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Sample records for cleaning packaged semiconductor

  1. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  2. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  3. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  4. Reliability of Semiconductor Laser Packaging in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gontijo, Ivair; Qiu, Yueming; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    A typical set up used to perform lifetime tests of packaged, fiber pigtailed semiconductor lasers is described, as well as tests performed on a set of four pump lasers. It was found that two lasers failed after 3200, and 6100 hours under device specified bias conditions at elevated temperatures. Failure analysis of the lasers indicates imperfections and carbon contamination of the laser metallization, possibly from improperly cleaned photo resist. SEM imaging of the front facet of one of the lasers, although of poor quality due to the optical fiber charging effects, shows evidence of catastrophic damage at the facet. More stringent manufacturing controls with 100% visual inspection of laser chips are needed to prevent imperfect lasers from proceeding to packaging and ending up in space applications, where failure can result in the loss of a space flight mission.

  5. Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-12-20

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  6. Impact of Reaction Shrinkage on Stress in Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, Manfred; Mahler, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The reliability of a semiconductor package is strongly influenced by the adhesion and temperature behavior of the package encapsulant. This study considers the effect of mold shrinkage during the encapsulation molding process. Four commercially available molds were investigated using warpage and thermomechanical analysis. It could be demonstrated that, for all four types, when molded on a silicon substrate, the temperature at which no stress occurred was in a range of 28-60°C above the molding temperature. This is caused by the shrinkage due to a crosslinking reaction of the mold polymer during the molding process. For a more precise understanding and simulation of the stress behavior inside a molded package, the effect of reaction shrinkage has to be considered.

  7. 78 FR 53479 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging AGENCY: U.S. International... States after importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof...

  8. 78 FR 54274 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Institution of... United States after importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof... household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of the '292;...

  9. 78 FR 46367 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of... Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging, DN 2969; the Commission is soliciting... importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and related packaging. The complaint names...

  10. 78 FR 77714 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging Commission Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... The Clorox Company of Oakland, California (``Clorox''). 78 FR 53479 (Aug. 29, 2013). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging Commission Determination Not... importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of...

  11. Magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for semiconductor packaging: initial prototype design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozor, David M.

    1998-06-01

    A magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for use in semiconductor packaging applications has been developed by Mechatronic Technology Co. Semiconductor industry trends, requiring high process throughput on increasing lead count packaging, make the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D a candidate for this application. To construct this small, lightweight device, small samples of Terfenol-D were prepared by ETREMA Products, Inc. This paper reports the initial design, mathematical modeling, and experiments related to this initial prototype.

  12. High-power semiconductor laser array packaged on microchannel cooler using gold-tin soldering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingwei; Kang, Lijun; Zhang, Pu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiaoning; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Xingsheng

    2012-03-01

    High power semiconductor laser arrays have found increased applications in many fields. In this work, a hard soldering microchannel cooler (HSMCC) technology was developed for packaging high power diode laser array. Numerical simulations of the thermal behavior characteristics of hard solder and indium solder MCC-packaged diode lasers were conducted and analyzed. Based on the simulated results, a series of high power HSMCC packaged diode laser arrays were fabricated and characterized. The test and statistical results indicated that under the same output power the HSMCC packaged laser bar has lower smile and high reliability in comparison with the conventional copper MCC packaged laser bar using indium soldering technology.

  13. Gamma-irradiation effect on material properties behaviour of semiconductor package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan; Jalar, Azman; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2013-05-01

    Current trends in digitization led to the application of an electronic package in many fields which are exposed to radioactive environment. Quad-Flat No-Lead (QFN) package technology is among the latest form of semiconductor package development in submicron size scale. A QFN package is designed by combining multimaterial and multitechnology. The ability to predict and eventually to prevent mechanical failures of microelectronics has becoming increasingly important in the development of semiconductor technology. Therefore, the relationship between the microstructure property behaviour of QFN semiconductor package and gamma irradiation has been investigated. The inhouse fabricated QFN was exposed to gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source with different doses varies from 0.5 Gy, and 50.0 kGy. Following, the packages were then subjected to Scanning Acoustic Microscope (CSAM) and X-ray Imaging System (3D X-ray) in order to identify internal discontinuity due to irradiation. In this investigation, the three point bending technique was used to obtain the flexural strength of the package. Irradiation packages have shown a decrease in their flexural strength with the increasing of gamma dose. In-depth analysis exhibited that the increment of exposure dose also influenced the occurrence of delamination between silicon die and copper leadframe. The cracks were also observed on the surface of the silicon die. The gamma irradiation is believed to play an important role towards the microstructure property behaviour of SDQFN package.

  14. Metallization and packaging of compound semiconductor devices at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.K.; Armendariz, M.G.; Rieger, D.J.; Lear, K.L.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Recent advances in compound semiconductor technology utilize a variety of metal thin films fabricated by thermal and electron-beam evaporation, and electroplating. An overview of metal processes used by Sandia`s Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory is presented. Descriptions of electrical n-type and p-type ohmic contact alloys, interconnect metal, and metal layers specifically included for packaging requirements are addressed. Several illustrations of devices incorporating gold plated air bridges are included. ``Back-end`` processes such as flip-chip under bump metallurgy with fluxless solder reflow and plated solder processes are mentioned as current research areas.

  15. REVIEW OF CLEANING SOLUTIONS FOR USE ON COMPONENTS OF THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    Several candidate cleaning products have been reviewed for use as a disinfectant on 9975 shipping package components which contain or have contacted mold. Following review of the compatibility of these products with each component, ammonia (ammonium hydroxide diluted to 1.5 wt% concentration) appears compatible with all package components that it might contact. Each of the other candidate products is incompatible with one or more package components. Accordingly, ammonia is recommended for this purpose. It is further recommended that all components which are disinfected be subsequently rinsed with di-ionized or distilled water.

  16. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-06-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  17. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-10-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  18. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2005-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  19. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  20. Hydrogen radical processing -- In-situ semiconductor surface cleaning for epitaxial regrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzel, H.; Hase, A.; Griebenow, U.

    1996-12-31

    The achievement of high-quality interfaces for improved semiconductor device structures necessitates in-situ surface cleaning between different material deposition processes. In this contribution in-situ hydrogen radical exposure is presented as an advanced technique to obtain semiconductor surfaces adequate for MBE regrowth. Exposure of In-P-based materials to a thermal hydrogen radical beam at relatively low temperatures removes the native oxide layer from GaInAsP as well as AlGaInAs. In addition, accumulation of carbon, being the most prominent contaminant due to the exposure to air or intermediate ex-situ processing steps, is efficiently reduced. There is no indication of the occurrence of degradation of the treated material due to the hydrogen radical process which makes it especially suited for the fabrication of complex device structures.

  1. Modeling and analysis of equipment managers in manufacturing execution systems for semiconductor packaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F T; Yang, H C; Luo, T L; Feng, C; Jeng, M

    2000-01-01

    Equipment Managers (EMs) play a major role in a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). They serve as the communication bridge between the components of an MES and the equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology for developing analytical and simulation models for the EM such that the validity and performance of the EM can be evaluated. Domain knowledge and requirements are collected from a real semiconductor packaging factory. By using IDEFO and state diagrams, a static functional model and a dynamic state model of the EM are built. Next, these two models are translated into a Petri net model. This allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. The EM net model is then expanded into the MES net model. Therefore, the performance of an EM in the MES environment can be evaluated. These evaluation results are good references for design and decision making. PMID:18252408

  2. Worker exposure to methanol vapors during cleaning of semiconductor wafers in a manufacturing setting.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Shannon; Moody, Emily; McKinley, Meg; Knutsen, Jeffrey; Madl, Amy; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-05-01

    An exposure simulation was conducted to characterize methanol exposure of workers who cleaned wafers in quality control departments within the semiconductor industry. Short-term (15 min) and long-term (2-4 hr) personal and area samples (at distances of 1 m and 3-6 m from the source) were collected during the 2-day simulation. On the first day, 45 mL of methanol were used per hour by a single worker washing wafers in a 102 m(3) room with a ventilation rate of about 10 air changes per hour (ACH). Virtually all methanol volatilized. To assess exposures under conditions associated with higher productivity, on the second day, two workers cleaned wafers simultaneously, together using methanol at over twice the rate of the first day (95 mL/hr). On this day, the ventilation rate was halved (5 ACH). Personal concentrations on the first day averaged 60 ppm (SD = 46 ppm) and ranged from 10-140 ppm. On the second day, personal concentrations for both workers averaged 118 ppm (SD = 50 ppm; range: 64-270 ppm). Area concentrations measured on the first day at 1 m from the source and throughout the balance of the room averaged 29 ppm (SD = 19 ppm; range: 4-83 ppm) and 18 ppm (SD = 12 ppm; range: 3-42 ppm), respectively. As expected, area concentrations measured on the second day were higher than the first and averaged 73 ppm (SD = 25 ppm; range: 27-140 ppm) at 1 meter and 48 ppm (SD = 13 ppm; range: 21-67 ppm) throughout the balance of the room. The results of this simulation suggest that the use of methanol to clean semiconductor wafers without the use of local exhaust ventilation and with relatively low room ventilation rates is unlikely to result in worker exposures exceeding the current ACGIH(R) threshold limit value of 200 ppm. This study also confirmed prior studies suggesting that when a relatively volatile chemical is located within arm's length (near field), breathing zone concentrations will be about two- to threefold greater than the room concentration when the air

  3. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lai, Kun-Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-26

    Fused-silica packaging glass fabricated with a hierarchical structure by integrating small (ultrathin nanorods) and large (honeycomb nanowalls) structures was demonstrated with exceptional light-harvesting solar performance, which is attributed to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence, and the enhancement went up to 46% at the incident angle of 60°. The hierarchical structured packaging glass shows excellent self-cleaning characteristics: 98.8% of the efficiency is maintained after 6 weeks of outdoor exposure, indicating that the nanostructured surface effectively repels polluting dust/particles. The presented self-cleaning omnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchical structured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme for practical solar applications. PMID:26623934

  4. Compact, High Power, Multi-Spectral Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Hwang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chich-Hsiang

    2001-10-01

    Through a vertically integrated effort involving atomic level material engineering, advanced device processing development, state-of-the-art optomechanical packaging, and thermal management, Applied Optoelectronics, Inc. (AOI), University of Houston (U H), and Physical Science, Inc. (PSI) have made progress in both Sb-based type-II semiconductor material and in P-based type-I laser device development. We have achieved record performance on inP based quantum cascade continuous wave (CW) laser (with more than 5 mW CW power at 210 K). Grating-coupled external-cavity quantum cascade lasers were studied for temperatures from 20 to 230 K. A tuning range of 88 nm has been obtained at 80 K. The technology can be made commercially available and represents a significant milestone with regard to the Dual Use Science and Technology (DUST) intention of fostering dual use commercial technology for defense need. AOI is the first commercial company to ship products of this licensed technology.

  5. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  6. Getting Clean with Herkimer: A Software Package for Teaching Children in Special Education to Classify Common Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Debora L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes "Getting Clean with Herkimer," a software package designed to teach elementary special education students to classify personal grooming objects. A study compared this software program with another one, including results of pretests and posttests and computer use and attitude measures. (32 references) (LRW)

  7. Synthesis of a nano-silver metal ink for use in thick conductive film fabrication applied on a semiconductor package.

    PubMed

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, Js; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail.

  8. Synthesis of a Nano-Silver Metal Ink for Use in Thick Conductive Film Fabrication Applied on a Semiconductor Package

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Lai Chin; Fei, Cheong Choke; Mandeep, JS; Binti Abdullah, Huda; Wee, Lai Khin

    2014-01-01

    The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail. PMID:24830317

  9. Simple method for modeling thermoelectric cooler (TEC) performance of single-emitter semiconductor-laser packages with concentrated heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Au, M.; Zavala, L.; Yalamanchili, P.; Skidmore, J.; Zucker, E.

    2010-02-01

    High-power single-emitter semiconductor lasers may dissipate up to several Watts heat load during operation. The heat may be generated from a narrow stripe, as low as a few microns in width by several millimeters in length. Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC) are widely deployed to control the laser junction temperature in single-emitter semiconductor-laser packages. TEC manufacturers supply performance curves under the assumption of uniform heat load applied to the cold plate. In reality, the heat will spread laterally across the cold plate creating a temperature gradient across the couples. Consequently, the actual performance of the TEC may be significantly degraded as compared to that predicted from the manufacturer's guidelines. A quantitative analysis that includes these deviations is necessary to properly size the TEC and optimize the package design. This paper provides a simple method for modeling the TEC performance parameters on concentrated heat loads using commercially-available FEA software. Experimental data of TEC cooled single-emitter laser packages will also be presented that corroborate the results of our model.

  10. [Study on packaging-induced stress in 4 mm cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yang, Rui-xia; An, Zhen-feng; Xu, Hui-wu

    2014-06-01

    To reduce packaging-induced stress of long cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser, the relationship between the stress and the wavelength shift was deduced on the basis of the theory that the stress can change the band gap. A method was developed for quantitatively calculating the stress by measuring the emission spectrum of the laser under pulse conditions. The results show that the soldering quality is a critical factor affecting thermal stress. The difference in stress can exceed 300 MPa due to the difference in soldering quality. By optimizing the reflowing soldering curve of the laser, the stress of the laser drops from 129.7 to 53.4 MPa. This method can also effectively solve the problem that the stress varies with storage time. This work demonstrates that the measurement and analysis of the emission spectrum of the laser can provide a useful method to study packaging stress of the high-power single emitter semiconductor laser. It is also an available means to evaluate and analyze soldering quality. PMID:25358141

  11. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-10

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict ''good die'' requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Copper Thin Films in Organic HF-Containing Cleaning Solution for Semiconductor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nabil G. Mistkawi,a,b Makarem A. Hussein,b Malgorzata Ziomek-Moroz,c and Shankar B. Rananavarea,z

    2009-11-13

    The corrosion behavior of electrochemically deposited copper thin films in deaerated and non-deaerated commercial cleaning solutions containing HF was investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments were carried out to determine active, active-passive, passive, and transpassive regions. Corrosion rates were calculated from Tafel slopes. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the solution and its influence on corrosion was also investigated by employing inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ICP-MS and potentiodynamic methods yielded comparable Cu dissolution rates. Surface analysis using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, performed before and after the cleaning solution treatment, did not reveal any indication of pitting corrosion. The presence of hydrogen peroxide in the cleaning solution led to more than an order of magnitude suppression of copper dissolution rate. We ascribe this phenomenon to the formation of interfacial CuO detected by XPS on the wafer surface that dissolves at a slower rate in dilute HF.

