Science.gov

Sample records for clearance die szintigrafische

  1. Clearance of Dying Cells by Phagocytes: Mechanisms and Implications for Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fond, Aaron M; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2016-01-01

    The efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is an evolutionarily conserved process crucial for homeostasis in multicellular organisms. The clearance involves a series of steps that ultimately facilitates the recognition of the apoptotic cell by the phagocytes and the subsequent uptake and processing of the corpse. These steps include the phagocyte sensing of "find-me" signals released by the apoptotic cell, recognizing "eat-me" signals displayed on the apoptotic cell surface, and then intracellular signaling within the phagocyte to mediate phagocytic cup formation around the corpse and corpse internalization, and the processing of the ingested contents. The engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes not only eliminates debris from tissues but also produces an anti-inflammatory response that suppresses local tissue inflammation. Conversely, impaired corpse clearance can result in loss of immune tolerance and the development of various inflammation-associated disorders such as autoimmunity, atherosclerosis, and airway inflammation but can also affect cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that the clearance process can also influence antitumor immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how apoptotic cells interact with their engulfing phagocytes to generate important immune responses, and how modulation of such responses can influence pathology. PMID:27558816

  2. Clearance of autophagy-associated dying retinal pigment epithelial cells – a possible source for inflammation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári-Tóth, M; Kristóf, E; Veréb, Z; Akhtar, S; Facskó, A; Fésüs, L; Kauppinen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Petrovski, G

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo different forms of cell death, including autophagy-associated cell death during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Failure of macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) to engulf the different dying cells in the retina may result in the accumulation of debris and progression of AMD. ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells undergo autophagy-associated cell death upon serum depletion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Autophagy was revealed by elevated light-chain-3 II (LC3-II) expression and electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was confirmed by blocking the autophago-lysosomal fusion using chloroquine (CQ) in these cells. The autophagy-associated dying RPE cells were engulfed by human macrophages, DCs and living RPE cells in an increasing and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased the engulfment of the autophagy-associated dying cells by macrophages, whereas sorting out the GFP-LC3-positive/autophagic cell population or treatment by the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (TC) enhanced it. Increased amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were released when autophagy-associated dying RPEs were engulfed by macrophages. Our data suggest that cells undergoing autophagy-associated cell death engage in clearance mechanisms guided by professional and non-professional phagocytes, which is accompanied by inflammation as part of an in vitro modeling of AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27607582

  3. Clearance of autophagy-associated dying retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible source for inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Szatmári-Tóth, M; Kristóf, E; Veréb, Z; Akhtar, S; Facskó, A; Fésüs, L; Kauppinen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Petrovski, G

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo different forms of cell death, including autophagy-associated cell death during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Failure of macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) to engulf the different dying cells in the retina may result in the accumulation of debris and progression of AMD. ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells undergo autophagy-associated cell death upon serum depletion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Autophagy was revealed by elevated light-chain-3 II (LC3-II) expression and electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was confirmed by blocking the autophago-lysosomal fusion using chloroquine (CQ) in these cells. The autophagy-associated dying RPE cells were engulfed by human macrophages, DCs and living RPE cells in an increasing and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased the engulfment of the autophagy-associated dying cells by macrophages, whereas sorting out the GFP-LC3-positive/autophagic cell population or treatment by the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (TC) enhanced it. Increased amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were released when autophagy-associated dying RPEs were engulfed by macrophages. Our data suggest that cells undergoing autophagy-associated cell death engage in clearance mechanisms guided by professional and non-professional phagocytes, which is accompanied by inflammation as part of an in vitro modeling of AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27607582

  4. NADPH Oxidase-dependent Generation of Lysophosphatidylserine Enhances Clearance of Activated and Dying Neutrophils via G2A*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, S. Courtney; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Jin, Hyun-Sun; Leslie, Christina; Henson, Peter M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Bratton, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important ligand mediating apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes. Oxidation of PS fatty acyl groups (oxPS) during apoptosis reportedly mediates recognition through scavenger receptors. Given the oxidative capacity of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, we sought to identify oxPS signaling species in stimulated neutrophils. Using mass spectrometry analysis, only trace amounts of previously characterized oxPS species were found. Conversely, 18:1 and 18:0 lysophosphatidylserine (lyso-PS), known bioactive signaling phospholipids, were identified as abundant modified PS species following activation of the neutrophil oxidase. NADPH oxidase inhibitors blocked the production of lyso-PS in vitro, and accordingly, its generation in vivo by activated, murine neutrophils during zymosan-induced peritonitis was absent in mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase (gp91phox-/-). Treatment of macrophages with lyso-PS enhanced the uptake of apoptotic cells in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signaling via the macrophage G2A receptor. Similarly, endogenously produced lyso-PS also enhanced the G2A-mediated uptake of activated PS-exposing (but non-apoptotic) neutrophils, raising the possibility of non-apoptotic mechanisms for removal of inflammatory cells during resolution. Finally, antibody blockade of G2A signaling in vivo prolonged zymosan-induced neutrophilia in wild-type mice, whereas having no effect in gp91phox-/- mice where lyso-PS are not generated. Taken together, we show that lyso-PS are modified PS species generated following activation of the NADPH oxidase and lyso-PS signaling through the macrophage G2A functions to enhance existing receptor/ligand systems for optimal resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:18824544

  5. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  6. Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, R L; Green, L; Kohli, R

    1982-01-01

    The serum hemodialysis clearance of theophylline was determined in 4 patients compared to systemic serum clearance off dialysis in 3 patients. The serum extraction ratio values obtained were compared to those of urea. Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline averaged 84.3 +/- 11.6 ml/min (mean +/- SD), and extraction ratios obtained were found to be a fairly consistent fraction of the urea extraction ratio (0.72 +/- 0.08). Hemodialysis clearance increased total body clearance (ClTB) off dialysis by 130%, 387%, and 176% in the patients who had their theophylline serum clearance estimated off dialysis. Difference in reported hemodialysis clearance are probably related to the type of dialyser used. Studies utilizing hollow fiber systems (the present study) consistently yielded higher theophylline dialysis clearance values than those using coil systems (84.3% to 88.1 ml/min versus 32 to 39.4 ml/min). Patients receiving theophylline on hemodialysis should be closely monitored for bronchospasm during and after the hemodialysis procedure. Measurement of serum concentrations should be employed to facilitate dosage increases during hemodialysis.

  7. The clearance of dying cells: table for two

    PubMed Central

    Green, D R; Oguin, T H; Martinez, J

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytic cells of the immune system must constantly survey for, recognize, and efficiently clear the billions of cellular corpses that arise as a result of development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis. This process, termed efferocytosis, is critical for the prevention of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and persistence of dead cells in tissue is characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus. The most notable characteristic of the efferocytosis of apoptotic cells is its ‘immunologically silent' response. Although the mechanisms by which phagocytes facilitate engulfment of dead cells has been a well-studied area, the pathways that coordinate to process the ingested corpse and direct the subsequent immune response is an area of growing interest. The recently described pathway of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) has shed some light on this issue. LAP is triggered when an extracellular particle, such as a dead cell, engages an extracellular receptor during phagocytosis, induces the translocation of autophagy machinery, and ultimately LC3 to the cargo-containing phagosome, termed the LAPosome. In this review, we will examine efferocytosis and the impact of LAP on efferocytosis, allowing us to reimagine the impact of the autophagy machinery on innate host defense mechanisms. PMID:26990661

  8. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  9. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  10. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  11. Some Practical Payments Clearance Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The globalisation of corporations' operations has produced a huge volume of inter-company invoices. Optimisation of those known as payment clearance can produce a significant saving in costs associated with those transfers and handling. The paper revises some common and so practical approaches to the payment clearance problem and proposes some novel algorithms based on graphs theory and heuristic totals' distribution.

  12. Dual clearance squeeze film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.

  13. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  15. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  17. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  18. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  19. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  1. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  2. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  3. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  4. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  5. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  6. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  7. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  8. Inherited disorders of bilirubin clearance.

    PubMed

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-03-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective (i) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, (ii) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g., Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), (iii) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or (iv) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  9. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  10. [Harmony in dying].

    PubMed

    Meyer, H

    1990-02-13

    Dying and death have scarcely before our time preoccupied so many. Some even seem to thrive from thanatology. Do we physicians however consecrate patience and time to the dying of our next or our patients? Did we learn in medical school or with our patients to assist a dying person? Did we search for answers to death and dying by asking philosophers, physicians or musicians? Can we follow their reasoning in profit for our patients or for ourselves? Harmony in death can possibly be found in a harmonious life in our splendid and humane profession. Modest personal experience enriched by reflections tries imperfectly to bring harmony as hope to our dying.

  11. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  12. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  13. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  14. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the opportunity to close important…

  15. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  16. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  17. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  18. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  19. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  20. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  1. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  2. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  3. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  4. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  5. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  6. Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Development.

    PubMed

    Shklover, Jeny; Levy-Adam, Flonia; Kurant, Estee

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death and its specific form apoptosis play an important role during development of multicellular organisms. They are crucial for morphogenesis and organ sculpting as well as for adjusting cell number in different systems. Removal of apoptotic cells is the last critical step of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells are properly and efficiently recognized and eliminated through phagocytosis, which is performed by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or apoptotic cell clearance is a dynamic multistep process, involving interactions between phagocytic receptors and ligands on apoptotic cells, which are highly conserved in evolution. However, this process is extremely redundant in mammals, containing multiple factors playing similar roles in the process. Using model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and mouse permits addressing fundamental questions in developmental cell clearance by a comprehensive approach including powerful genetics and cell biological tools enriched by live imaging. Recent studies in model organisms have enhanced significantly our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of apoptotic cell clearance during development. Here, we review the current knowledge and illuminate the great potential of the research performed in genetic models, which opens new directions in developmental biology.

  7. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  8. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  9. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... alguien muere All living things — including bugs and fish and people — die. It's difficult, even for grownups, ... kind of death for families and friends to deal with because it happens so fast. There is ...

  10. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2016-05-01

    Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:27096368

  11. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2016-05-01

    Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  12. Is dying young worse than dying old?

    PubMed

    Jecker, N S; Schneiderman, L J

    1994-02-01

    In contemporary Western society, people experience the deaths of older and younger persons differently. We are disposed to feel that the death of a small child is a greater injustice than the death of an older adult, and we experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret or bitterness when a very young person dies. This article examines these responses critically to determine whether they are backed by ethical considerations that reason can discern and defend. We contrast contemporary attitudes with those of ancient Greece and show the relevance that different attitudes toward death have for health care decision making.

  13. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  14. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  16. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  17. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  3. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  8. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  9. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  10. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  11. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying.

  12. [Human dying has changed].

    PubMed

    Llano Escobar, A

    1990-01-01

    In the modern era, the act of dying, at least in the West, presents a series of new characteristics resulting from scientific and technological progress and social changes. More and more frequently, humans die in the strange surroundings of medical establishments without the support of their loved ones and without the opportunity of taking part in decisions related to their own deaths. In the light of the serious personal and social problems caused by this transformation of human death, bioethics emerges as an attempt to uncover options that are more humane.

  13. Die andere Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  14. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  15. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    PubMed

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  16. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  17. Humanitarian IED clearance in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.

  18. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  19. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  20. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  1. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  2. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... specify otherwise for particular drawbridges, clearance gauges shall be designed, installed, and... appropriate bridge....

  3. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installed with enough clearance from any other underground structure to allow proper maintenance and to... prevent the heat from impairing the serviceability of the pipe. (d) Each pipe-type or bottle-type...

  4. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  5. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  6. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  7. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  8. Psychotherapy with the dying patient.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, A M; Karasu, T B

    1977-01-01

    This paper develops and describes encounters with dying patients and their families and looks for consesus of patterns and responses of possible help in confronting this situation. It offers positive suggestions for those providing care for dying patients but also acknowledges that only an intellectual grasp of the situation is not sufficient qualification for caring for the dying.

