in a Cleaner Fish

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Mendonça, Rute; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2012-01-01

    In an interspecific cooperative context, individuals must be prepared to tolerate close interactive proximity to other species but also need to be able to respond to relevant social stimuli in the most appropriate manner. The neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin and their non-mammalian homologues have been implicated in the evolution of sociality and in the regulation of social behaviour across vertebrates. However, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms of interspecific cooperative interactions. In interspecific cleaning mutualisms, interactions functionally resemble most intraspecific social interactions. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that arginine vasotocin (AVT), a non-mammalian homologue of arginine vasopressin (AVP), plays a critical role as moderator of interspecific behaviour in the best studied and ubiquitous marine cleaning mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Exogenous administration of AVT caused a substantial decrease of most interspecific cleaning activities, without similarly affecting the expression of conspecific directed behaviour, which suggests a differential effect of AVT on cleaning behaviour and not a general effect on social behaviour. Furthermore, the AVP-V1a receptor antagonist (manning compound) induced a higher likelihood for cleaners to engage in cleaning interactions and also to increase their levels of dishonesty towards clients. The present findings extend the knowledge of neuropeptide effects on social interactions beyond the study of their influence on conspecific social behaviour. Our evidence demonstrates that AVT pathways might play a pivotal role in the regulation of interspecific cooperative behaviour and conspecific social behaviour among stabilized pairs of cleaner fish. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of AVT as a neurochemical regulator of social behaviour may have been co-opted in the evolution of cooperative behaviour in an

  14. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE, Perc) levels in residential dry cleaner buildings in diverse communities in New York City.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Michael J; Mazor, Kimberly A; Shost, Stephen J; Narang, Rajinder S; Aldous, Kenneth M; Storm, Jan E

    2005-10-01

    Fugitive tetrachloroethylene (PCE, perc) emissions from dry cleaners operating in apartment buildings can contaminate residential indoor air. In 1997, New York State and New York City adopted regulations to reduce and contain perc emissions from dry cleaners located in residential and other buildings. As part of a New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) study, indoor air perc levels were determined in 65 apartments located in 24 buildings in New York City where dry cleaners used perc on site. Sampling occurred during 2001-2003, and sampled buildings were dispersed across minority and nonminority as well as low-income and higher income neighborhoods. For the entire study area, the mean apartment perc level was 34 microg/m3, 10-fold lower than mean apartment levels of 340-360 microg/m3 documented before 1997. The maximum detected perc level was 5,000 microg/m3, 5-fold lower than the maximum of 25,000 microg/m3 documented before 1997. Despite these accomplishments, perc levels in 17 sampled apartments still exceeded the NYSDOH residential air guideline of 100 microg/m3, and perc levels in 4 sampled apartments exceeded 1,000 microg/m3. Moreover, mean indoor air perc levels in minority neighborhoods (75 microg/m3) were four times higher than in nonminority households (19 microg/m3) and were > 10 times higher in low-income neighborhoods (256 microg/m3) than in higher income neighborhoods (23 microg/m3). Logistic regression suitable for clustered data (apartments within buildings) indicated that perc levels on floors 1-4 were significantly more likely to exceed 100 microg/m3 in buildings located in minority neighborhoods (odds ratio = 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-30.5) than in nonminority neighborhoods. Factors that may be contributing to the elevated perc levels detected, especially in minority and low-income neighborhoods, are being explored.

  15. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  16. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  17. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  18. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  19. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (<1000 Hz) from an autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments.

  20. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  1. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  2. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  3. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  4. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  5. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  6. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  7. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mooring. When the Training Ship is not on cruise, the Commanding Officer or Superintendent shall keep the... necessary while the Training Ship is on foreign cruise. The Administration shall reimburse the State upon... the cruise itinerary of the Training Ship including a listing of foreign ports to be visited,...