  13. Assuring ultra-clean environments in microsystem packages : irreversible and reversible getters.

    SciTech Connect

    Zifer, Thomas; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.; Hollenshead, Jeromy Todd; Buffleben, George M.; McElhanon, James Ross; Nilson, Robert H.

    2003-11-01

    A new generation of irreversible, chemically reacting getters specifically targeted toward assuring the integrity of the local environment within microsystem packages were developed and evaluated. These reactive getters incorporate volatile species into a polymer through covalent bonds, thus producing a non-volatile product. These reactive getters will be combined with getters that rely on absorption media (e.g. zeolites and high surface area carbon fibers) to scavenge non-reactive species, like solvents. Our getter systems will rely on device packaging to limit exchange between the microsystem and the global environment. Thus, the internal getters need only provide local environmental control within the microsystem package. A series of experiments were conducted to determine uptake rates and capacities absorption and reactive-based getters. Diffusion rates through the binder used to hold the getter particles together were also investigated. Getters were evaluated in environments with a saturated headspace and with a limited amount of the volatile species of interest. One- and two-dimensional numerical models and analysis techniques have been developed and used to predict the transport of contaminant species within a representative microsystem package consisting of an open gas-filled volume adjacent to a polymer layer containing embedded particles of getter. The two-dimensional model features explicit representation of the individual getter particles while the one-dimensional treatment assumes a homogeneous distribution of getter material within the getterlpolymer layer. Example calculations illustrate the dependence of getter performance on reaction rates, polymer diffusivity, and getter particle volume fraction. In addition, the model is used to deduce surface reaction rates, solid phase diffusivities, and maximum-loading densities by least-squares fitting of model predictions to measured histories of gas-phase contaminant concentration and getter weight gain.

  14. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance.

  15. Surface cleaning for enhanced adhesion to packaging surfaces: Effect of oxygen and ammonia plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Sneha; Dong, Bin; Driver, Marcus; Kelber, Jeffry; Kazi, Haseeb

    2015-03-15

    The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces have been studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and Si oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment results in the formation of a silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH{sub 3} plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surfaces exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} plasma, indicating that the O{sub 2} plasma-induced SiO{sub 2} overlayer is highly reactive toward ambient. At longer ambient exposures (≳10 h), however, surfaces treated by either O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in contact angle upon exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.

  16. Reliability Assessment and Activation Energy Study of Au and Pd-Coated Cu Wires Post High Temperature Aging in Nanoscale Semiconductor Packaging.

    PubMed

    Gan, C L; Hashim, U

    2013-06-01

    Wearout reliability and high temperature storage life (HTSL) activation energy of Au and Pd-coated Cu (PdCu) ball bonds are useful technical information for Cu wire deployment in nanoscale semiconductor device packaging. This paper discusses the influence of wire type on the wearout reliability performance of Au and PdCu wire used in fine pitch BGA package after HTSL stress at various aging temperatures. Failure analysis has been conducted to identify the failure mechanism after HTSL wearout conditions for Au and PdCu ball bonds. Apparent activation energies (Eaa) of both wire types are investigated after HTSL test at 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C aging temperatures. Arrhenius plot has been plotted for each ball bond types and the calculated Eaa of PdCu ball bond is 0.85 eV and 1.10 eV for Au ball bond in 110 nm semiconductor device. Obviously Au ball bond is identified with faster IMC formation rate with IMC Kirkendall voiding while PdCu wire exhibits equivalent wearout and or better wearout reliability margin compare to conventional Au wirebond. Lognormal plots have been established and its mean to failure (t50) have been discussed in this paper.

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  18. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: GaAs surface wet cleaning by a novel treatment in revolving ultrasonic atomization solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaijin, Li; Liming, Hu; Ye, Wang; Ye, Yang; Hangyu, Peng; Jinlong, Zhang; Li, Qin; Yun, Liu; Lijun, Wang

    2010-03-01

    A novel process for the wet cleaning of GaAs surface is presented. It is designed for technological simplicity and minimum damage generated within the GaAs surface. It combines GaAs cleaning with three conditions consisting of (1) removal of thermodynamically unstable species and (2) surface oxide layers must be completely removed after thermal cleaning, and (3) a smooth surface must be provided. Revolving ultrasonic atomization technology is adopted in the cleaning process. At first impurity removal is achieved by organic solvents; second NH4OH:H2O2:H2O = 1:1:10 solution and HCl: H2O2:H2O = 1:1:20 solution in succession to etch a very thin GaAs layer, the goal of the step is removing metallic contaminants and forming a very thin oxidation layer on the GaAs wafer surface; NH4OH:H2O = 1:5 solution is used as the removed oxide layers in the end. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by the operation of the GaAs wafer. Characterization of the oxide composition was carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Metal-contamination and surface morphology was observed by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The research results show that the cleaned surface is without contamination or metal contamination. Also, the GaAs substrates surface is very smooth for epitaxial growth using the rotary ultrasonic atomization technology.

  19. Workshop report and presentations from the Semiconductor Research Corporation-DOE Semiconductor Task Force Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Semiconductor Research Corporation-DOE Semiconductor Task Force Workshop was held in Oak ridge, Tennessee, on November 2-3, 1987. It was to provide a forum for representatives of the national laboratories, DOE, and the semiconductor industry in which to discuss capabilities of the national laboratories which could contribute to the future competitiveness of the US semiconductor industry, to identify specific large and small projects at the national laboratories which would be of direct benefit to the semiconductor industry, and to find ways of implementing these projects. Numerous small projects were identified which would utilize unique capabilities of the national laboratories in advanced ion implantation, plasma processing (including electron cyclotron resonance plasmas), ion and cluster beam deposition, materials characterization, electronic packaging, and laser processing and deposition. Five large-scale candidate projects were identified in synchrotron x-ray lithography, silicon process integration, advanced materials processing science, process analysis and diagnostics, and ultra clean room engineering. The major obstacle to implementing these projects if the lack of appropriate funds to initiate and stimulate interactions between the national laboratories and the semiconductor industry. SEMATECH and the federal government are potential sources of seed funds for these projects. The Semiconductor Research Corporation is ideally suited to interface the semiconductor industry and the national laboratories for many of these interactions.

  20. Electrical characteristics and thermal stability of HfO{sub 2} metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors fabricated on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Noriyuki Mori, Takahiro; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Ohtake, Akihiro; Ichikawa, Masakazu

    2014-06-09

    HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces fabricated by high-vacuum HfO{sub 2} deposition on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces were examined to explore a thermally stable GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with low interface-state density (D{sub it}). Interface Sb-O bonds were electrically and thermally unstable, and post-metallization annealing at temperatures higher than 200 °C was required to stabilize the HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces. However, the annealing led to large D{sub it} in the upper-half band gap. We propose that the decomposition products that are associated with elemental Sb atoms act as interface states, since a clear correlation between the D{sub it} and the Sb coverage on the initial GaSb surfaces was observed.

  1. A COMPARISON OF DOSE RESULTS FROM THE CLEAN AIR ACT ASSESSMENT PACKAGE-1988, PERSONAL COMPUTER (CAP88-PC), VERSION 3 TO PREVIOUS VERSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra F.; Staven, Lissa H.

    2013-08-01

    EPA-approved computer software packages, including CAP88-PC, are used by Department of Energy sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. The most recent update, CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by EPA in February 2006 for use by Department of Energy facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. Total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions for parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at Department of Energy facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides are lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides would be higher.

  2. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  3. A comparison of dose results from the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988, personal computer (CAP88-PC), version 3 to previous versions.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Kathleen; Snyder, Sandra; Staven, Lissa

    2013-08-01

    Computer software packages approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), including CAP88-PC, are used by U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) sites to demonstrate compliance with the radionuclide air emission standard under the Clean Air Act. CAP88-PC version 3, was approved by the U.S. EPA in February 2006 for use by U.S. DOE facilities. Version 3 incorporates several major changes that have the potential to affect calculated doses relative to calculations using earlier versions. This analysis examined the types and magnitudes of changes to dose estimates for specific radionuclides calculated using the version 3 software compared with the previous versions. For parent radionuclides and for the total dose from radionuclide chains, total effective dose calculated with version 3 was compared to effective dose equivalent calculated with previous versions. Various comparisons were also performed to determine which of the updates in version 3 accounted for changes in overall dose estimates. CAP88-PC version 3 would produce substantially different results relative to previous versions of the code for a number of radionuclides, including some isotopes that may be present at U.S. DOE facilities, as well as those used for industrial and medical applications. In general, doses for many radionuclides were lower using version 3 but doses for a few key radionuclides increased relative to the previous versions.

  4. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-01

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making. PMID:25664763

  5. Semiconductor structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, Harold J. (Inventor); Woodall, Jerry M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A technique for fabricating a semiconductor heterostructure by growth of a ternary semiconductor on a binary semiconductor substrate from a melt of the ternary semiconductor containing less than saturation of at least one common ingredient of both the binary and ternary semiconductors wherein in a single temperature step the binary semiconductor substrate is etched, a p-n junction with specific device characteristics is produced in the binary semiconductor substrate by diffusion of a dopant from the melt and a region of the ternary semiconductor of precise conductivity type and thickness is grown by virtue of a change in the melt characteristics when the etched binary semiconductor enters the melt.

  6. Metastable atom electron spectroscopy of clean and oxidized Si(111)-7 × 7 surfaces: observation of the semiconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hisao; Masuda, Shigeru; Harada, Yoshiya

    1990-12-01

    The electron emission spectra resulting from thermal collisions of He ∗(2 3S) metastable atoms with a Si(111)-7 × 7 surface were measured. Upon the oxidation of the surface, the deexcitation process of the metastable atom is found to change from resonance ionization followed by Auger neutralization to Penning ionization owing to the semiconductor-insulator transition of the surface. From comparison with the photoemission spectra, the electronic states of the outermost oxide layer are discussed.

  7. High-performance semiconductor optical amplifier array for self-aligned packaging using Si V-groove flip-chip technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, D.; Brosson, P.; Pommereau, F.; Ngo, R.; Doussiere, P.; Mallecot, F.; Gavignet, P.; Wamsler, I.; Laube, G.; Hunziker, W.

    1995-05-01

    A high performance four-tilted stripe semiconductor optical amplifier array, with low polarization sensitivity and very low-gain ripple, compatible with self-aligned flip-chip mounting on a Si motherboard is reported. Up to 32 dB of internal gain with 2-dB polarization sensitivity is obtained. A multifiber module has been realized, following an almost static optical alignment procedure, showing no degradation of the SOA array performances. Fiber-to-fiber gain, measured on the four stripes, is 14.4 +/- 1.3 dB with a gain ripple below +/- 0.1 dB.

  8. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs. PMID:22916438

  9. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  10. Semiconductor research capabilities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This document discusses semiconductor research capabilities (advanced materials, processing, packaging) and national user facilities (electron microscopy, heavy-ion accelerators, advanced light source). (DLC)

  11. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H. S.; Yum, J. H.; Johnson, D. W.; Harris, H. R.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Oh, J.; Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, H. D.

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  12. Proton-loaded zeolites. 1. HX (X = Cl, Br, I) in sodium zeolite Y archetype: Packaged acids on the rod to intrazeolite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ozin, G.A.; Oezkar, S. ); Stucky, G.D. )

    1990-09-20

    This series of three papers is concerned with an in-depth investigation of proton-loaded zeolites (packaged acids), a novel class of controlled microporosity, solid-state Broensted acids. Proton-loaded zeolites are formed from the reaction between anhydrous Broensted acids and dehydrated zeolites. Initial experiments focus attention on the chemistry, spectroscopy, diffraction, and dynamics of the sorption and desorption of anhydrous hydrogen halides (HX) in zeolite Y with some important control experiments in all-silica zeolite Y (SiO{sub 2}-Y) and ALPO-5. Zeolite cation, HX anion, H/D isotope, and probe-base effects are explored to elucidate details of location, population, distribution (homogeneity), thermal/kinetic stability, acidity, and reactivity of protonation, anionation, and solvation sites in the zeolite Y lattice.

  13. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  14. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  15. Hermetic-coaxial package design for microwave transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Semiconductor package has been developed for high power semiconductor devices that operate in the GHz-frequency range at several watts. Package includes stud, insulating ring, electrically conductive washer, insulating washer, braze ring, and cap. It is mechanically strong and can be used with variety of circuits.

  16. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  17. Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

    1995-09-01

    Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  19. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  20. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  1. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  2. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  3. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  4. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  5. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  6. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  7. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  8. fsclean: Faraday Synthesis CLEAN imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. R.; Ensslin, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Fsclean produces 3D Faraday spectra using the Faraday synthesis method, transforming directly from multi-frequency visibility data to the Faraday depth-sky plane space. Deconvolution is accomplished using the CLEAN algorithm, and the package includes Clark and Högbom style CLEAN algorithms. Fsclean reads in MeasurementSet visibility data and produces HDF5 formatted images; it handles images and data of arbitrary size, using scratch HDF5 files as buffers for data that is not being immediately processed, and is limited only by available disk space.

  9. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  10. Fluidized-Bed Cleaning of Silicon Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Hsu, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Fluidized-bed chemical cleaning process developed to remove metallic impurities from small silicon particles. Particles (250 micrometer in size) utilized as seed material in silane pyrolysis process for production of 1-mm-size silicon. Product silicon (1 mm in size) used as raw material for fabrication of solar cells and other semiconductor devices. Principal cleaning step is wash in mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, leaching out metals and carrying them away as soluble chlorides. Particles fluidized by cleaning solution to assure good mixing and uniform wetting.