  9. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  10. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency. PMID:26872385

  11. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  12. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  14. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  15. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  16. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  17. 31 CFR 205.20 - What is a clearance pattern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a clearance pattern? 205.20... Agreement § 205.20 What is a clearance pattern? States use clearance patterns to project when funds are paid... is applied. (c) A clearance pattern must include seasonal or other periodic variations in...

  18. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  19. The role of the effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 for cell death and corpse clearance in the developing optic lobe in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Hiromi; Hara, Yusuke; Togane, Yu; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Hiraoka, Tsuyoshi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2015-08-15

    In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, cell death occurs via apoptosis and in a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern of dying cell clusters. We analyzed the role of effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 in optic lobe cell death and subsequent corpse clearance using mutants. Neurons in many clusters required either drICE or dcp-1 and each one is sufficient. This suggests that drICE and dcp-1 function in cell death redundantly. However, dying neurons in a few clusters strictly required drICE but not dcp-1, but required drICE and dcp-1 when drICE activity was reduced via hypomorphic mutation. In addition, analysis of the mutants suggests an important role of effecter caspases in corpse clearance. In both null and hypomorphic drICE mutants, greater number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed than in wild type, and many TUNEL-positive cells remained until later stages. Lysotracker staining showed that there was a defect in corpse clearance in these mutants. All the results suggested that drICE plays an important role in activating corpse clearance in dying cells, and that an additional function of effector caspases is required for the activation of corpse clearance as well as that for carrying out cell death.

  20. 75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... established in the Federal Register of May 6, 2010 (75 FR 25038) (FRL-8823-5). In that document, EPA proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the... Federal Register of May 6, 2010, concerning several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair,...

  1. Nitriding of Aluminum Extrusion Die: Effect of Die Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2010-04-01

    Nitriding of complex-shaped extrusion dies may result in non-uniform nitride layers and hence a required hardness may not be achieved in some regions of the bearing area. The present study is carried out to assess the effect of extrusion die profile on the characteristics and growth behavior of nitride layers so that the critical die design feature can be identified to enhance the uniformity of the nitride layer. For this purpose, AISI H13 steel samples have been manufactured with profiles similar to those of hot extrusion dies. The samples were then gas nitrided under controlled nitriding potential. The uniformity and depth of nitride layers have been investigated in terms of compound layer and total nitride case depth for selected die features. The results of this study indicated the need to include the effect of profile on the nitride layer for the optimal die design with improved service life.

  2. Extreme contagion in global habitat clearance.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Mace, Georgina M; McGowan, Philip J K; Fuller, Richard A

    2010-04-01

    Habitat clearance remains the major cause of biodiversity loss, with consequences for ecosystem services and for people. In response to this, many global conservation schemes direct funds to regions with high rates of recent habitat destruction, though some also emphasize the conservation of remaining large tracts of intact habitat. If the pattern of habitat clearance is highly contagious, the latter approach will help prevent destructive processes gaining a foothold in areas of contiguous intact habitat. Here, we test the strength of spatial contagion in the pattern of habitat clearance. Using a global dataset of land-cover change at 50 x 50 km resolution, we discover that intact habitat areas in grid cells are refractory to clearance only when all neighbouring cells are also intact. The likelihood of loss increases dramatically as soon as habitat is cleared in just one neighbouring cell, and remains high thereafter. This effect is consistent for forests and grassland, across biogeographic realms and over centuries, constituting a coherent global pattern. Our results show that landscapes become vulnerable to wholesale clearance as soon as threatening processes begin to penetrate, so actions to prevent any incursions into large, intact blocks of natural habitat are key to their long-term persistence.

  3. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  4. Colchicine clearance is impaired in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Leighton, J A; Bay, M K; Maldonado, A L; Schenker, S; Speeg, K V

    1991-12-01

    Colchicine may have benefit in primary biliary cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease. It is currently used in patients with impaired liver function, yet little is known about its elimination in such patients. Colchicine clearance in the rat is significantly impaired in various models of liver disease. To study this in human beings, colchicine pharmacokinetics were compared in normal subjects and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Colchicine clearance was impaired in the cirrhotic patients. Normal subjects had a mean clearance of 10.65 +/- 1.82 ml/min.kg, whereas cirrhotic patients had a mean clearance of 4.22 +/- 0.45 ml/min.kg (p less than 0.01). The half-life was 57.4 +/- 14.2 min in control subjects vs. 114.4 +/- 19.7 min in cirrhotic patients (p = 0.054). Volume of distribution was not different in the two groups (0.718 +/- 0.1 L/kg in control subjects; 0.716 +/- 0.158 L/kg in cirrhotic patients, p greater than 0.99). No correlation was seen between colchicine clearance and bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time or Child-Pugh classification, but this may be the result of the small number of patients studied. Based on the values measured, it is estimated that colchicine steady state would change from an average 1.12 ng/ml in normal individuals to 2.82 ng/ml in the cirrhotic patients if 0.6 mg were taken every 12 hr. It is unknown whether this change would be clinically significant. These data show that cirrhosis impairs colchicine clearance and demonstrates that the liver is a major route of colchicine elimination.

  5. Selective Depletion of Eosinophils or Neutrophils in Mice Impacts the Efficiency of Apoptotic Cell Clearance in the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Alonzo, Eric S.; Dorothee, Guillaume; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Sant'Angelo, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Developing thymocytes undergo a rigorous selection process to ensure that the mature T cell population expresses a T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire that can functionally interact with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). Over 90% of thymocytes fail this selection process and die. A small number of macrophages within the thymus are responsible for clearing the large number of dying thymocytes that must be continuously cleared. We studied the capacity of thymic macrophages to clear apoptotic cells under acute circumstances. This was done by synchronously inducing cell death in the thymus and then monitoring the clearance of apoptotic thymocytes. Interestingly, acute cell death was shown to recruit large numbers of CD11b+ cells into the thymus. In the absence of a minor CSF-1 dependent population of macrophages, the recruitment of these CD11b+ cells into the thymus was greatly reduced and the clearance of apoptotic cells was disrupted. To assess a possible role for the CD11b+ cells in the clearance of apoptotic cells, we analyzed mice deficient for eosinophils and mice with defective trafficking of neutrophils. Failure to attract either eosinophils or neutrophils to the thymus resulted in the impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. These results suggested that there is crosstalk between cells of the innate immune system that is necessary for maximizing the efficiency of apoptotic cell removal. PMID:20625428

  6. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  7. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  8. Active clearance control system for a turbomachine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Knapp, M. H.; Coulson, C. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An axial compressor is provided with a cooling air manifold surrounding a portion of the shroud, and means for bleeding air from the compressor to the manifold for selectively flowing it in a modulating manner axially along the outer side of the stator/shroud to cool and shrink it during steady state operating conditions so as to obtain minimum shroud/rotor clearance conditions. Provision is also made to selectively divert the flow of cooling air from the manifold during transient periods of operation so as to alter the thermal growth or shrink rate of the stator/shroud and result in adequate clearance with the compressor rotor.

  9. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  10. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  11. Where people die.

    PubMed

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources.

  12. Prediction of hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance and human clearance values for drugs.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Katarina; Agababa, Danica

    2009-10-01

    Twenty-nine drugs of different structures were used in theoretical QSAR analysis of human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2) and in vitro CL'(int)) and whole body clearance (CL(blood)). The examined compounds demonstrated a wide range of scaled intrinsic clearance values. Constitutional, geometrical, physico-chemical and electronic descriptors were computed for the examined structures by use of the Marvin Sketch 5.1.3_2, the Chem3D Ultra 7.0.0 and the Dragon 5.4 program. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2)). Optimal QSAR models with nine and ten variables, R(2)>0.808 and cross-validation parameter q(pre)(2)>0.623, were selected and compared. Since the microsomal in vitro T(1/2) data can be used for calculation of in vitro CL'(int) and in vivo CL(blood), the developed QSAR model will enable one to analyze the kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in term of intrinsic clearance and whole body clearance. A comparison is made between predictions produced from the QSAR analysis and experimental data, and there appears to be generally satisfactory correlations with the literature values for intrinsic clearance data. PMID:19713138

  13. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  14. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function. PMID:6167484

  15. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this...); where the full investigative coverage cannot be completed, a counterintelligence scope...

  16. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  17. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  20. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., separated from DoD civilian employment, has no further official relationship with DoD, official action has... individual's relationship with DoD exists greater than 24 months and/or, the need for regular access to... Component may issue an interim clearance to personnel under their administrative jurisdiction pending...

  1. Waste Segregation Based on Derived Clearance Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Garisto, N.C.; Parhizgari, Z.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a radiological modeling in support of an application to release very low level radiologically contaminated waste from regulatory control and allow its haulage and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The Canadian regulatory body responsible for licensing operations involving nuclear materials (the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission), has not yet formally defined clearance levels for free release of low level radiologically contaminated waste. The IAEA clearance levels have been derived for certain situations and receptor characteristics, which might be too conservative for an actual case. A site-specific pathways analysis was therefore completed to define conditional clearance levels using the concept of de minimis dose limit. Derived Conditional Clearance Levels were calculated for each radionuclide based on the maximally exposed hypothetical individuals to determine whether each waste stream can be 'cleared' from regulatory controls. The results showed that haulage of the waste from the station to the haulage/processing facility and transportation of waste or sludge from the haulage/processing facility to the disposal facility, handling of the waste or sludge at the haulage/processing facility, and incineration and/or disposal of waste or sludge at the disposal facility would not expose the workers to doses above 0.1 {mu}Sv/yr., which is less than the de minimis dose limit of 10 {mu}Sv/yr. (authors)

  2. Mediators and mucociliary clearance in asthma.

    PubMed

    Pavia, D; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Clarke, S W

    1987-01-01

    Lung mucociliary clearance is significantly reduced in asthmatic patients compared to healthy controls even during clinical remission. Further retardation in mucous clearance occurs during sleep per se and this may be a contributing factor to nocturnal asthma. Chemical mediators of anaphylaxis appear to have various and, sometimes opposing effects on the two essential components for mucociliary clearance, namely cilia and mucus. Some mediators such as leukotrienes C4 and D4 are potent secretagogues and histamine increases the water flux into the lumen of the airways from the mucosa. Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) reduces mucus transport whereas histamine enhances it. Ciliostimulation has been reported following allergen challenge and this contrasts with the cilioinhibitory effect of asthmatics' sputa. It appears however, that the net effect of the various chemicals of anaphylaxis is one of impairment of mucus clearance. Some pharmacological agents, used for the relief of bronchospasm and control of asthma, also stimulate mucociliary transport, a desirable additional effect. PMID:3311245

  3. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... cleared personnel. (7) To food service personnel, vendors and similar commercial sales or...

  4. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  5. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  6. Dying and multiplying life.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David

    2014-09-01

    It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

  7. The Dying Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    1993-05-01

    The 85-foot telescope's dying day was part of a week of memorably unusual weather---which, in turn, was part of a memorable winter in California (and elsewhere!). On this day, it spent several hours finishing a months-long, apparently successful observation of Zeeman splitting of the 18-cm OH lines in absorption against the Galactic center continuum source Sgr A. Later, it continued a survey of weak diffuse radio recombination lines near the Galactic plane---observations that were interrupted by strong winds, which made the telescope move to the stow position. We know the rest. Had the telescope not been destroyed, it would have been reconfigured the following day to observe the 21-cm line. It would have continued an ongoing survey of interstellar magnetic fields using Zeeman splitting of the 21-cm line. It would have begun a search for broad, weak line wings, which had been previously discovered in association with supernova remnants. It would have been involved in a number of H I mapping projects. And it would have continued its measurements of diffuse radio recombination lines. Had it not been for the inclement weather, the weekend would have seen it being used in laboratory exercises for undergraduates at UC Berkeley.