  8. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mooring. When the Training Ship is not on cruise, the Commanding Officer or Superintendent shall keep the... necessary while the Training Ship is on foreign cruise. The Administration shall reimburse the State upon... the cruise itinerary of the Training Ship including a listing of foreign ports to be visited,...

  9. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mooring. When the Training Ship is not on cruise, the Commanding Officer or Superintendent shall keep the... necessary while the Training Ship is on foreign cruise. The Administration shall reimburse the State upon... the cruise itinerary of the Training Ship including a listing of foreign ports to be visited,...

  10. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mooring. When the Training Ship is not on cruise, the Commanding Officer or Superintendent shall keep the... necessary while the Training Ship is on foreign cruise. The Administration shall reimburse the State upon... the cruise itinerary of the Training Ship including a listing of foreign ports to be visited,...

  11. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mooring. When the Training Ship is not on cruise, the Commanding Officer or Superintendent shall keep the... necessary while the Training Ship is on foreign cruise. The Administration shall reimburse the State upon... the cruise itinerary of the Training Ship including a listing of foreign ports to be visited,...

  12. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26...

  13. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  14. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  15. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  16. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  17. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  18. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  19. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  20. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  1. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.7 Ship. Ship is synonymous with handle and means...

  2. 7 CFR 989.106 - Ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ship. 989.106 Section 989.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 989.106 Ship. Ship means the physical...

  3. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  4. Wave energy utilization into ship propulsion by fins attached to a ship

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, H.

    1994-12-31

    Resistance of a ship increases in waves, that is, so called resistance increase of a ship due to waves. However, an oscillatory hydrofoil attached to the ship bow generates thrust. Under a certain condition, the ship can be driven by wave power alone. This paper reviews the design and performance of such a system.

  5. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  6. TETRACHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: OFFSPRING OF DRY CLEANERS IN A POPULATION BIRTH COHORT, PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Mary C.; Opler, Mark G.; Harlap, Susan; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Kleinhaus, Karine; Nahon, Daniella; Fennig, Shmuel; Susser, Ezra S.; Malaspina, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is a solvent used in dry cleaning with reported neurotoxic effects. Using proportional hazard methods, we examined the relationship between parental occupation as a dry cleaner and risk for schizophrenia in a prospective population-based cohort of 88, 829 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964 through 1976, followed from birth to age 21–33 years. Of 144 offspring whose parents were dry cleaners, 4 developed schizophrenia. We observed an increased incidence of schizophrenia in offspring of parents who were dry cleaners (RR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.3–9.2, p=0.01). Tetrachloroethylene exposure warrants further investigation as a risk factor for schizophrenia. PMID:17113267

  7. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  8. Library - Book Trade Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Helen Welch

    1970-01-01

    The trend in relations between the library and the book trade has been in the direction of increased communication and cooperation. Organizational links between librarians, publishers, and booksellers are discussed. (Author/JS)

  9. A Good Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes education and training needs, numbers employed, and salary scales for the following skilled trades: glaziers, painters/paperhangers, sheetmetal workers, insulation workers, bricklayers, stonemasons, carpenters, electricians, plumbers/pipefitters, and welders. (SK)

  10. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  11. What Is Emissions Trading?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  12. Training European Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Doug; Stirling, John

    1998-01-01

    A study of trade union education in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom finds training is being adapted to meet new political and economic conditions. Significant national differences appeared in terms of legislation, funding, training, and accreditation. (SK)

  13. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  14. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  15. ``Cleaner'' shrimps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotte, Stephen

    1998-03-01

    In the western North Atlantic, some shrimps of the genus Periclimenes interact with fishes. Accoring to prevailing wisdom, these shrimps “clean” the fishes (i.e. they remove parasites, diseased tissue, or detritus from their exposed surfaces). With one exception, the numerous literature entries recite anecdotal evidence. The only report based on empirical studies has dismissed the notion that “cleaner” shrimps perform the services attributed to them, leaving the nature of the relationship unresolved.