  11. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  12. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  13. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  14. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  15. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  16. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  17. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  18. Clean boiler systems chemically

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.O. )

    1993-04-01

    Internal surfaces of steam generator systems are cleaned to remove contaminants that impair heat transfer and may ultimately cause tube failure. One method of doing so is chemical cleaning. All new steam generators should be chemically cleaned to remove construction contaminants. The degree of cleaning required depends on the initial condition of the boiler and on its operating requirements. This paper discusses: key considerations; pre-operational cleaning; post-operational cleaning; water flushing and steam blowing; alkaline cleaning; and solvent cleaning.

  19. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  20. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  1. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  2. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  3. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  4. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  5. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  6. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  7. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  8. Protecting integrated circuits from excessive charge accumulation during plasma cleaning of multichip modules

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Girardi, Michael

    2015-04-21

    Internal nodes of a constituent integrated circuit (IC) package of a multichip module (MCM) are protected from excessive charge during plasma cleaning of the MCM. The protected nodes are coupled to an internal common node of the IC package by respectively associated discharge paths. The common node is connected to a bond pad of the IC package. During MCM assembly, and before plasma cleaning, this bond pad receives a wire bond to a ground bond pad on the MCM substrate.

  9. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  10. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  11. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  12. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  13. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  14. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  15. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  16. The MSFC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (including multilevel interconnect metallization) process handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouldin, D. L.; Eastes, R. W.; Feltner, W. R.; Hollis, B. R.; Routh, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication techniques for creation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Examples of C-MOS integrated circuits manufactured at MSFC are presented with functional descriptions of each. Typical electrical characteristics of both p-channel metal oxide semiconductor and n-channel metal oxide semiconductor discrete devices under given conditions are provided. Procedures design, mask making, packaging, and testing are included.

  17. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.

    1992-05-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. A novel approach to the study of pyrite aqueous electrochemistry is proposed, based on the use of both synthetic and natural (i.e. coal-derived) pyrite specimens, the utilization of pyrite both in the form of micro (i.e. colloidal and subcolloidal) and macro (i.e. rotating ring disk)-electrodes, and the application of in-situ direct electroanalytical and spectroelectrochemical characterization techniques. Central to this research is the recognition that pyrite is a semiconductor material. (Photo)electrochemical experiments will be conducted to unravel the mechanisms of anodic and cathodic processes such as those associated with pyrite decomposition and the reduction of oxidants such as molecular oxygen and the ferric ion.

  18. The How To Clean Kit. Making Easier Work of Laundering, Cleaning and Dishwashing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package contains a handbook explaining how to make laundering, cleaning, and dishwashing easier; a guide for using the handbook with secondary students, youth groups, adult groups, and students enrolled in teacher preparatory classes; a set of worksheets designed to reinforce concepts introduced in the guide; and four charts. The following…

  19. Semiconductor ohmic contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawrylo, Frank Zygmunt (Inventor); Kressel, Henry (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor device has one surface of P type conductivity material having a wide energy bandgap and a large crystal lattice parameter. Applied to the P type surface of the semiconductor device is a degenerate region of semiconductor material, preferably a group III-V semiconductor material, having a narrower energy bandgap. The degenerate region is doped with tin to increase the crystal lattice of the region to more closely approximate the crystal lattice of the one surface of the semiconductor device. The degenerate region is compensatingly doped with a P type conductivity modifier. An electrical contact is applied to one surface of the degenerate region forming an ohmic contact with the semiconductor device.

  20. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  1. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  2. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  3. The amazing story of semiconductor surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, C. B.

    1995-12-01

    A brief indication of the history of the determination and prediction of the structure of semiconductor surfaces is given. Only clean surfaces are considered, although adsorbate structures exhibit analogous features. Many of these surfaces are reconstructed, i.e., the symmetry of their surface structure is lower than that of the corresponding bulk lattice plane. During the 1980s and 1990s, the detailed atomic geometries of many of these structures were determined. They exhibit a wide variety of atomic motifs, many of which are not familiar from either small molecule geometries or solid state structures. Theoretical predictions exist for a few of the most heavily studied structures, but even in these cases not all the details of the structures are accepted. The enormous literature on this topic can be comprehended by recognizing that the surface regions of semiconductors constitute a new class of two dimensional chemical compounds, restricted by the requirement that they fit epitaxically on the bulk crystalline substrate. Five principles govern the formation of these compounds for clean tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors, guiding even a novice to a rudimentary understanding of the origin of the observed rich variety of surface structures. In the case of the cleavage surfaces additional scaling laws are satisfied which further buttress the concept that these surfaces are two dimensional compounds governed by coordination chemistry considerations which are distinct from those appropriate for either molecules or bulk solids.

  4. Copper post-CMP cleaning process on a dry-in/dry-out tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sanjay; Grief, Malcolm; Gupta, Anand; Murella, Krishna; VanDevender, Barrie

    1998-09-01

    Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and post CMP cleaning have continued to increase in importance in semiconductor manufacturing. The introduction of copper metallization into semiconductor manufacturing processes has created a need for integrating CMP and cleaning tools, as well as a demand for the development of novel cleaning solutions. One system designed for integrated CMP processing and cleaning, commonly referred to as dry-in/dry-out CMP, is the SpeedFam Auriga C. The Auriga C integrates a widely used polishing tool together with a proven cleaning technique. The key to the operation of the Auriga C cleaning process is the effective operation of the PVA brush cleaners, water track transport, final jet rinse and high-speed spinner dryer. The effective operation of the cleaning mechanism for copper post- CMP cleaning requires the use of new chemical solutions. Typical solutions used for post process cleaning of more mature CMP processes are either ineffective for cleaning or chemically incompatible with the copper process. This paper discusses the cleaning mechanism used in an integrated dry- in/dry-out tool and demonstrates an effective and novel cleaning solution for use with this type of post-CMP cleaning process.

  5. Synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianfeng; Dobson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe typical methods and provide detailed experimental protocols for synthesizing and processing various semiconductor nanoparticles which have potential application in biology and medicine. These include synthesis of binary semiconductor nanoparticles; core@shell nanoparticles and alloyed nanoparticles; size-selective precipitation to obtain monodisperse nanoparticles; and strategies for phase transfer of nanoparticles from organic solution to aqueous media. PMID:22791427

  6. Evaluation and testing of semiconductor laser reliability in optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenyan; Fan, Xianguang; Sun, Heyi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of an optic system, a new evaluation and testing methodology for the light source which uses semiconductor laser is presented. A new system, combining high accuracy source and measure capabilities for pulsed testing, is developed to achieve the aim of automatic measurement of Light-Current-Power (LIV) for semiconductor laser. The test can provide customer with L-I, V-I curves and other correlative parameters, such as the threshold current and slope efficiency, and so on. Meanwhile, the change of environment temperature versus lasing wavelength under pulse injection is discussed, and the relationship between the lasing wavelength and the width and cycle of injection pulse is obtained. The temperature character of packaged laser unit is measured conveniently. Making use of the above examined curves and parameters, the reliability of semiconductor laser and quality of device can be compared directly and evaluated accurately. The technique is successfully applied for the evaluation of semiconductor laser reliability.

  7. Genome packaging in viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2010-02-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures became available. Here we discuss various aspects of genome packaging and compare the mechanisms proposed for packaging motors on the basis of structural information. PMID:20060706

  8. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  9. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  10. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    . Although recycling could be energetically more favorable than composting for these materials, it may not be practical because of excessive sorting and cleaning requirements. Therefore, the main focus is to dispose them by composting. So far, there is no formal agreement between companies, governments and consumers as to how this packaging composting will take place; therefore, the main drivers for their use have been green marketing and pseudo-environmental consciousness related to high fuel prices. Packaging compostability could be an alternative for the disposal of biobased materials as long as society as a whole is willing to formally address the challenge to clearly understand the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package, and to include these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities.

  11. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    . Although recycling could be energetically more favorable than composting for these materials, it may not be practical because of excessive sorting and cleaning requirements. Therefore, the main focus is to dispose them by composting. So far, there is no formal agreement between companies, governments and consumers as to how this packaging composting will take place; therefore, the main drivers for their use have been green marketing and pseudo-environmental consciousness related to high fuel prices. Packaging compostability could be an alternative for the disposal of biobased materials as long as society as a whole is willing to formally address the challenge to clearly understand the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package, and to include these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities. PMID:17370278

  12. Cleaning equipment for cleaning and degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Gavaskar, A.R.

    1995-09-01

    Cleaning and degreasing processes are applied in industries to remove dirt, oil, and grease (together referred to as soil) from manufactured parts. In the metal-finishing industry, cleaning usually follows machining and precedes other surface-finishing steps such as rust inhibition or electroplating. During machining, a variety of oil emulsions or synthetic fluids are sprayed on the workpiece (parts being fabricated) for lubrication and cooling. These fluids must be removed before final finishing. The slightest amount of oil or other residue can render the final surface finish ineffective. Solvents have traditionally been used for cleaning and are widely used during processing in the metal-finishing, dry-cleaning, and electronics industries, as well as in a variety of other industries during maintenance. Solvent cleaning leads to air emissions and occupational exposure during use and environmental hazards during disposal of the spent solvent. Pollution prevention efforts focus on reducing or eliminating use of these solvents.

  13. Electrochemical deposition of Al on semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperashvili, Tinatin; Khachidze, Manana; Imerlishvili, Iliy

    2002-11-01

    Samples used for the fabrication of M-S diodes were growing by Chochralski method especially undoped n-type GaP into (III) oriented wafers. The thickness and carrier concentration was 200-250 mimic and (2-4). 10 exp17 atom/cm3 respectively. At first ohmical contact to the one side of wafer was formed by alloying of indium at the temperature 600°C during 5 min in hydrogen. Then the sample with ohmical contact and wire for preceding the power was covered with chemical stable polystyrene solution except the area where the metal will be deposited. The wafers were then ached chemically, rinsed in distilled water and were transferred immediately into electrolyte. Deposition of metal was done by the usual electrochemical method. Electrolyte was poured into quartz glass. The semiconductors wafer was used as the one electrode and as another electrode was used aluminum. For deposition Al the aqueous solution of chlorides have been used as an electrolyte, which consisted also NaOCI. At first, semiconductor"s wafer was used as the anode and cleaning of semiconductors surface was done. Then the potential was immediately changed in opposite direction and deposition of metal on freshly cleaned surface was done in the same solution in a united technological process. After the process of realization the samples were washed in distilled water. The polystyrene film was removed mechanically and boiling in acetone. Then samples were cut into pieces of area 1-3 mm, and were measured electric and photoelectric characteristics. The electrical and photoelectric characteristics have been studded and they were analyzed in the usual way to calculate the ideality factor (n) and barrier height (o). The values of coefficient n and SB height were 1.05-1.07 and 1.1 eV respectively.

  14. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  15. Needleless Electrospinning Experimental Study and Nanofiber Application in Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianwei

    Electronics especially mobile electronics such as smart phones, tablet PCs, notebooks and digital cameras are undergoing rapid development nowadays and have thoroughly changed our lives. With the requirement of more transistors, higher power, smaller size, lighter weight and even bendability, thermal management of these devices became one of the key challenges. Compared to active heat management system, heat pipe, which is a passive fluidic system, is considered promising to solve this problem. However, traditional heat pipes have size, weight and capillary limitation. Thus new type of heat pipe with smaller size, lighter weight and higher capillary pressure is needed. Nanofiber has been proved with superior properties and has been applied in multiple areas. This study discussed the possibility of applying nanofiber in heat pipe as new wick structure. In this study, a needleless electrospinning device with high productivity rate was built onsite to systematically investigate the effect of processing parameters on fiber properties as well as to generate nanofiber mat to evaluate its capability in electronics cooling. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were generated. Tensiometer was used for wettability measurement. The results show that independent parameters including spinneret type, working distance, solution concentration and polymer type are strongly correlated with fiber morphology compared to other parameters. The results also show that the fabricated nanofiber mat has high capillary pressure.

  16. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  17. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  18. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  19. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  20. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... something means to clean it to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... each solution. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

  1. Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Safe and Effective Disinfection Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes Safer alternatives to hazardous cleaning products exist for ... 24 hours at room temperature. All Purpose Cleaner recipes for use on counters, floors and other hard ...

  2. Semiconductor active plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendach, Stefan; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Plasmonics is a research area in nanophotonics attracting increasing interest due to the potential applications in sensing and detecting, sub-wavelength confinement of light, integrated circuits, and many others. In particular, when plasmonic structures such as metal nanostructures or highly doped semiconductor particles are combined with active semiconductor materials and nanostructures, novel exciting physics and applications arise. This special section on semiconductor active plasmonics covers several of the most important and complementary directions in the field. First is the modification of the optical properties of a semiconductor nanostructure due to the close proximity of a metallic film or nanostructure. These arise from the formation hybrid plasmon/exciton states and may lead to enhanced spontaneous emission rates, directional far field emission patterns, strong coupling phenomena, and many more. Second is the realization of sub-wavelength scale nanolasers by coupling a semiconductor gain medium with a plasmonic metallic cavity. Particular emphasis is given on the major technical challenges in the fabrication of these nanolasers, such as device patterning, surface passivation, and metal deposition. While the above topics address mainly active structures and devices operating in the visible or near-infrared wavelength region, in the third, the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of semiconductor particles is discussed. This is based on the build-up of surface plasmon resonances in the doped semiconductor particles which can be resonantly coupled and widely tuned by the carrier density in the semiconductor. We believe these highly diverse aspects give insight into the wide variety of new physics and applications that semiconductor active plasmonics is offering. Finally, we would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support, and we would also like to thank the contributors for their efforts and participation

  3. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  4. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  5. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  6. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  7. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  8. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  9. Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

  10. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    2004-11-15

    A review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors is presented. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, can be considered the most important one for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples. Manuel Cardona, the longtime editor-in-chief of Solid State Communications has been and continues to be one of the major contributors to this field of solid state physics and it is a great pleasure to dedicate this review to him.

  11. SLM based semiconductor maskwriter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Steffen; Jehle, Achim

    2015-09-01

    The high-end semiconductor mask fabrication is dominated by e-beam technology. But still more than 50% of all semiconductor masks are produced by laser writers. The current laser writers are based on the same technology that was used 25 years ago. They are reliable and fast but not very economical. Heidelberg Instruments has developed a new economical and fast laser writer based on the latest technologies.