  8. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  9. 75 FR 70341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security..._Submission@omb.eop.gov . (SSA), Social Security Administration, DCBFM, Attn: Reports Clearance Officer,...

  10. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  11. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  12. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  13. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  14. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB. PMID:6166815

  15. WWW-based data entry for document clearance requests

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiak, D.M.

    1997-10-08

    All documents created at Argonne must be cleared before being published. The clearance process is coordinated by the Publications and Record Services. The Electronic Document Review and Clearance System (EDRC) consists of a Web-based system for submission of clearance requests, an electronic staging area for document awaiting review, and Web-based review and clearance of documents. This report covers the document clearing process, the EDRC system, expected benefits/costs, and a demonstration.

  16. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  17. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  18. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  20. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  3. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  5. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  7. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  8. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  10. Wear analysis of revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, ZhengFeng; Zhao, Yang; Wang, XingGui

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the prediction of wear for revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems is investigated using a computational methodology. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a new hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The dynamics model of multibody system with clearance is established using dynamic segmentation modeling method and the computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint in multibody systems is presented. The main computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint includes two steps, which are dynamics analysis and wear analysis. The dynamics simulation of multibody system with revolute clearance joint is carried out and the contact forces are drawn and used to calculate the wear amount of revolute clearance joint based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, a four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the simulation and show the dynamics responses and wear characteristics of multibody systems with revolute clearance joint. The main results of this work indicate that the contact between the joint elements is wider and more frequent in some specific regions and the wear phenomenon is not regular around the joint surface, which causes the clearance size increase non-regularly after clearance joint wear. This work presents an effective method to predict wear of revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems.

  11. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  12. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  13. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer identified in 48 CFR 45... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  14. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  15. 75 FR 37518 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security...@ssa.gov . SSA submitted the information collection below to OMB for Emergency Clearance. SSA is requesting Emergency Clearance from OMB no later than July 6, 2010. Individuals can obtain copies of...

  16. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  17. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  18. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  19. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  20. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for clearance. 4.61 Section 4.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.61 Requirements for clearance....

  1. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title... borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title...

  2. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69... ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a) Easements Costing in Excess of $1,000. Curative action and clearance of title...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  5. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  6. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  8. Oxidative burst and neutrophil elastase contribute to clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Steve; Weber, Michael; Stein, Pamela; Bosmann, Markus; Stassen, Michael; Kreft, Andreas; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P

    2014-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are important for the control of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major threat to immunocompromised individuals. For clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus infections, PMN employ their potent oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. To clarify the relative contribution of these mechanisms, we analyzed p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) and elastase (ELA) deficient mice (ELANE) after intratracheal infection with A. fumigatus. Infected p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) mice died within 4 days and had a significant higher fungal burden in the lungs compared to wild-type controls. Interestingly, the survival of ELANE mice after infection was unimpaired suggesting that ELA is not essential here. Nevertheless, A. fumigatus clearance was delayed in ELANE mice indicating a partial contribution of ELA to fungal immunity. Comparing p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) or ELANE mice for PMN activation and recruitment to the lungs, we were unable to detect significant differences in vitro or in vivo among mutant or wild-type strains suggesting intact PMN functionality of basic effector mechanisms. Fungal killing in vitro by ELA deficient PMN was comparably reduced as in p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) deficient PMN corroborating the importance of oxidative and non-oxidative PMN mechanisms for the control of fungal outgrowth. Taken together, this suggests that intact oxidative as well as non-oxidative PMN effector functions are highly relevant for the control of A. fumigatus infections in vitro and in vivo. While ELA contributes to clearance of A. fumigatus, the oxidative functions are essential for survival.

  9. Vessel-associated myogenic precursors control macrophage activation and clearance of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Bosurgi, L; Brunelli, S; Rigamonti, E; Monno, A; Manfredi, A A; Rovere-Querini, P

    2015-01-01

    Swift and regulated clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the accumulation of cell remnants in injured tissues and contributes to the shift of macrophages towards alternatively activated reparatory cells that sustain wound healing. Environmental signals, most of which are unknown, in turn control the efficiency of the clearance of apoptotic cells and as such determine whether tissues eventually heal. In this study we show that vessel-associated stem cells (mesoangioblasts) specifically modulate the expression of genes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and in macrophage alternative activation, including those of scavenger receptors and of molecules that bridge dying cells and phagocytes. Mesoangioblasts, but not immortalized myoblasts or neural precursor cells, enhance CD163 membrane expression in vitro as assessed by flow cytometry, indicating that the effect is specific. Mesoangioblasts transplanted in acutely or chronically injured skeletal muscles determine the expansion of the population of CD163(+) infiltrating macrophages and increase the extent of CD163 expression. Conversely, macrophages challenged with mesoangioblasts engulf significantly better apoptotic cells in vitro. Collectively, the data reveal a feed-forward loop between macrophages and vessel-associated stem cells, which has implications for the skeletal muscle homeostatic response to sterile injury and for diseases in which homeostasis is jeopardized, including muscle dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. PMID:24749786

  10. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  11. Market Mechanism for Line Congestion Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes a mechanism for clearance of line congestion and power flow control in a deregulated market environment. The mechanism applies penalties to the bilateral transactions that cause line congestion by increasing the prices of such transactions. The market regulates itself by redefining the transactions and checking again for violations, applying penalties if necessary and repeating the process until all the demand is satisfied without causing line congestion to the system. A bilateral transaction matrix (BTM) creation algorithm developed by the authors and a DC power flow program are integrated as parts of the market mechanism proposed in this paper. The congestion is cleared by the market participants when they reschedule their transactions. This mechanism is useful to study the effects of bilateral transactions on a power system and helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to create rules and market mechanisms for line congestion clearance and power flow control.

  12. Airway clearance therapy: finding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Volsko, Teresa A

    2013-10-01

    Disease processes can impair ciliary function, alter secretion production and mucus rheology, and interfere with the cough reflex. Airway clearance therapy has been a cornerstone of therapy aimed at minimizing the devastating effects of airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation due to mucus stasis on the conducting airways and lung parenchyma. Although challenges to performing clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of airway clearance therapeutic modalities exist, resources are available in the literature. In addition to device evaluations and original clinical research, the expert opinion, systematic reviews, and evidence-based practice guidelines can be found. These tools can be used to develop protocols and pathways to guide our practice. Monitoring and reporting patient, process, and financial outcomes are essential steps germane to the implementation of evidence-based care.

  13. Autophagy promotes DNA-protein crosslink clearance.

    PubMed

    Mu, Haibo; Liu, Qianjin; Niu, Hong; Wang, Dongdong; Tang, Jiangjiang; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-02-01

    Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) can result from exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. DPCs can also accumulate during aging or stress. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying clearance of DPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we have identified an important role of autophagy in the processing of DPCs induced by three representative agents: formaldehyde, a chemical used widely in industry; UV light; and camptothecin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ), promoted the accumulation of DPCs in damaged cells and injured organs. siRNA-mediated silencing of Atg5 or Atg7, two essential components for the formation of the autophagosome, gave similar results. In contrast, the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) attenuated DPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal the importance of autophagy in controlling the level of DPCs, and may open up a new avenue for understanding the formation and clearance of this detrimental DNA adduct. PMID:26921017

  14. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  15. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  16. Improving care of dying children.

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, I M

    1995-01-01

    Every year about 5,000 children aged 0 to 14 years need hospice care in the United States. Children seem to know that they are dying, although this is difficult for parents to accept. Clear, empathic understanding is needed. Communication with clarity and understanding is imperative with the changes in goals from cure to palliation to comfort. The ideal place for most dying children is at home, where symptoms can be managed as effectively as in a hospital. PMID:7571589

  17. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  18. Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.

  19. Dying at the best time.

    PubMed

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1995-03-01

    These are the results of two surveys of relatives, and others who knew people who had died, describing events in the year before death and their views on the time of the person's death. Those surveyed were identified from death certificates in England. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. Variation in peoples' views about whether an earlier death would have been better is reported, in the context of debate about euthanasia. Spouses were less likely than others to feel that it would have been better if the person had died earlier, and this held true even when controlling for the deceaseds' levels of pain, distress, dependency and age. Spouses were more likely than others to say that a later death would have been better, though not in cases where the deceased was reported as having said they wanted to die sooner. Spouses were influenced by the loss which the death of the person represented for them, being more likely than others to say they missed the person who died a great deal, and feel loneliness was a big problem. Non spouses (children and other relatives of the deceased, friends, neighbours and a few officials) on the other hand were more likely than spouses to say an earlier death would have been better, even when levels of pain, distress, dependency and age were controlled for.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-11-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  1. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  2. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K

    1981-05-30

    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  3. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  4. Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance.

    PubMed

    Matsunga, S K; Plezia, P M; Karol, M D; Katz, M D; Camilli, A E; Benowitz, N L

    1989-10-01

    Theophylline disposition was examined in seven passive smokers, defined as nonsmokers with long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, and seven age-matched nonsmokers with minimal smoke exposure. Subjects were given an intravenous infusion of aminophylline (6 mg/kg) and blood samples were drawn before and during the 48-hour postinfusion period. Clearance for passive smokers was 6.01 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg and for nonsmokers, clearance was 4.09 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg (p less than 0.025). Terminal elimination half-life for passive smokers was 6.93 hours versus 8.69 hours for nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). The mean residence time for passive smokers was 9.89 hours. For nonsmokers, the mean residence time was 13.11 hours (p less than 0.05). These measurements were statistically different, whereas there was no difference in volume of distribution between the groups, suggesting that passive smokers metabolize theophylline more rapidly than nonsmokers. Plasma and urine cotinine and nicotine concentrations were measured in all subjects. There was a significant difference between the subject groups in plasma (p less than 0.004) and urine (p less than 0.002) cotinine concentrations. Theophylline clearance correlated with both plasma (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01) and urine (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01) cotinine concentrations. Additional studies should be conducted to further define the pharmacokinetic characteristics of passive smokers and to assess the effects of passive smoking on drugs metabolized by the mixed function oxidase system. PMID:2791443

  5. Lithium clearance in mineralocorticoid escape in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, W.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Mees, E.J.D.

    1987-03-01

    Lithium clearance (C/sub Li/) has been advanced as an indicator of Na delivery from the proximal tubules. The authors studied C/sub Li/ in eight healthy males before and after mineralocorticoid escape, a maneuver that may induce suppression of fractional proximal Na reabsorption (FPR/sub Na/). FPR/sub Na/ was also estimated from changes in maximal free water clearance (C/sub H/sub 2/O/). Plasma volume was measured as the /sup 131/I-labeled albumin distribution space. Extracellular fluid volume was estimated as the /sup 82/Br vector distribution volume. According to the latter method, FPR/sub Na/ dropped whereas inulin clearance rose. The changes in C/sub Li/ were surprisingly large. If lithium is a valid marker of Na handling in the proximal tubule in humans, this change would imply a fall in FPR/sub Na/, suggesting a much larger shift in tubular Na reabsorption in escape than hitherto suspected. In addition, it would suggest that the inevitable back diffusion of a part of the solute-free water in the distal nephron, and thus overestimation of FPR/sub Na/ by the C/sub H/sub 2/O/ method, increases importantly during escape. Alternately, lithium may not be a good marker of proximal tubular Na handling. For instance, both lithium reabsorption and escape may take place beyond the proximal tubule, or lithium may be excreted in the distal nephron in certain conditions. Present methods do not permit further analysis of these options in the human model.

  6. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  7. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level. PMID:402305

  8. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  9. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it.

