Science.gov

Sample records for cleaning vollmetallkatalysatoren auf

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Cleaning Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Offers strategies to make schools' cleaning operations run more smoothly. Discusses how to estimate the amount of space that needs cleaning and how long it should take, the benefits of team cleaning versus zone cleaning, and the importance of monitoring complaints and overtime to ensure staff is performing efficiently. (EV)

  3. Cleaning Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Offers strategies to make schools' cleaning operations run more smoothly. Discusses how to estimate the amount of space that needs cleaning and how long it should take, the benefits of team cleaning versus zone cleaning, and the importance of monitoring complaints and overtime to ensure staff is performing efficiently. (EV)

  4. Auf dem Weg zum universellen Quantencomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Dieter; Calarco, Tommaso; Zoller, Peter

    2000-11-01

    Die Quantenmechanik eröffnet faszinierende Perspektiven für die Kommunikation und die Informationsverarbeitung. Um universell programmierbare Quantenrechner realisieren zu können bedarf es der Implementierung von Konzepten zur Quanteninformationsverarbeitung die sich auf eine große Anzahl von Qubits anwenden lassen.

  5. Vollautomatische Einzelzellerkennung auf fluoreszenten Gewebeschnitten humaner Epidermis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerencke, Thora; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Grabe, Niels

    Wir stellen hier ein vollautomatisches Verfahren zur Einzelzellerkennung auf fluoreszenten Gewebeschnitten humaner Epidermis vor. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Expressionsverschiebungen von beispielsweise Zellmembran zu Nucleus detektieren zu können. Diese können bei pathologischen Veränderungen des Gewebes auftreten. Im Vergleich zu anderen existierenden Segmentierungen werden hier die Zellgrenzen in einem kombinierten Ansatz sowohl auf Basis einer Membranfärbung als auch anhand detektierter Zellkerne mittels Watershed ermittelt. Wir konnten zeigen, dass wir mit unserem Verfahren eine Membranfärbung deutlich von einer Zellkernfärbung unterscheiden können. Somit ermöglicht die von uns entwickelte Einzelzellerkennung eine Detektion von Translokationen in der Expression.

  6. Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G.; Lillestøl, E.; Sellevåg, I.

    This book is a German translation by C. Ascheron and J. Urbahn, of "The search for infinity: solving the mysteries of the universe", published in 1994. Diese Buch beschreibt anschaulich die Meilensteine, die der Mensch seit der Antike auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen erreicht und hinter sich gelassen hat. Es enthält Kurzbiographien der wichtigsten Forscher, verständlich geschriebene Texte sowie Erläuterungen der entscheidenen Fachtermini.

  7. Clean Diesel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  8. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes.

  9. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  10. Nanophysik: Wärmeübertrag auf der Nanometerskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts waren die grundlegenden Prozesse des Wärmeaustauschs verstanden. Die Gesetze dienten dann als Grundlage für die Quantenmechanik. Doch gelten diese Gesetze auch auf der Nanometerskala? In den 1970er-Jahren wurde eine Theorie für den Wärmeübertrag im atomaren Bereich entwickelt. Physiker der Universität Oldenburg überprüften deren Vorhersagen und stießen dabei auf signifikante Abweichungen, welche auf einen Zusammenbruch der klassischen, makroskopischen Elektrodynamik hindeuten.

  11. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  12. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  13. AUF1 regulation of coding and noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    White, Elizabeth J F; Matsangos, Aerielle E; Wilson, Gerald M

    2017-03-01

    AUF1 is a family of four RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) generated by alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing, with canonical roles in controlling the stability and/or translation of mRNA targets based on recognition of AU-rich sequences within mRNA 3' untranslated regions. However, recent studies identifying AUF1 target sites across the transcriptome have revealed that these canonical functions are but a subset of its roles in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the RNA-binding properties of AUF1 together with their biochemical implications and roles in directing mRNA decay and translation. This is then followed by a survey of newly discovered activities for AUF1 proteins in control of miRNA synthesis and function, including miRNA assembly into microRNA (miRNA)-loaded RNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs), miRISC targeting to mRNA substrates, interplay with an expanding network of other cellular RBPs, and reciprocal regulatory relationships between miRNA and AUF1 synthesis. Finally, we discuss recently reported relationships between AUF1 and long noncoding RNAs and regulatory roles on viral RNA substrates. Cumulatively, these findings have significantly expanded our appreciation of the scope and diversity of AUF1 functions in the cell, and are prompting an exciting array of new questions moving forward. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1393. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... specimen; Urine collection - clean catch; UTI - clean catch; Urinary tract infection - clean catch; Cystitis - clean catch ... LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary tract infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  15. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  16. On the stability of AuFe alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Velasco, V; Pohl, D; Surrey, A; Bonatto-Minella, A; Hernando, A; Crespo, P; Rellinghaus, B

    2014-05-30

    AuFe nanoparticles with mean diameters d p  = 13.2 nm have been prepared by inert-gas condensation. Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy investigations show that the particles are mostly icosahedra. Scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy show that the as-grown particles exhibit a core-shell structure. The shell is mainly composed of an amorphous FeO layer. Although Fe and Au are immiscible in the bulk, the particle cores are found to be homogeneously mixed at the atomic level with a local composition of around Au84Fe16 (at.%). AuFe nanoparticles exhibit a complex magnetic structure in which the core behaves as a spin glass with a freezing temperature of 35 K, whereas the amorphous FeO shell behaves as a ferro-ferrimagnetic system. On annealing above 300 °C, the AuFe icosahedra phases separate into their elemental constituents. Hence the as-grown AuFe icosahedra are metastable, thereby implying that the bulk phase diagram also applies for nanoscopic materials.

  17. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  18. RNA-Binding Protein AUF1 Promotes Myogenesis by Regulating MEF2C Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Curtis, Jessica; Mercken, Evi M.; Chenette, Devon M.; Zhang, Yongqing; Schneider, Robert J.; Becker, Kevin G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian RNA-binding protein AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1, also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNP D]) binds to numerous mRNAs and influences their posttranscriptional fate. Given that many AUF1 target mRNAs encode muscle-specific factors, we investigated the function of AUF1 in skeletal muscle differentiation. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, where AUF1 levels rise at the onset of myogenesis and remain elevated throughout myocyte differentiation into myotubes, RNP immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis indicated that AUF1 binds prominently to Mef2c (myocyte enhancer factor 2c) mRNA, which encodes the key myogenic transcription factor MEF2C. By performing mRNA half-life measurements and polysome distribution analysis, we found that AUF1 associated with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Mef2c mRNA and promoted MEF2C translation without affecting Mef2c mRNA stability. In addition, AUF1 promoted Mef2c gene transcription via a lesser-known role of AUF1 in transcriptional regulation. Importantly, lowering AUF1 delayed myogenesis, while ectopically restoring MEF2C expression levels partially rescued the impairment of myogenesis seen after reducing AUF1 levels. We propose that MEF2C is a key effector of the myogenesis program promoted by AUF1. PMID:24891619

  19. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  20. Electrical impedance measurements in reentrant Au-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco, R.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pureur, P.

    2017-08-01

    We report on impedance experiments carried out in the reentrant alloys Au-Fe 18 at.% and Au-Fe 21 at.%. A spin-glass system Au-Fe 13.5 at.% was also studied for comparison. Measurements cover an extended temperature interval including the paramagnetic state, the intermediate ferromagnetic-like phase and the low temperature reentrant regime. Several frequencies in the range 0.1-1.8 MHz were applied. Magneto-impedance measurements were also performed in low magnetic fields applied parallel to the current orientation. From the impedance versus temperature data, the real and imaginary components of the circumferential permeability were extracted. A Hopkinson maximum is observed in both permeability components of the reentrant magnets. Also observed in these systems is a downwards inflexion in the permeability versus temperature curves at the canting temperature TK where the reentrant regime sets in. The anisotropy field HK was obtained from the magneto-impedance measurements in several temperatures spanning the ferromagnetic and reentrant states. A marked increase of the HK magnitude occurs in temperatures below TK , indicating the stabilization of the reentrant phase by the anisotropic Dzyaloshisnskii-Moriya coupling. These results are in agreement with predictions of the mean-field theory that explains canting and the reentrant state with basis on the freezing of the spin components which are transverse to the field orientation.

  1. Modulation of neoplastic gene regulatory pathways by the RNA-binding factor AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Zucconi, Beth E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    The mRNA-binding protein AUF1 regulates the expression of many key players in cancer including proto-oncogenes, regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, principally by directing the decay kinetics of their encoded mRNAs. Most studies support an mRNA-destabilizing role for AUF1, although other findings suggest additional functions for this factor. In this review, we explore how changes in AUF1 isoform distribution, subcellular localization, and post-translational protein modifications can influence the metabolism of targeted mRNAs. However, several lines of evidence also support a role for AUF1 in the initiation and/or development of cancer. Many AUF1-targeted transcripts encode products that control pro- and anti-oncogenic processes. Also, overexpression of AUF1 enhances tumorigenesis in murine models, and AUF1 levels are enhanced in some tumors. Finally, signaling cascades that modulate AUF1 function are deregulated in some cancerous tissues. Together, these features suggest that AUF1 may play a prominent role in regulating the expression of many genes that can contribute to tumorigenic phenotypes, and that this post-transcriptional regulatory control point may be subverted by diverse mechanisms in neoplasia. PMID:21622178

  2. Setting the Cleaning Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care. (GR)

  3. California Clean Tech

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CA Clean Air Technology Initiative is an EPA/state partnership to develop clean air technologies for the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast Air Basins through collaborative projects in technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  4. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Watershed Needs Survey is a national assessment of the future capital cost for publicly owned wastewater collection and treatment facilities to meet the Clean Water Act's water quality goals.

  5. Setting the Cleaning Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care. (GR)

  6. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  7. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  8. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  9. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  10. Clean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQPClean Watersheds for a Clean Bay Project: Implementing the PCB TMDL, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  11. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  12. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  13. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution in Au-Fe Nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Irene; Borgese, Laura; Mariz, Michele; Polizzi, Stefano; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Ghigna, Paolo; Sartorel, Andrea; Amendola, Vincenzo; Alessandri, Ivano

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the most critical step in water splitting, still limiting the development of efficient alkaline water electrolyzers. Here we investigate the OER activity of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser-ablation synthesis in solution. This method allows a high amount of iron (up to 11 at %) to be incorporated into the gold lattice, which is not possible in Au-Fe alloys synthesized by other routes, due to thermodynamic constraints. The Au0.89 Fe0.11 nanoalloys exhibit strongly enhanced OER in comparison to the individual pure metal nanoparticles, lowering the onset of OER and increasing up to 20 times the current density in alkaline aqueous solutions. Such a remarkable electrocatalytic activity is associated to nanoalloying, as demonstrated by comparative examples with physical mixtures of gold and iron nanoparticles. These results open attractive scenarios to the use of kinetically stable nanoalloys for catalysis and energy conversion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide induces p16(INK4a) through an AUF1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gai E; Ma, Li Wei; Jiang, Bin; Yi, Jie; Tong, Tan Jun; Wang, Wen Gong

    2010-04-01

    Elevation of p16(INK4a) has been described as an important mechanism for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced replicative senescence. However, the mechanisms underlying remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate an important role of RNA-binding protein AUF1-mediated mRNA turnover in H2O2-induced p16(INK4a) expression. The induction of p16 by H2O2 was accompanied with declined cytoplasmic AUF1 level. Accordingly, exposure of cells to H2O2 remarkably reduced the binding of AUF1 to p16 3'UTR and increased the half-life of an EGFP-p16-3'UTR chimeric transcript. In AUF1-silenced cells, the effect of H2O2 on p16 induction was abolished. Furthermore, in cells co-transfected with vectors expressing AUF1s, treatment with H2O2 failed to significantly reduce the expression of AUF1 and subsequently elevate the levels of p16. Moreover, HeLa cells overexpressing AUF1s were resistant to H2O2-induced senescence. Our results indicate that AUF1 is critical for H2O2-induced p16 expression and cellular senescence. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Kentaro . E-mail: akenaga@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Sakai, Senkiti

    2007-08-01

    The expression of many genes, such as {beta}-casein, c-myc, and cyclin D1, is altered by lactogenic hormone stimulation during mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role to establish gene expression required to initiate milk production as well as transcriptional control. AUF1 protein, a member of the AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein family, plays a role in ARE-mRNA turnover by regulating mRNA stability and/or translational control. Cytoplasmic localization of AUF1 protein is critically linked to function. We show that as the mammary gland differentiates, AUF1 protein moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, in mammary gland epithelial cells (HC11), stimulation by lactogenic hormone decreased cytoplasmic and increased nuclear AUF1 levels. Direct binding of AUF1 protein was observed on c-myc mRNA, but not {beta}-casein or cyclin D1 mRNA. AUF1 downregulation in HC11 cells increased the expression of {beta}-casein mRNA and decreased the expression of c-myc mRNA by lactogenic hormone. Conversely, overexpression of AUF1 inhibited these effects of lactogenic hormone stimulation in HC11 cells. These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals.