  12. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  13. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  14. Strained-bond semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, John D.

    1994-05-01

    Theories of strained-bond semiconductors and superconductors have been developed that promise to have significant impact on future electronic devices of interest to the Air Force. These include: (1) development of a theory of high-temperature superconductivity based on the idea of strained-layer superlattices, (2) elucidation of the physics of doping in Type-2 semiconductor superlattices, which is now central to the development of high-speed field-effect transistors, (3) a theory of dimerization and reconstruction on (001) semiconductor surfaces, (4) theory of Mobius transforms as applied to physics and remote sensing, (5) new understanding of how defects affect the vibrational properties of semiconductors, (6) new methods of efficiently computing the trajectories of atoms in semiconductors by a priori molecular dynamics, (7) elucidation of the criteria affecting quantum-well luminescence from Si, (8) models of the effects of vacancies in large-gap Al(x)Ga(1-x)N alloys, (9) physics of rare-earth-doped silicon, (10) models of Co adsorption to silicon surfaces, (11) theories of how defects affect the properties of large band-gap superlattices, and (12) models of the effects of electronic structure on the properties of semiconductors.

  15. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  16. Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes

    DOEpatents

    Dijaili, Sol P.; Patterson, Frank G.; Walker, Jeffrey D.; Deri, Robert J.; Petersen, Holly; Goward, William

    2002-01-01

    A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

  17. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  18. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  19. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Chiang Y.; Rapp, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  20. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  1. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  2. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  3. Sealed symmetric multilayered microelectronic device package with integral windows

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed symmetric multilayered package with integral windows for housing one or more microelectronic devices. The devices can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the windows being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic devices can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive sides are optically accessible through the windows. The result is a compact, low-profile, sealed symmetric package, having integral windows that can be hermetically-sealed.

  4. Adapting MCM-D technology to a piezoresistive accelerometer packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; Plaza, J. A.; Cabruja, E.; Esteve, J.

    2003-07-01

    A silicon-on-silicon multichip module for a piezoresistive accelerometer is presented in this paper. This packaging technology, a type of wafer level packaging, offers fully complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible silicon substrates, so a pre-amplification stage can be included at substrate level. The electrical contacts and a partial sealing of the sensor mobile structures are performed at the same step using flip-chip technology, so the cost is reduced. As accelerometers are stress-sensitive devices, great care must be taken in the fabrication process and materials. Thus, test structures have been included to study the packaging effects. In this paper we report on the compatibility of accelerometer and wafer level packaging technologies.

  5. Photoinduced superconductivity in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Aron, Camille; Chamon, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    We show that optically pumped semiconductors can exhibit superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon in the case of a two-band semiconductor tunnel-coupled to broad-band reservoirs and driven by a continuous wave laser. More realistically, we also show that superconductivity can be induced in a two-band semiconductor interacting with a broad-spectrum light source. We furthermore discuss the case of a three-band model in which the middle band replaces the broad-band reservoirs as the source of dissipation. In all three cases, we derive the simple conditions on the band structure, electron-electron interaction, and hybridization to the reservoirs that enable superconductivity. We compute the finite superconducting pairing and argue that the mechanism can be induced through both attractive and repulsive interactions and is robust to high temperatures.

  6. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of GaAS Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Poelker; J. Price; C. Sinclair

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that surface contaminants on semiconductors can be removed when samples are exposed to atomic hydrogen. Atomic H reacts with oxides and carbides on the surface, forming compounds that are liberated and subsequently pumped away. Experiments at Jefferson lab with bulk GaAs in a low-voltage ultra-high vacuum H cleaning chamber have resulted in the production of photocathodes with high photoelectron yield (i.e., quantum efficiency) and long lifetime. A small, portable H cleaning apparatus also has been constructed to successfully clean GaAs samples that are later removed from the vacuum apparatus, transported through air and installed in a high-voltage laser-driven spin-polarized electron source. These results indicate that this method is a versatile and robust alternative to conventional wet chemical etching procedures usually employed to clean bulk GaAs.

  7. Laser cleaning in the process of electronic device production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Ion G.; Ulieru, Dumitru G.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Ungureanu, Constantin; Rusen, L.

    2002-08-01

    Due to the continuous technological development in microelectronics and generally in precise materials micromachining there is a continuous need to develop more effective techniques to clean impurities from the surface. Current cleaning techniques used in microelectric devices fabrication lines have an integrated action on the whole surface or on a great part of it, are polluting the ambient and are not efficient for submicron particles. Due to this needs we have studied laser cleaning of silicon wafers with regards to direct applications in semiconductor manufacturing. We have analyzed the ablation effect of laser radiation of 1.06 micrometers on different materials currently used in microelectronic industry and the cleaning effect on a silicon support.

  8. Reconditioning of semiconductor substrates to remove photoresist during semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Farino, Anthony J.

    2004-01-27

    A method for reconditioning the surface of a semiconductor substrate to remove an unwanted (i.e. defective) layer of photoresist is disclosed. The method adapts a conventional automated spinner which is used to rotate the substrate at high speed while a stream of a first solvent (e.g. acetone) is used to dissolve the photoresist. A stream of a second solvent (e.g. methanol) is then used to clean the substrate at a lower speed, with the substrate being allowed to dry with continued rotation. The method of the present invention can be used within a photolithography track so that the substrates need never leave the track for reconditioning.

  9. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustarret, E.

    2015-07-01

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  10. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  11. Semiconductor laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, M.C.

    1982-09-28

    A semiconductor laser diode is disclosed with a connection electrode consisting of a chromium/gold alloy on a highly-doped gallium arsenide layer. The gallium arsenide layer is strip shaped and overlies a further lesser doped layer of gallium aluminum arsenide. The chromium/gold contact has a low-resistance junction only in the region of the more highly doped layer so that a strip shaped restriction of the current path occurs in the semiconductor body. Accordingly, a laser-active zone which is only strip-shaped is achieved.

  12. Semiconductor surface protection material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  13. Enhanced thermaly managed packaging for III-nitride light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudsieh, Nicolas

    In this Dissertation our work on `enhanced thermally managed packaging of high power semiconductor light sources for solid state lighting (SSL)' is presented. The motivation of this research and development is to design thermally high stable cost-efficient packaging of single and multi-chip arrays of III-nitrides wide bandgap semiconductor light sources through mathematical modeling and simulations. Major issues linked with this technology are device overheating which causes serious degradation in their illumination intensity and decrease in the lifetime. In the introduction the basics of III-nitrides WBG semiconductor light emitters are presented along with necessary thermal management of high power cingulated and multi-chip LEDs and laser diodes. This work starts at chip level followed by its extension to fully packaged lighting modules and devices. Different III-nitride structures of multi-quantum well InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN based LEDs and LDs were analyzed using advanced modeling and simulation for different packaging designs and high thermal conductivity materials. Study started with basic surface mounted devices using conventional packaging strategies and was concluded with the latest thermal management of chip-on-plate (COP) method. Newly discovered high thermal conductivity materials have also been incorporated for this work. Our study also presents the new approach of 2D heat spreaders using such materials for SSL and micro LED array packaging. Most of the work has been presented in international conferences proceedings and peer review journals. Some of the latest work has also been submitted to well reputed international journals which are currently been reviewed for publication. .

  14. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-10-18

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described.

  15. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  16. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  17. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  18. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  19. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  20. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  2. Cleaning Physical Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, biannual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas. (GR)

  3. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  4. TRNSYS for windows packages

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    TRNSYS 14.1 was released in 1994. This package represents a significant step forward in usability due to several graphical utility programs for DOS. These programs include TRNSHELL, which encapsulates TRNSYS functions, PRESIM, which allows the graphical creation of a simulation system, and TRNSED, which allows the easy sharing of simulations. The increase in usability leads to a decrease in the time necessary to prepare the simulation. Most TRNSYS users operate on PC computers with the Windows operating system. Therefore, the next logical step in increased usability was to port the current TRNSYS package to the Windows operating system. Several organizations worked on this conversion that has resulted in two distinct Windows packages. One package closely resembles the DOS version and includes TRNSHELL for Windows and PRESIM for Windows. The other package incorporates a general front-end, called IISIBat, that is a general simulation tool front-end. 8 figs.

  5. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  6. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  7. Optical Design of Plant Canopy Measurement System and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional High-Speed Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarto, Anthony; VanZeghbroeck, Bart; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical designs for the prototype plant canopy architecture measurement system, including specified component and parts lists, are presented. Six single Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) detectors are mounted in high-speed packages.

  8. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  9. Chemically Derivatized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrighton, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Deliberate modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes to improve durability and enhance rate of desirable interfacial redox processes is discussed for a variety of systems. Modification with molecular-based systems or with metals/metal oxides yields results indicating an important role for surface modification in devices for fundamental study…

  10. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  11. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2004-05-01

    Organic semiconductors are of steadily growing interest as active components in electronics and optoelectronics. Due to their flexibility, low cost and ease-of-production they represent a valid alternative to conventional inorganic semiconductor technology in a number of applications, such as flat panel displays and illumination, plastic integrated circuits or solar energy conversion. Although first commercial applications of this technology are being realized nowadays, there is still the need for a deeper scientific understanding in order to achieve optimum device performance.This special issue of physica status solidi (a) tries to give an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 17 international research groups cover various aspects of this field ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in different devices like organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes.Putting together such a special issue one soon realizes that it is simply impossible to fully cover the whole area of organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, we hope that the reader will find the collection of topics in this issue useful for getting an up-to-date review of a field which is still developing very dynamically.

  12. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  13. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  14. Exposure of GaAs to atomic hydrogen for cleaning prior to NEA photocathode activation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, C.K.; Poelker, B.M.; Price, J.S.

    1998-12-31

    Creating an atomically clean semiconductor surface is an essential step in preparing negative electron affinity (NEA) photoemission cathodes. While bulk GaAs can be satisfactorily cleaned by chemical etching and in situ heat cleaning, many high polarization electron source materials are either much too thin, or have oxides and carbides which are too tightly bound, to be cleaned by these methods. Some polarized source candidate materials may be degraded during the heat cleaning step. It is well established that the exposure of many III-V, II-VI, and elemental semiconductors to atomic hydrogen, typically at elevated temperatures, produces semiconductor surfaces free of contamination. Furthermore, this cleaning, possibly followed by thermal annealing, leaves surfaces which show sharp LEED patterns, indicating good stoichiometry and surface order. Atomic hydrogen cleaning should eliminate the chemical etching step, and might reduce the temperature and/or temperature-time product presently used in forming NEA cathodes. The process is readily adaptable to in situ use in ultrahigh vaccum.

  15. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  16. Investigation of the low temperature induced strain in microelectronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Pei-Haw; Voloshin, Arkady S.

    Due to the wide applications of microelectronic packages, proper assessment of the reliability of the packages became very important. The mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials used in the packages leads to the mechanical strains which may lead to the package failure under the thermal load. Low temperature induced thermal load may be applied during thermal cycling in reliability studies or during service life of the package. An experimental method of digital image analysis enhanced moire interferometry was used to investigate those strains. This technique monitors the actual surface displacements and can operate on small and complex geometries. The specimens investigated here were prepared from the microelectronic packages manufactured by Cypress Semiconductor. They were subjected to a temperature change from 20 to -50 C, and the thermal strain was monitored at selected locations. The results obtained from the analysis of moire patterns show that the significant mechanical strains are induced because of thermal loading. It was also found that the change in material properties of the constituents of the package significantly influence the strain level in the chip.

  17. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  18. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  19. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  20. Seawater Chemistry Package

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  1. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  2. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  3. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  4. Acceptance Data Package: SXI Stepper Motor/Encoder. Aeroflex P/N 16187. A; Engineering Drawings and Associated Lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Acceptance data package - engineering drawings and associated lists for fabrication, assembly and maintenance (cleaning, fluidized bed coating, bounding and staking) motor/encoded solar x-ray imager (SXI) (Aeroflex p/n 16187) were given.

  5. Analyzes Data from Semiconductor Wafers

    2002-07-23

    This program analyzes reflectance data from semiconductor wafers taken during the deposition or evolution of a thin film, typically via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is used to determine the growth rate and optical constants of the deposited thin films using a virtual interface concept. Growth rates and optical constants of multiple-layer structures is possible by selecting appropriate sections in the reflectance vs time waveform. No prior information or estimatesmore » of growth rates and materials properties is required if an absolute reflectance waveform is used. If the optical constants of a thin film are known, then the growth rate may be extracted from a relative reflectance data set. The analysis is valid for either s or p polarized light at any incidence angle and wavelength. The analysis package is contained within an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The program is based on the algorighm described in the following two publications: W.G. Breiland and K.P. Killen, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 6726, and W. G. Breiland, H.Q. Hou, B.E. Hammons, and J.F. Klem, Proc. XXVIII SOTAPOCS Symp. Electrochem. Soc. San Diego, May 3-8, 1998. It relies on the fact that any multiple-layer system has a reflectance spectrum that is mathematically equivalent to a single-layer thin film on a virtual substrate. The program fits the thin film reflectance with five adjustable parameters: 1) growth rate, 2) real part of complex refractive index, 3) imaginary part of refractive index, 4) amplitude of virtual interface reflectance, 5) phase of virtual interface reflectance.« less

  6. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  7. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  8. Semiconductor eutectic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1986-12-01

    Two-phase semiconducting eutectics are potential device-materials. Of these, the SnSe-SnSe2 eutectic was chosen for studies in detail because it consists of multi-p/n-layers of SnSe and SnSe2 semiconductors. Since plasma frequency has not been detected in its infrared reflectance spectrum up to 40 micrometers of wavelength, it suggests that the SnSe-SnSe2 eutectic is a nondegenerate semiconductor. As-grown SnSe2 single crystals have hexagonal crystallographic structure and show n-type conductivity. Polycrystalline SnSe and SnSe2 films have been successfully prepared in vacuum using a close-space-vapor transport technique.