  10. On dying and human suffering.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, A

    2009-07-01

    This review compares and contrasts the major reoccurring themes in two sources of research literature - social studies of dying and human suffering. The purpose of such a comparison is to employ the major insights of each field as a useful method of critically evaluating the insights of the other. Critical exchanges and comparisons between the research area of dying studies and on human suffering have been modest to date. This article will explain that the experience of dying benefits from being situated and analysed in a broader context of cultural experience, as suggested by the theory and study of human suffering. Conversely, the theory and methods involved in studies of human suffering can gain from a mortal view of vulnerability, grief, social ambiguity and identity changes characteristic of experiences at the end of life.

  11. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-09-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts.

  12. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  13. Care of the Dying Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Faye

    1979-01-01

    This is a description of the obstacles encountered in the management of one 17 year old patient dying with malignant melanoma. Various areas are seen to contribute to the difficulties including the “health care system” (specifically the hospital environment), the patient himself, his family, his disease and its treatment, and his physician(s). An increased awareness of the difficulties would be helpful to those of us not frequently encountering the responsibility of caring for a dying adolescent. The details have been left vague or slightly changed in this real case to respect the privacy of those involved. PMID:21297759

  14. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  15. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  16. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  17. Mucociliary clearance following segmental tracheal reversal.

    PubMed

    Delaere, P R; Liu, Z; Delanghe, G; Gyselen, K; Jorissen, M; Feenstra, L

    1996-04-01

    Ciliated tracheal epithelium is arranged in a polarized pattern oriented according to the inferior-superior axis of the trachea and is responsible for the transport of mucus toward the larynx. In this study, ciliary beat orientation and the influence of external factors on mucociliary clearance direction were studied in rabbit inverted cervical tracheas. The animals displayed normal respiration postoperatively. After 16 weeks, airway clearance was studied by observation of the movement of silicone particles placed in the inverted segment and in normal parts of the ciliated epithelium. Cilia exhibited unidirectional and coordinated movement within inverted tracheal segments. As shown by the direction of effective flow produced by beating cilia and by scanning electron microscopy, the cilia in the inverted segment beat in the opposite direction from the cilia in the remainder of the trachea. This study demonstrated that ciliary orientation is irreversibly determined, but the reversal of ciliary beating within the cervical trachea had no adverse effects on the survival of the animals.

  18. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  19. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with (3H)choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day.

  20. Renal Clearance of Mineral Metabolism Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Rhee, Eugene P; Elmariah, Sammy; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    CKD leads to disturbances in multiple interrelated hormones that regulate bone and mineral metabolism. The renal handling of mineral metabolism hormones in humans is incompletely understood. We determined the single-pass renal clearance of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D metabolites, and phosphate from paired blood samples collected from the abdominal aorta and renal vein in 17 participants undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catheterization and estimated associations of eGFR with the renal elimination of metabolites. The mean age ±SD of the study population was 71.4±10.0 years and 11 participants (65%) were male. We found a relatively large mean±SD single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone (44.2%±10.3%) that exceeded the extraction of creatinine (22.1%±7.9%). The proportionate renal extraction of parathyroid hormone correlated with eGFR. The renal extraction of fibroblast growth factor 23 was, on average, lower than that of parathyroid hormone with greater variability across individuals (17.1%±19.5%). There were no differences in the mean concentrations of vitamin D metabolites across the renal vein and artery. In summary, we demonstrate substantial single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. Impaired renal clearance of parathyroid hormone may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.

  1. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  2. ESR measurement of radical clearance in lung of whole mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Utsumi, H.; Hamada, A. )

    1991-06-14

    Clearance of the nitroxide radicals, hydroxy-TEMPO and carboxy-PROxYL, in whole-mouse lung was directly measured by in vivo ESR. After injecting a nitroxide radical, distribution of the nitroxide radical all over the lung was confirmed by ESR imaging. The ESR signal of hydroxy-TEMPO was reduced in the lung and the clearance obeyed first-order kinetics, whereas the signal of carboxy-PROxYL remained constant. Comparison of the clearance rates of live and dead mice indicated the presence of 2 different clearance systems in the lung: loss of its paramagnetism in the lung, and transfer from alveolar to the blood circulation system.

  3. A good way to die.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2016-03-23

    An end of life care service is providing joined-up care for patients. Care co-ordinators arrange packages of care so patients can die in the place of their choice – often at home. The result is high satisfaction rates among patients, families and staff.

  4. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  5. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  6. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  7. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Clohessy, Penelope; Polis, Suzanne; Post, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to be unlikely in pregnancy due to the relative immunosuppression and increase in viraemia that occurs. We report the first case of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurring in pregnancy. PMID:27757149

  8. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  9. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  10. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  11. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  12. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  13. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  14. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  15. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  16. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  17. Land clearance in the irish neolithic: new evidence and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J R; Smith, A G; Pearson, G W; Crowder, A

    1971-05-01

    Time scales are derived, from radiocarbon dating of pollen diagrams, for Neolithic land clearance at three Irish sites. Three stages are distinguished beginning in the 4th millennium B.C.: stage A, clearance and farming (possibly arable), 100 to 400 years; stage B, farming (possibly pastoral), 150 to 200 years; and stage C, forest regeneration, 50 to 100 years.

  18. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  19. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary...

  20. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  1. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  2. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  3. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  4. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  5. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  6. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  7. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  8. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  9. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  10. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  11. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  12. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  13. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe...

  14. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance function. 945.670-1 Section 945.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  15. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  16. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  17. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  18. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  19. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  20. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  1. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  2. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  3. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305 Section 3285.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance...

  5. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  6. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  7. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  8. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  9. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  10. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  11. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  12. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  13. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  14. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  15. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  16. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  17. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  18. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  19. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  20. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  1. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  2. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  3. Do dialysate conductivity measurements provide conductivity clearance or ionic dialysance?

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, T

    2006-11-01

    Dialysate conductivity measurements allow on-line estimation of urea clearance during hemodialysis session. Conductivity measurements provide a value of 'conductivity clearance' for some authors, but a value of 'ionic dialysance' for others. This paper aims at explaining which term should be the more appropriate. Clearance is a parameter defined for measuring the power of a mechanism, which aims at 'clearing' a solution by depurating some solutes. In hemodialysis, clearance measures the efficacy of patient's depuration. In contrast, dialysance measures the capability of transferring solutes between blood and dialysate. The conventional definition of dialysance, requiring the absence of convective transfer, should be generalized to the case of the usual presence of ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. For a solute (as urea) absent from the dialysate delivered to the dialyzer inlet, the clearance is equal to its dialysance. In order to avoid a dramatic fall in ionic concentrations during hemodialysis treatment, the clearance of ions is reduced by adding these ions in the dialysate and becomes lower than their dialysance. Conductivity measurements provide a value of electrolytes dialysance. Thus the term of 'ionic dialysance' is more appropriate than the term of 'conductivity clearance'. Nevertheless ionic dialysance represents a good estimation of urea clearance.

  4. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Collet, Séverine H. Picard-Hagen, Nicole Lacroix, Marlène Z. Puel, Sylvie Viguié, Catherine Bousquet-Melou, Alain Toutain, Pierre-Louis Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  5. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  6. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  7. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  8. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  9. The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

  10. Predicting clearance in humans from in vitro data.

    PubMed

    Obach, R Scott

    2011-01-01

    The use of in vitro metabolism in scaling to predict human clearance of new chemical entities has become a commonplace activity in the research and development of new drugs. The measurement of in vitro lability in human liver microsomes, a rich source of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, has become a high throughput screen in many research organizations which is a testament to its usefulness in drug design. In this chapter, the methods used to scale in vitro clearance data to predict in vivo clearance are described. Importantly, the numerous assumptions that are required in order to use in vitro data in this manner are laid out. These include assumptions regarding the scaling process as well as technical aspects of the generation of the in vitro data. Finally, some other drug clearance processes that have been emerging as important are described with regard to ongoing research efforts to develop clearance prediction methods.

  11. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing. PMID:25080714

  12. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  13. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  14. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  15. 78 FR 40729 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Washington... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery Abstract: The...

  16. Jewish tradition in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Ross, H M

    1998-10-01

    Death is often a spiritually difficult time for the dying and their families. Judaism approaches dying with some unique views that can differ from other religious traditions. Through an understanding of Jewish tradition, nurses can ease the dying process for Jewish patients and their families.

  17. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  18. D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1994-02-23

    This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z

  19. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  20. Radioaerosol lung clearance in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.P.; Baughman, R.P.; Hughes, J.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.

    1985-05-01

    Pulmonary radioaerosol clearance rate of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in 14 patients with untreated sarcoidosis was compared with /sup 67/Ga lung scan and increased lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Nine healthy nonsmoking subjects had a mean DTPA clearance rate of 1.18%/min (range, 0.54 to 1.60%/min). Eight of 14 patients with sarcoidosis had clearance rates greater than 1.60%/min. Of those 8 patients with abnormal DTPA clearance, 4 had positive gallium scans, 4 had more than 17% lymphocytes in the BAL fluid, and 3 had both tests positive. To study the cause of abnormal DTPA clearance, 23 subjects (including 3 normal controls, all 14 patients with sarcoidosis, and 6 patients with localized disease on chest roentgenogram) underwent both DTPA clearance studies and BAL for quantitation of the amount of albumin in lung fluid. There was a positive correlation between the rate of DTPA clearance and the albumin concentration in lung fluid (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01).

  1. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  2. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  3. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  4. Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K

    1984-03-01

    The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally.

  5. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-06-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects.

  6. Toward a Fast-Response Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Kypuros, Javier A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, technologies developed for clearance control can benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first portion of the paper addresses the research from a programmatic viewpoint. Recent studies that provide motivation for the work, identification of key technologies, and NASA's plan for addressing deficiencies in the technologies are discussed. The later portion of the paper drills down into one of the key technologies by presenting equations and results for a preliminary dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena.

  7. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. PMID:26070577

  8. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  9. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance.

  10. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Lawrence; Christophi, Christopher; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Starkey, Graham; Goodwin, Mark; Weinberg, Laurence; Ho, Loretta

    2015-01-01

    Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater) were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9). Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level. PMID:26106254

  11. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C. )

    1989-09-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume (1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area) approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine.

  12. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  13. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  14. Further Characterization of an Active Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    A new test chamber and precision hydraulic actuation system were incorporated into an active clearance control (ACC) test rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. Using the improved system, a fast-acting, mechanically-actuated, ACC concept was evaluated at engine simulated temperatures and pressure differentials up to 1140 F and 120 psig, on the basis of secondary seal leakage and kinematic controllability. During testing, the ACC concept tracked a simulated flight clearance transient profile at 1140 F, 120 psig, with a maximum error of only 0.0012 in. Comparison of average dynamic leakage of the system with average static leakage did not show significant differences between the two operating conditions. Calculated effective clearance values for the rig were approximately 0.0002 in. at 120 psig, well below the industry specified effective clearance threshold of 0.001 in.

  15. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  16. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... Defense requirements, the appropriate DE will obtain a certificate as to the extent of contamination...

  17. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  18. Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Alphavirus Infection from Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Beth; Hardwick, J. Marie; Trapp, Bruce D.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Griffin, Diane E.

    1991-11-01

    Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression.

  19. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A

    1979-01-01

    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  20. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  1. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  2. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  3. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G.

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  4. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  5. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  6. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  7. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  8. 54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, AND CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT FOR RAILROAD SPUR. c.1898 (AKZO No. A-3) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

  9. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

  10. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  11. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  12. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  13. Calculation of tip clearance effects in a transonic compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1996-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concerning the use of the simple clearance model. Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computer results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  14. Calculation of Tip Clearance Effects in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1998-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concern- ing the use of the simple clearance model Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computed results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  15. Long-term clearance from small airways decreases with age.