  16. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelenburg, S.; Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs) sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit) auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar. Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA) vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  17. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, A. M.; Calado, V. E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2012-02-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force microscopy removes residues and significantly improves the electronic properties. A mechanically cleaned dual-gated bilayer graphene transistor with hexagonal boron nitride dielectrics exhibited a mobility of ˜36 000 cm2/Vs at low temperature.

  18. Cleaning Products Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 1997 case study documents a three-year effort to identify and compare environmentally preferable commercial cleaning products and to implement the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP).

  19. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  20. Role of Auf1 in elimination of oxidatively damaged messenger RNA in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo

    2015-02-01

    In aerobically growing cells, in which reactive oxygen species are produced, the guanine base of RNA is oxidized to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, which induces alterations in gene expression. Here we show that the human Auf1 protein, also called HNRNPD, binds specifically to RNA containing this oxidized base and may be involved in cellular processes associated with managing the problems caused by RNA oxidation. Auf1-deficient cells were constructed from human HeLa and Nalm-6 lines using two different targeting procedures. Both types of Auf1-deficient cells are viable, but exhibit growth retardation. The stability of messenger RNA for four different housekeeping genes was determined in Auf1-deficient and -proficient cells, treated with or without hydrogen peroxide. The level of oxidized messenger RNA was considerably higher in Auf1-deficient cells than in Auf1-proficient cells. Auf1 may play a role in the elimination of oxidized RNA, which is required for the maintenance of proper gene expression under conditions of oxidative stress.

  1. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  2. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  3. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  4. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  5. Clean Air Act Text

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The last major change in the law, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, enacted in 1990 by Congress.

  6. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  7. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  8. Cleaning Physical Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, biannual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas. (GR)

  9. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  10. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this work is a laboratory demonstration that red-lead primer and two-part epoxy paints can be stripped from concrete and metal surfaces using surface cleaning systems based on pulsed-repetition CO{sub 2} lasers. The three goals are to: (1) demonstrate coatings removal, including surface pore cleaning; (2) demonstrate that there is negligible release of ablated contaminants to the environment; and (3) demonstrate that the process will generate negligible amounts of additional waste compared to competing technologies. Phase 1 involved site visits to RMI and Fernald to assess the cleaning issues for buildings and parts. In addition, Phase 1 included detailed designs of a more powerful system for industrial cleaning rates, including laser, articulating optics, ablated-material capture suction nozzle attached to a horizontal raster scanner for floor cleaning, and filtration system. Some concept development is also being done for using robots, and for parts cleaning. In Phase 2 a transportable 6 kW system will be built and tested, with a horizontal surface scanner for cleaning paint from floors. The laboratory tests will again be instrumented. Some concept development will continue for using robots, and for parts cleaning. This report describes Phase 1 results.

  11. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity.

  12. Laser Cleaning of Gildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzner, M.; Wiedemann, G.; Meier, M.; Conrad, W.; Kempe, A.; Hutsch, T.

    Results of laser cleaning experiments on different gilding types like leaf gilding and fire gilding are presented in this contribution by means of three tested art objects. The reflectivity of gold is advantageously high for the typical laser cleaning wavelength of 1,064 nm. Additionally, to avoid damage like gold loss, the transfer of the absorbed laser pulse energy into the art object by thermal conduction is considered. Fire gilded surfaces are most easily cleaned because of the good heat transfer conditions which imply a high threshold intensity with respect to damage. This is different for leaf gilded surfaces but suitable laser cleaning parameters have also been found for this case. The results of laser cleaning experiments are presented by photography, microscopy, SEM and EDX analysis.

  13. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed

    Clifford, Robert; Sparks, Michael; Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Before-after trial. Newly built community hospital. 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences.

  14. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  15. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  16. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-04-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning (SFC) technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  17. How clean is clean? Proposed methods for hospital cleaning assessment.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamad, A; Maxwell, S

    2008-12-01

    Reducing infection rates in hospitals depends on a variety of factors, including environmental measures. Although microbiological standards have been proposed for surface hygiene in hospitals, standard methods for environmental sampling have not been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cleaning/disinfection in critical care units using the wipe-rinse method to detect an indicator organism and dipslides to quantitatively determine the microbial load. Frequent-hand-touch surfaces from clinical and non-clinical areas were microbiologically surveyed, targeting both meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus. A subset of the surfaces targeted was sampled quantitatively to determine the total aerobic count. MRSA was isolated from 9 (6.9%) and MSSA was isolated from 15 (11.5%) of the 130 samples collected. Seven of 81 (8.6%) samples collected from non-clinical areas grew MRSA, compared with two (4.1%) from 49 samples collected from clinical areas. Of 116 sites screened for the total aerobic count, 9 (7.7%) showed >5 cfu/cm(2) microbial growth. Bed frames, telephones and computer keyboards were among the surfaces that yielded a high total viable count. There was no direct correlation between the findings of total aerobic count and MRSA isolation. We suggest, however, that combining both standards will give a more effective method of assessing the efficacy of cleaning/disinfection strategy. Further work is required to evaluate and refine these standards in order to assess the frequency of cleaning required for a particular area, or for changing the protocol or materials used.

  18. Precision Cleaning Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.E.; Bohnert, G.W.

    2000-02-02

    Clean bond surfaces are critical to the operation of diffusion bonded titanium engine components. These components can be contaminated with machining coolant, shop dirt, and fingerprints during normal processing and handling. These contaminants must be removed to achieve acceptable bond quality. As environmental concerns become more important in manufacturing, elimination of the use of hazardous materials is desired. For this reason, another process (not using nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution) to clean titanium parts before bonding was sought. Initial cleaning trials were conducted at Honeywell to screen potential cleaning techniques and chemistries. During the initial cleaning process screening phase, Pratt and Whitney provided Honeywell with machined 3 inch x 3 inch x 1 inch titanium test blocks. These test blocks were machined with a water-based machining coolant and exposed to a normal shop environment and handling. (Honeywell sectioned one of these blocks into smaller samples to be used for additional cleanliness verification analyses.) The sample test blocks were ultrasonically cleaned in alkaline solutions and AUGER analysis was used by Honeywell FM and T to validate their cleanliness. This information enabled selection of final cleaning techniques and solutions to be used for the bonding trials. To validate Honeywell's AUGER data and to verify the cleaning processes in actual situations, additional sample blocks were cleaned (using the chosen processes) and then bonded. The bond quality of the test blocks was analyzed according to Pratt and Whitney's requirements. The Charpy impact testing was performed according to ASTM procedure {number_sign}E-23. Bond quality was determined by examining metallographic samples of the bonded test blocks for porosity along the bondline.

  19. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  20. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  1. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  2. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  3. Learn About Clean Diesel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The clean diesel program is designed to aggressively reduce the pollution emitted from diesel engines across the country through the implementation of varied control strategies and the aggressive involvement of national, state, and local partners.

  4. Clean Cookstove Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is an international leader in clean cookstove research and provides independent scientific data on cookstove emissions and energy efficiency to support the development of cleaner sustainable cooking technologies.

  5. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  6. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  7. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Clean Energy Financing Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page introduces resources that state and local governments can use to develop Clean Energy Finance Programs and reduce the financial barriers to implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy in their communities.

  9. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  10. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  11. Clean Fleet Final Report

    DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... and parts and to account for certain types of missing data. ... time that a vehicle is available for use, whether or not ... &23; Adjust the idle speed &23; Clean the throttle body &23; Replace ...

  12. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  13. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  14. Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative (MCDI) is a collaboration of federal, state and local agencies, along with communities, non-profit organizations and private companies working together by reducing exposure to emissions from diesel engines

  15. Clean Diesel National Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  16. #CleanTechNow

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2013-09-17

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  17. #CleanTechNow

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest

    2016-07-12

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  18. Synthesis and properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yang; Xue, Junmin

    2012-05-15

    Au-Fe(3)O(4) composite nanoparticles have received much research interest due to their promising biomedical applications. In this work, Au-Fe(3)O(4) composites with well-defined dimer-like nanostructure were synthesized via thermal decomposition route. The surfactant 1,2-hexandicandiol has proved to be critical for the formation of the Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers. The hetero-dimers production yield could be significantly improved to be 90% when the 1,2-hexandicandiol concentration was optimized at 0.6 M. The obtained Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers possess dual-functionalities of plasmon resonance and magnetization. Moreover, the Fe(3)O(4) domain of the hetero-dimers can be tuned readily by adjusting the molar ratio between Fe and Au sources. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that these Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers could be further developed into star-like Au-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles which showed plasmon absorption at NIR region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Competitive binding of AUF1 and TIAR to MYC mRNA controls its translation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Baisong; Hu, Yan; Brewer, Gary

    2007-06-01

    (A+U)-rich elements (AREs) within 3' untranslated regions are signals for rapid degradation of messenger RNAs encoding many oncoproteins and cytokines. The ARE-binding protein AUF1 contributes to their degradation. We identified MYC proto-oncogene mRNA as a cellular AUF1 target. Levels of MYC translation and cell proliferation were proportional to AUF1 abundance but inversely proportional to the abundance of the ARE-binding protein TIAR, a MYC translational suppressor. Both AUF1 and TIAR affected MYC translation via the ARE without affecting mRNA abundance. Altering association of one ARE-binding protein with MYC mRNA in vivo reciprocally affected mRNA association with the other protein. Finally, genetic experiments revealed that AUF1 and TIAR control proliferation by a MYC-dependent pathway. Together, these observations suggest a novel regulatory mechanism where tuning the ratios of AUF1 and TIAR bound to MYC mRNA permits dynamic control of MYC translation and cell proliferation.

  20. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  1. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  2. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  3. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  5. Coupling between magnetic and optical properties of stable Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Julián Fernández, C; Mattei, G; Paz, E; Novak, R L; Cavigli, L; Bogani, L; Palomares, F J; Mazzoldi, P; Caneschi, A

    2010-04-23

    Au-Fe nanoparticles constitute one of the simplest prototypes of a multifunctional nanomaterial that can exhibit both magnetic and optical (plasmonic) properties. This solid solution, not feasible in the bulk phase diagram in thermal equilibrium, can be formed as a nanostructure by out-of-equilibrium processes. Here, the novel magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ion-implanted Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO(2) matrix are investigated and correlated. The surface plasmon resonance of the Au-Fe nanoparticles with almost equicomposition is strongly damped when compared to pure Au and to Au-rich Au-Fe nanoparticles. In all cases, the Au atoms are magnetically polarized, as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetically coupled with Fe atoms. Although the chemical stability of Au-Fe nanoparticles is larger than that of Fe nanoparticles, both the magnetic moment per Fe atom and the order temperature are smaller. These results suggest that electronic and magnetic properties are more influenced by the hybridization of the electronic bands in the Au-Fe solid solution than by size effects. On the other hand, the magneto-optical transitions allowed in the vis-nIR spectral regions are very similar. In addition, we also observe, after studying the properties of thermally treated samples, that the Au-Fe alloy is stabilized, not by surface effects, but by the combination of the out-of-equilibrium nature of the ion implantation technique and by changes in the properties due to size effects.

  6. Coupling between magnetic and optical properties of stable Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Julián Fernández, C.; Mattei, G.; Paz, E.; Novak, R. L.; Cavigli, L.; Bogani, L.; Palomares, F. J.; Mazzoldi, P.; Caneschi, A.

    2010-04-01

    Au-Fe nanoparticles constitute one of the simplest prototypes of a multifunctional nanomaterial that can exhibit both magnetic and optical (plasmonic) properties. This solid solution, not feasible in the bulk phase diagram in thermal equilibrium, can be formed as a nanostructure by out-of-equilibrium processes. Here, the novel magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ion-implanted Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix are investigated and correlated. The surface plasmon resonance of the Au-Fe nanoparticles with almost equicomposition is strongly damped when compared to pure Au and to Au-rich Au-Fe nanoparticles. In all cases, the Au atoms are magnetically polarized, as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetically coupled with Fe atoms. Although the chemical stability of Au-Fe nanoparticles is larger than that of Fe nanoparticles, both the magnetic moment per Fe atom and the order temperature are smaller. These results suggest that electronic and magnetic properties are more influenced by the hybridization of the electronic bands in the Au-Fe solid solution than by size effects. On the other hand, the magneto-optical transitions allowed in the vis-nIR spectral regions are very similar. In addition, we also observe, after studying the properties of thermally treated samples, that the Au-Fe alloy is stabilized, not by surface effects, but by the combination of the out-of-equilibrium nature of the ion implantation technique and by changes in the properties due to size effects.