  9. Light amplification using semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    During the summer of 1953, John von Neumann discussed his ideas concerning light amplification using semiconductors with Edward Teller. In September of that year, von Neumann sent a manuscript containing his ideas and calculations on this subject to Teller for his comments. To the best of our knowledge, von Neumann did not take time to work further on these ideas, and the manuscript remained unpublished. These previously unpublished writings of John von Neumann on the subject of light amplification in semiconductors are printed as a service to the laser community. While von Neumann's original manuscript and his letter to Teller are available to anyone who visits the Library of Congress, it is much more convenient to have this paper appear in an archival journal.

  10. Clean Fleet Final Report

    DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... The actions taken were to &23; Replace the diaphragm in the pressure regulator with a fluorosilicone diaphragm &23; Replace the S4-7 seat in the regulator &23; Adjust the idle speed &23; Clean ...

  11. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  12. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  13. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  14. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  15. Cleaning Up High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums. (GR)

  16. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickette, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    The printer is identified as the major maintenance problem in computer system and tips for reducing downtime are offered, including keeping the printer clean by using high quality paper and scheduling routine servicing. (MJL)

  17. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  18. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  19. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  20. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  1. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  2. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  3. #CleanTechNow

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2013-09-17

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  4. #CleanTechNow

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest

    2016-07-12

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  5. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  6. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion. Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  7. Synchronous semiconductor memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Onno, C.; Hirata, M.

    1989-11-21

    This patent describes a synchronous semiconductor memory device. It comprises: first latch means for latching a write command in synchronism with clock signal; second latch means for latching a write data in synchronism with the clock signal and for outputting two write process signals based on the write data latched thereby; pulse generating means for generating an internal write pulse signal based on the write command latched by the first latch means. The internal write pulse signal having a semiconductor memory device; write control means supplied with the internal write pulse signal and the write process signals for controlling write and read operations of the synchronous semiconductor memory device; memory means for storing the write data latched by the second latch means; and noise preventing means coupled to the second latch means and the write control means for supplying the write process signals to the write control means only in the write mode responsive to the internal write pulse signal and for setting the write process signals to fixed potentials during a time other than the write mode.

  8. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  9. Mechanisms of laser cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Kenneth G.

    2000-02-01

    Laser cleaning is growing in importance with the introduction of the Montreal protocol which proposes the long term reduction on environmental and public health grounds in the use of organic solvents such as CFCs that are normally used in industrial cleaning. There is also significant interest in laser cleaning in the conservation of sculptures, paintings and museum objects where the process offers advantages in terms of time saving and the enhancement of the ability to conserve certain artefacts. To date there has been insufficient consideration of the mechanisms involved in laser cleaning and how their understanding could lead to improved control and efficiency of the laser cleaning process. This paper considers an overview of the processes involved and their relevance in the different cleaning situations encountered in practice, mainly in terms of the application short pulse length lasers. The mechanisms to be considered include, (1) photon pressure, (2) selective vaporization, (3) shock waves produced by rapid heating and cooling, (4) evaporation pressure, (5) plasma detonation (spallation), (6) ablation.

  10. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  11. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  14. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  15. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  17. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  18. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  19. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  20. New developments in power semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents an overview of some recent power semiconductor developments and spotlights new technologies that may have significant impact for aircraft electric secondary power. Primary emphasis will be on NASA-Lewis-supported developments in transistors, diodes, a new family of semiconductors, and solid-state remote power controllers. Several semiconductor companies that are moving into the power arena with devices rated at 400 V and 50 A and above are listed, with a brief look at a few devices.

  1. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  2. Integrated devices including cleaved semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.Y.

    1987-11-17

    A process for fabricating a semiconductor device is described comprising semiconductor laser on a semiconductor substrate in which prior to cleaving the semiconductor substrate to form a facet of the semiconductor laser a hole is made in the substrate along the cleave plane so as to produce a stop cleave facet.

  3. Packaged chalcogenide microsphere resonator with high Q-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Ming; Lee, Timothy; Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Bo, Lin; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang; Hewak, Dan; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a packaged As2S3 microsphere resonator coupled to a tapered fiber using a low refractive index UV-curable polymer are reported. Embedding provides an efficient means to remove the highest order whispering gallery modes in the microsphere resonator, thus cleaning the resonator spectrum. At wavelengths near 1549.5 nm, high-Q modes up to 1.8 × 105 can be efficiently excited in a 110 μm diameter chalcogenide microsphere via evanescent coupling from a 2 μm diameter tapered silica fiber. The device photosensitivity, useful for tuning, is still present and useable after the packaging process.

  4. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof. The complaint names...

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  6. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  7. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  8. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  9. Packaging the MAMA module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  10. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  11. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  12. Semiconductor superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, S. L.; Hess, K.; Coleman, J. J.; Leburton, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superlattice photomultiplier and a photodetector based on the real space transfer mechanism were studied. The wavelength for the first device is of the order of a micron or flexible corresponding to the bandgap absorption in a semiconductor. The wavelength for the second device is in the micron range (about 2 to 12 microns) corresponding to the energy of the conduction band edge discontinuity between an Al/(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As and GaAs interface. Both devices are described.

  13. Deep levels in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, George D.

    1983-03-01

    The 3d transition element ion impurities in silicon are reviewed for the broad insight they provide in understanding deep levels in semiconductors. As interstitials, their interaction with the host tends to confine the d-levels to the forbidden gap, providing many deep states. The interaction at the substitutional site is best considered as an interaction with the lattice vacancy, into which the impurity is placed. This interaction tends to repel deep a1 and t2 levels from the gap. When the levels are present, they are mostly vacancy-like and the defect is likely to display the large lattice relaxations characteristic of the vacancy.

  14. Semiconductor structure and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinkel, Nancy A. (Inventor); Goldstein, Bernard (Inventor); Ettenberg, Michael (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor devices such as lasers which include a substrate with a channel therein with a clad layer overlying the substrate and filling the channel exhibit irregularities such as terraces in the surface of the clad layer which are detrimental to device performance. These irregularities are substantially eliminated by forming the channel in a surface of a buffer layer greater than about 4 micrometers thick on the substrate and forming the clad layer over the buffer layer and the channel. CW lasers incorporating the principles of the invention exhibit the highest output power in a single spatial mode and maximum output power which have been observed to date.

  15. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2001-12-21

    Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

  16. Semiconductor nanorod liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi; Walda, Joost; Manna, Liberato; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2002-01-28

    Rodlike molecules form liquid crystalline phases with orientational order and positional disorder. The great majority of materials in which liquid crystalline phases have been observed are comprised of organic molecules or polymers, even though there has been continuing and growing interest in inorganic liquid crystals. Recent advances in the control of the sizes and shapes of inorganic nanocrystals allow for the formation of a broad class of new inorganic liquid crystals. Here we show the formation of liquid crystalline phases of CdSe semiconductor nanorods. These new liquid crystalline phases may have great importance for both application and fundamental study.

  17. TSF Interface Package

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  18. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  19. Neutrino detection with CLEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; Coakley, K. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible, thereby allowing detection by conventional photomultipliers. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense, and transparent to its own scintillation light, making it practical for use in a large self-shielding apparatus. The central region of a full-sized detector would be a stainless steel tank holding approximately 135 metric tons of liquid neon. Inside the tank and suspended in the liquid neon would be several thousand photomultipliers. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray backgrounds have been performed assuming liquid neon as both shielding and detection medium. Gamma ray events occur with high probability in the outer parts of the detector. In contrast, neutrino scattering events occur uniformly throughout the detector. We discriminate background gamma ray events from events of interest based on a spatial maximum likelihood method estimate of event location. Background estimates for CLEAN are presented, as well as an evaluation of the sensitivity of the detector for p-p neutrinos. Given these simulations, the physics potential of the CLEAN approach is evaluated.

  20. Manufacturing cost analysis of integrated photonic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirk, Charles W.; Liu, Qin; Ball, Matthew V.

    1999-04-01

    This paper analyzes the manufacturing cost of photonic system using software that combines several methods for accurate cost accounting. Activity based costing assigns al capital equipment, material and labor costs directly to the product rather than to overheads. Cost of ownership models determine the cost of using machines under different financial and utilization scenarios. Libraries of standard machines, process steps, and process sequences facilitate rapid model building and modification. Using libraries for semiconductor and photonics fabrication, along with packaging and optomechanical assembly, we construct cost models for 2D VCSEL array communication modules. The result of the analysis is that the model cost is driven mainly by the epitaxial material cost, and laser yield limits VCSEL arrays to small scale integration.

  1. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  2. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  3. The clean water handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

  4. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  5. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  6. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, R.M.; Drummond, T.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-08-31

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration. 8 figs.

  7. Semiconductor devices incorporating multilayer interference regions

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor high reflector comprising a number of thin alternating layers of semiconductor materials is electrically tunable and may be used as a temperature insensitive semiconductor laser in a Fabry-Perot configuration.

  8. Mechanisms for enhanced packaging and/or burn-in total dose sensitivity in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.; Winokur, P.

    1997-03-01

    The ionizing radiation response of several semiconductor process technologies has been shown to be enhanced by plastic packaging and/or pre-conditioning (burn-in). Potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed and data on bipolar linear circuits are presented.

  9. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  10. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  11. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  12. Aqueous Based Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lihong; Kershaw, Stephen V; Li, Yilin; Huang, Xiaodan; Li, Yingying; Rogach, Andrey L; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-09-28

    This review summarizes traditional and recent nonconventional, bioinspired, methods for the aqueous synthesis of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The basic chemistry concepts are critically emphasized at the very beginning as these are strongly correlated with the selection of ligands and the optimal formation of aqueous QDs and their more sophisticated structures. The synergies of biomimetic and biosynthetic methods that can combine biospecific reactivity with the robust and strong optical responses of QDs have also resulted in new approaches to the synthesis of the nanoparticles themselves. A related new avenue is the recent extension of QD synthesis to form nanoparticles endowed with chiral optical properties. The optical characteristics of QD materials and their advanced forms such as core/shell heterostructures, alloys, and doped QDs are discussed: from the design considerations of optical band gap tuning, the control and reduction of the impact of surface traps, the consideration of charge carrier processes that affect emission and energy and charge transfer, to the impact and influence of lattice strain. We also describe the considerable progress in some selected QD applications such as in bioimaging and theranostics. The review concludes with future strategies and identification of key challenges that still need to be resolved in reaching very attractive, scalable, yet versatile aqueous syntheses that may widen the scope of commercial applications for semiconductor nanocrystals. PMID:27586892

  13. Reliability evaluation of CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Suk, Kyoung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2009-12-01

    CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages have the advantages of fine pitch capability, and flexibility. Anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) are used for the interconnection between chip and substrate. Display, mobile device, and semiconductor industry require for smaller and more integrated packages. Both CIF and COF packages are an alternative for the demands. However, there are some reliability problems of interconnection between the chip and substrate because the packages are subjected to various loading conditions. These may degrade the functionality of the packages. Therefore, reliability assessment of both packages is necessary. In this study, experimental tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of interconnection between the chip and substrate of CIF and COF packages. Thermal cycling tests were performed to evaluate the resistance against thermal fatigue. The shape and warpage of the chip of CIF and COF packages were observed using optical methods (e.g., shadow Moiré and Twyman/Green interferometry). These optical Moiré techniques are widely used for measuring small deformations in microelectronic packages. The stress distribution around the chip was evaluated through FEA (finite element analysis). In addition, we suggested modifying design parameter of CIF packages for the reliability enhancement.

  14. Reliability evaluation of CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Suk, Kyoung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2010-03-01

    CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages have the advantages of fine pitch capability, and flexibility. Anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) are used for the interconnection between chip and substrate. Display, mobile device, and semiconductor industry require for smaller and more integrated packages. Both CIF and COF packages are an alternative for the demands. However, there are some reliability problems of interconnection between the chip and substrate because the packages are subjected to various loading conditions. These may degrade the functionality of the packages. Therefore, reliability assessment of both packages is necessary. In this study, experimental tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of interconnection between the chip and substrate of CIF and COF packages. Thermal cycling tests were performed to evaluate the resistance against thermal fatigue. The shape and warpage of the chip of CIF and COF packages were observed using optical methods (e.g., shadow Moiré and Twyman/Green interferometry). These optical Moiré techniques are widely used for measuring small deformations in microelectronic packages. The stress distribution around the chip was evaluated through FEA (finite element analysis). In addition, we suggested modifying design parameter of CIF packages for the reliability enhancement.

  15. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  16. Water splitting on semiconductor catalysts under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Alvarez Galván, M Consuelo; del Valle, F; Villoria de la Mano, José A; Fierro, José L G

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable hydrogen production is a key target for the development of alternative, future energy systems that will provide a clean and affordable energy supply. The Sun is a source of silent and precious energy that is distributed fairly all over the Earth daily. However, its tremendous potential as a clean, safe, and economical energy source cannot be exploited unless the energy is accumulated or converted into more useful forms. The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via the water-splitting process, assisted by photo-semiconductor catalysts, is one of the most promising technologies for the future because large quantities of hydrogen can potentially be generated in a clean and sustainable manner. This Minireview provides an overview of the principles, approaches, and research progress on solar hydrogen production via the water-splitting reaction on photo-semiconductor catalysts. It presents a survey of the advances made over the last decades in the development of catalysts for photochemical water splitting under visible-light irradiation. The Minireview also analyzes the energy requirements and main factors that determine the activity of photocatalysts in the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight. Remarkable progress has been made since the pioneering work by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, but he development of photocatalysts with improved efficiencies for hydrogen production from water using solar energy still faces major challenges. Research strategies and approaches adopted in the search for active and efficient photocatalysts, for example through new materials and synthesis methods, are presented and analyzed.