    PubMed

    Svartengren, M; Falk, R; Philipson, K

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increases with age. Age has been found to be negatively associated with large airway clearance. The small airways region is considered important for development of airway disease. Clearance after the first 24 h was studied in 46 healthy subjects with a wide age distribution, (mean 42, range 19-81 yrs). All subjects inhaled monodisperse 6 microm Teflon particles labelled with 111In, with an extremely slow inhalation flow (0.05 L.s-1). The particles were mainly deposited in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured at 0 and 24 h, and at 7, 14 and 21 days after inhalation. Significant relationships were found for the individual 24 h "large" airway clearance in per cent of initial lung deposition with age, forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity. Age was negatively associated with "small" airway clearance after 24 h as estimated at 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. Using stepwise linear regression only age remained significantly associated to clearance. In conclusion, small airway clearance over 21 days was found to decrease with age. This might be one factor associated with the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms associated among the elderly.

  16. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  18. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert C.; Shul, Randy J.; Clews, Peggy J.; Baker, Michael S.; De Boer, Maarten P.

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  19. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  20. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  1. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  2. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ((51Cr)EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((99mTc) DTPA), /sup 111/In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((/sup 111/In)DTPA), /sup 67/Ga desferoxaminemesylate ((/sup 67/Ga)DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ((/sup 99m/Tc)DX) and /sup 111/In transferrin ((/sup 111/In)TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), (/sup 111/In)DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), (/sup 67/Ga) DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and (/sup 99m/Tc)DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer.

  3. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  4. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, P.J. ); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  5. TREM2 deficiency reduces the efficacy of immunotherapeutic amyloid clearance.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xianyuan; Werner, Georg; Bohrmann, Bernd; Liesz, Arthur; Mazaheri, Fargol; Capell, Anja; Feederle, Regina; Knuesel, Irene; Kleinberger, Gernot; Haass, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches are currently the most advanced treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) bind to amyloid plaques and induce their clearance by microglia via Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Dysfunctions of microglia may play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis and could result in reduced efficacy of antibody-mediated Aβ clearance. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), a microglial gene involved in phagocytosis, were genetically linked to late onset AD Loss of TREM2 reduces the ability of microglia to engulf Aβ. We have now investigated whether loss of TREM2 affects the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. We show that anti-Aβ antibodies stimulate Aβ uptake and amyloid plaque clearance in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of TREM2. However, TREM2-deficient N9 microglial cell lines, macrophages as well as primary microglia showed significantly reduced uptake of antibody-bound Aβ and as a consequence reduced clearance of amyloid plaques. Titration experiments revealed that reduced efficacy of amyloid plaque clearance by Trem2 knockout cells can be compensated by elevating the concentration of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:27402340

  6. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  7. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  8. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  9. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  10. Assisted dying: a review of international legislation.

    PubMed

    Field, Charlotte; Curtice, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The issue of assisted dying in the UK is increasingly receiving media and academic journal attention. Such reporting often cites, but in little depth, existing legislation in other countries. Such international legislation may also shape future UK assisted dying legislation. PMID:19451872

  11. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  12. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  13. Dying to go to school.

    PubMed

    Shearar, A

    1997-01-01

    In southern Sudan, the recent war sparked a mass migration of boys aged 5-18 who traveled through perilous terrain to the borders of Ethiopia in search of promised security and schooling. Thousands of these children died from hardships suffered in the wild, from the inadvertent or deliberate attacks of warriors, from hunger, from thirst, or from disease. Those who endured the hardships and arrived at their destination were shocked to find only military training centers or rudimentary schooling for those who were too weak or too young to be trained for battle. Eventually, the refugees were forced back into Sudan, and today about 20,000 of these unaccompanied children are displaced. Several nongovernmental organizations are running family reunification projects, and follow-up activities carried out among the reunified children reveal that they carry the scars of their trauma. The drawings the children produce as art therapy usually include the image of a young child holding a school book. While these children have a constant struggle with their memories, those who have not returned home or who have lost their families to war or disease are even more forlorn. As food rations have been halved in the refugee camps, many children are pursuing any possible alternative living arrangement. Some attempt to travel to South Africa or Egypt and some join an army in an effort to overcome the desperation of their present situation. PMID:12294200

  14. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  15. Impaired lipid clearance in patients with previous acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, S; Nervi, F; Llanos, O; León, P; Valdivieso, V

    1985-01-01

    Fasting serum triglycerides were measured in 52 patients who had sustained an attack of pancreatitis (gall stone related 33, alcoholism six) at least six months earlier. Several patients (23%) had raised fasting serum triglycerides, with a type IV phenotype in all but one patient. The 40 patients with normal fasting serum triglycerides received an oral load of 100 g sunflower oil to compare their clearance of dietary triglycerides with that of a control group of 54 subjects. The clearance of ingested triglycerides was significantly impaired in the patients - irrespective of the presumed aetiological factor, or clinical condition associated with pancreatitis - compared with the clearance in controls. A triglyceride tolerance test is the only way to detect those patients in whom a future attack of pancreatitis may be precipitated by a diet rich in fat, or endogenous over production of triglycerides as after an alcoholic debauch. PMID:4029716

  16. Tumor Presence Induces Global Immune Changes and Enhances Nanoparticle Clearance.

    PubMed

    Kai, Marc P; Brighton, Hailey E; Fromen, Catherine A; Shen, Tammy W; Luft, J Christopher; Luft, Yancey E; Keeler, Amanda W; Robbins, Gregory R; Ting, Jenny P Y; Zamboni, William C; Bear, James E; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-01-26

    Long-circulating nanoparticles are essential for increasing tumor accumulation to provide therapeutic efficacy. While it is known that tumor presence can alter the immune system, very few studies have explored this impact on nanoparticle circulation. In this report, we demonstrate how the presence of a tumor can change the local and global immune system, which dramatically increases particle clearance. We found that tumor presence significantly increased clearance of PRINT hydrogel nanoparticles from the circulation, resulting in increased accumulation in the liver and spleen, due to an increase in M2-like macrophages. Our findings highlight the need to better understand interactions between immune status and nanoparticle clearance, and suggest that further consideration of immune function is required for success in preclinical and clinical nanoparticle studies.

  17. Inefficient clearance of myelin debris by microglia impairs remyelinating processes

    PubMed Central

    Lampron, Antoine; Larochelle, Antoine; Laflamme, Nathalie; Préfontaine, Paul; Plante, Marie-Michèle; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Yong, V. Wee; Stys, Peter K.; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between remyelinating and demyelinating rates underlies degenerative processes in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. An optimal therapeutic strategy would be to stimulate remyelination while limiting demyelination. Although accumulation of myelin debris impairs remyelination, the mechanisms regulating the clearance of such debris by mononuclear phagocytic cells are poorly understood. We demonstrate that after cuprizone intoxication, CCR2-dependent infiltration of mouse bone marrow–derived cells is abundant in demyelinating areas, but that these cells do not impact demyelination. However, in CX3CR1-deficient mice, the clearance of myelin debris by microglia was blocked greatly, affecting the integrity of the axon and myelin sheaths and thus preventing proper remyelination. These results highlight the crucial role played by CX3CR1 in myelin removal and show that there can be no efficient remyelination after a primary demyelinating insult if myelin clearance by microglia is impaired. PMID:25779633

  18. Improving mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Angshu; Chahal, Kamaljeet; Austin, Gillian; Chakravorty, Indranil

    2009-04-01

    Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of life (HRQL). Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. This review examines the current evidence base and best clinical practice in the area of airway clearance. Mechanical devices such as the flutter valves, positive end expiratory pressure and high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may be able to provide the benefits of improved airway clearance in the patient's home potentially with reduced demands on healthcare resources.

  19. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades. PMID:16642064

  20. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  1. Effects of desipramine on norepinephrine clearance in congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Clemson, B.; Baily, R.G.; Davis, D.; Zelis, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) in congestive heart failure (CHF) is caused by increased NE spillover and decreased NE clearance. To evaluate the effects of neuronal uptake blockade on NE clearance, we studied NE kinetics during steady-state infusions of (3H)NE, before and after oral desipramine (DMI, 50 mg) in 11 patients with CHF and 8 normal volunteers. Baseline plasma NE was greater in the CHF group (637 +/- 56 vs. 271 +/- 32 pg/ml; P less than 0.001), NE clearance was lower in CHF (1.31 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.94 +/- 0.17 l.min-1.m-2; P = 0.026), and NE spillover was greater in CHF (4.71 +/- 0.78 vs. 3.04 +/- 0.35 nmol.min-1.m-2, P = 0.054). After DMI, plasma NE rose significantly in CHF (778 +/- 67; P = 0.008), and NE clearance decreased further in CHF (0.97 +/- 0.16; P = 0.024), but neither changed in normal subjects. NE spillover did not change in either group. There appears to be an enhanced effect of DMI on NE clearance in CHF patients. Two general mechanisms may be responsible for this finding, an increased concentration of drug, possibly caused by a decreased volume of distribution, and an increased sensitivity of neuronal amine pumps to DMI. Both mechanisms may reflect a more general abnormality of clearance of drugs and hormones related to abnormalities of tissue perfusion in CHF.

  2. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  3. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  4. Effect of atropine on oral clearance of a radiolabeled sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    LaForce, F.M.; Thompson, B.; Trow, R.

    1984-11-01

    Physical clearance is an important oral defense mechanism against gram-negative rods. The authors describe a simple technique that uses commercially available technetium-99m sulfur colloid to measure oral clearance. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was sprayed into the mouth, and clearance was measured as the percent decrease in radiolabel counts over 2 hours using a radioisotope camera. Results using this technique compared favorably with clearance data using Tc-99m radiolabeled Escherichia coli. Atropine significantly decreased oral clearance rates of the colloid. Decreased clearance may be an important risk factor in the development of gram-negative rod colonization in hospitalized patients. 15 references, 3 figures.

  5. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  6. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  7. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  8. Decreased renal clearance of digoxin in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Naafs, M A; van der Hoek, C; van Duin, S; Koorevaar, G; Schopman, W; Silberbusch, J

    1985-01-01

    Renal digoxin clearance was compared in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation with well preserved cardiac function (n = 9; salt intake +/- 170 mmol daily) and patients with chronic congestive heart failure (n = 10; salt intake 50 mmol daily and maintenance treatment with diuretics). There was no difference between the groups concerning digoxin dosage, creatinine clearance, diuresis or sodium excretion in the urine. Digoxin clearance in chronic heart failure proved to be significantly lower than in atrial fibrillation (48 +/- 21 vs 71 +/- 36 ml X min-1, p less than 0.05), and Cdig/Ccreat was similarly reduced at 0.73 +/- 0.15 compared to 1.09 +/- 0.27 (p less than 0.005). Steady state serum digoxin concentration was significantly higher in patients with congestive heart failure (1.44 +/- 0.47 vs 0.87 +/- 0.33 micrograms X 1(-1), p less than 0.01). Chronic congestive heart failure is a state with reduced digoxin clearance by the kidney, which could lead to digoxin intoxication not explicable by overdose, reduced renal function or the effect of interacting drugs. PMID:4007028

  9. 11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by "Gould." Sheet A2, No. 6365. Scale not given. August 10, 1942. "Proposal no. 318." blueline print - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  10. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices,...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330 Section 56.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices,...

  12. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-12 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS...

  13. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  14. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract. PMID:27378394

  15. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  18. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business clearance review. 801.602-76 Section 801.602-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  1. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...: Unclassified. SYSTEM LOCATION: Department of State, 301 4th St., SW., Room 750 Washington, DC 20547. CATEGORIES... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records Summary: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to...

  2. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M‑1 cm‑1 and 1.5 × 108 M‑1 cm‑1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  3. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... code for the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards Reporting System if access to nuclear..., if applicable, appointment of a Materials Control and Accountability Representative; and (7) Access... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facility clearance....

  4. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question and, secondarily, the prevention of accidents resulting from the sale and/or use of the scrap...