  16. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  17. Drainpipe cleaners

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty) BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of vision ... SYSTEM Blood in the stool Burns and possible holes (perforation) ...

  18. Jewelry cleaners

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood acid level (leads to organ damage) SKIN Burns Holes in the skin or underlying tissues Irritation ... tracing) Endoscopy: camera down the throat to see burns in the ... (skin debridement) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps ...

  19. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  20. Long-term cleaner fish presence affects growth of a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Clague, Gillian E.; Cheney, Karen L.; Goldizen, Anne W.; McCormick, Mark I.; Waldie, Peter A.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour is considered to be a classical example of mutualism. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have measured the benefits to clients in terms of growth. In the longest experimental study of its kind, over an 8 year period, cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus were consistently removed from seven patch reefs (61–285 m2) and left undisturbed on nine control reefs, and the growth and parasite load of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis determined. After 8 years, growth was reduced and parasitic copepod abundance was higher on fish from removal reefs compared with controls, but only in larger individuals. Behavioural observations revealed that P. moluccensis cleaned by L. dimidiatus were 27 per cent larger than nearby conspecifics. The selective cleaning by L. dimidiatus probably explains why only larger P. moluccensis individuals benefited from cleaning. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that cleaners affect the growth rate of client individuals; a greater size for a given age should result in increased fecundity at a given time. The effect of the removal of so few small fish on the size of another fish species is unprecedented on coral reefs. PMID:21733872

  1. A Regional Deterrence Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-24

    hull mine hunting sonar system. The UUV is under irisk of being dropped form the RDS 2010 class because of its high cost and low mission utility for...turbine per shaft mechanical-reduction gear coupled system. There are power takeoff (PTO) units on each reduction gear coupled to high speed , high frequency...decrease weight and increase available volume within the ship. In addition, high speed generators are smaller and lighter than equivalent power 60 Hz

  2. Modeling of the Electric Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    POWER SYSTEMS The segregated power system that the Navy employs today was initially fa- vored because it proved more efficient than an electric drive...and the linac are driven by a shared RF source consisting of either klystron banks or inductive output tubes operating on the 45kVDC bus. 25 Power ...electrical grid to power every system aboard a ship, including propulsion and weapons. Some concerns with this design are estimating the power demands

  3. Cashless Ships: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    with a cashless network providing real time accounting and banking applications. This research verifies the feasibility of cashless network systems...aboard ships with cashless mechanisms. The motivation for this research is to provide and ensure monetary freedom to sailors at sea. This research...verifies seamless integration with cashless processes available commercially. A review is conducted of the existing shipboard cash systems. Then, the

  4. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  5. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required...

  8. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  9. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  10. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  11. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  12. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.971-1 - Definitions with respect to export trade corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... equal to 6 percent of the gross selling price of all personal property shipped by M Corporation as a... export trade assets. (d) Export promotion expenses—(1) In general. For purposes of sections 970 through 972 and §§ 1.970-1 to 1.972-1, inclusive, the term “export promotion expenses” means, subject to...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  19. Hijacked organic, limited local, faulty fair trade: what's a radical to eat?

    PubMed

    Engler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Organic farming has been hijacked by big business. Local food can have a larger carbon footprint than products shipped in from overseas. Fair trade doesn't address the real concerns of farmers in the global South. As the food movement has moved from the countercultural fringe to become a mainstream phenomenon, organic, local, and fair trade advocates have been beset by criticism from overt foes and erstwhile allies alike. Now that Starbucks advertises fair trade coffee and Kraft owns Boca soy burgers, it's fair to ask, "What's a radical to eat?"