  17. Isotopically engineered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, E. E.

    1995-04-01

    Scientific interest, technological promise, and increased availability of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This review of mostly recent activities begins with an introduction to some past classical experiments which have been performed on isotopically controlled semiconductors. A review of the natural isotopic composition of the relevant elements follows. Some materials aspects resulting in part from the high costs of enriched isotopes are discussed next. Raman spectroscopy studies with a number of isotopically pure and deliberately mixed Ge bulk crystals show that the Brillouin-zone-center optical phonons are not localized. Their lifetime is almost independent of isotopic disorder, leading to homogeneous Raman line broadening. Studies with short period isotope superlattices consisting of alternating layers of n atomic planes of 70Ge and 74Ge reveal a host of zone-center phonons due to Brillouin-zone folding. At n≳40 one observes two phonon lines at frequencies corresponding to the bulk values of the two isotopes. In natural diamond, isotope scattering of the low-energy phonons, which are responsible for the thermal conductivity, is very strongly affected by small isotope disorder. Isotopically pure 12C diamond crystals exhibit thermal conductivities as high as 410 W cm-1 K-1 at 104 K, leading to projected values of over 2000 W cm-1 K-1 near 80 K. The changes in phonon properties with isotopic composition also weakly affect the electronic band structures and the lattice constants. The latter isotope dependence is most relevant for future standards of length based on crystal lattice constants. Capture of thermal neutrons by isotope nuclei followed by nuclear decay produces new elements, resulting in a very large number of possibilities for isotope selective doping of semiconductors. This neutron transmutation of isotope nuclei, already used

  18. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  19. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  20. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  1. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  2. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  3. Stripline mount for semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, N.R.; Holbrook, W.R.; Johnson, A.F. Jr.; Zacharias, A.

    1988-08-02

    An arrangement for coupling a semiconductor optical device to a signal source, is described, the arrangement comprising a stripline transmission path having a predetermined characteristic impedance Z/sub 0/; and resistance means connected in series with the stripline transmission path, chosen to provide impedance matching between the stripline transmission path and an associated semiconductor optical device.

  4. Power module packaging with double sided planar interconnection and heat exchangers

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Zhenxian; Marlino, Laura D.; Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei

    2015-05-26

    A double sided cooled power module package having a single phase leg topology includes two IGBT and two diode semiconductor dies. Each IGBT die is spaced apart from a diode semiconductor die, forming a switch unit. Two switch units are placed in a planar face-up and face-down configuration. A pair of DBC or other insulated metallic substrates is affixed to each side of the planar phase leg semiconductor dies to form a sandwich structure. Attachment layers are disposed on outer surfaces of the substrates and two heat exchangers are affixed to the substrates by rigid bond layers. The heat exchangers, made of copper or aluminum, have passages for carrying coolant. The power package is manufactured in a two-step assembly and heating process where direct bonds are formed for all bond layers by soldering, sintering, solid diffusion bonding or transient liquid diffusion bonding, with a specially designed jig and fixture.

  5. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E. E.

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  6. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  7. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  8. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  9. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  12. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  13. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  14. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-02

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests.

  15. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  16. Printer Graphics Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  17. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  18. Systematic conveyor belt cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rappen, A.

    1984-01-01

    The currently available conveyor belt cleaning devices are enumerated. Recent investigations have confirmed the belt scraping devices based on intermittent linear contact by means of individually adjustable and spring-loaded scraper blades, usually of metallic construction as the most advanced type of belt cleaner. The system also allows application on reversing belts. Criteria are presented for assessing the performance of a belt cleaner.

  19. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  20. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. 3 figs. (VC)

  2. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  3. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  4. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  5. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  6. Dental Cleanings May Help Keep Lungs Clean, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161726.html Dental Cleanings May Help Keep Lungs Clean, Too Twice ... 2016 THURSDAY, Oct. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Regular dental checkups not only keep your smile bright, they ...

  7. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  8. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  9. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  10. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  11. Bi-level multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A bi-level, multilayered package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A second chip can be bonded to the backside of the first chip, with the second chip being wirebonded to the second level of the bi-level package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed.

  12. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  13. Diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James R.

    1990-03-01

    Growth and physical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) were investigated. Growth included Bridgman, solid state recrystallization, and liquid phase epitaxy of Mercury(1-x)Manganese(x)Telluride and Mercury(1-x-y)Manganese(x)Cadmium(y)Telluride. Very uniform crystals were produced by solid state recrystallization. Physical properties studied included magnetization, optical response, and magnetotransport. From magnetization, the exchange interactions among magnetic ions have been deduced. Modulated spectroscopy gave details of the electronic structure of DMS and the quality of the material was indicated by the line widths. Magnetotransport, carried out in some cases to 30 T, showed a large negative magnetoresistance and subsequent increase. The Hg(1-x-y)Mn(x)Cd(y)Te has considerable promise for avalanche photodiodes between 1.2 and 1.8 micrometers.

  14. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  15. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  16. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  17. Genesis Spacecraft Science Canister Preliminary Inspection and Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hittle, J. D.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.; Warren, J. L.; Schwartz, C. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Genesis science canister is an aluminum cylinder (75 cm diameter and 35 cm tall) hinged at the mid-line for opening. This canister was cleaned and assembled in an ISO level 4 (Class 10) clean room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) prior to launch. The clean solar collectors were installed and the canister closed in the cleanroom to preserve collector cleanliness. The canister remained closed until opened on station at Earth-Sun L1 for solar wind collection. At the conclusion of collection, the canister was again closed to preserve collector cleanliness during Earth return and re-entry. Upon impacting the dry Utah lakebed at 300 kph the science canister integrity was breached. The canister was returned to JSC. The canister shell was briefly examined, imaged, gently cleaned of dust and packaged for storage in anticipation of future detailed examination. The condition of the science canister shell noted during this brief examination is presented here. The canister interior components were packaged and stored without imaging due to time constraints.

  18. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  19. All inorganic semiconductor nanowire mesh for direct solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wu, Cheng-Hao; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Peidong

    2014-11-25

    The generation of chemical fuels via direct solar-to-fuel conversion from a fully integrated artificial photosynthetic system is an attractive approach for clean and sustainable energy, but so far there has yet to be a system that would have the acceptable efficiency, durability and can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. Here, we show that a semiconductor mesh made from all inorganic nanowires can achieve unassisted solar-driven, overall water-splitting without using any electron mediators. Free-standing nanowire mesh networks could be made in large scales using solution synthesis and vacuum filtration, making this approach attractive for low cost implementation.

  20. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  1. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  2. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  3. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  4. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  5. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  6. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  7. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  8. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  9. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-04-15

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.

  10. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  11. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  12. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  13. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  14. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    PubMed

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems. PMID:24682025

  15. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  16. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  17. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  18. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E. )

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  20. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  1. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  2. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  3. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  4. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  5. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  6. Signal processing for semiconductor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    A balanced perspective is provided on the processing of signals produced by semiconductor detectors. The general problems of pulse shaping to optimize resolution with constraints imposed by noise, counting rate and rise time fluctuations are discussed.

  7. Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory. PMID:21097704

  8. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III–V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows. PMID:22163382

  9. Semiconductor technology program. Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reviewed. Activities include: optical linewidth and thermal resistance measurements; device modeling; dopant density profiles; resonance ionization spectroscopy; and deep level measurements. Standardized oxide charge terminology is also described.

  10. Medical applications of semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancha, Sylvia D.; Keipert, Andreas; Prairie, Michael W.

    1994-06-01

    The High Power Semiconductor Laser Technology (HPSLT) program is currently developing, in-house, a belt pack medical laser. This compact semiconductor laser device provides the field paramedic or physician a unique portable laser capability. The pack consists of a completely self-contained laser system that fits inside a belt pack. Several other medical applications being investigated by the HPSLT program include urological applications, photodynamic therapy, and ophthalmic applications.

  11. Dye Sensitization of Semiconductor Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hartland, G. V.

    2003-01-13

    In this project electron transfer at semiconductor liquid interfaces was examined by ultrafast time-resolved and steady-state optical techniques. The experiments primarily yielded information about the electron transfer from titanium dioxide semiconductor particles to absorbed molecules. The results show that the rate of electron transfer depends on the structure of the molecule, and the crystalline phase of the particle. These results can be qualitatively explained by Marcus theory for electron transfer.

  12. Semiconductor crystal high resolution imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Craig S. (Inventor); Matteson, James (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A radiation imaging device (10). The radiation image device (10) comprises a subject radiation station (12) producing photon emissions (14), and at least one semiconductor crystal detector (16) arranged in an edge-on orientation with respect to the emitted photons (14) to directly receive the emitted photons (14) and produce a signal. The semiconductor crystal detector (16) comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode that produces the signal in response to the emitted photons (14).

  13. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  14. Simulating nanoscale semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Zhao, P.; Woolard, D. L.; Kelley, C. Tim; Lasater, Matthew S.

    2005-03-01

    The next generation of electronic devices will be developed at the nanoscale and molecular level, where quantum mechanical effects are observed. These effects must be accounted for in the design process for such small devices. One prototypical nanoscale semiconductor device under investigation is a resonant tunneling diode (RTD). Scientists are hopeful the quantum tunneling effects present in an RTD can be exploited to induce and sustain THz frequency current oscillations. To simulate the electron transport within the RTD, the Wigner-Poisson equations are used. These equations describe the time evolution of the electrons distribution within the device. In this paper, this model and a parameter study using this model will be presented. The parameter study involves calculating the steady-state current output from the RTD as a function of an applied voltage drop across the RTD and also calculating the stability of that solution. To implement the parameter study, the computational model was connected to LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms), a part of Sandia National Laboratories parallel solver project, Trilinos. Numerical results will be presented.

  15. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  16. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  17. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as sensors and electronics for space missions to the inner solar system, sensors for in situ combustion and emission monitoring, and electronics for combustion control for aeronautical and automotive engines. However, these devices cannot be used until they can be packaged in appropriate forms for specific applications. Suitable packaging technology for operation temperatures up to 500 C and beyond is not commercially available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology for SiC-based microsystems is essential for both in situ testing and commercializing high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to these needs, researchers at Glenn innovatively designed, fabricated, and assembled a new prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronic microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide) and gold (Au) thick-film metallization. Packaging components include a ceramic packaging frame, thick-film metallization-based interconnection system, and a low electrical resistance SiC die-attachment scheme. Both the materials and fabrication process of the basic packaging components have been tested with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip in an oxidizing environment at temperatures from room temperature to 500 C for more than 1000 hr. These test results set lifetime records for both high-temperature electronic packaging and high-temperature electronic device testing. As required, the thick-film-based interconnection system demonstrated low (2.5 times of the room-temperature resistance of the Au conductor) and stable (decreased 3 percent in 1500 hr of continuous testing) electrical resistance at 500 C in an oxidizing environment. Also as required, the electrical isolation impedance between printed wires that were not electrically joined by a wire bond remained high

  18. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  19. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  20. The LEOS Interpolation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2003-03-12

    This report describes the interpolation package in the Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) system. It is an updated and expanded version of report [1], which described the status of the package as of May 1998, and of [2], which described its status as of the August 2001 release of the LEOS access library, and of [3], which described its status as of library version 7.02, released April 2002. This corresponds to library version 7.11, released March 2003. The main change since [3] has been the addition of the monotone bicubic Hermite (bimond) interpolation method. Throughout this report we assume that data has been given for some function f({rho},T) on a rectangular mesh {rho} = {rho}{sub 0}, {rho}{sub 1}, ..., {rho}{sub nr-1}; T = T{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, ..., T{sub nt-1}. Subscripting is from zero to be consistent with the C code. (Although we use this notation throughout, there is nothing in the package that assumes that the independent variables are actually density and temperature.) The data values are f{sub ij} = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). (This subscript order is historical and reflects the notation used in the program.) There are nr x nt data values, (nr-1) x (nt-1) mesh rectangles (boxes). In the C code, the data array is one-dimensional, with data [i*(nr-1)+j] = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). In the case of the few univariate functions supported by LEOS, the T variable is omitted, as well as the associated index on the data array: data [j] = f({rho}{sub j}).

  1. New package for CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  2. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  3. Basic repository waste handling and packaging facility conceptual design: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design for a surface facility capable of receiving and processing high-level nuclear waste for terminal storage in a mined repository in salt. Design parameters, provided by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, include a repository capacity of 72,000 metric tons of heavy metal. Waste form to be received consists of spent fuel elements and boxed spent fuel pins, to be disassembled and packed into long-lived waste packages; canisters of commercial and defense high-level waste, inserted into the waste packages without disassembly; and transuranic waste, which requires no further packaging before burial. Activities within the facility cover receipt of waste by rail or truck, inspection, cleaning, decontamination, and unloading; waste from segregation to the appropriate hot cell or handling area; disassembly and packaging, overpacking, or palletizing; and loading onto the waste shaft hoist in transfer casks manipulated by overhead bridge cranes. The building's ground-floor design encompasses 18,795 m/sup 2/ (202,200 ft/sup 2/). Support systems include separate ventilation systems for the various functional areas with high-efficiency filtration, which provides the major engineered safeguard for containment of radioactive materials. The total life-cycle cost of the handling and packaging facility, if located in the Palo Duro Basin, is estimated at $1246 million. 10 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  5. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  6. Clean Air Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Mike

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, American electrical utility companies are ahead of schedule in reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide—a major contributor to acid rain—into the atmosphere. By the end of 1995, the 445 boilers with the highest emission levels had cut emissions from 10.9 million tons of SO2 to 5.3 million tons, 39% less emissions than were mandated by the Clean Air Act. Electric utilities account for more than 70% of sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States.

  7. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  8. KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.

    2014-03-01

    KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

  9. Aristos Optimization Package

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the areamore » of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.« less

  10. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  11. Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne

    2004-01-01

    , packaging and assembly is from nature application specific and solutions found are not always transferable from one product to another. But designers can often benefit from experience from other and general available technologies. A number of companies offer packaging and assembly services for MEMS/MST and this report give typical examples of those commercial services. The companies range from small start-ups, offering very specialized services, to large semiconductor packaging companies, having production lines for microsystem based products. Selecting the proper packaging method may tip the scales towards a product success or towards a product failure, while it nearly always present s a substantial part of the cost of the product. This is therefore is not a marginal concern, but a crucial part of the product design. The presentation will also address mayor trends and technologies. Finally, the article provides sufficient levels of classification and categorisation for various aspects for the technologies, in specific, and the industry, in general, to provide particularly useful insights into the activities and the developments in this market. With over 50 companies studied and assessed, it provides an up to date account of the state of this business and its future potential.