  7. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  8. Reduction of AUF1-mediated follistatin mRNA decay during glucose starvation protects cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangwei; Dong, Haojie; Lin, Chen; Sheng, Jinghao; Zhang, Fan; Su, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (FST) performs several vital functions in the cells, including protection from apoptosis during stress. The expression of FST is up-regulated in response to glucose deprivation by an unknown mechanism. We herein showed that the induction of FST by glucose deprivation was due to an increase in the half-life of its mRNA. We further identified an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3'UTR of FST mRNA that mediated its decay. The expression of FST was elevated after knocking down AUF1 and reduced when AUF1 was further expressed. In vitro binding assays and RNA pull-down assays revealed that AUF1 interacted with FST mRNA directly via its ARE. During glucose deprivation, a majority of AUF1 shuttled from cytoplasm to nucleus, resulting in dissociation of AUF1 from FST mRNA and thus stabilization of FST mRNA. Finally, knockdown of AUF1 decreased whereas overexpression of AUF1 increased glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis. The apoptosis promoting effect of AUF1 was eliminated in FST expressing cells. Collectively, this study provided evidence that AUF1 is a negative regulator of FST expression and participates in the regulation of cell survival under glucose deprivation.

  9. Reduction of AUF1-mediated follistatin mRNA decay during glucose starvation protects cells from apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiangwei; Dong, Haojie; Lin, Chen; Sheng, Jinghao; Zhang, Fan; Su, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (FST) performs several vital functions in the cells, including protection from apoptosis during stress. The expression of FST is up-regulated in response to glucose deprivation by an unknown mechanism. We herein showed that the induction of FST by glucose deprivation was due to an increase in the half-life of its mRNA. We further identified an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3′UTR of FST mRNA that mediated its decay. The expression of FST was elevated after knocking down AUF1 and reduced when AUF1 was further expressed. In vitro binding assays and RNA pull-down assays revealed that AUF1 interacted with FST mRNA directly via its ARE. During glucose deprivation, a majority of AUF1 shuttled from cytoplasm to nucleus, resulting in dissociation of AUF1 from FST mRNA and thus stabilization of FST mRNA. Finally, knockdown of AUF1 decreased whereas overexpression of AUF1 increased glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis. The apoptosis promoting effect of AUF1 was eliminated in FST expressing cells. Collectively, this study provided evidence that AUF1 is a negative regulator of FST expression and participates in the regulation of cell survival under glucose deprivation. PMID:25159612

  10. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  11. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  12. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  13. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  14. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  15. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  16. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  17. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  18. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  19. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  20. Clean, Agile Processing Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Research ltr dtd 10 Jun 98 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED FINAL REPORT CLEAN, AGILE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Contract # N00014-96-C-0139 PI: S. W . Sinton...Agile Processing Technology . T UNCLAS I N Sinton, S. W.IN S REQUIRED FOR (Explain needin detaiO E C This document is requested by the Canadian Department

  1. Systematic conveyor belt cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rappen, A.

    1984-01-01

    The currently available conveyor belt cleaning devices are enumerated. Recent investigations have confirmed the belt scraping devices based on intermittent linear contact by means of individually adjustable and spring-loaded scraper blades, usually of metallic construction as the most advanced type of belt cleaner. The system also allows application on reversing belts. Criteria are presented for assessing the performance of a belt cleaner.

  2. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  3. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  4. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  5. Cleaning soil without incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-05-01

    This article addresses the clean up of contaminated soil without burning. The topics of the article include the problems associated with incineration at depths requiring excavation, a description of the contaminated site, pilot testing of the remediation soil washing process, full-scale cleanup, a description of the soil separation and washing process.

  6. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  7. Berechnung der auftretenden lokalen Kräfte auf der magnetischen Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Die numerische Berechnung entstehender Kraftwirkungen auf Körper aufgrund magnetischer Wechselwirkungen zwischen diesen, ist in Bezug auf die mechanische Deformation dieser Körper ein noch nicht vollständig gelöstes Problem. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Vergleich vorhandener Kraftberechnungsmethoden hinsichtlich der totalen Kraft anhand eines analytisch berechenbaren Beispiels vorgestellt, sowie Unterschiede der lokalen Kraftdichten dieser Methoden in Anwendung auf die magnetische Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops aufgezeigt. Due to magnetic interactions between magnetic field inducing bodies, force effects occur on the materials. The numerical computation of those occuring forces with respect to a subsequent structural analysis of a deformable material is still a topic of interest in research. In this paper a comparison between several existent force calculation methods regarding the total force is given for an example with two magnetic cubes. Furthermore, differences are shown concerning the local force densities on the magnetic coating of a magnetic force microscope.

  8. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  9. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  10. A microwave plasma cleaning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. C.; Nelson, W. D.; Schechter, D. E.; Thompson, L. M.; Glover, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    In a microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source, reactive plasmas of oxygen and its mixtures of argon have been used for evaluating plasma cleaning technologies. Small aluminum samples (0.95 x 1.9 cm) were coated with thin films (less than or equal to 20 micrometers in thickness) of Shell Vitrea oil and cleaned with reactive plasmas. The discharge parameters, such as gas pressure, magnetic field, substrate biasing, and microwave power, were varied to change cleaning conditions. A mass spectroscopy (or residual gas analyzer) was used to monitor the status of plasma cleaning. Mass loss of the samples after plasma cleaning was measured to estimate cleaning rates. Measured cleaning rates of low-pressure (0.5-m torr) argon/oxygen plasmas were as high as 2.7 micrometers/min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine cleanliness of the sample surfaces. In this paper, significant results of the plasma cleaning are reported and discussed.

  11. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE CLEANING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on substitute for solvent degreasing processes that eliminate the use of 33/50 chlorinated organic chemicals. The Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies performed the technical, environmental, and economic evaluation of the solvent degreasing substit...

  13. Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments.

  14. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  15. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  18. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  19. Cleaning of ophthalmic diamond scalpels.

    PubMed

    Beran, R F

    1994-01-01

    To ensure optimal performance, it is imperative to properly maintain the condition of ophthalmic diamond scalpels. Refractive surgeons are often confronted with conflicting cleaning recommendations from manufacturers. The problem encountered is to maximize cleaning while minimizing trauma to the diamond to maintain its longevity. The author describes a flexible graded approach to cleaning and maintaining diamond scalpels. The principle of this approach was the development of four successive levels of cleaning based on an increasing risk of trauma to the diamond: Level I--irrigation with distilled water, Level II--hydrogen peroxide or enzyme cleaning, Level III--ultrasonic and detergent cleaning, and Level IV--mechanical styrofoam block cleaning. The protocol was performed prospectively on 50 consecutive radial keratotomy cases, inspecting the blade microscopically after each cleaning step, and determining the level at which cleanliness of the blade was achieved. The effectiveness (clean/dirty) of each cleaning level was evaluated by the author and an experienced surgical assistant. The difficulty in accurately measuring the amount of debris and the force necessary to remove it, limited the judgments made to subjective observation. Only 2 of 50 blades were cleaned at Level I, while 41 of 48 at Level III, and 7 of 7 at Level IV. A multi-leveled systematic process for cleaning maintenance appears most effective for maximal performance and longevity of diamond scalpels used for refractive keratotomy surgery.

  20. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  1. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  2. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  3. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  4. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  5. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  6. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  7. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  8. Clean Room Apparel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    American Hospital Supply Corporation (AHSC), Baxter Healthcare Corporation's predecessor, used the NASA informational base on contamination control technology to improve industrial contamination control technology. When a study determined that microscopic body particles escaping through tiny "windows" in woven garments worn by workers were the greatest source of contamination, AHSC developed TYVEK. This non-woven material filters 99% of all particulate matter larger than half a micron. Baxter Healthcare added a polyimide coating which seals and ties down any loose fibers, providing greater durability. Stress points along seams have been minimized to make the garment almost tearproof. Micro-Clean 212 garments are individually packaged and disposable.

  9. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  10. Clean coal technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1993-12-31

    {open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

  11. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-11-07

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quick and clean cloning.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Frank; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    Identification of unknown sequences that flank known sequences of interest requires PCR amplification of DNA fragments that contain the junction between the known and unknown flanking sequences. Since amplified products often contain a mixture of specific and nonspecific products, the quick and clean (QC) cloning procedure was developed to clone specific products only. QC cloning is a ligation-independent cloning procedure that relies on the exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. A specific feature of QC cloning is the use of vectors that contain a sequence called catching sequence that allows cloning specific products only. QC cloning is performed by a one-pot incubation of insert and vector in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase at room temperature for 10 min followed by direct transformation of the incubation mix in chemo-competent Escherichia coli cells.

  15. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-09-27

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford`s high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported.

  16. Clean manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brooman, E.W.

    1996-04-01

    Compliance with environmental regulations now applies to the military industrial base just as it does to the industrial manufacturing base. In response, the Department of Defense has developed the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (NDCEE) program. This program focuses on a comprehensive approach to pollution prevention and other high-priority environmental issues, such as waste treatment, disposal, and remediation. Its goal is to help both the military and industry comply with regulations by implementing cost-effective, clean manufacturing technologies. Concurrent Technologies Corporation operates the NDCEE program for the DoD, and has established a demonstration factory to demonstrate, evaluate, and validate state-of-the-art and near-commercial technologies with full-scale parts. This article describes some of the developments being evaluated for processes that prevent pollution and/or minimize waste.

  17. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  18. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  19. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  20. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  1. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  2. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  3. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  4. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  5. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  6. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  7. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  8. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  9. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ultra-clean CCD Cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiries, S.; Iwert, O.; Cavadore, C.; Geimer, C.; Hummel, E.

    A reproducible method to achieve ultra-clean CCD cryostats is presented, including a list of suitable materials and necessary treatments. In addition, proper handling under clean-room conditions and suitable molecular sieves to eliminate contamination on the detector surface in cold cryostats for years are described.

  11. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  12. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  13. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  14. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  15. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sayan; Frey Huls, N. A.; Phan, M. H.; Srinath, S.; Garcia, M. A.; Lee, Youngmin; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shouheng; Iglesias, Òscar; Srikanth, H.

    2014-02-01

    We report exchange bias (EB) effect in the Au-Fe3O4 composite nanoparticle system, where one or more Fe3O4 nanoparticles are attached to an Au seed particle forming ‘dimer’ and ‘cluster’ morphologies, with the clusters showing much stronger EB in comparison with the dimers. The EB effect develops due to the presence of stress at the Au-Fe3O4 interface which leads to the generation of highly disordered, anisotropic surface spins in the Fe3O4 particle. The EB effect is lost with the removal of the interfacial stress. Our atomistic Monte Carlo studies are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. These results show a new path towards tuning EB in nanostructures, namely controllably creating interfacial stress, and opens up the possibility of tuning the anisotropic properties of biocompatible nanoparticles via a controllable exchange coupling mechanism.

  16. STF Optimierung von single-bit CT ΣΔ Modulatoren basierend auf skalierten Filterkoeffizienten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, C.; Zorn, C.; Brückner, T.; Ortmanns, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Signalübertragungsverhalten von single-bit continuous-time (CT) ΣΔ Modulatoren. Dabei liegt der Fokus der Untersuchung auf dem Peaking der Signaltransferfunktion (STF). Dieser Effekt kann die Performance und die Stabilität des Gesamtsystems negativ beeinflussen, da bei auftretendem STF-Peaking Signale außerhalb des Signalbands verstärkt werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein neuer Ansatz zur Reduktion des Peakings vorgestellt, der auf der Optimierung der Systemdynamik basiert. Dabei werden die Filterkoeffizienten des Modulators systematisch angepasst. Anhand eines Beispielsystems wird gezeigt, dass der Ansatz genutzt werden kann, um das Übertragungsverhalten des Modulators abhängig vom Ausgangssystem zu verändern. So kann entweder die Systemsperformance verbessert werden, ohne Peaking in der STF zu erzeugen, oder das STF-Peaking reduziert werden, ohne die Systemperformance stark zu beeinflussen.

  17. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  18. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  19. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  20. Kamera-basierte Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen auf deutschen Straen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhüser, Dennis; Ziegenmeyer, Marco; Gumpp, Thomas; Scholl, Kay-Ulrich; Zöllner, J. Marius; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    An Fahrerassistenzsysteme im industriellen Einsatz werden hohe Anforderungen bezüglich Zuverlässigkeit und Robustheit gestellt. In dieser Arbeit wird die Kombination robuster Verfahren wie der Hough-Transformation und Support-Vektor-Maschinen zu einem Gesamtsystem zur Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen beschrieben. Es setzt eine Farbvideokamera als Sensorik ein. Die Evaluation auf Testdaten bestätigt durch die ermittelte hohe Korrektklassifikationsrate bei gleichzeitig geringer Zahl Fehlalarme die Zuverlässigkeit des Systems.

  1. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  2. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  3. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs.

  4. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  6. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  7. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  8. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  9. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  10. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  11. Methods for detecting residues of cleaning agents during cleaning validation.

    PubMed

    Westman, L; Karlsson, G

    2000-01-01

    Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be simple to perform and to give results quickly. In this study, four different analytical methods are compared: visual detection of foam, pH, conductivity measurements, and analysis of total organic carbon (TOC). TOC was used as a reference method when evaluating the other three potential methods. The analyses were performed on different dilutions of the cleaning agents Vips Neutral, RBS-25, Debisan and Perform. The results demonstrated that the most sensitive method for analysis of Vips Neutral, Debisan and Perform is visual detection of foam, by which it is possible to detect concentrations of cleaning agents down to 10 micrograms/mL. RBS-25 was not detected below 200 micrograms/mL, probably because it is formulated with low-foaming surfactants. TOC analysis is less sensitive but has the advantage of being a quantitative analysis, while visual detection of foam is a semi-quantitative method. Visual detection of foam is easy to perform, gives a quick result, and requires no expensive instrumentation. The sensitivity of each method was found to be dependent upon the type of cleaning agent that was analyzed.