  5. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  6. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  7. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor personnel. 2452.237-75 Section 2452.237-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...). The Contractor shall provide the GTR with the names and Social Security numbers of all such...

  8. 77 FR 22831 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... decision at 76 FR 54700. The current information collection request (ICR) requests approval for the public... for Emergency Clearance When we originally published the banning decision rules at 76 FR 54700, the..., and other incoming documents, or to fulfill requests for reports. This would bottleneck or...

  9. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  10. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  11. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  12. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  13. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-13 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for reasons of safety of navigation, the District Commander may require or authorize the installation...

  14. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-14 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for reasons of safety of navigation, the District Commander may require or authorize the installation...

  15. The Genesis and Justification of Forms Clearance Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Joseph W.; Wallman, Katherine K.

    The central reports clearance authority of the Federal Government is a legislatively sanctioned mechanism for applying constraints on the conduct of statistical and other data gathering activities by Federal Departments and agencies and other research parties funded by Federal government contracts. General recommendations for improving the overall…

  16. Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by Gould. Sheet A2, no 6365. Scaled not given. August 10, 1942. Proposal no. 318. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Description of Petition for Rulemaking In its Petition for Rulemaking dated... meeting notice (78 FR 49543, 49544, August 14, 2013) and copy of Task 13-10, Recommendation to Establish... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft)...

  18. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    PubMed

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease. PMID:22034769

  19. Induction of bilirubin clearance by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Chua, Steven S; Qatanani, Mohammed; Han, Yunqing; Granata, Riccarda; Moore, David D

    2003-04-01

    Bilirubin clearance is one of the numerous important functions of the liver. Defects in this process result in jaundice, which is particularly common in neonates. Elevated bilirubin levels can be decreased by treatment with phenobarbital. Because the nuclear hormone receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mediates hepatic effects of this xenobiotic inducer, we hypothesized that CAR could be a regulator of bilirubin clearance. Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor CAR increases hepatic expression of each of five components of the bilirubin-clearance pathway. This induction is absent in homozygous CAR null mice but is observed in mice expressing human CAR instead of mouse CAR. Pretreatment with xenobiotic inducers markedly increases the rate of clearance of an exogenous bilirubin load in wild-type but not CAR knockout animals. Bilirubin itself can also activate CAR, and mice lacking CAR are defective in clearing chronically elevated bilirubin levels. Unexpectedly, CAR expression is very low in livers of neonatal mice and humans. We conclude that CAR directs a protective response to elevated bilirubin levels and suggest that a functional deficit of CAR activity may contribute to neonatal jaundice. PMID:12644704

  20. Seal Investigations of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Taylor, Shawn; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve upon current thermal active clearance control methods, a first generation, fast-acting mechanically actuated, active clearance control system has been designed and installed into a non-rotating test rig. In order to harvest the benefit of tighter blade tip clearances, low-leakage seals are required for the actuated carrier segments of the seal shroud to prevent excessive leakage of compressor discharge (P3) cooling air. The test rig was designed and fabricated to facilitate the evaluation of these types of seals, identify seal leakage sources, and test other active clearance control system concepts. The objective of this paper is to present both experimental and analytical investigations into the nature of the face-seal to seal-carrier interface. Finite element analyses were used to examine face seal contact pressures and edge-loading under multiple loading conditions, varied E-seal positions and two new face seal heights. The analyses indicated that moving the E-seal inward radially and reducing face seal height would lead to more uniform contact conditions between the face seal and the carriers. Lab testing confirmed that moving the balance diameter inward radially caused a decrease in overall system leakage.

  1. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  3. Influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Gao, B.; Yang, L.; Du, W. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Computing models are always simplified to save the computing resources and time. Particularly, the clearance that between impeller and pump casing is always ignored. But the completer model is, the more precise result of numerical simulation is in theory. This paper study the influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump. We present such influence via comparing performance, flow characteristic and pressure pulsation of two cases that the one of two cases is the model pump with clearance and the other is not. And the results show that the head decreases and power increases so that efficiency decreases after computing with front and back cavities. Then no-leakage model would improve absolute velocity magnitude in order to reach the rated flow rate. Finally, more disturbance induced by front cavity flow and wear-ring flow would change the pressure pulsation of impeller and volute. The performance of clearance flow is important for the whole pump in performance, flow characteristic, pressure pulsation and other respects.

  4. OMB Forms Clearance: Restrictions on Educational Research Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.

    Forms Clearance standards and regulations are used by the Office of Management and Budget and by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in order to upgrade the quality of federal data collection, to minimize cost, minimize reporting burden, maximize utility, and to protect the privacy rights of respondents.…

  5. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  6. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  7. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  8. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  9. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 14.93 or § 14.94, or penalties assessed against the importer or exporter under 50 CFR part 11. This... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53 Section 14.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  11. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  12. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING IN AND RECEIVING INFORMATION FROM THE NATIONAL DRIVER REGISTER PROBLEM DRIVER POINTER SYSTEM Pt....

  13. 19 CFR 122.158 - Other entry and clearance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other entry and clearance requirements. 122.158 Section 122.158 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.158 Other entry...

  14. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-23 Tailshaft clearance... the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is... propelling machinery is located aft, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when weardown is 1.6...

  15. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-23 Tailshaft clearance... the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is... propelling machinery is located aft, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when weardown is 1.6...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  17. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.23 Examination and clearance of baggage. (a) Articles free of duty. The... United States may examine and pass, without limitation as to value, the following articles in such baggage or otherwise accompanying such person: (1) All articles which are for the personal or...

  18. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.23 Examination and clearance of baggage. (a) Articles free of duty. The... United States may examine and pass, without limitation as to value, the following articles in such baggage or otherwise accompanying such person: (1) All articles which are for the personal or...

  19. Die Evolution des Universums. Eine Geschichte der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, H.

    This volume covers in an elementary course a historical overview on cosmology ranging from the ancient aspects up to big bang theory and the concepts of inflationary universe and grand unified theories. Contents: 1. Auf dem Wege zur Wissenschaft. 2. Die neue Kosmologie. 3. Die Struktur des Weltalls. 4. Dramatik im Weltall. 5. Die endliche Welt. 6. Die Evolution des frühen Universums. 7. Die Zukunft. 8. Die neue Teleologie. 9. Das Leben.

  20. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-03-19

    Before researchers apply nanomaterials (NMs) in biomedicine, they need to understand the blood circulation and clearance profile of these materials in vivo. These qualities determine the balance between nanomaterial-induced activity and unwanted toxicity. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics: they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and their highly active contact interfaces exhibit diverse functionalities. Any new and unexpected circulation features and clearance patterns are of great concern in toxicological studies and pharmaceutical screens. A number of studies have reported that NMs can enter the bloodstream directly during their application or indirectly via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Due to the small size of NMs, the blood can then transport them throughout the circulation and to many organs where they can be stored. In this Account, we discuss the blood circulation and organ clearance patterns of NMs in the lung, liver, and kidney. The circulation of NMs in bloodstream is critical for delivery of inhalable NMs to extrapulmonary organs, the delivery of injectable NMs, the dynamics of tissue redistribution, and the overall targeting of drug carriers to specific cells and organs. The lung, liver, and kidney are the major distribution sites and target organs for NMs exposure, and the clearance patterns of NMs in these organs are critical for understanding the in vivo fate of NMs. Current studies suggest that multiple factors control the circulation and organ clearance of NMs. The size, shape, surface charge, surface functional groups, and aspect ratio of NMs as well as tissue microstructures strongly influence the circulation of NMs in bloodstream, their site-specific extravasation, and their clearance profiles within organs. Therefore structure design and surface modification can improve biocompatibility, regulate the in vivo metabolism, and reduce the toxicity of NMs. The biophysicochemical interactions

  1. CEU your jewish patient is dying....

    PubMed

    Schwartz, E A

    1989-01-01

    This article offers the nurse information needed for planning the care of Jewish patients and their families during the dying and mourning process - whether that patient is Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform.

  2. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  3. Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Abaquin, Carmencita; Perrin, Margot E; Eaton, Linda; Balabagno, Araceli O; Rue, Tessa; Ramos, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue for palliative nursing in the Philippines. Methods The study recruited 230 nurses to complete the ICNP Dignified Dying survey. Participants rated ICNP nursing intervention items and identified additional interventions for promoting dignified dying. Results All of the intervention items were scored on average as being at least ‘slightly important’. The three top-ranked nursing intervention categories were providing social support, maintaining privacy boundaries, and relieving psychological distress. Conclusions The ICNP Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue lists nursing interventions that are appropriate to promoting dignity at the end of life in the Philippines. PMID:21471908

  4. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  5. Understanding Dying Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Librach, S.L.; Talbot, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Caring for dying patients and their families presents unique opportunities and challenges for the family physician. The family FIRO model provides a simple way of assessing families and providing appropriate, individualized care. This article outlines the model, discusses the care of dying patients and their families from the FIRO perspective, and provides a guideline for the family physician. A framework is suggested for teaching residents to support families. PMID:21228989

  6. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  7. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  8. Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Neukomm, L J; Zeng, S; Frei, A P; Huegli, P A; Hengartner, M O

    2014-06-01

    The rapid clearance of dying cells is important for the well-being of multicellular organisms. In C. elegans, cell corpse removal is mainly mediated by three parallel engulfment signaling cascades. These pathways include two small GTPases, MIG-2/RhoG and CED-10/Rac1. Here we present the identification and characterization of CDC-42 as a third GTPase involved in the regulation of cell corpse clearance. Genetic analyses performed by both loss of cdc-42 function and cdc-42 overexpression place cdc-42 in parallel to the ced-2/5/12 signaling module, in parallel to or upstream of the ced-10 module, and downstream of the ced-1/6/7 module. CDC-42 accumulates in engulfing cells at membranes surrounding apoptotic corpses. The formation of such halos depends on the integrins PAT-2/PAT-3, UNC-112 and the GEF protein UIG-1, but not on the canonical ced-1/6/7 or ced-2/5/12 signaling modules. Together, our results suggest that the small GTPase CDC-42 regulates apoptotic cell engulfment possibly upstream of the canonical Rac GTPase CED-10, by polarizing the engulfing cell toward the apoptotic corpse in response to integrin signaling and ced-1/6/7 signaling in C. elegans.

  9. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  10. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.66 Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  11. 75 FR 53012 - Form Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Extension of Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... be obtained upon written request to the Selective Service System, Reports Clearance Officer, 1515... Selective Service System, Reports Clearance Officer, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia...

  12. 77 FR 69658 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... approximately 4,350 respondents will be involved in exploratory, field test, pilot, cognitive, and focus group work conducted under this clearance over the requested 3-year clearance period. The average...

  13. 76 FR 49838 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... INFORMATION: Title: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service...

  14. 76 FR 45573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Office of the... Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Health Information Technology Research Center survey. Abstract:...

  15. 77 FR 19673 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Generic Clearance to Conduct... strategy in ] accomplishing reinvention goals is the ability to periodically receive input and...

  16. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  17. A comparison of the accuracy of three removable die systems and two die materials.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, I; Mohan, J; Arunachalam, K S; Zankari, V

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional shift of three commonly used die systems (Conventional system, Pindex system, Di-Lok tray system) with two commercially available type IV die stones (Ultra rock and Pearl stone). Under controlled conditions, ten casts, each with two removable dies, were constructed for each system for a total of 30 casts and 60 removable dies. Before and after sectioning measurements to within 0.01 mm in horizontal and vertical planes were recorded and differences calculated. Data were analyzed with 't' tests, one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. The results demonstrated that among the die systems compared, no single system was superior to the others in all respects. But among the die materials, dies poured in Pearl stone exhibited more dimensional changes than Ultra rock (p<0.05). Selection of die material is as critical as selection of any particular die system for successful fabrication of fixed partial denture and implant prosthesis.