  12. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  13. Preliminary study of moisture effects on leadless chip carriers (LCCS) from aqueous cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    Deionized (DI) water cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs) was tested to determine the effect on wire bonding, package sealing, and internal moisture content. The testing methods used to measure the effect of water included nondestructive wire pull testing (NDPT), fine leak testing, residual gas analysis on a mass spectrometer. Twenty LCCs were cleaned with deionized (DI) water and alcohol, and ten of those were vacuum baked. Ten other LCCs processed simultaneously with the first twenty had no cleaning. Results indicated that water cleaning had no effect on internal moisture of sealed LCCs. Also, sealing yields of each group were 100%. One wire bond failure in 80 occurred in the water and alcohol-cleaned non-vacuum-baked parts, which will require more study.

  14. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  15. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  16. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  17. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  20. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

    1993-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office's (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

  1. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

    1993-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office`s (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

  2. Wafer-level packaging with compression-controlled seal ring bonding

    DOEpatents

    Farino, Anthony J

    2013-11-05

    A device may be provided in a sealed package by aligning a seal ring provided on a first surface of a first semiconductor wafer in opposing relationship with a seal ring that is provided on a second surface of a second semiconductor wafer and surrounds a portion of the second wafer that contains the device. Forcible movement of the first and second wafer surfaces toward one another compresses the first and second seal rings against one another. A physical barrier against the movement, other than the first and second seal rings, is provided between the first and second wafer surfaces.

  3. High-Temperature Electronics: A Role for Wide Bandgap Semiconductors?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Okojie, Robert S.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that semiconductor based electronics that can function at ambient temperatures higher than 150 C without external cooling could greatly benefit a variety of important applications, especially-in the automotive, aerospace, and energy production industries. The fact that wide bandgap semiconductors are capable of electronic functionality at much higher temperatures than silicon has partially fueled their development, particularly in the case of SiC. It appears unlikely that wide bandgap semiconductor devices will find much use in low-power transistor applications until the ambient temperature exceeds approximately 300 C, as commercially available silicon and silicon-on-insulator technologies are already satisfying requirements for digital and analog very large scale integrated circuits in this temperature range. However, practical operation of silicon power devices at ambient temperatures above 200 C appears problematic, as self-heating at higher power levels results in high internal junction temperatures and leakages. Thus, most electronic subsystems that simultaneously require high-temperature and high-power operation will necessarily be realized using wide bandgap devices, once the technology for realizing these devices become sufficiently developed that they become widely available. Technological challenges impeding the realization of beneficial wide bandgap high ambient temperature electronics, including material growth, contacts, and packaging, are briefly discussed.

  4. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  5. Keeping an Uphill Edge: Managing Cleaning Behaviors at a Ski Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Jessica; Livesey, Josh; McHaffie, Elizabeth; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Several behaviors in a ski shop were identified as being deficient using Austin's Performance Diagnostic Checklist (2000) and Daniels and Daniels' PIC/NIC Analysis (2004). During a 4-week baseline, 7 cleaning behaviors were monitored and 5 were subsequently targeted in an intervention package using an ABC design. The intervention included: a task…

  6. Industrial Technologies Program - Manufacturing Workforce for a Clean Energy Economy (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    Making the transition to a clean energy economy will strengthen our energy security, improve the environment, and create jobs. In 2009, Congress passed a stimulus package to help jump-start all sectors of the U.S. economy and accelerate this transition.

  7. Adsorption air cleaning from ozone.

    PubMed

    Baltrenas, Pranas; Paliulis, Dainius; Vasarevicius, Saulius; Simaitis, Ramutis

    2003-01-01

    Not much has been written about air cleaning from ozone. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of adsorption air cleaning from ozone. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of the efficiency of ozone removal from the air on the height of the adsorber layer and on concentrations of ozone, and to obtain empirical formulas for calculating the efficiency of ozone treatment. Equipment for air cleaning from ozone and nitrogen and sulphur dioxides is suggested.

  8. 21 CFR 800.12 - Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper....12 Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging. (a) General. Unless contact lens solutions used, for example, to clean, disinfect, wet, lubricate, rinse, soak, or store contact lenses...

  9. 21 CFR 800.12 - Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper....12 Contact lens solutions and tablets; tamper-resistant packaging. (a) General. Unless contact lens solutions used, for example, to clean, disinfect, wet, lubricate, rinse, soak, or store contact lenses...

  10. High heat from a small package

    SciTech Connect

    Oktay, S.; Hannemann, R.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    1986-03-01

    Circuitry contained in a single 100-chip IBM Thermal Conduction Module (TCM) would occupy a space as large as the Empire State Building if it were built with the vacuum-tube technology of the 1950's. The amount of power needed to energize the vacuum tubes would be enormous compared to the 580 W dissipated in a TCM in today's IBM 3090 computer. One might suppose, therefore, that thermal management in computers would be relatively simpler than in the past. But with each new system that is introduced, engineers are faced with greater challenges in the cooling of microelectronic packages. A case in point is the recently announced Fujitsu system that will have 336 chips mounted on both sides of a printed circuit board of 54 x 49 cm. Each chip dissipates approximately 10 W, and the whole board is believed to dissipate more than 3 kW. Computers are becoming increasingly harder to cool, in part because microelectronic devices are becoming functionally denser. The printed features on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices are shrinking to less than a micron in size, and a minimum size of 1000 Angstroms is not far in the future. With this miniaturization, the scale of circuit integration has increased from one transistor per circuit in 1958 and fewer than 100 components (transistors, diodes, resistors, or capacitors) per chip in the early 1960's, to approximately 100,000 in 1980. In 1982, chip-gate density jumped to 450,000 components in the Hewlett-Packard 32-bit CPU chip and to 460,000 in Texas Instruments' static RAM chip. This five-orders-of-magnitude increase in circuit integration in the past 25 years is also the result of successive revolutions in device technology, from transitor/transistor logic (TTL), JTOS emitter-coupled logic (ECL), to negative metal-oxide semiconductors (NMOS), and most recently, to complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS).

  11. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  12. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  13. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  14. Neutral beam processing of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Hoffbauer, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The most important challenge facing the US and global microelectronics industry is to identify and develop the next generation of processing technology to produce device structures with dimensions substantially less than 0.25 microns. This project sought to develop controlled, contamination-free etching techniques that are more selective and less damaging than current methods, which are based on inducing surface chemical reactions by rather crude ion-damage mechanisms. The use of non-charged particle etching and cleaning processes in the production of memory and microprocessor chips has been identified by The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a new manufacturing technique that may aid in the quest for feature sizes of 0.1 micron and lower. The Hyperthermal Neutral Beam Facility at Los Alamos has demonstrated significant improvement over ion-assisted etching in experiments using energetic oxygen and chlorine atoms.

  15. Exposure and control assessment of semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, James H.

    1988-07-01

    From 1980 to 1984, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), along with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), sponsored a study of worker exposures and controls in semiconductor manufacturing. The study was conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and PEDCO Environmental. Walk-through surveys were conducted at 21 plants and in-depth studies were done at four of these plants. Processes studied included photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, wet chemical etching and cleaning, plasma etching, diffusion, ion implantation, and metallization. Air samples were collected for acetone, antimony, arsenic, boron, n-butyl acetate, diborane, 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, hexamethyldisilizane, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, 2-methoxyethanol, methyl ethyl ketone, nitric acid, phosphorus, sulfuric acid, and xylene. In addition, radio-frequency and ionizing radiation were monitored and ventilation measured. In general, results were well below recommended standards for routine operations. One exception was radio-frequency radiation where there was the potential for overexposure in several instances. Worker exposures during maintenance operations and process upset conditions were not able to be evaluated.

  16. Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittet, Pierre-Yves; Mantz, Ulrich; Weidner, Peter; Stehle, Jean-Louis; Bucchia, Marc; Bourtault, Sophie; Zahorski, Dorian

    2004-05-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE) metrology is an emerging technology in semiconductor production environment. Infineon Technologies SC300 implemented the first worldwide automated IRSE in a class 1 clean room in 2002. Combining properties of IR light -- large wavelength, low absorption in silicon -- with a short focus optics -- no backside reflection -- which allow model-based analysis, a large number of production applications were developed. Part of Infineon IRSE development roadmap is now focused on depth monitoring for arrays of 3D dry-etched structures. In trench DRAM manufacturing, the areal density is high, and critical dimensions are much lower than mid-IR wavelength. Therefore, extensive use of effective medium theory is made to model 3D structures. IR-SE metrology is not limited by shrinking critical dimensions, as long as the areal density is above a specific cut-off value determined by trenches dimensions, trench-filling and surrounding materials. Two applications for depth monitoring are presented. 1D models were developed and successfully applied to the DRAM trench capacitor structures. Modeling and correlation to reference methods are shown as well as dynamic repeatability and gauge capability results. Limitations of the current tool configuration are reviewed for shallow structures.

  17. Back to basics: environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa; Wood, Amber

    2014-07-01

    The need for a clean perioperative environment is a basic principle for all perioperative team members. Recent evidence suggests that the environment plays a role in the occurrence of health care-associated infections (HAIs), including surgical site infections. Frequently cleaning high-touch surfaces helps prevent the spread of infections, and routinely cleaning and disinfecting the patient's environment can reduce the level and frequency of contamination and the risk of HAIs. Perioperative personnel should use a bundled approach to perform a standardized cleaning routine and implement a successful monitoring program. PMID:24973185

  18. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  19. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  20. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  1. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  2. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  3. Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; O'Malley, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are many. First of all, the resistivity of GaAs can be orders of magnitude higher than that of the highest resistivity Si material, thus allowing GaAs switches to withstand dc voltages without thermal runaway. Secondly, GaAs has a higher carrier mobility than Si and, thus, is more efficient (per carrier). Finally, GaAs switches can have naturally fast (ns) opening times at room temperature and low fields, microsecond opening times at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, or, on demand, closing and opening at high fields and room temperature by a mechanism called lock-on (see Ref. 1). By contrast, Si switches typically opening times of milliseconds. The amount of laser light required to trigger GaAs for lock-on, or at 77 K, is about three orders of magnitude lower than at room temperature. In this paper we describe the study of lock-on in GaAs and InP, as well as switching of GaAs at 77 K. We shall show that when GaAs is switched at 77 K, the carrier lifetime is about three orders of magnitude longer than it is at room temperature. We shall explain the change in lifetime in terms of the change in electron capture cross section of the deep levels in GaAs (these are defect or impurity levels in the band gap). In the second section, we describe the lock-on effect, now seen in GaAs and InP, and at fields as high as 70 kV/cm. We show how lock-on can be tailored by changing the GaAs temperature or by neutron bombardment. In the third section, we discuss possible lock-on mechanisms. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  5. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  6. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  7. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  8. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  9. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  10. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V-1 s-1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m-2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics.

  11. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m(-2) and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics.

  12. Organic Semiconductors and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalasanan, M. N.

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors in the form of evaporated or spin coated thin films have many optoelectronic applications in the present electronic industry. They are frequently used in many type of displays, photo detectors, photoconductors for photocopiers and photovoltaic cells. But many p-conjugated molecules and polymer based devices do not provide satisfactory device performance and operational stability. Most of these problems are related to the interfaces they make with other organic materials and electrodes and the low conductivity of the organic layers. The study of organic-metal and organic—organic interfaces as well as electrical doping of organic semiconductors are very important areas of research at present. In this talk, I will be discussing some of the recent advances in this field as well as some of our own results in the area of interface modification and electrical doping of organic semiconductors.

  13. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

    2015-02-15

    Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  14. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  15. Cleaning up underground contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    At hundreds of industrial and government sites across the United States, environmental consulting firms are designing permanent containment systems for underground contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels, cleaning solvents, and industrial chemicals. In quantities of thousands of liters or more, these chemicals threaten to contaminate drinking water supplies for hundreds of years. Typical containment systems (e.g., deep wells of cement or clay, or hydraulic pumping to control groundwater movement) can keep the chemicals from further contaminating groundwater if they are properly maintained for many years, but they do not remove the contaminants. Clearly, removing the contaminants from the soil is a much preferable solution than containing them and attempting to prevent their spread. A dynamic underground stripping process that combines steam and electrical heating of underground soils with vacuum extraction of vapors and fluids and guiding these processes by real-time monitoring methods is described.

  16. Praxis I/O package

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.; Sherman, T.A.

    1988-04-07

    The Praxis language specification, like Algol and Ada, does not specify any I/O statements. The intent was to provide a standard I/O package as a companion to the compiler. This would allow the user to substitute, or supplement, the I/O package, as needed, for specialized applications. Like Algol, however, Praxis provided only limited (text) I/O for several years. Ada, in contrast, provided a comprehensive standard I/O package from its inception. Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC's) implementation of Ada, on their VAX family of computers, further supplemented this package with other packages which exploit the I/O facilities available under the VMS operating system. The Praxis I/O package described in this document has been modeled after DEC's implementation of Ada and provides a similar set of I/O facilities. Currently, the I/O package is supported only under VAX/VMS. The design of the package, however, is essentially independent of any operating system (with the exception of the module COMMAND IO). The VAX/VMS version of the I/O package fully exploits the vast I/O facilities which are provided under VAX/VMS and makes them directly available to the Praxis programmer. The design, prototype implementation, and draft documentation of the Praxis I/O Package was done by Tim Sherman as part of a University project in computer science. Subsequent work by both Tim and Fred Holloway lead to a more complete implementation, testing and development of example programs, and inclusion of the package into the Praxis compilers as their principal interface to RMS and VMS.