  12. Clean Air Excellence Award Recipients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recipients are organized by award category within each year: Clean Air Technology, Community Action, Education/Outreach, Regulatory/Policy Innovations, Transportation Efficiency Innovations, Thomas W. Zosel individual, and Gregg Cooke Visionary Program.

  13. Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How the Clean Water State Revolving Fund works, how to obtain funding, program eligibility, innovative ways to use the funds to get the greatest water quality benefits and leverage financial resources of the program, and share success stories.

  14. Clean Air Technology Center Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  15. Seat restraint contamination and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Paulson, J A

    1986-07-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate that seat restraints are unlikely vehicles for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from infant to infant in seat restraint loaner programs. Simple surface cleaning with antibacterial solutions is sufficient to prepare seats for reloaning.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Detwiler, M S

    1989-04-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning can prolong the life of expensive instruments. In the past, many fine instruments were discarded due to stiffening hinges and box locks, or sticking plungers. Hand scrubbing and spray washing could not thoroughly clean these areas. Ultrasonic cleaners effectively remove dried and baked blood, serums and medications from these instruments. Also, hinged instruments and syringes operate more smoothly during use in surgery when cleaned using ultrasonics. In addition, the use of ultrasonics alleviates the necessity for hand scrubbing of contaminated surgical instruments and laboratory apparatus, a procedure which could lead to injury or infection. The superb cleaning powers of ultrasonic cleaners, their speed and simplicity of operation, and their ability to remove blood, tissue, bacteria and microorganisms within minutes, makes them a valuable addition to any operating room suite, central service department, or emergency room. Their cost-effectiveness is considerable for the small hospital, and compelling for the large hospital.

  17. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples required by the Clean Water Act.

  18. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  20. HuR/Methyl-HuR and AUF1 regulate the MAT expressed during liver proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Chantada, Mercedes; Fernández-Ramos, David; Embade, Nieves; Martínez-Lopez, Nuria; Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Anglim, Paul P.; Finnell, Richard H.; Caballería, Juan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Gorospe, Myriam; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatic de-differentiation, liver development, and malignant transformation are processes in which the levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) are tightly regulated by two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A. MAT1A is expressed in the adult liver, whereas MAT2A expression is primarily extra-hepatic and is strongly associated with liver proliferation. The mechanisms that regulate these expression patterns are not completely understood. In silico analysis of the 3′ untranslated region of MAT1A and MAT2A revealed putative binding sites for the RNA-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR, respectively. We investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A by AUF1, HuR and methyl-HuR in the aforementioned biological processes. Results During hepatic de-differentiation, the switch between MAT1A and MAT2A coincided with an increase in HuR and AUF1 expression. SAMe treatment altered this homeostasis by shifting the balance of AUF1 and methyl-HuR/HuR, which was identified for the first time as an inhibitor of MAT2A mRNA stability. We also observed a similar temporal distribution and a functional link between HuR, methyl-HuR, AUF1, and MAT1A and MAT2A during the fetal liver development. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed increased levels of HuR and AUF1, and a decrease in methyl-HuR levels in human livers with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusions Our data strongly support a role for AUF1 and HuR/methyl-HuR in liver de-differentiation, development and human HCC progression through the post-translational regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A mRNAs. PMID:20102719

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  2. A Commercial IOTV Cleaning Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    with Spot Cleaning. Page 46 of 118 3.2.5 Water/Oil Repellency Water repellency of the Cordura® fabrics cut from the vests and from new...combined with cleaning have contributed to the deterioration of the Cordura® material on water repellency . 2) The effects of laundering alone on the spray...repellency attribute appears to be more sensitive to the vest’s prior use history and laundering than water - repellency . Many unwashed vest samples

  3. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  4. Coal cleaning: progress and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented here. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe, are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning (Level 4) and moderate cleaning (Level 3) of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model. For deep cleaning, percentage reductions in sulfur content ranged from zero to 52%, with a mean value of 29% and costs ranged from a low of 364/ton SO/sub 2/ removed to over $2000/ton SO/sub 2/ removed. Because coal suppliers to these power plants employ some voluntary coal cleaning, the anticipated emissions reduction from current levels if deep cleaning were used should be near 20%. These emissions reductions were projected using conventional coal cleaning circuit designs. The basic elements of typical commercial PCC designs are briefly described and current research and development activities in physical, chemical, and biological desulfurization of coal are reviewed. Possible governmental actions to either encourage or mandate coal cleaning are identified and evaluated. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  6. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Clean access platform for orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, H.; Harris, J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Clean Access Platform at the Kennedy Space Center, beginning with the design requirements and tracing the effort throughout development and manufacturing is described. Also examined are: (1) A system description; (2) Testing requirements and conclusions; (3) Safety and reliability features; (4) Major problems experienced during the project; and (5) Lessons learned, including features necessary for the effective design of mechanisms used in clean systems.

  8. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, M. W.

    1983-10-01

    The effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils was investigated by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed from steels, aluminum, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglass, glass and flexible materials such as rubber. Zinc, copper, and lead were not cleaned. Results indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process or a variety of manufacturing operations.

  9. Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  10. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  11. Towards expanding megasonic cleaning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenxing; Ferstl, Berthold; Oetter, Günter; Dietze, Uwe; Samayoa, Martin; Dattilo, Davide

    2016-10-01

    Megasonic cleaning remains the industry's workhorse technology for particle removal on advanced 193i and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photomasks. Several megasonic cleaning technologies and chemistries have been proposed and implemented over the years in diverse production environments. The operational range of these process technologies, over a wide array of applications, is ultimately defined by measurable capability limits. As geometries continue to scale-down and new materials are introduced, existing cleaning technologies will naturally fade out of range and new capability is ultimately required. This paper presents a novel fundamental approach for expanding cleaning capability by use of high-frequency megasonics and tenside-based additives (BASF SELECTIPUR C-series). To this end, a sonoluminescence-based experimental test bench was configured to characterize and study the effects of various process parameters on cleaning performance, with a particular emphasis on cavitation-induced damage and enhancement of particle removal capabilities. The results from the fundamental studies provide a path forward towards delivering new cleaning capability by enabling high-frequency megasonic systems and tenside-based additives.

  12. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  13. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  14. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  15. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1106 - Cleaning agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning agents. 153.1106 Section 153.1106 Shipping... Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue § 153.1106 Cleaning agents. No tank cleaning agent other than water or steam may be used to clean an NLS residue from a cargo tank except...

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  20. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    PubMed

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery.

  1. Qualitätszentrierte Softwareentwicklung in wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppen Auf dem Weg vom Prototypen zum Produkt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleike, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Heimann, T.; Nolden, M.; Poxleitner, J.; Schöbinger, M.; Schwarz, T.; Seitel, M.; Wegner, I.; Wolber, P.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

    Neue Bildverarbeitungsmethoden werden häufig hauptsächlich für Publikationszwecke entwickelt. DieWeiterentwicklung bis zur Verwendbarkeit für klinische Anwender erfordert zusätzlichen Aufwand und wird daher oft nicht weiter verfolgt. In dieser Arbeit wurden mehrere Bildanalyseverfahren unserer Abteilung konsequent zu einem stabilen und benutzbaren Softwareprodukt weiter entwickelt, so dass es für den Einsatz bei klinischen Partnern und als Demonstrationssoftware auf Messen verwendbar ist. Wir beschreiben das Vorgehen bei der Weiterentwicklung, welche Erfahrungen gemacht wurden und welcher zusätzliche Aufwand damit verbunden ist.

  2. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  3. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  4. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  5. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  6. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  7. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  8. Coal cleaning: Progress and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented in this paper. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning and moderate cleaning of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model.

  9. Senate passes clean air bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  10. Clean-room robot implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-07-14

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in/sup 2/ blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator.

  11. Laser cleaning of tungsten ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Sonar, V. R.; Das, D. K.; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd.; Kumar, Arun; Nilaya, J. P.; Biswas, D. J.

    2014-07-01

    Removal of a thin oxide layer from a tungsten ribbon was achieved using the fundamental, second and third harmonic radiation from a Q- switched Nd-YAG laser. It was found that beyond the threshold, oxide removal was achieved at all wavelengths for a wide range of fluence values. The removal mechanism of the oxide layer was found to be critically dependent on both wavelength and fluence of the incident radiation and has been identified as ejection or sublimation. The un-cleaned and cleaned surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Laser cleaned tungsten ribbons were used in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) to determine isotopic composition of Neodymium atoms.

  12. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  13. Colorimetric aptasensing of ochratoxin A using Au@Fe3O4 nanoparticles as signal indicator and magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun; Yang, Xingwang; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan; Wang, Chengke; Dong, Xiaoya; Huang, Xingyi

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) doped Fe3O4 (Au@Fe3O4) NPs have been synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The peroxidase-like activity of Au@Fe3O4 NPs was effectively enhanced due to the synergistic effect between the Fe3O4 NPs and Au NPs. On this basis, an efficient colorimetric aptasensor has been developed using the intrinsic dual functionality of the Au@Fe3O4 NPs as signal indicator and magnetic separator. Initially, the amino-modified aptamer specific for a typical mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), was surface confined on the amino-terminated glass beads surafce using glutaraldehyde as a linker. Subsequently, the amino-modified capture DNA (cDNA) was labeled with the amino-functionalized Au@Fe3O4 NPs and the aptasensor was thus fabricated through the hybridization reaction between cDNA and the aptamers. While upon OTA addition, aptamers preferred to form the OTA-aptamer complex and the Au@Fe3O4 NPs linked on the cDNA were released into the bulk solution. Through a simple magnetic separation, the collected Au@Fe3O4 NPs can produce a blue colored solution in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and H2O2. When the reaction was terminated by addition of H(+) ions, the blue product could be changed into a yellow one with higher absorption intensity. This colorimetric aptasensor can detect as low as 30 pgmL(-1) OTA with high specificity. To the best of our knowledge, the present colorimetric aptasensor is the first attempt to use the peroxidase-like activity of nanomaterial for OTA detection, which may provide an acttractive path toward routine quality control of food safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  15. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-21

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved.

  16. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed.

  17. Laser paper cleaning: the method of cleaning historical books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekou, Evangelini; Tsilikas, Ioannis; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of cultural heritage treasures is the most important issue for transferring knowledge to the public through the next generation of students, academics, and researchers. Although this century is authenticating e-books and information by means of electronic text, still historical manuscripts as content as well as objects are the main original recourses of keeping a record of this transformation. The current work focuses on cleaning paper samples by the application of pulsed light, which is interventional. Experiments carried out using paper samples that are artificially colonized with Ulocladium chartarum. Paper is treated by Nd:YAG laser light. The available wavelength is 1064 nm, at various fluences, repetition rates and number of pulses. Two types of paper are stained with fungi colonies, which grow on substrates of clean paper, as well as on paper with ink text. The first type of paper is Whatman No.1056, which is closer to pure cellulose. The second type of paper is a page of a cultural heritage book published in 1926. Cleaning is performed using laser irradiation, thus defining the damage threshold of each sample. The treatment on paper Watman showed a yellowing, especially on areas with high concentration of fungi. The second sample was more durable to the exposure, performing the best results at higher fluences. Eventually, the paper samples are characterized, with optical microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses, prior to and after cleaning.

  18. Method for cleaning fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.

    1985-07-16

    A method for cleaning fine coal is provided which includes: mixing the coal with a fluid of such a specific gravity that clean coal particles would float while refuse particles would sink therein, pretreating the coalfluid slurry by adding a surfactant, subjecting the mixture to ultrasonic dispersion, and separating the entire mixture into higher and lower specific gravity fluid streams by means of centrifugal separation. The fluid of the chosen specific gravity and the surfactant may be recovered from the fluid streams and recycled if desired.

  19. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  20. fsclean: Faraday Synthesis CLEAN imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. R.; Ensslin, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Fsclean produces 3D Faraday spectra using the Faraday synthesis method, transforming directly from multi-frequency visibility data to the Faraday depth-sky plane space. Deconvolution is accomplished using the CLEAN algorithm, and the package includes Clark and Högbom style CLEAN algorithms. Fsclean reads in MeasurementSet visibility data and produces HDF5 formatted images; it handles images and data of arbitrary size, using scratch HDF5 files as buffers for data that is not being immediately processed, and is limited only by available disk space.

  1. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  2. Enhanced Clean Air Act enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Faletto, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 added new enforcement authorities which will change the way the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the States and environmental groups litigate enforcement actions. EPA, the States and ordinary citizens now have at their disposal an extensive array of enforcement options to deter or penalize those who violate requirements of the Clean Air Act or State Implementation Plans (SIPs). These new enforcement authorities take on even greater significance for major sources covered by the Title V Operating Permit Program.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. de los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell. PMID:28165012

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. De Los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.