  18. 49 CFR 236.22 - Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semaphore signal arm; clearance to other objects...; clearance to other objects. At least one-half inch clearance shall be provided between semaphore signal arm, and any object that may interfere with its operation....

  19. 48 CFR 1845.506-70 - Responsibilities of the plant clearance officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plant clearance officer. 1845.506-70 Section 1845.506-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Support Government Property Administration 1845.506-70 Responsibilities of the plant clearance officer. When plant clearance is not...

  20. 76 FR 24920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: National... (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery...: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. Abstract:...

  1. 20 CFR 653.501 - Requirements for accepting and processing clearance orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... clearance any job order seeking workers to perform agricultural or food processing work before reviewing it... order seeking workers to perform agricultural or food processing work into intrastate clearance unless... perform agricultural or food processing work with interstate clearance unless: (1) The job order meets...

  2. 77 FR 28625 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Food Processing Clearance Order, ETA Form 790, Extension With Revisions, and the Agricultural and Food... employers must use the Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Order, ETA Form 790, to list the job... Agricultural and Food Processing Clearance Memorandum, ETA Form 795, is used by SWAs to extend job...

  3. Exploring the case for assisted dying in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Carol

    This article discusses the concepts of euthanasia, assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide, under the umbrella term of assisted dying, from a pro-assisted dying perspective. It outlines the key principles underpinning the debate around assisted dying and refutes the main arguments put forward by those opposing legalisation of assisted dying in the UK.

  4. A Hybrid Jigsaw Approach to Teaching Renal Clearance Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of using a jigsaw cooperative learning approach to teach basic concepts of renal clearance to pharmacy students. Design Students collected information on the mechanisms of renal clearance for a particular drug and proposed a methodology for circumventing a urine drug screen. Attitudinal surveys, an online quiz, and course examinations were used to assess student learning. Assessment The majority of students felt apprehensive toward a group assignment prior to the exercise, and afterwards still preferred individual work over group work. Post-exercise quiz and final examination scores showed students successfully learned the material. Conclusions Students were successful in learning from each other and there was no difference in examination performance compared to years when the technique was not used. In addition, the relative negative experiences of previous group work decreased the subjective attitudes related to the current learning experience. PMID:19564992

  5. Microwave Sensor for Blade Tip Clearance and Structural Health Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woike, Mark R.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of microwave based sensors for the health monitoring of rotating machinery is being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microwave sensor works on the principle of sending a continuous signal towards a rotating component and measuring the reflected signal. The phase shift of the reflected signal is proportional to the distance between the sensor and the component that is being measured. This type of sensor is beneficial in that it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures and is unaffected by contaminants that may be present in the rotating machinery. It is intended to use these probes in the hot sections of turbine engines for closed loop turbine clearance control and structural health measurements. Background on the sensors, an overview of their calibration and preliminary results from using them to make blade tip clearance and health measurements on a large axial vane fan will be presented.

  6. Lung-clearance mechanisms following inhalation of acid sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Silbaugh, S.A.; Carpenter, R.L.; Rowatt, J.D.; Hill, J.O.

    1982-08-01

    These studies have indicated that acute exposures (1-6 hrs) to sulfuric acid at levels of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/ can produce impairments in mucous clearance. The impairments can last for up to a week following a 1 hr exposure. These effects and studies by others suggest that high sulfate levels in polluted conditions may be one factor in observed increases of hospital visits for respiratory problems. Long term exposures to elevated levels of sulfates resulting in decreases of clearance could also be an initiating factor in producing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These studies have also shown that it is the larger size fraction (0.6 to 1.0 ..mu..m) of sulfuric acid mist in the urban aerosol which is predominantly responsible for at least the acute effects.

  7. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2014-03-01

    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  8. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  9. Gas film lubrication equations for very small clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Sobehart, J.R.; Reyna, L.G.

    1994-05-01

    In the hard disk magnetic recording technology, the slider carrying the magnetic elements is supported above the magnetic disk by a self-acting air bearing, which produces the load support. A lubricating film must support a required load with suitably small frictional energy losses and without introducing undesirable instabilities. Under submicron clearance conditions, gas film flow can not be described with continuum models since the molecular mean free path is not negligible compared with the clearance. Accurate results for the load-carrying capacity of gas films for arbitrary Knudsen number are very important since they strongly influence the design of the flying head slider and, consequently, the performance of the magnetic disk storage unit. Here we generalize the previous lubrication equations for arbitrary Knudsen number, accommodation coefficient and a small inclination of the slider relative to the magnetic disk surface.

  10. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; De Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B J; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M; Martínez-Chantar, María L; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M; Mirsky, Rhona; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Jessen, Kristján R

    2015-07-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell-mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that Schwann cells degrade myelin after injury by a novel form of selective autophagy, myelinophagy. Autophagy was up-regulated by myelinating Schwann cells after nerve injury, myelin debris was present in autophagosomes, and pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy impaired myelin clearance. Myelinophagy was positively regulated by the Schwann cell JNK/c-Jun pathway, a central regulator of the Schwann cell reprogramming induced by nerve injury. We also present evidence that myelinophagy is defective in the injured central nervous system. These results reveal an important role for inductive autophagy during Wallerian degeneration, and point to potential mechanistic targets for accelerating myelin clearance and improving demyelinating disease.

  11. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients. PMID:360162

  12. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; De Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B.J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell–mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that Schwann cells degrade myelin after injury by a novel form of selective autophagy, myelinophagy. Autophagy was up-regulated by myelinating Schwann cells after nerve injury, myelin debris was present in autophagosomes, and pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy impaired myelin clearance. Myelinophagy was positively regulated by the Schwann cell JNK/c-Jun pathway, a central regulator of the Schwann cell reprogramming induced by nerve injury. We also present evidence that myelinophagy is defective in the injured central nervous system. These results reveal an important role for inductive autophagy during Wallerian degeneration, and point to potential mechanistic targets for accelerating myelin clearance and improving demyelinating disease. PMID:26150392

  13. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  14. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kavya; Cusack, Corey L.; Nnah, Israel C.; Khayati, Khoosheh; Saqcena, Chaitali; Huynh, Tuong B.; Noggle, Scott A.; Ballabio, Andrea; Dobrowolski, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD. PMID:26923592

  15. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  16. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, T.D.; Poland, T.M.

    1992-12-31

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung.

  17. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  18. Applying Organ Clearance Concepts in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To teach doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students how to apply organ clearance concepts in a clinical setting in order to optimize dose management, select the right drug product, and promote better patient-centered care practices. Design A student-focused 5-hour topic entitled "Organ Clearance Concepts: Modeling and Clinical Applications" was developed and delivered to second-year PharmD students. Active-learning techniques, such as reading assignments and thought-provoking questions, and collaborative learning techniques, such as small groups, were used. Student learning was assessed using application cards and a minute paper. Assessment Overall student responses to topic presentation were overwhelmingly positive. The teaching strategies here discussed allowed students to play an active role in their own learning process and provided the necessary connection to keep them motivated, as mentioned in the application cards and minute paper assessments. Students scored an average of 88% on the examination given at the end of the course. Conclusion By incorporating active-learning and collaborative-learning techniques in presenting material on organ clearance concept, students gained a more thorough knowledge of dose management and drug-drug interactions than if the concepts had been presented using a traditional lecture format. This knowledge will help students in solving critical patient situations in a real-world context. PMID:19214275

  19. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  20. Automatic Detection of Clearance in Mechanical Systems: Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Churn-Hway

    1996-07-01

    The performance of servosystems with gears (e.g. machine tool drive systems) depends on the clearance or backlash between the gear teeth. Too little and the gears cannot accommodate lubrication and manufacturing errors. Too much and the system accuracy and stability degrade. Therefore, to ensure that a machine system with gears is operating within specifications, the backlash magnitude should be checked frequently. A technique to estimate the backlash automatically is required. The objective of this paper is to evaluate experimentally a clearance detection technique, previously published by the authors, to detect backlash in a servosystem with gears. The technique estimates the backlash by computing the speed variations induced into the primary gear speed by the gear tooth impacts caused by exciting the system sinusoidally. It is shown that a low-cost conventional tachometer is sufficient to measure the induced speed variations. The estimates are shown to represent accurately the actual backlash for ranges 100% of the recommended backlash setting. In addition, by exciting the system with a sinusoid having a DC offset, it is shown that, in a simple one step automatic procedure, the backlash can be averaged over all the gear tooth combinations or computed for individual gear tooth pairs. The results, along with the previously developed theory, indicate that this clearance detection can be inexpensively applied to many machine systems.

  1. Active Piezoelectric Structures for Tip Clearance Management Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Managing blade tip clearance in turbomachinery stages is critical to developing advanced subsonic propulsion systems. Active casing structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators appear to be a promising solution. They can control static and dynamic tip clearance, compensate for uneven deflections, and accomplish electromechanical coupling at the material level. In addition, they have a compact design. To assess the feasibility of this concept and assist the development of these novel structures, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed in-house computational capabilities for composite structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors, and subsequently used them to simulate candidate active casing structures. The simulations indicated the potential of active casings to modify the blade tip clearance enough to improve stage efficiency. They also provided valuable design information, such as preliminary actuator configurations (number and location) and the corresponding voltage patterns required to compensate for uneven casing deformations. An active ovalization of a casing with four discrete piezoceramic actuators attached on the outer surface is shown. The center figure shows the predicted radial displacements along the hoop direction that are induced when electrostatic voltage is applied at the piezoceramic actuators. This work, which has demonstrated the capabilities of in-house computational models to analyze and design active casing structures, is expected to contribute toward the development of advanced subsonic engines.

  2. Nonpharmacologic airway clearance techniques in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeff; Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2013-12-01

    Nonpharmacologic airway clearance techniques are used to reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of nonpharmacologic interventions that health professionals can employ to achieve mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative patients without cystic fibrosis, over the age of 12 months. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes, and assigned overall quality ratings. The 32 studies meeting the review criteria included 24 randomized controlled trials, 7 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one prospective cohort study. Studies were typically small and together included a total of 2,453 subjects (mean 76/study). Studies generally examined chest physical therapy/physiotherapy modalities in postoperative or critically ill subjects or those with COPD. Interventions, comparators, and populations varied considerably across studies, hampering our ability to draw firm conclusions. Interventions, including conventional chest physical therapy/physiotherapy, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and positive expiratory pressure, typically provided small benefits in pulmonary function, gas exchange, oxygenation, and need for/duration of ventilation, among other outcomes, but differences between groups were generally small and not significant. Harms of the techniques were not consistently reported, though airway clearance techniques were generally considered safe in studies that did comment on adverse effects. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and harms of these techniques. PMID:24222708

  3. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-19

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 {mu}m), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm.

  4. Comparison of Two Alternate Methods for Tracking Toe Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of toe clearance during the swing phase of locomotion has often been utilized in determining a subject s propensity to trip while either walking or stepping over an obstacle. In the literature, toe clearance has been studied using a marker on the superior aspect of the second toe (rtoe), a marker on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head (mth5), or a virtual marker positioned at the anterior tip of the toe (vtoe). The purpose of this study was to compute toe clearance and associated parameters using a fifth metatarsal marker and a virtual toe marker, and compare the results with those of the standard toe marker. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at five different speeds while performing a visual acuity task at two separate target distances (ten 60-second trials). The minimum vertical height (TCl) was determined for each stride, along with its point of occurence in the gait cycle, and the angles of the foot and ankle at that time. A regression analysis was performed on the vtoe and mth5 results versus rtoe individually. For all TCl parameters, the mth5 marker did not correlate well with rtoe; the vtoe marker showed better agreement. Most importantly, the mth5 marker predicted a later occurence of TCl than rtoe and vtoe - thereby missing the most dangerous point in swing phase for a trip. From this analysis, the vtoe marker proved to be a better analog to rtoe than mth5, especially for determining a subject s propensity to trip.