  20. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  1. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  2. Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Svanes, Øistein; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Johannessen, Ane; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Bråtveit, Magne; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarin; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jögi, Rain; Macsali, Ferenc; Norbäck, Dan; Omenaas, Ernst Reidar; Real, Francisco Gómez; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Wieslander, Gunilla; Zock, Jan-Paul; Aasen, Tor; Dratva, Julia; Svanes, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Rationale There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking’s detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. Objectives In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning’s unhealthy effects. Methods The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent´s educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection <5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth >35 years) was investigated. Main Results Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2–1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3–2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: ≤1 year 0.9 [0.7–1.3]; 1–4 years 1.5 [1.1–2.0]; ≥4 years 1.6 [1.2–2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity ≥4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5–2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96–1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Conclusions Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life. PMID:26168149

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  4. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  5. Lipophilic super-absorbent polymer gels as surface cleaners for oil and grease from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new cleaning technology based on lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels for the removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, n...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  7. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  8. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  9. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  10. Total Ship Design Process Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Microsoft Project® or Primavera ®, and perform process simulations that can investigate risk, cost, and schedule trade-offs. Prior efforts to capture...planning in the face of disruption, delay, and late‐changing  requirements. ADePT is interfaced with  PrimaVera , the AEC  industry favorite program

  11. A 1949 outbreak of Pontiac fever-like illness in steam condenser cleaners.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, C W; Miller, G B

    1985-01-01

    A 1949 outbreak of flu-like illness in steam-turbine condenser cleaners was investigated in 1979. Clinical and epidemiologic features matched those in previously described outbreaks of nonpneumonic legionellosis (Pontiac fever). Titers by indirect immunofluorescence using polyvalent Legionella pneumophila antigen were significantly higher for late convalescent-phase serum samples from condenser workers than for control serum samples submitted to the Centers for Disease Control. Three workers who had cleaned the condensers on several occasions had experienced recurrent illness associated with these operations, which might support the theory that nonpneumonic legionellosis is caused by an immune reaction to an inhaled antigen or bacterial toxin of L. pneumophila, rather than a true infection.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar and Asphalt from Tactical and Transportation Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    0.18 4.01% 0.036 $58.85 BioAct 121 12.16 16.94 4.78 16.75 0.19 3.97% 0.038 $22.40 Citrus Soy Gold 12.64 16.60 3.96 16.45 0.15 3.79% 0.03 $28.73 Bio T...Max 12.61 17.52 4.91 17.35 0.17 3.46% 0.034 $25.65 BioAct 105 12.75 17.56 4.81 17.40 0.16 3.33% 0.032 $16.92 Citrus King 12.16 17.23 5.07 17.07 0.16...Chemco Industries 5 Citrus Blast CleanLine Products 6 Orange Waterless Coastwide Laboratories 7 EcoGent Universal Cleaner Cogent Environmental

  13. Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Kazushiro; Kumeta, Ayaka; Somiya, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of the Japanese gravitational-wave detector KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce the quantum noise level, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light to clean up the signal and the reference light at the signal extraction port. The proper design of the OMC is a key to achieve the target sensitivity of KAGRA. In this proceeding, we present two results. One is the final result of numerical simulations, from which we determined the optical parameters of the OMC. The other is the latest results of our prototype experiment, the goal of which is to establish the control scheme of the OMC.

  14. Highly efficient pulse cleaner via nonlinear ellipse rotation in liquid CS2 for ultrashort pulses.

    PubMed

    Liu, H J; Sun, Q B; Huang, N; Wen, J; Wang, Z L

    2013-06-01

    A highly efficient pulse cleaner based on nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) in a liquid medium of CS(2) is investigated for the temporal contrast enhancement of ultrashort pulses. In theory, a nonlinear transmissivity higher than 60% can be achieved with the temporal contrast improved by about four orders of magnitude, on the condition that the extinction ratio of the polarizer-analyzer pair is better than 10(4). In a proof of principle experiment, the cleaned pulses at the mJ level with total transmissivity as high as 30% are obtained via NER, in which the temporal contrast is enhanced by about three orders of magnitude. This provides a simple and feasible technology for improving the temporal contrast of an ultrashort and ultraintense laser system in the future.