  5. Chemically synthesized Au-Fe3O4 nanostructures with controlled optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Victor; Muñoz, Laura; Mazarío, Eva; Menéndez, Nieves; Herrasti, Pilar; Hernando, Antonio; Crespo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like, flower-like and core-shell nanostructures with different sizes ranging between 4-15 nm have been synthesized via the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl and reduction of gold salts. By means of the variation of the precursors’ molar ratio, the injection temperature and the reaction time, the optical and magnetic properties have been tailored. A strong dependence on the dielectric function of the present Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) was detected. The gold characteristic plasmon peak shifts from 525 nm (pure gold NPs) to close to 600 nm showing an electron damping in the Au NPs surrounded by Fe3O4. These NPs are ferromagnetic at low temperature, exhibiting a coercive field ranging between 85-500 Oe, whereas they behave as a superparamagnetic system above the blocking temperature, which is found to be between 18-110 K. A high magnetic anisotropy is generated in the interface of Au-Fe3O4 NPs.

  6. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  7. Sociology: Clean-energy conservatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCright, Aaron M.

    2017-03-01

    US conservatives receive a steady stream of anti-environmental messaging from Republican politicians. However, clean-energy conservatives sending strong counter-messages on energy issues could mobilize moderate conservatives to break away from the dominant right-wing defence of fossil fuels.

  8. Toward clean suspended CVD graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2016-08-26

    The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other commonly used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended CVD graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.

  9. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  10. Toward clean suspended CVD graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2016-08-26

    The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other commonly used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended CVD graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.

  11. Clean Air Act 1990 Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Stensvaag, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an analysis of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act that includes compliance requirements, the new operating permit system, the enhanced enforcement provisions and criminal penalties, potential for citizen enforcement, and the increased reporting requirements. Also analyzed are the new defenses such as permit compliance and protection of employees acting within the direction of employers.

  12. Cleaning With Supercritical CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide effective industrial cleaning agent. Replaces conventional halocarbon solvents for degreasing parts becoming coated with oil during such manufacturing procedures as forming and machining. Presents none of environmental threats and occupational hazards associated with halocarbon solvents. Spontaneously evaporates after use and leaves no waste to be disposed of. Evaporated gas readily collected and recycled.

  13. Toward clean suspended CVD graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.; ...

    2016-08-26

    The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using a Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspendedmore » graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other commonly used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain a larger area of clean, suspended CVD graphene. Lastly, our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.« less

  14. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  15. Toward Clean Suspended CVD Graphene.

    PubMed

    Yulaev, Alexander; Cheng, Guangjun; Walker, Angela R Hight; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Myers, Alline; Leite, Marina S; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The application of suspended graphene as electron transparent supporting media in electron microscopy, vacuum electronics, and micromechanical devices requires the least destructive and maximally clean transfer from their original growth substrate to the target of interest. Here, we use thermally evaporated anthracene films as the sacrificial layer for graphene transfer onto an arbitrary substrate. We show that clean suspended graphene can be achieved via desorbing the anthracene layer at temperatures in the 100 °C to 150 °C range, followed by two sequential annealing steps for the final cleaning, using Pt catalyst and activated carbon. The cleanliness of the suspended graphene membranes was analyzed employing the high surface sensitivity of low energy scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A quantitative comparison with two other commonly used transfer methods revealed the superiority of the anthracene approach to obtain larger area of clean, suspended CVD graphene. Our graphene transfer method based on anthracene paves the way for integrating cleaner graphene in various types of complex devices, including the ones that are heat and humidity sensitive.

  16. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  17. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  18. Ultraviolet-Ozone Cleaning of Semiconductor Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    cleaning; (b) after UV/ozone cleaning. 4 3. Absorption spectrum of oxygen . 7 4. Absorption spectrum of ozone. 7 5. Schematic drawing of a UV/ozone...A clean glass surface was obtained after 15 hours of exposure to the UV radiation in air. In a vacuum system at 104 torr of oxygen , clean gold... oxygen . It took 60 minutes in 20 torr of oxygen , and no cleaning effect was observed in 1 torr after 60 minutes of cleaning (47). (It should be noted

  19. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, Debra; Chung, Donald; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret; Engel-Cox, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  20. Process for cleaning undeslimed coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.H.

    1983-09-20

    A process for cleaning undeslimed coal includes the steps of determining the scalar value of cross-correlation function of the measured values of the percent magnetics and the bulk specific gravity of a heavy media and coal slurry being fed to a cyclone, comparing the value to a set-point value determined after start-up when the recirculating suspension in the feed slurry is normally clean, and diverting at least a portion of the heavy media suspension that is separated from the underflow of the cyclone from being mixed with the feed coal slurry, to thereby correspondingly recycle the slime content of the feed slurry, and concurrently increasing the flow of cleaner heavy media suspension to the feed coal slurry until the cross-correlation function is brought up to the set-point value. Also disclosed is an embodiment of the process for cleaning coal, wherein the overflow from the cyclone is screened and screened solution is split between a first recycle loop for cleaning the suspension and the heavy media sump. Similarly, the underflow from the cyclone is screened and then split between a separate recycle loop and the heavy media sump. Suspension is diverted to the heavy media sump from one or both recycle cleaning loops as necessary. The remaining portions of the split suspension flows from the two screening devices are, in turn, respectively split between two further sumps and the heavy media sump, with more suspension coming from the cyclone overflow screen when cleaner suspension is indicated as being necessary by the aforesaid statistical analysis.

  1. Laser cleaning of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Craig T.; Campbell, Bernard E.; Hull, Robert J.

    1998-09-01

    There is a critical need to replace ozone-depleting substances and hazardous chemicals that, in the past, have been used routinely in aerospace maintenance operations such as precision cleaning of metal surfaces. Lasers now offer the potential for removal of many organic materials from metals without the use of any solvent or aqueous cleaning agents. This paper presents quantitative results of laser-cleaning process-development research with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and several common metals and organic contaminants. Metal coupons of Stainless Steel 304, Aluminum 5052, and Titanium were contaminated with known amounts of organic oils and greases at contamination levels in the 5 to 200 (mu) g/cm2 range. A fiber-optic-delivered 1064-nm pulsed laser beam (20-Hz repetition rate) was scanned over the coupons with different overlap and pulse fluence conditions. Measurements of mass loss revealed that all levels of initial contamination could be removed to final cleanliness levels less than 3 (mu) g/cm2, at which point the mass loss measurements became uncertain. Pulse fluence thresholds for initial cleaning effects and practical cleaning rates for several metal and contaminant combinations are reported. From the totality of the results, an overall picture of the contaminant removal mechanism is emerging. For semi-transparent films, it is conjectured that a thermo-mechanical effect occurs wherein the laser energy is absorbed predominantly in the metal substrate which expands on the nanosecond time scale. This rapid expansion, in combination with some material evaporation at the film/metal interface, is believed to eject the contaminant film directly into aerosol droplets/particles which can be swept away and collected for recycle or cost- effective disposal in a compact form. Evidence for this mechanism will be presented.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries are practically free from dirt, dust, spray residue, or...

  3. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  4. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower portion of the stalk normally contain more dirt or sand than those from higher...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower position of the stalk normally contain more sand or dirt...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower portion of the stalk normally contain more dirt or sand...

  7. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  8. Clean Cities Coalition and Coordinator Awards 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    This fact sheet recognizes the 2003 Clean Cities Coalition and Coordinator awards winners and their outstanding efforts to promote alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The recipients will receive their awards at the Clean Cities Conference in Palm Springs, CA.

  9. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-15

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  10. Recreational Vessels and the Clean Boating Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Homepage for content on the Clean Boating Act, which requires the EPA to develop best management practices for discharges from recreational vessels. The page links to information about the Clean Water Act amendment, its history and public participation.

  11. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower position of the stalk normally contain more sand or dirt...

  12. Clean Air Act Permitting in Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada in Nevada and EPA's oversight. Clean Air Act permitting in Nevada is the shared responsibility of one state and two local agencies, along with EPA Region 9.

  13. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Detektion von fahrspuren und kreuzungen auf nichtmarkierten straen zum autonomen führen von fahrzeugen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Stefan; Bürkle, Cornelius; Schröder, Joachim; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Das Wissen über Position und Verlauf der Straße ist eine der wichtigsten Informationen, die zum Führen autonomer Straßenfahrzeuge benötigt wird. Die meisten Arbeiten gehen davon aus, dass Markierungen auf der Straße vorhanden sind, die die Erkennung enorm erleichtern. Üblicherweise werden die Fahrbahnränder detektiert und die Fahrspur mit Hilfe eines Kaiman-Filters geschätzt [1]. Andere Arbeiten verwenden zusätzlich die Straßenfarbe und kombinieren die verschiedenen Hinweise in einem Partikel-Filter [2]. Ein allgemeiner Überblick über Verfahren zur Fahrspurdetektion findet sich in [3].

  15. Konzeption und Entwurf einer auf Petri-Netzen basierenden programmierbaren Kontrollschaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, H.; Pfleiderer, H.-J.

    2003-05-01

    Petri-Netze eignen sich aufgrund der direkten Darstellbarkeit von Nebenläufigkeiten und leistungsfähiger Analyseverfahren zur Beschreibung von komplexen Kontrollabläufen. Die hier vorgestellte PNDU (Petri Net Decision Unit) ist ein programmierbarer Hardware- Interpreter für Kontrollalgorithmen, die durch Petri-Netze beschrieben werden. Die Petri-Netze werden kodiert in einem Speicher abgelegt und unter Einbeziehung der Eingangssignale und interner Zustände nach einem festgelegten Algorithmus abgearbeitet. Der implizite Wartezustand der PNDU motiviert in Hinblick auf den Einsatz in eingebetteten, batteriebetriebenen Geräten eine asynchrone Realisierung. Die PNDU wurde mit VHDL als synchrone und vergleichend dazu als selbstgetaktete Schaltung entworfen.

  16. Composition and Method for Cleaning Salt Residues From Metal Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CLEANING, *METALS), (*AIRCRAFT ENGINES, CLEANING), (*PATENTS, CLEANING), ETHYLENEDINITRILO TETRAACETATES, SALTS , HELICOPTER ENGINES...ETHYLENEDIAMINE, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, POLYETHYLENE PLASTICS, PROPENES, SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES, ACETATES, CORROSION, NITRITES

  17. Clean and Cold Sample Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.; Agee, C. B.; Beer, R.; Cooper, B. L.

    2000-07-01

    Curation of Mars samples includes both samples that are returned to Earth, and samples that are collected, examined, and archived on Mars. Both kinds of curation operations will require careful planning to ensure that the samples are not contaminated by the instruments that are used to collect and contain them. In both cases, sample examination and subdivision must take place in an environment that is organically, inorganically, and biologically clean. Some samples will need to be prepared for analysis under ultra-clean or cryogenic conditions. Inorganic and biological cleanliness are achievable separately by cleanroom and biosafety lab techniques. Organic cleanliness to the <50 ng/sq cm level requires material control and sorbent removal - techniques being applied in our Class 10 cleanrooms and sample processing gloveboxes.

  18. Apparel for Cleaner Clean Rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In the 1960s NASA pioneered contamination control technology, providing a base from which aerospace contractors could develop control measures. NASA conducted special courses for clean room technicians and supervisors, and published a series of handbooks with input from various NASA field centers. These handbooks extended aerospace experience to the medical, pharmaceutical, electronics, and other industries where extreme cleanliness is important. American Hospital Supply Company (AHSC) felt that high technology products with increasingly stringent operating requirements in aerospace, electronics, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment manufacturing demanded improvement in contamination control techniques. After studying the NASA handbooks and visiting NASA facilities, the wealth of information gathered resulted in Micro-clean non-woven garments and testing equipment and procedures for evaluating effectiveness.

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  20. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  1. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  2. The MiniCLEAN Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui-Jen (Ryan); Gold, Michael; Miniclean Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MiniCLEAN (Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Noble liquid) dark matter experiment will exploit a single-phase liquid argon detector instrumented with 92 photomultiplier tubes placed in the cryogen with 4- π coverage of a 500 kg (150 kg) target (fiducial) mass. The detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. It is designed also for a liquid neon target that allows for an independent verification of signal and background and a test of the expected dependence of the WIMP-nucleus interaction rate. For MiniCLEAN, PMT stability and calibration are essential. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based light injection system provide single photon for the calibration which can be performed in near real-time, providing a continuous monitor on the condition of the detector. This talk will summarize the status of detector and upcoming commissioning at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Canada.

  3. Clean and Cold Sample Curation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Agee, C. B.; Beer, R.; Cooper, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    Curation of Mars samples includes both samples that are returned to Earth, and samples that are collected, examined, and archived on Mars. Both kinds of curation operations will require careful planning to ensure that the samples are not contaminated by the instruments that are used to collect and contain them. In both cases, sample examination and subdivision must take place in an environment that is organically, inorganically, and biologically clean. Some samples will need to be prepared for analysis under ultra-clean or cryogenic conditions. Inorganic and biological cleanliness are achievable separately by cleanroom and biosafety lab techniques. Organic cleanliness to the <50 ng/sq cm level requires material control and sorbent removal - techniques being applied in our Class 10 cleanrooms and sample processing gloveboxes.