  17. Tpetra Kernel Package

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs. Templated on the scalar and ordinal types so that any valid floating-point type, as well as any valid integer type can be used with these classes. Other non-standard types, such as 3-by-3 matrices for the scalar type and mod-based integers for ordinal types, can also be used. Tpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vectormore » operations for the next generation of Trilinos preconditioners and solvers, It can be considered as the follow-on to Epetra. Tpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface, The most common implementation of this interface will be MPI.« less

  18. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x)more » is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.« less

  19. Anasazi Block Eigensolvers Package

    2004-03-01

    ANASAZI is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale eigenvalue algorithms. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale eigenvalue problems. ANASAZI is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors (defining the eigenspace) are considered to be opaque objects---only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Anasazi is accomplished via the use of interfaces. One of themore » goals of ANASAZI is to allow the user the flexibility to specify the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based and preconditioned eigensolvers.« less

  20. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  1. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  2. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  3. Meros Preconditioner Package

    2004-04-01

    Meros uses the compositional, aggregation, and overload operator capabilities of TSF to provide an object-oriented package providing segregated/block preconditioners for linear systems related to fully-coupled Navier-Stokes problems. This class of preconditioners exploits the special properties of these problems to segregate the equations and use multi-level preconditioners (through ML) on the matrix sub-blocks. Several preconditioners are provided, including the Fp and BFB preconditioners of Kay & Loghin and Silvester, Elman, Kay & Wathen. The overall performancemore » and scalability of these preconditioners approaches that of multigrid for certain types of problems. Meros also provides more traditional pressure projection methods including SIMPLE and SIMPLEC.« less

  4. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  5. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  6. A brief history of ... semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-09-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival of this successful quantum theory of solids, together with a concentration on the growth of pure silicon and germanium and an understanding of their properties, saw an explosion in activity in semiconductor studies that has continued to this day.

  7. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOEpatents

    Arendt, Paul N.; Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; DePaula, Raymond F.; Usov, Igor O.

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  8. The processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Five experiments involving the processing of semiconductor materials were performed during the Skylab mission. After discussions on semiconductors and their unique electronic properties, and techniques of crystal growth, these five experiments are presented. Four melt growth experiments were attempted: (1) steady state growth and segregation under zero gravity (InSb); (2) seeded, containerless solidification of InSb; (3) influence of gravity-free solidification on microsegregation; and (4) directional solidification of InSb-GaSb alloys. One vapor growth experiment, crystal growth by vapor transport, was attempted.

  9. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  10. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  11. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  12. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  13. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  14. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  15. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  16. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  17. Blood Pressure. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on blood pressure is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  18. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  19. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  20. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  1. Semiconductor Reliability--Another Field for Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel; Anderson, Wallace T.

    1994-01-01

    Stresses that an important industrial area is product reliability, especially for semiconductors. Suggests that physics students would benefit from training in semiconductors: the many modes of failure, radiation effects, and electrical contact problems. (MVL)

  2. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  3. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  4. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  5. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  6. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  7. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  8. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  9. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  10. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  12. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1987-01-01

    An electrode is disclosed for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode includes a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  13. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  14. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  15. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  16. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  17. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  18. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  19. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  20. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  3. A Brief History of ... Semiconductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Tudor

    2005-01-01

    The development of studies in semiconductor materials is traced from its beginnings with Michael Faraday in 1833 to the production of the first silicon transistor in 1954, which heralded the age of silicon electronics and microelectronics. Prior to the advent of band theory, work was patchy and driven by needs of technology. However, the arrival…

  4. Hydroplane polishing of semiconductor crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormley, J. V.; Manfra, M. J.; Calawa, A. R.

    1981-08-01

    A new technique for obtaining optically flat, damage-free surfaces on semiconductor crystals has been developed. The polishing is very fast, being capable of removing over 30 μm of materials per minute in the case of GaAs and InP. Initial results indicate that the technique can also be used in the polishing of HgCdTe.

  5. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  6. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  7. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  8. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  9. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  10. (Magnetic properties of doped semiconductors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the transport behavior of doped semiconductors on both sides of the metal-insulator transition, and the approach to the transition from both the insulating and the metallic side. Work is described on magneto resistance of a series of metallic Si:B samples and CdSe. (CBS)

  11. Electronic spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals smaller than the bulk exciton show substantial quantum confinement effects. Recent experiments including Stark effect, resonance Raman, valence band photoemission, and near edge X-ray adsorption will be used to put together a picture of the nanocrystal electronic states.

  12. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  13. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  14. High-speed semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, S. M.

    An introduction to the physical principles and operational characteristics of high-speed semiconductor devices is presented. Consideration is given to materials and technologies for high-speed devices, device building blocks, the submicron MOSFET, homogeneous field-effect transistors, and heterostructure field-effect transistors. Also considered are quantum-effect devices, microwave diodes, and high-speed photonic devices.

  15. Semiconductor technology program: Progress briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, K. F.; Scace, R. I.; Walters, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement technology for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices, is discussed. Silicon and silicon based devices are emphasized. Highlighted activities include semiinsulating GaAs characterization, an automatic scanning spectroscopic ellipsometer, linewidth measurement and coherence, bandgap narrowing effects in silicon, the evaluation of electrical linewidth uniformity, and arsenicomplanted profiles in silicon.

  16. Optical bistability in semiconductor microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, A.; Karr, J.Ph.; Giacobino, E.; Eleuch, H.

    2004-02-01

    We report the observation of polaritonic bistability in semiconductor microcavities in the strong-coupling regime. The origin of bistability is the polariton-polariton interaction, which gives rise to a Kerr-like nonlinearity. The experimental results are in good agreement with a simple model taking transverse effects into account.

  17. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is <= 500 μm/side. Such ultrathin, ultra-small dice provide the flexibility and low cost required, but no conventional technology today can package such die onto a flexible substrate at low cost and high rate. The laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) technology has been developed at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota, to accomplish this objective. Presented are results using LEAP to assemble dice with various thicknesses, including 350 μm/side dice as thin as 20 μm and less. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a laser to package conventional silicon dice with such small size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  18. Indium phosphide negative electron affinity photocathodes: Surface cleaning and activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun

    InP(100) is a very important semi-conductor for many applications. When activated by Cs and oxygen, the InP surface achieves the state of Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) making the Cs+O/InP system a very efficient electron source. Despite many years of study, the chemical cleaning and activation of InP are still not well understood. In our work, we have established an understanding of the basic physics and chemistry for the chemical cleaning and activation of the InP(100) surface. Synchrotron Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy is the main technique used in this study because of its high surface sensitivity and ability to identify chemical species present on the surface at each stage of our process. A clean, stoichiometric InP(100) surface is crucial for obtaining high performance of NEA photocathodes. Therefore, the first part of our study focused on the chemical cleaning of InP(100). We found that hydrogen peroxide based solutions alone, originally developed to clean GaAs(100) surfaces and widely used for InP(100), do not result in clean InP(I00) surfaces because oxide is left on the surface. A second cleaning step, which uses acid solutions like HCl or H2SO4, can remove all the oxide and leave a 0.4 ML protective layer of elemental phosphorous on the surface. The elemental phosphorous can be removed by annealing at 330°C and a clean InP(100) surface can be obtained. Cs deposition on InP(100) surface shows clear charge transfer from the Cs ad-atoms to the substrate. When the Cs/InP(100) surface is dosed with oxygen, the charge transfer from the Cs to substrate is reduced and substrate is oxidized. The activation of InP as a NEA photocathode is carried out by an alternating series of steps consisting of Cs deposition and Cs+O co-deposition. Two types of oxygen are found after activation. The first is dissociated oxygen and the other is a di-oxygen species (peroxide or superoxide). The decay of quantum-yield with time and with annealing is studied and changes in

  19. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  20. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  1. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  2. Clean intermittent catheterization revisited.

    PubMed

    Lamin, Eliza; Newman, Diane K

    2016-06-01

    Catheterization is the insertion of a hollow flexible tube (called a catheter) to drain the urine from the bladder and is probably one of the oldest urologic procedures, dating back 3000 years. Since 1972, when urologist Dr Jack Lapides described a procedure for performing clean intermittent catheterization, this method of bladder management has become lifesaving for an individual who cannot empty their bladder independently. If the bladder is not emptied regularly, elevated storage pressures can develop which may put the upper tracts at risk of subsequent deterioration. Intermittent catheterization (IC) has become the first-line and preferred method of drainage in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, as long as dexterity or available caregiver support and body habitus allow access. However, over the past 20 years, an evolution has occurred in the technology of catheters used for IC. But with these advances, so has controversy arisen. This article is a review of the current application of IC, the current technology in catheter material and systems, differences between reusable and one-time, or single-use catheters, the cost benefit of doing IC, and the infectious benefit.

  3. Nonaqueous coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, A.E.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a method of cyclone cleaning of fine particle coal containing carbonaceous material, ash and pyrites comprising the steps of: a. demoisturizing the coal by immersing the coal in a non-aqueous drying liquid having a vaporization temperature higher than that of water. The drying liquid is maintained at a temperature exceeding the vaporization temperature of water, whereby water in the coal is vaporized from the coal and drying liquid; b. transferring the coal to a non-aqueous, agglomerate inhibiting, carrier liquid miscible with the drying liquid. The carrier liquid is comprised of a liquid mixture of a first liquid having a first specific gravity and a second liquid having a second specific gravity different from the first specific gravity. The carrier liquid's specific gravity is adjusted by using a select amount of each of the first and second liquids to yield a carrier liquid specific gravity intermediate the first and second specific gravities. The carrier liquid specific gravity is greater than 1 less than 1.6 selected for effective separation of carbonaceous material from pyrites and ash for a particular coal and wherein the carrier liquid has the characteristic of extracting non-pyrite forms of sulfur from the coal; and c. cycloning the coal in the carrier liquid with a compound cyclone, wherein a first stream predominantly consisting of carbonaceous material and liquid is separated from a second stream predominantly consisting of ash, pyrites and liquid.

  4. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  5. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  6. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  7. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  9. Amesos Solver Package

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Vendall S.; Heroux, Michael A.; Hoekstra, Robert J.; Sala, Marzio

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.

  10. Amesos Solver Package

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. wheremore » A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.« less

  11. Packaging Considerations for Biopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Erik J.; Thirumala, Sreedhar

    2011-01-01

    Summary The packaging system chosen for biopreservation is critical for many reasons. An ideal biopreservation container system must provide for closure integrity, sample stability and ready access to the preserved material. This means the system needs to be hermetically sealed to ensure integrity of the specimen is maintained throughout processing, storage and distribution; the system must remain stable over long periods of time as many biobanked samples may be stored indefinitely; and functionally closed access systems must be used to avoid contamination upon sample withdraw. This study reviews the suitability of a new commercially available vial configuration container utilizing blood bag style closure and access systems that can be hermetically sealed and remain stable through cryopreservation and biobanking procedures. This vial based systems allow for current good manufacturing/tissue practice (cGTP) requirements during processing of samples and may provide the benefit of ease of delivery by a care giver. In this study, the CellSeal® closed system cryovial was evaluated and compared to standard screw cap vials. The CellSeal system was evaluated for durability, closure integrity through transportation and maintenance of functional viability of a cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cell model. The results of this initial proof-of-concept study indicated that the CellSeal vials are highly suitable for biopreservation and biobanking, and provide a suitable container system for clinical and commercial cell therapy products frozen in small volumes. PMID:21566715

  12. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  13. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  14. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  15. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  17. What are our cleaning options?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for ``squirt bottle`` or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  18. What are our cleaning options

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for squirt bottle'' or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  19. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  20. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  1. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  2. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  3. Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1992-12-31

    Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.

  4. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  5. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature SiC Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic- and thick-film-materials-based prototype electronic package designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature sensors and electronics has been successfully tested at 500 C in an oxygen-containing air environment for 500 hours. This package was designed, fabricated, assembled, and electronically evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip. High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as space missions to the inner solar system or the emission control electronics and sensors in aeronautical engines. Single-crystal SiC has such excellent physical and chemical material properties that SiC-based semiconductor electronics can operate at temperatures over 600 C, which is significantly higher than the limit for Si-based semiconductor devices. SiC semiconductor chips were recently demonstrated to be operable at temperatures as high as 600 C, but only in the probe station environment because suitable packaging technology for sensors and electronics at temperatures of 500 C and beyond did not exist. Thus, packaging technology for SiC-based sensors and electronics is immediately needed for both application and commercialization of high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to this need, researchers at Glenn designed, fabricated, and assembled a prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate and gold (Au) thick-film materials. This prototype package successfully survived a soak test at 500 C in air for 500 hours. Packaging components tested included thick-film high-temperature metallization, internal wire bonds, external lead bonds, and a SiC diode chip die-attachment. Each test loop, which was composed of thick-film printed wire, wire bond, and lead bond was subjected to a 50-mA direct current for 250

  6. Post-Cleaning Effect on a HfO2 Gate Stack Using a NF3/NH3 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Seon; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Lee, Joo-Hee; Lee, In-Geun; Shin, Woo-Gon; Kim, Kyu-Dong; Park, Jin-Gu; Ko, Dae-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The effects of dry cleaning of a HfO2 gate stack using NF3 only and a NF3/NH3 gas mixture plasma were investigated. The plasma dry cleaning process was carried out after HfO2 deposition using an indirect down-flow capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) system. An analysis of the chemical composition of the HfO2 gate stacks by XPS indicated that fluorine was incorporated into the HfO2 films during the plasma dry cleaning. Significant changes in the HfO2 chemical composition were observed as a result of the NF3 dry cleaning, while they were not observed in this case of NF3/NH3 dry cleaning. TEM results showed that the interfacial layer (IL) between the HfO2 and Si thickness was increased by the plasma dry cleaning. However, in the case of NF3/NH3 dry cleaning using 150 W, the IL thickness was suppressed significantly compared to the sample that had not been dry cleaned. Its electrical properties were also improved, including the low gate leakage currents, and reduced EOT. Finally, the finding show that the IL thickness of the HfO2 gate stack can be controlled by using the novel NF3/NH3 dry cleaning process technique without any the significant changes in chemical composition and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor characteristics. PMID:27483826

  7. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  8. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstacle deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.

  9. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  10. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstaclemore » deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.« less

  11. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  12. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  13. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  14. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  15. TRU waste transportation package development

    SciTech Connect

    Eakes, R. G.; Lamoreaux, G. H.; Romesberg, L. E.; Sutherland, S. H.; Duffey, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures. (DLC)

  16. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, M. W.

    1983-10-01

    The effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils was investigated by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed from steels, aluminum, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglass, glass and flexible materials such as rubber. Zinc, copper, and lead were not cleaned. Results indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process or a variety of manufacturing operations.

  17. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  19. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  20. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.