  15. NASA Rocket Propulsion Test Replacement Effort for Oxygen System Cleaner - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 225

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt Burns, H.; Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.; Farner, Bruce R.; Ross, H. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous and liquid oxygen are extremely reactive materials used in bipropellant propulsion systems. Both flight and ground oxygen systems require a high level of cleanliness to support engine performance, testing, and prevent mishaps. Solvents used to clean and verify the cleanliness of oxygen systems and supporting test hardware must be compatible with the system's materials of construction and effective at removing or reducing expected contaminants to an acceptable level. This paper will define the philosophy and test approach used for evaluating replacement solvents for the current Marshall Space Flight Center/Stennis Space Center baseline HCFC-225 material that will no longer be available for purchase after 2014. MSFC/SSC applications in cleaning / sampling oxygen propulsion components, support equipment, and test system were reviewed then candidate replacement cleaners and test methods selected. All of these factors as well as testing results will be discussed.

  16. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective.

  17. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-14

    Secretaries of the Navy.  Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs) are being named for regionally important U.S. cities and communities.  Amphibious assault ships...battles.  San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ships are being named for major U.S. cities and communities, and cities and communities attacked on...Expeditionary Fast Transports (EPFs), previously called Joint High Speed Vessels (JHSVs), are being named for small U.S. cities .  Expeditionary

  18. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  19. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-12

    stated in February 2012 that The Navy named several ships for living people (ex. George Washington, Ben Franklin , etc.) in the early years of our...Washington had no less than five ships named for him before his death; John Adams and James Madison, three apiece; John Hancock, two; and Benjamin ... Franklin , one. The practice of naming ships after living persons was relatively commonplace up through 1814, when a US Navy brig was named in honor

  20. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    RD-A124 Wi CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION (U) ARIZONA 112 UNIV TUCSON ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION PARK ET AL. 01 APR 82 1248-9 N814...395 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 431 Arlington, Virginia Prepared by J. S. Park, M. F...FOR SHIP PROPULSION By J. S. Park, M. F. Taylor and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department University of Arizona Tucson

  1. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    OF RILJORT 6 PelIOO COVERED Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion . Annual gummary Report / (Sixth Annual Sumary Report) //115 Jan 180-30 Mard...DO* IrCOVE) Sixth Annual Summary Report CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION By M. A. Habib and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical...permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. ._ _ _ _ _ _ I CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION M. A. Habib* and D. M. McEligot

  2. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    3 o Increase the likelihood of successfully salvaging the ship, and o Increase the likelihood that the crew is rescued safely. It will be possible...spans the period before the event that triggers ship abandonment. Escape routes can be configured based on two factors: 6 o “Crew distribution...crewmembers but the guards are resting in cabins and berthing rooms. This is a plausible scenario at night when the ship is in a non-home port. o

  3. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Jill P; Siebeck, Ulrike E; Eckes, Maxi J; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  4. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  5. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  6. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  7. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter.

  8. Construction Trades Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed as a supplement to the Alaska Department of Education's Construction Trades Curriculum. The special topics included in it focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that is either required by Alaska's environmental conditions or is…

  9. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  10. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  11. Trade-Secret Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    A Michigan court has ruled that a Wayne State University (Michigan) chemistry professor appropriated a trade secret from a Massachusetts chemist for whom he was consulting and incorporated it into his own patent application, violating a written agreement. The university contends its pursuit of the patent was not improper. (MSE)

  12. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  13. Learn a Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    The author earned a physics degree in college and then failed to find a job in the aerospace industry. He writes of how he fell back on his training as an electrician for sustenance and from that extrapolates how the trades have become confused with work of the hands rather than of the mind. He uses the venerable debate between Booker T.…

  14. Trade Masonry Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Designed for a two-year course of study, this syllabus encompasses six areas of the masonry trade: concrete, block, brick, stone, tile, and plaster. For each area, the separate units of instruction contain course content outline, student behavioral objectives, and suggested teaching methods and audiovisuals. The six sections and their units are as…