  4. In Brief: Clean water strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Ofori, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is inviting the public to comment on a draft strategy to protect and restore lakes, streams, and coastal waters. The document, “Coming together for clean water: EPA's strategy for achieving clean water,” outlines the agency's plans to address the United States' critical water stressors, sources, and threats. The document outlines several approaches the agency has identified, including systematically assessing the nation's waters to provide a baseline for tracking progress; increasing the focus on protecting healthy waters; enhancing EPA's ability to restore degraded waters and ecosystems; and reducing pollution. Specific EPA actions include completing national aquatic resource surveys; developing metrics to create a national list of healthy watersheds; strengthening the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System; and encouraging integrated water management approaches and green infrastructure. To review the draft strategy and to submit comments by the 17 September deadline, visit http://blog.epa.gov/waterforum.

  5. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  6. Manifold For Flushing Tubes With Cleaning Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Fogel, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Custom-built manifold mounted on cleaning basket enables simultaneous flushing of 80 tubes with cleaning solution. In original application, tubes components of rocket-engine nozzle under construction. However, basic manifold configuration adapted to other applications (e.g., fabrication of heat exchangers) in which there is need for simultaneous cleaning of many tubes of identical size and shape.

  7. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel is practically free from dirt and other foreign substance....

  9. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material....

  14. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that the appearance of the individual portion of kernel, or of the lot...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the cherries are practically free from dirt, dust, spray residue, or...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel is practically free from dirt and other foreign substance....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  20. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  1. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  2. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt or other foreign materials. Stalks shall...

  3. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt or other foreign materials. Stalks shall...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Practically clean. Practically clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the walnuts...

  14. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  15. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Practically clean. Practically clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the walnuts...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  7. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that the appearance of the individual portion of kernel, or of the lot...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  9. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the shell is practically free from dirt and other adhering foreign material....

  13. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  17. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the shell is practically free from dirt and other adhering foreign material....

  20. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  1. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  2. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  8. BUY CLEAN MANUAL INTERACTIVE CD-ROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive CD-ROM contains exercises and opportunities to help users develop a Buy Clean Program for janitorial cleaning products. CD users can learn about Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), complete an inventory list, and compare cleaning products to see which have the le...

  9. Machine Cleans And Degreases Without Toxic Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurguis, Kamal S.; Higginson, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Appliance uses hot water and biodegradable chemicals to degrease and clean hardware. Spray chamber essentially industrial-scale dishwasher. Front door tilts open, and hardware to be cleaned placed on basket-like tray. During cleaning process, basket-like tray rotates as high-pressure "V" jets deliver steam, hot water, detergent solution, and rust inhibitor as required.

  10. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  12. Low cost, high tech seed cleaning

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    Clean seeds are a great asset in native plant restoration. However, seed cleaning equipment is often too costly for many small operations. This paper introduces how several tools and materials intended for other purposes can be used directly or made into simple machines to clean seeds.

  13. Manifold For Flushing Tubes With Cleaning Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Fogel, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Custom-built manifold mounted on cleaning basket enables simultaneous flushing of 80 tubes with cleaning solution. In original application, tubes components of rocket-engine nozzle under construction. However, basic manifold configuration adapted to other applications (e.g., fabrication of heat exchangers) in which there is need for simultaneous cleaning of many tubes of identical size and shape.

  14. Machine Cleans And Degreases Without Toxic Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurguis, Kamal S.; Higginson, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Appliance uses hot water and biodegradable chemicals to degrease and clean hardware. Spray chamber essentially industrial-scale dishwasher. Front door tilts open, and hardware to be cleaned placed on basket-like tray. During cleaning process, basket-like tray rotates as high-pressure "V" jets deliver steam, hot water, detergent solution, and rust inhibitor as required.

  15. RUNNING A CONFERENCE AS A CLEAN PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 1000 attended the International Conference on Pollution Prevention: Clean Technologies and Clean Products, held in Washington, DC, June 10-13, 1990. With support from the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the International Association for Clean Techn...

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  17. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  1. RUNNING A CONFERENCE AS A CLEAN PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 1000 attended the International Conference on Pollution Prevention: Clean Technologies and Clean Products, held in Washington, DC, June 10-13, 1990. With support from the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the International Association for Clean Techn...

  2. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  3. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned...

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  5. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  6. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  7. BUY CLEAN MANUAL INTERACTIVE CD-ROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive CD-ROM contains exercises and opportunities to help users develop a Buy Clean Program for janitorial cleaning products. CD users can learn about Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), complete an inventory list, and compare cleaning products to see which have the le...

  8. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  9. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  10. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  11. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  12. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. An integrated tube cleaning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkin, P. V.; Karpenko, I. V.

    2010-07-01

    A modern and efficient method for removing deposits from the inner surfaces of tubes used in heat-transfer equipment operating at thermal and nuclear power stations is considered. This method is intended primarily for cleaning steam-turbine condensers, delivery-water heaters, and gas- and oil coolers with thin-walled tubes made of nickel-copper alloys or brass 19-28 mm in diameter, with a 1-mm thick wall, and 5-11 m long.

  14. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  15. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  16. Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, N.; Daley, D.P.; Jacobsen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

  17. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  18. Lasers Cleaning of Patrimonial Plasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, E.; Huet, N.; Vinçotte, A.

    The use of the lasers Q-switched Nd:YAG to remove the dust of the stone monuments especially sculpture gradually replaces the more abrasive technique of sandblasting. This tendency made us consider the lasers as solution for the cleaning of ceramics and the plasters. Indeed in museums, these materials are often covered with dirty mark (dust, grease, etc.) which is difficult to remove without damaging the object. This paper deals with the impact of different types of lasers (Nd:YAG first and third harmonic) irradiation on plaster and with the effects on its morphology and its crystallography. Plaster is an interesting material because of its typical acicular crystals altered at low temperature. That is why synthesis samples were prepared, constrained in temperature then analysed by various processes (SEM, XRD, TGA. . . ). These results were compared with samples cleaned by laser. That enabled us to conclude that plasters cleaned by UV-laser (third harmonic of the Nd:YAG) underwent neither yellowing, nor morphological or crystallographic changes. It has to be opposed to the intense yellowing, and sometimes morphological destruction, which appears with an infrared wavelength (first harmonic of the Nd:YAG).

  19. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  20. Turbine-Driven Pipe-Cleaning Brush

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Rowell, David E.

    1994-01-01

    Simple pipe-cleaning device includes small turbine wheel axially connected, by standoff, to circular brush. Turbine wheel turns on hub bearing attached to end of upstream cable. Turbine-and-brush assembly inserted in pipe with cable trailing upstream and brush facing downstream. Water or cleaning solution pumped through pipe. Cable held at upstream end, so it holds turbine and brush in pipe at location to be cleaned. Flow in pipe turns turbine, which turns wheel, producing desired cleaning action. In addition to brushing action, device provides even mixing of cleaning solution in pipe.

  1. RM-CLEAN: RM spectra cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George

    2017-08-01

    RM-CLEAN reads in dirty Q and U cubes, generates rmtf based on the frequencies given in an ASCII file, and cleans the RM spectra following the algorithm given by Brentjens (2007). The output cubes contain the clean model components and the CLEANed RM spectra. The input cubes must be reordered with mode=312, and the output cubes will have the same ordering and thus must be reordered after being written to disk. RM-CLEAN runs as a MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) task and a Python wrapper is included with the code.

  2. Ultraviolet-Ozone Cleaning of Semiconductor Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    to the UV radiation in air. In a vacuum system at 10-4 tort of oxygen , clean gold surfaces were produced after about two hours of UV exposure. During...torr of oxygen , and no cleaning effect was observed in 1 torr after 60 minutes of cleaning (46). (It should be noted, however, that the cleaning...source can be used as an "ozone killer." For example, in one cryopumped vacuum system, UV/ozone cleaning was performed in up to 20 torr of oxygen . After

  3. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  4. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation, frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness, the two types of transducers, and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  5. Controlling template erosion with advanced cleaning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, SherJang; Yu, Zhaoning; Wähler, Tobias; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Wang, Hongying; Yang, Henry; Hsu, Yautzong; Lee, Kim; Kuo, David; Dress, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We studied the erosion and feature stability of fused silica patterns under different template cleaning conditions. The conventional SPM cleaning is compared with an advanced non-acid process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical critical dimension (SE-OCD) measurements were used to characterize the changes in pattern profile with good sensitivity. This study confirmed the erosion of the silica patterns in the traditional acid-based SPM cleaning mixture (H2SO4+H2O2) at a rate of ~0.1nm per cleaning cycle. The advanced non-acid clean process however only showed CD shift of ~0.01nm per clean. Contamination removal & pattern integrity of sensitive 20nm features under MegaSonic assisted cleaning is also demonstrated.

  6. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  7. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation; frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness; the two types of transducers; and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  8. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1995-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation, frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness, the two types of transducers, and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  9. Multifunctional Au-Fe3O4@MOF core-shell nanocomposite catalysts with controllable reactivity and magnetic recyclability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Luhuan; Zhu, Junfa

    2014-12-01

    The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional catalysts used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, this porous MOF-based magnetic catalyst is green, cheap and promising for industrial applications.The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional

  10. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  11. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2016-07-12

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  12. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  13. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  15. Clean-Burning Diesel Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    nm radiation. 28 * S 8. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Analysis Diesel particulate is collected on 20 inch by 20 inch (50.8 cm) Pallflex filters...RD-Ri52 66 CLEN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINES(U) SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST i1’,. SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LRB H E DIETZMRNN DEC 84...111.2 IIII2,,- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ./ . ... . HFPfROW CED AT G;OVERNMENT F)(PENSE CLEAN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINESjt PHASE II INTERIM REPORT

  16. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  17. New cleaning technologies advance coal

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.

    1984-05-01

    Alternative options are discussed for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning utility and industrial sources. Test results indicate that it may be most advantageous to use the AED Process after coal preparation or on coals that do not need much ash removal. However, the developer claims that research efforts after 1981 have led to process improvements for producing clean coals containing 1.5% to 3% ash. This paper describes the test facility where a full-scale test of the AED Process is underway.

  18. Can Beach Cleans Do More Than Clean-Up Litter? Comparing Beach Cleans to Other Coastal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Kayleigh J.; Pahl, Sabine; Holland, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal visits not only provide psychological benefits but can also contribute to the accumulation of rubbish. Volunteer beach cleans help address this issue, but may only have limited, local impact. Consequently, it is important to study any broader benefits associated with beach cleans. This article examines the well-being and educational value of beach cleans, as well as their impacts on individuals’ behavioral intentions. We conducted an experimental study that allocated students (n = 90) to a beach cleaning, rock pooling, or walking activity. All three coastal activities were associated with positive mood and pro-environmental intentions. Beach cleaning and rock pooling were associated with higher marine awareness. The unique impacts of beach cleaning were that they were rated as most meaningful but linked to lower restorativeness ratings of the environment compared with the other activities. This research highlights the interplay between environment and activities, raising questions for future research on the complexities of person-environment interactions. PMID:28546642

  19. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  20. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  1. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K.

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  2. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  3. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  5. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  6. Linc-RoR promotes c-Myc expression through hnRNP I and AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Ali; Ho, Tsui-Ting; Zhang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Nanjiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Min; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Linc-RoR was originally identified to be a regulator for induced pluripotent stem cells in humans and it has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of Linc-RoR-mediated gene expression in cancer is poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that Linc-RoR plays an oncogenic role in part through regulation of c-Myc expression. Linc-RoR knockout (KO) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. In particular, Linc-RoR KO causes a significant decrease in c-Myc whereas re-expression of Linc-RoR in the KO cells restores the level of c-Myc. Mechanistically, Linc-RoR interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) I and AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1), respectively, with an opposite consequence to their interaction with c-Myc mRNA. While Linc-RoR is required for hnRNP I to bind to c-Myc mRNA, interaction of Linc-RoR with AUF1 inhibits AUF1 to bind to c-Myc mRNA. As a result, Linc-RoR may contribute to the increased stability of c-Myc mRNA. Although hnRNP I and AUF1 can interact with many RNA species and regulate their functions, with involvement of Linc-RoR they would be able to selectively regulate mRNA stability of specific genes such as c-Myc. Together, these results support a role for Linc-RoR in c-Myc expression in part by specifically enhancing its mRNA stability, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:26656491

  7. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  8. The Cleaning of Aluminum Frame Assembly Units

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T H

    2001-05-16

    The Brulin immersion and the precision cleaning experiments have shown that neither the Brulin solution nor the precision cleaning in AstroPak causes the smut formation on aluminum surfaces. The acid-bath cleaning in GTC is the primary source of the smut formation. The current GTC acid formulation etches the aluminum matrix quite aggressively, but does not appear to appreciably attack the Si particles. Therefore, this acid-bath cleaning will leave the cast-aluminum part surfaces with many protruded Si particles, which could potentially cause smut problems in the cleaning process down-stream. To ensure the removal of all loose Si particles from the cast-aluminum parts, it is necessary to physically hand-wipe and vigorously wash the acid-bath cleaned surfaces. Furthermore, the casting porosity in alloy A356 could be another source in causing high swipe readings in the FAU parts.

  9. Environmentally compatible hand wipe cleaning solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Catherine P.; Kovach, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Several solvents of environmental concern have previously been used for hand wipe cleaning of SRB surfaces, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, toluene, xylene, and MEK. USBI determined the major types of surfaces involved, and qualification requirements of replacement cleaning agents. Nineteen environmentally compatible candidates were tested on 33 material substrates with 26 types of potential surface contaminants, involving over 7,000 individual evaluations. In addition to the cleaning performance evaluation, bonding, compatibility, and corrosion tests were conducted. Results showed that one cleaner was not optimum for all surfaces. In most instances, some of the candidates cleaned better than the 1,1,1-trichloroethane baseline control. Aqueous cleaners generally cleaned better, and were more compatible with nonmetallic materials, such as paints, plastics, and elastomers. Organic base cleaners were better on metal surfaces. Five cleaners have been qualified and are now being implemented in SRB hand wipe cleaning operations.

  10. Cleaning of extremely sensitive optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Deiries, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Most of the optical surfaces are sensitive; the cleaning should be done with great cares and using well characterized technique and equipment. In this paper we are reporting about cleaning of some of the most critical optical surfaces, surfaces which are generally known as not allowing any cleaning. The first section reports about the cleaning of the silver coating on an echelle grating. Silver becomes oxidized, or tarnished, from exposure to sulphates in the air. With time this can lead to dramatic loss of the efficiency of the grating. The second section reports about the cleaning of a CCD chip which has been contaminated with grease. A special "contactless" cleaning procedure has been developed and used successfully on real components. In both cases the full procedure is described and a set of measurements document the results and shows how the original performance have been recovered.

  11. AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–infected cells express two noncoding RNAs called EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1 and EBER2. Despite their high abundance in the nucleus (about 106 copies), the molecular function of these noncoding RNAs has remained elusive. Here, we report that the insertion into EBER1 of an RNA aptamer that binds the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein allows the isolation of EBER1 and associated protein partners. By combining MS2-mediated selection with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and analysis by mass spectrometry, we identified AUF1 (AU-rich element binding factor 1)/hnRNP D (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) as an interacting protein of EBER1. AUF1 exists as four isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is best known for its role in destabilizing mRNAs upon binding to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Using UV crosslinking, we demonstrate that predominantly the p40 isoform of AUF1 interacts with EBER1 in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that EBER1 can compete for the binding of the AUF1 p40 isoform to ARE-containing RNA. Given the high abundance of EBER1 in EBV-positive cells, EBER1 may disturb the normal homeostasis between AUF1 and ARE-containing mRNAs or compete with other AUF1-interacting targets in cells latently infected by EBV. PMID:23012480

  12. AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A

    2012-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells express two noncoding RNAs called EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1 and EBER2. Despite their high abundance in the nucleus (about 10(6) copies), the molecular function of these noncoding RNAs has remained elusive. Here, we report that the insertion into EBER1 of an RNA aptamer that binds the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein allows the isolation of EBER1 and associated protein partners. By combining MS2-mediated selection with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and analysis by mass spectrometry, we identified AUF1 (AU-rich element binding factor 1)/hnRNP D (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) as an interacting protein of EBER1. AUF1 exists as four isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is best known for its role in destabilizing mRNAs upon binding to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3' untranslated region (UTR). Using UV crosslinking, we demonstrate that predominantly the p40 isoform of AUF1 interacts with EBER1 in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that EBER1 can compete for the binding of the AUF1 p40 isoform to ARE-containing RNA. Given the high abundance of EBER1 in EBV-positive cells, EBER1 may disturb the normal homeostasis between AUF1 and ARE-containing mRNAs or compete with other AUF1-interacting targets in cells latently infected by EBV.

  13. Effects of coating molecules on the magnetic heating properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterodimer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ogasawara, J.; Himukai, H.; Itoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report the heating properties of gold-magnetite (Au-Fe3O4) heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with oleic acid and oleylamine (OA) were synthesized through a method that combines seed mediation and high-temperature decomposition. The coating was replaced with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by the ligand-exchange method. The specific absorption rates (SARs) for the OA- and DMSA-coated Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with OA and DMSA at room temperature were determined through the calorimetric and magnetometric methods. SAR depended on the square of the magnetic field H up to an H value of 4 kA/m. The absolute value of the SAR for DMSA-coated NPs is about fivefold higher than that of the OA-coated NPs. The AC magnetic hysteresis measurements showed the recovery of the magnetic volume and the decrease in the magnetic anisotropy of the DMSA-coated NPs relative to those of the OA-coated NPs. These results suggest that the protective agent influences the magnetic properties of magnetite NPs via gold NPs.

  14. Multifunctional Au-Fe3O4@MOF core-shell nanocomposite catalysts with controllable reactivity and magnetic recyclability.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Luhuan; Zhu, Junfa

    2015-01-21

    The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional catalysts used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, this porous MOF-based magnetic catalyst is green, cheap and promising for industrial applications.

  15. Strong dependence of surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering on the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Polizzi, Stefano; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition dependence of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can be tuned by varying the liquid environment. Due to surface passivation and reaction with thiolated ligands, the nanoalloys obtained by our synthetic protocol are structurally and colloidally stable. Hence, we studied the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the iron fraction and, for the first time, we observed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in Au-Fe nanoalloys. SPR and SERS performances are strongly affected by the iron content and are investigated using analytical and numerical models. By demonstrating the strong modification of plasmonic properties on the composition, our results provide important insights into the exploitation of Au-Fe nanoalloys in photonics, nanomedicine, magneto-plasmonic and plasmon-enhanced catalysis. Moreover, our findings show that several other plasmonic materials exist beyond gold and silver nanostructures.

  16. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  17. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  18. LTA measurements on shuttle cleaning nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A laser transit anemometer was used to make flow field velocity measurements on a supersonic air/water cleaning nozzle used to clean liquid oxygen shuttle components at Kennedy Space Center. The velocity along the centerline of the nozzle was characterized by the LTA system and compared with CFD calculations to ascertain the optimum distance the nozzle should be placed from the liquid oxygen part for maximum cleaning..

  19. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  20. Byron Unit 1 high temperature chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffler, W.A.; Kerr, S.R.; Dow, R.P.; Jevec, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    The secondary side of the Byron Nuclear Station, Unit 1 steam generators were successfully chemically cleaned in September 1994, using the BWNT/Framatome high-temperature chemical cleaning process. This cleaning was the first North American application that used plant heat for process temperature control. The primary purpose of the cleaning was to remove bulk deposits and deposits from the drilled tube-to-tube support plate crevices of the Westinghouse D4 steam generators. Crevice deposit removal was targeted to mitigate initiation of new corrosion defects and the propagation of existing defects. The process application scenario and plant interface equipment were designed to maximize effectiveness while minimizing corrosion, waste volumes, and critical path time. A total of over 15,383 pounds (6,992 kilograms) of material was removed from the four steam generators during the chemical cleaning. Post-cleaning visual inspections showed the steam generators to be very clean. Some quantity (30% to 60%) of deposits remained in crevice areas. One indication of successful crevice magnetite removal was very clean and crisp eddy-current signals in the tube support plate region. Corrosion to steam generator materials resulting from the cleaning was less than 2.5 mils (63.5 {micro}m) and consumed less than 20% of the available corrosion allowance.

  1. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  2. Precision cleaning methods for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Lindewall, H.

    1988-01-01

    A small CO2 snow cleaning apparatus to clean both molecular films and particles from small and large components and surfaces was constructed. Various types of surfaces were cleaned using the CO2 technique. Vacuum deposited and sputtered metallic coatings such as germanium, aluminum, and silver and silicon wafers, and polished copper conical mirrors were purposely contaminated with everyday aerospace contaminants, including particle fallout and fingerprints. Precleaning characterization by Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), ellipsometry, nonvolatile residue, and microscopic particle evaluation served as evaluation of cleaning efficiency. Good results were obtained in trial application.

  3. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.

  4. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.J.; Spiller, E.A.

    1999-09-28

    A cleaning process is disclosed for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  5. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  6. Emissions of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichenor, Bruce A.; Sparks, Leslie E.; Jackson, Merrill D.; Guo, Zhishi; Mason, Mark A.; Michelle Plunket, C.; Rasor, Susan A.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of 'airing out' dry cleaned clothes in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Small chamber tests were conducted to determine perchloroethylene emission characteristics for three fabrics at several air exchange rates. Test house studies were conducted to determine the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene due to the placement of dry cleaned clothing in the house. Based on the study results, and assuming that test conditions were representative of normal dry cleaning and consumer practices, the following conclusions were reached. Emissions from freshly dry cleaned clothing cause elevated levels of perchloroethylene in residences. For the three fabrics tested, 'airing out' of dry cleaned clothing by consumers for short time periods (4-8 h) will not be effective in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Adsorptive surfaces (i.e. sinks) in residences may have a major impact on consumer exposure to perchloroethylene. It is emphasized that these conclusions are based on the results of the study reported. Significant variations in dry cleaning practices and/or in the mix of fabrics and clothing being cleaned could provide different results and conclusions.

  7. Cleaning process for contaminated superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    A cleaning process for removing interstitial contaminants from superalloy powders after wet grinding is described. Typical analyses of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in ball-milled WAZ-20 superalloy samples after hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning are presented. The hydrogen cleaning step involves heating retorts containing superalloy powder twice under flowing hydrogen with a 24-hour hold at each temperature. The vacuum step involves heating cold-pressed billets two hours at an elevated temperature at a pressure of 10 microPa. It is suggested that the hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning procedure can be applied to superalloys contaminated by other substances in other industrial processes.

  8. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  9. Annealing-induced recovery of indents in thin Au(Fe) bilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Kosinova, Anna; Schwaiger, Ruth; Klinger, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    We employed depth-sensing nanoindentation to produce ordered arrays of indents on the surface of 50 nm-thick Au(Fe) films deposited on sapphire substrates. The maximum depth of the indents was approximately one-half of the film thickness. The indented films were annealed at a temperature of 700 °C in a forming gas atmosphere. While the onset of solid-state dewetting was observed in the unperturbed regions of the film, no holes to the substrate were observed in the indented regions. Instead, the film annealing resulted in the formation of hillocks at the indent locations, followed by their dissipation and the formation of shallow depressions nearby after subsequent annealing treatments. This annealing-induced evolution of nanoindents was interpreted in terms of annihilation of dislocation loops generated during indentation, accompanied by the formation of nanopores at the grain boundaries and their subsequent dissolution. The application of the processes uncovered in this work show great potential for the patterning of thin films. PMID:28144556

  10. Aktivitätsmessung auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Oberflächen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Peter Michael

    2003-06-01

    Im Bereich der medizinischen Diagnostik spielen DNA-Chips eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dabei werden Glas- oder Silikon-Oberflächen mit Tausenden von einzelsträngigen DNA-Fragmenten, sog. Sonden, bestückt, die mit den passenden DNA-Fragmenten in der zugefügten Patientenprobe verschmelzen. Die Auswertung solcher Messungen liefert die Diagnose für Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs, Alzheimer oder für den Nachweis pathogener Erreger. Durch fortschreitende Miniaturisierung dieser Meßsysteme können bis zu 40.000 Genfragmente des Menschen in einer einzigen Messung analysiert werden. Neben den DNA-Fragmenten können Bio-Chips auch für andere biologische Komponenten wie Antikörper und Proteine eingesetzt werden, wobei bei letzteren neben der Bindung auch die Aktivität ein wichtiger Diagnoseparamter ist. Am Fraunhofer-Institut für medizinische Technik und am Lehrstuhl für Analytische Biochemie der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen einer Doktorarbeit Methoden entwickelt, die es ermöglichen auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Sensoroberflächen die Aktivität von Proteinen zu messen. Es wurden Nukleinsäuren auf Oberflächen optischer Sensoren verankert. Diese fungierten als Rezeptor für die Proteine sowie auch als Substrat für Restriktionsenzyme, die Nukleinsäuren schneiden und Polymerasen, die Nukleinsäuren synthetisieren und verlängern können. Seine Anwendung fand diese Messmethode in der Messung der Aktivität des Proteins Telomerase, das in 90% aller Tumore erhöhte Aktivität gegenüber gesunden Zellen aufweist. Die Vorteile dieses neuen Assays gegenüber älteren Methoden liegt im Verzicht auf radioaktiv-markierten Komponenten und einer deutlich verkürzten Analysezeit. Die Arbeit schliesst mit einem funktionsfähigen Nachweis der Telomeraseaktivität im Zellextrakt von gesunden und kranken Zellen. Der direkte Einfluß von Hemmstoffen auf die Aktivität konnte sichtbar gemacht werden, und steht daher bei der Entwicklung neuer Tumor-Diagnostika und

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of nitrilase from Fusarium proliferatum AUF-2 for detoxification of nitriles.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Farnaz; Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Jamwal, Urmila; Gandhi, Sumit G; Chaubey, Asha

    2015-07-01

    A fungal nitrilase gene from Fusarium proliferatum AUF-2 was cloned through reverse transcription-PCR. The open reading frame consisted of 903 bp and potentially encoded a protein of 301 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 33.0 kDa. The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and the recombinant protein with His6-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity in the range of 35-40 °C and pH 8.0. EDTA, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) stimulated hydrolytic activity, whereas Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) had inhibitory effect on nitrilase activity. Ag(+) ions showed a strong inhibitory effect on the recombinant nitrilase activity. This nitrilase was specific towards aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic nitriles. The kinetic parameters V(max) and K(m) for benzonitrile substrate were determined to be 14.6 μmol/min/mg protein and 1.55 mM, respectively. Homology modelling and molecular docking studies provided an insight into the substrate specificity and the proposed catalytic triad for recombinant nitrilase consisted of Glu-54, Lys-133 and Cys-175. This is the first report on the cloning and heterologous expression of nitrilase from Fusarium proliferatum.