  15. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  16. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  17. Construction Trades Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the construction trades. It includes all competencies a student will acquire in the course of building a complete house. Based on a survey of Alaskan construction employers and employees, the handbook stresses both principles and skills. The 23 units are presented in the sequence…

  18. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  19. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  20. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  1. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  2. Shipping, Ships and Waterways: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit is designed to increase familiarity with various types of ships and purposes for different varieties of marine vessels. It seeks to increase familiarity with routes of ocean shipping and the effect of ocean conditions such as currents upon shipping route patterns. A discussion treats the uses of various navigation…

  3. Machine Trades Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the construction trades program, vocational cooperative…

  4. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  5. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  6. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  7. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  8. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  9. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  11. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  13. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  15. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  16. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  18. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  19. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  20. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  1. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped. 984.472... walnuts shipped. (a) Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped during a month shall be submitted to the... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity...

  2. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to... paying off the crew should be either the Master, or purser, or some other member of the ship's...

  4. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  5. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  6. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  7. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  9. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  10. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  11. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  12. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped. 984.472... walnuts shipped. (a) Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped during a month shall be submitted to the... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  14. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  15. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped. 984.472... walnuts shipped. (a) Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped during a month shall be submitted to the... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  18. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped. 984.472... walnuts shipped. (a) Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped during a month shall be submitted to the... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity...

  19. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  20. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  2. 46 CFR 173.052 - Civilian nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civilian nautical school ships. 173.052 Section 173.052... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.052 Civilian nautical school ships. Each civilian nautical school ship must comply with part 171 of this subchapter as though it were a passenger vessel. In addition...

  3. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped. 984.472... walnuts shipped. (a) Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped during a month shall be submitted to the... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30... Provisions § 1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing. (a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repairing, alterations, and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is...

  5. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school ship must comply with— (a) Section 171.070(a) of this subchapter as a passenger vessel carrying 400...

  6. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  12. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices. PMID:24429767

  13. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  14. A Bayesian approach for understanding the role of ship speed in whale-ship encounters.

    PubMed

    Gende, Scott M; Hendrix, A Noble; Harris, Karin R; Eichenlaub, Bill; Nielsen, Julie; Pyare, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Mandatory or voluntary reductions in ship speed are a common management strategy for reducing deleterious encounters between large ships and large whales. This has produced strong resistance from shipping and marine transportation entities, in part because very few studies have empirically demonstrated whether or to what degree ship speed influences ship-whale encounters. Here we present the results of four years of humpback whale sightings made by observers aboard cruise ships in Alaska, representing 380 cruises and 891 ship-whale encounters. Encounters occurred at distances from 21 m to 1000 m (x = 567 m) with 61 encounters (7%) occurring between 200 m and 100 m, and 19 encounters (2%) within 100 m. Encounters were spatially aggregated and highly variable across all ship speeds. Nevertheless a Bayesian change-point model found that the relationship between whale distance and ship speed changed at 11.8 knots (6.1 m/s) with whales encountering ships, on average, 114 m closer when ship speeds were above 11.8 knots. Binning encounter distances by 1-knot speed increments revealed a clear decrease in encounter distance with increasing ship speed over the range of 7-17 knots (3.6-8.7 m/s). Our results are the first to demonstrate that speed influences the encounter distance between large ships and large whales. Assuming that the closer ships come to whales the more likely they are to be struck, our results suggest that reduced ship speed may be an effective management action in reducing the probability of a collision.

  15. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  16. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  17. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  18. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  19. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  20. A life-saving device for ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converti, P.

    1985-01-01

    A life-saving device is described which can be used on either ships or airplanes. The device consists of an airtight container for passengers equipped with elements needed for survival (oxygen, food, medicines, etc.), an energy source, and a parachute. This device can be ejected from the plane or ship when an emergency arises.