  12. Indentation-induced solid-state dewetting of thin Au(Fe) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinova, Anna; Schwaiger, Ruth; Klinger, Leonid; Rabkin, Eugen

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of local plastic deformation on the thermal stability and solid-state dewetting of thin homogeneous Au(Fe) films deposited on sapphire substrates. The films with ordered square arrays of indents produced by nanoindentation were annealed at the temperature of 700 °C in a forming gas atmosphere. The behavior of the film in the region of shallow indents (reaching a depth up to one half of the film thickness) was very different from the one in the region of deep indents (with depths greater than one half of the film thickness). In the first case, the grain growth in indented and unperturbed regions of the film proceeded quite similarly, and nearly complete healing of the indents was observed. In the latter case, a recrystallization process in the vicinity of the indents resulted in the formation of small new grains with misorientation angles that were not present in the as-deposited film. The thermal grooving along the corresponding new high-energy grain boundaries caused an increase of the depth of the indents and the formation of the dewetting holes. The morphology of these holes and their size were different compared to the holes formed randomly in the unperturbed regions of the same films. In particular, the interaction between the individual indents of an array led to the preferential formation of holes at the periphery of the arrays. These findings shed a new light on the process of nucleation of the solid-state dewetting in thin films.

  13. Electronic structure and vibrational entropies of fcc Au-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Jorge A.; Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Xiao, Yuming; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonon density of states (DOS) curves were measured on alloys of face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au-Fe using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The NRIXS and INS results were combined to obtain the total phonon DOS and the partial phonon DOS curves of Au and Fe atoms. The 57Fe partial phonon DOS of the dilute alloy Au0.97 57Fe0.03 shows a localized mode centered 4.3% above the cutoff energy of the phonons in pure Au. The Mannheim model for impurity modes accurately reproduced this partial phonon DOS using the fcc Au phonon DOS with a ratio of host-host to impurity-host force constants of 1.55. First-principles calculations validated the assumption of first-nearest-neighbor forces in the Mannheim model and gave a similar ratio of force constants. The high energy local mode broadens with increasing Fe composition, but this has a small effect on the composition dependence of the vibrational entropy. The main effect on the vibrational entropy of alloying comes from a stiffening of the Au partial phonon DOS with Fe concentration. This stiffening is attributed to two main effects: 1) an increase in electron density in the free-electron-like states, and 2) stronger sd-hybridization. These two effects are comparable in magnitude.

  14. Process for cleaning fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, R.E.

    1981-08-04

    A process for the wet concentration and cleaning of fine coal is provided which comprises the steps of desliming and thickening a dilute slurry of fine coal and contaminant particles having a size of less than about 10 mm by introducing the same to a hydrocyclone separator to retain a slurry of particles having a size greater than about 0.1 mm, wet concentrating the last-named slurry and removing the heavier contaminant particles by introducing it to an autogenous dense medium separation vessel having a manifold for injecting water at an intermediate level and controlling the underflow of heavier than coal particles to maintain a fluidized bed of heavier particles and causing a slurry of the lighter coal particles to overflow, and concentrating and dewatering the overflow by means of a static or vibratory sizing screen.

  15. Coal cleans up its act

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Mahesh Lyer

    2006-10-15

    The paper gives an overview of current clean coal conversion processes. Gasification of coal is seen as preferable to combustion, along with CO{sub 2} separation technologies. One scheme which minimises the parasitic energy requirement for CO{sub 2} separation is based on the calcium-based carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) process which utilises limestone at 600-700{sup o}C. The key to success lies in process integration by combining various modules in one step of operation. Current stages of development vary from conceptualisation to pilot demonstration and commercial process construction. Projects mentioned include the FutureGen project and the HyPr-ring chemical looping process. 2 figs.

  16. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  17. The NOXSO clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  18. Rudimentary Cleaning Compared to Level 300A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpin, Christina Y. Pina; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A study was done to characterize the cleanliness level achievable when using a rudimentary cleaning process, and results were compared to JPR 5322.1G Level 300A. While it is not ideal to clean in a shop environment, some situations (e.g., field combat operations) require oxygen system hardware to be maintained and cleaned to prevent a fire hazard, even though it cannot be sent back to a precision cleaning facility. This study measured the effectiveness of basic shop cleaning. Initially, three items representing parts of an oxygen system were contaminated: a metal plate, valve body, and metal oxygen bottle. The contaminants chosen were those most likely to be introduced to the system during normal use: oil, lubricant, metal shavings/powder, sand, fingerprints, tape, lip balm, and hand lotion. The cleaning process used hot water, soap, various brushes, gaseous nitrogen, water nozzle, plastic trays, scouring pads, and a controlled shop environment. Test subjects were classified into three groups: technical professionals having an appreciation for oxygen hazards; professional precision cleaners; and a group with no previous professional knowledge of oxygen or precision cleaning. Three test subjects were in each group, and each was provided with standard cleaning equipment, a cleaning procedure, and one of each of the three test items to clean. The results indicated that the achievable cleanliness level was independent of the technical knowledge or proficiency of the personnel cleaning the items. Results also showed that achieving a Level 300 particle count was more difficult than achieving a Level A nonvolatile residue amount.

  19. Equivalent cleaning in a juvenile facultative and obligate cleaning wrasse: an insight into the evolution of cleaning in labrids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Alexandra S.; Feeney, William E.

    2016-09-01

    Species that exhibit ontogenetic variation in interspecific cleaning behaviours may offer insights into how interspecific cooperation evolves. We investigated the foraging ecology of the yellowtail tubelip wrasse ( Diproctacanthus xanthurus), a facultative cleaner as a juvenile and corallivore as an adult, and compared its juvenile ecology with that of juvenile blue-streak cleaner wrasse ( Labroides dimidiatus), a closely related and sympatric obligate cleaner. While juveniles of the two species differed in the amount of time they inspected clients, the number of client individuals and species that were cleaned and the proportion that posed did not differ, nor did the number of ectoparasitic isopods in their guts. In contrast, adult yellowtail tubelip wrasse had fewer isopods and more coral mucus in their guts than juveniles. These data support a hypothesized series of events in which juvenile cleaning acts as an evolutionary precursor to obligate cleaning and suggest that the yellowtail tubelip wrasse may present an intermediate between corallivory and cleaning.

  20. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  1. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  2. 78 FR 33406 - Clean River Power MR-1, LLC, Clean River Power MR-2, LLC, Clean River Power MR-3, LLC, Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Clean River Power MR-7, LLC (Clean River Power), subsidiaries of Free Flow Power Corporation. e. Names.... Applicant Contacts: Ramya Swaminathan, Chief Operating Officer, Free Flow Power Corporation, 239 Causeway Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA 02114; or at (978) 283-2822. Daniel Lissner, General Counsel, Free...

  3. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  4. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 20, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-13

    Clean Cities Now is the official semi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean....

  9. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2506 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.2506 Section 29.2506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2506 Clean. Tobacco is described as...

  13. Environmental Benefits: Clean and Conducive Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief description of the concept of clean production, its commonalities with the concept of conducive production (discussed in the first article of this issue) are outlined. By integrating clean production goals into the conducive economy, a healthier environment can be realized along with healthier workplaces and a healthier economy.

  14. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean....

  16. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean....

  18. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean....

  19. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  20. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  1. 7 CFR 51.314 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.314 Section 51.314 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.314 Clean. “Clean” means that the apples are free...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is practically free from dirt and other foreign material....

  4. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean....

  5. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1529 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1529 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1529 Section 51.1529 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is practically free from dirt and other foreign material....

  7. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is practically free from dirt and other foreign material....

  8. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is practically free from dirt and other foreign material....

  9. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3155 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3155 Section 51.3155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3155 Clean. “Clean” means that the fruit is...

  11. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  12. Clean room technology in surgery suites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The principles of clean room technology and the criteria for their application to surgery are discussed. The basic types of surgical clean rooms are presented along with their advantages and disadvantages. Topics discussed include: microbiology of surgery suites; principles of laminar airflow systems, and their use in surgery; and asepsis and the operating room.

  13. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  15. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  16. Portable tool cleans pipes and tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, C. A.; Headley, R.; Jones, D. D.

    1965-01-01

    Portable tool cleans and polishes the external surfaces of tubes and pipes without contaminating the interior areas with loose particles. The tool is driven by an electric drill and is connected to a vacuum source that removes debris resulting from the cleaning and polishing action.

  17. EMISSIONS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of ‘airing...

  18. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  19. MINIMIZING POLLUTION IN CLEANING AND DEGREASING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to examine approaches to decreasing rates of loss by evaporation and extend@ the useful lifetime of metal-cleaning solvents in service as means to decrease the generation of pollutant emissions and residues from Air Force cleaning and degreasing op...

  20. Coal can be a Clean Fuel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  2. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Dissolving Silos

    ScienceCinema

    Danielson, David; Orr, Lynn; Sarkar, Reuben; Zayas, Jose; Johnson, Mark

    2016-07-12

    DOE’s work is closely tied to manufacturing because manufacturing is an important part of technology innovation and commercialization. Find out how DOE – through the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative – is helping America lead the clean energy revolution.

  3. Cathodic ARC surface cleaning prior to brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, V. R.; Hollis, K. J.; Castro, R. G.; Smith, F. M.; Javernick, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface cleanliness is one the critical process variables in vacuum furnace brazing operations. For a large number of metallic components, cleaning is usually accomplished either by water-based alkali cleaning, but may also involve acid etching or solvent cleaning / rinsing. Nickel plating may also be necessary to ensure proper wetting. All of these cleaning or plating technologies have associated waste disposal issues, and this article explores an alternative cleaning process that generates minimal waste. Cathodic arc, or reserve polarity, is well known for welding of materials with tenacious oxide layers such as aluminum alloys. In this work the reverse polarity effect is used to clean austenitic stainless steel substrates prior to brazing with Ag-28%Cu. This cleaning process is compared to acid pickling and is shown to produce similar wetting behavior as measured by dynamic contact angle experiments. Additionally, dynamic contact angle measurements with water drops are conducted to show that cathodic arc cleaning can remove organic contaminants as well. The process does have its limitations however, and alloys with high titanium and aluminum content such as nickel-based superalloys may still require plating to ensure adequate wetting.

  4. Clean Fabrication and Cleanliness Monitoring in SNO

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, E.D.

    2005-09-08

    Cleanliness during the construction and operations of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has been an essential part of SNO's successful achievement of the required low backgrounds for its solar neutrino measurements. The setting up of the laboratory as a clean room, some aspects of clean construction and the monitoring systems used are described.

  5. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  6. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  7. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  8. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  9. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  10. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  11. MINIMIZING POLLUTION IN CLEANING AND DEGREASING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to examine approaches to decreasing rates of loss by evaporation and extend@ the useful lifetime of metal-cleaning solvents in service as means to decrease the generation of pollutant emissions and residues from Air Force cleaning and degreasing op...

  12. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  13. Bendable Extension For Abrasive-Jet Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Hard-to-reach places cleaned more easily. Extension for abrasive-jet apparatus bent to provide controlled abrasive cleaning of walls in deep cavities or other hard-to-reach places. Designed for controlled removal of penetrant inspection dyes from inside castings, extension tube also used for such general grit-blasting work as removal of scratches.

  14. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  15. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  16. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  17. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  19. A Clean School Is a Healthy School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shideler, Larry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can derive when they emphasize health and safety in their cleaning practices. Use of the Cleaning for Health and Safety program to reduce or eliminate potentially harmful products and processes and lower absenteeism, illness, and injury is discussed.(GR)

  20. Guidelines for qualifying cleaning and verification materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is intended to provide guidance in identifying technical issues which must be addressed in a comprehensive qualification plan for materials used in cleaning and cleanliness verification processes. Information presented herein is intended to facilitate development of a definitive checklist that should address all pertinent materials issues when down selecting a cleaning/verification media.