  5. Differentially regulated gene expression associated with hepatitis C virus clearance

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carolyn Z.; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Wei, Peng; Shah, Dimpy P.; Volcik, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Human chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections pose a significant public health threat, necessitating the development of novel treatments and vaccines. HCV infections range from spontaneous resolution to end-stage liver disease. Approximately 10–30 % of HCV infections undergo spontaneous resolution independent of treatment by yet-to-be-defined mechanisms. These individuals test positive for anti-HCV antibodies in the absence of detectable viral serum RNA. To identify genes associated with HCV clearance, this study compared gene expression profiles between current drug users chronically infected with HCV and drug users who cleared their HCV infection. This analysis identified 91 differentially regulated (up- or downregulated by twofold or more) genes potentially associated with HCV clearance. The majority of genes identified were associated with immune function, with the remaining genes categorized either as cancer related or ‘other’. Identification of factors and pathways that may influence virus clearance will be essential to the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:23152368

  6. Regulation of mucociliary clearance in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-05-01

    Airway secretions are cleared by mucociliary clearance (MCC), in addition to other mechanisms such as cough, peristalsis, two-phase gas-liquid flow and alveolar clearance. MCC comprises the cephalad movement of mucus caused by the cilia lining the conducting airways until it can be swallowed or expectorated. MCC is a very complex process in which many variables are involved, all of which may modify the final outcome. The structure, number, movement and co-ordination of the cilia present in the airways as well as the amount, composition and rheological properties of the periciliary and mucus layers are determinants of MCC. Physiological factors such as age, sex, posture, sleep and exercise are reported to influence MCC due to a change in the cilia, the mucus or the periciliary layer, or a combination of these. Environmental pollution is suspected to have a depressant effect on MCC dependent on different factors such as pollutant concentration and the duration of exposure. Most studies focus on sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Tobacco smoke and hairspray have been noted to have a negative influence on MCC. Some diseases are known to affect MCC, mostly negatively. The underlying mechanism differs from one illness to another. Immotile cilia syndrome, asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and some acute respiratory tract infections are among the most frequently reported. The present paper reviews normal mucociliary clearance and the effects of diseases on this process.

  7. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  8. Review: Soluble innate immune pattern-recognition proteins for clearing dying cells and cellular components: implications on exacerbating or resolving inflammation.

    PubMed

    Litvack, Michael L; Palaniyar, Nades

    2010-06-01

    Soluble innate immune pattern-recognition proteins (sPRPs) identify non-self or altered-self molecular patterns. Dying cells often display altered-self arrays of molecules on their surfaces. Hence, sPRPs are ideal for recognizing these cells and their components. Dying cell surfaces often contain, or allow the access to different lipids, intracellular glycoproteins and nucleic acids such as DNA at different stages of cell death. These are considered as 'eat me' signals that replace the native 'don't eat me' signals such as CD31, CD47 present on the live cells. A programmed cell death process such as apoptosis also generates cell surface blebs that contain intracellular components. These blebs are easily released for effective clearance or signalling. During late stages of cell death, soluble components are also released that act as 'find me' signal (e.g. LysoPC, nucleotides). The sPRPs such as collectins, ficolins, pentraxins, sCD14, MFG-E8, natural IgM and C1q can effectively identify some of these specific molecular patterns. The biological end-point is different depending on sPRP, tissue, stage of apoptosis and the type of cell death. The sPRPs that reside in the immune-privileged surfaces such as lungs often act as opsonins and enhance a silent clearance of dying cells and cellular material by macrophages and other phagocytic cells. Although the recognition of these materials by complement-activating proteins could amplify the opsonic signal, this pathway may aggravate inflammation. Clear understanding of the involvement of specific sPRPs in cell death and subsequent clearance of dying cell and their components is essential for devising appropriate treatment strategies for diseases involving infection, inflammation and auto-antibody generation.

  9. CAE Based Die Face Engineering Development to Contribute to the Revitalization of the Tool & Die Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing C.; St. Pierre, Shawn; He, Jeanne; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin C.

    2005-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have emerged as one of the most important engineering tools in various industries, due to its flexibility and accuracy in prediction. Nowadays, CAE tools are widely used in the sheet metal forming industry to predict the forming feasibility of a wide variety of complex components, ranging from aerospace and automotive components to household products. As the demand of CAE based formability accelerates, the need for a robust and streamlined die face engineering tool becomes more crucial, especially in the early stage when the tooling layout is not available, but a product design decision must be made. Ability to generate blank, binder and addendum surfaces with an appropriate layout of Drawbead, Punch Opening Line, Trim Line are the primary features and functions of a CAE based die face engineering tool. Once the die face layout is ready, a formability study should be followed to verify the die face layout is adequate to produce a formable part. If successful, the established die face surface should be exported back to the CAD/CAM environment to speed up the tooling and manufacturing design process with confidence that this particular part is formable with this given die face. With a CAE tool as described above, the tool & die industry will be greatly impacted as the processes will enable the bypass of hardware try-out and shorten the overall vehicle production timing. The trend has shown that OEMs and first tiers will source to low cost producers in the world which will have a negative impact to the traditional tool & die makers in the developed countries. CAE based tool as described should be adopted, along with many other solutions, in order to maintain efficiency of producing high quality product and meeting time-to-market requirements. This paper will describe how a CAE based die face engineering (DFE) tool could be further developed to enable the traditional tool & die makers to meet the

  10. Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2003-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor and high pressure turbine can provide dramatic improvements in specific fuel consumption, time-on-wing, compressor stall margin and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities of both military and commercial gas turbine engines. The preliminary design of a mechanically actuated active clearance control (ACC) system for turbine blade tip clearance management is presented along with the design of a bench top test rig in which the system is to be evaluated. The ACC system utilizes mechanically actuated seal carrier segments and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. The purpose of this active clearance control system is to improve upon current case cooling methods. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, re-burst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). The active turbine blade tip clearance control system design presented herein will be evaluated to ensure that proper response and positional accuracy is achievable under simulated high-pressure turbine conditions. The test rig will simulate proper seal carrier pressure and temperature loading as well as the magnitudes and rates of blade tip clearance changes of an actual gas turbine engine. The results of these evaluations will be presented in future works.

  11. A Matter of Millimeters: Defining the Processes for Critical Clearances on Curiosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florow, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission presents an immense packaging problem in that it takes a rover the size of a car with a sky crane landing system and packs it tightly into a spacecraft. This creates many areas of close and critical clearances. Critical Clearances are defined as hardware-to-hardware or hardware-to-envelope clearances which fall below a pre-established location dependent threshold and pose a risk of hardware to hardware contact during events such as launch, entry, landing, and operations. Close Clearances, on the other hand, are defined as any clearance value that is chosen to be tracked but is larger than the critical clearance threshold for its region. Close clearances may be tracked for various reasons including uncertainty in design, large expected dynamic motion, etc.

  12. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  13. Integrating the Clearance in NPP Residual Material Management

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Lamela, B.

    2008-01-15

    Previous Experiences in decommissioning projects are being used to optimize the residual material management in NPP, metallic scrap usually. The approach is based in the availability of a materials Clearance MARSSIM-based methodology developed and licensed in Spain. A typical project includes the integration of segregation, decontamination, clearance, quality control and quality assurance activities. The design is based in the clearance methodology features translating them into standard operational procedures. In terms of ecological taxes and final disposal costs, significant amounts of money could be saved with this type of approaches. The last clearance project managed a total amount of 405 tons scrap metal and a similar amount of other residual materials occupying a volume of 1500 m{sup 3}. After less than a year of field works 251 tons were finally recycled in a non-licensed smelting facility. The balance was disposed as LILW. In the planning phase the estimated cost savings were 4.5 Meuro. However, today a VLLW option is available in European countries so, the estimated cost savings are reduced to 1.2 Meuro. In conclusion: the application of materials clearance in NPP decommissioning lessons learnt to the NPP residual material management is an interesting management option. This practice is currently going on in Spanish NPP and, in a preliminary view, is consistent with the new MARSAME Draft. An interesting parameter is the cost of 1 m3 of recyclable scrap. The above estimates are very project specific because in the segregation process other residual materials were involved. If the effect of this other materials is removed the estimated Unit Cost were in this project around 1700 euro/m{sup 3}, this figure is clearly below the above VLLW disposal cost of 2600 euro. In a future project it appears feasible to descend to 839 euro/m{sup 3} and if it became routine values and is used in big Decommissioning projects, around 600 euro/m{sup 3} or below possibly could

  14. Use of uptake intrinsic clearance from attached rat hepatocytes to predict hepatic clearance for poorly permeable compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyue; Chen, April; Roberts, John; Janosky, Brett; Be, Xuhai; Berry, Loren; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine

    2012-09-01

    We previously reported that the accuracy of clearance (CL) prediction could be differentiated by permeability. CL was drastically under-predicted by in vitro metabolic intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) for compounds with low permeability (<5 × 10(-6) cm/s). We determined apparent uptake CL(int) by measuring initial disappearance from medium using attached rat hepatocytes and metabolic CL(int) by measuring parent depletion in suspended rat hepatocytes (cells and medium). Uptake and metabolic CL(int) were comparable for highly permeable metabolic marker compounds. In contrast, uptake CL(int) was 3- to 40-fold higher than metabolic CL(int) for rosuvastatin, bosentan, and 15 proprietary compounds, which had low permeability, suggesting that uptake could be a rate-determining step in hepatic elimination for these poorly permeable compounds. The prediction of hepatic CL was improved significantly when using uptake CL(int) for the compounds with low permeability. The average fold error was 2.2 and 6, as opposed to >11 and >47 by metabolic CL(int), with and without applying a scaling factor of 4, respectively. Uptake CL(int) from attached hepatocytes can be used as an alternative approach to predict hepatic clearance and to understand the significance of hepatic uptake in elimination in an early drug discovery setting. PMID:22439758

  15. Use of uptake intrinsic clearance from attached rat hepatocytes to predict hepatic clearance for poorly permeable compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyue; Chen, April; Roberts, John; Janosky, Brett; Be, Xuhai; Berry, Loren; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine

    2012-09-01

    We previously reported that the accuracy of clearance (CL) prediction could be differentiated by permeability. CL was drastically under-predicted by in vitro metabolic intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) for compounds with low permeability (<5 × 10(-6) cm/s). We determined apparent uptake CL(int) by measuring initial disappearance from medium using attached rat hepatocytes and metabolic CL(int) by measuring parent depletion in suspended rat hepatocytes (cells and medium). Uptake and metabolic CL(int) were comparable for highly permeable metabolic marker compounds. In contrast, uptake CL(int) was 3- to 40-fold higher than metabolic CL(int) for rosuvastatin, bosentan, and 15 proprietary compounds, which had low permeability, suggesting that uptake could be a rate-determining step in hepatic elimination for these poorly permeable compounds. The prediction of hepatic CL was improved significantly when using uptake CL(int) for the compounds with low permeability. The average fold error was 2.2 and 6, as opposed to >11 and >47 by metabolic CL(int), with and without applying a scaling factor of 4, respectively. Uptake CL(int) from attached hepatocytes can be used as an alternative approach to predict hepatic clearance and to understand the significance of hepatic uptake in elimination in an early drug discovery setting.

  16. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  17. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  18. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  19. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  20. Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ilija; Govedarica, Biljana; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stane

    2013-03-25

    This study investigated deformation mechanisms of some commonly used pharmaceutical fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, dicalcium phosphate, isomalt and cornstarch, using a combination of the in-die and out-die method with the Heckel and Walker models. The tableting mixtures contained of 98.5% (w/w) filler, the rest consisted of dry binder and an antiadhesive agent. Our results showed that plasticity and elasticity may be considered independent deformation properties as highly plastic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cornstarch) also exhibited high elasticity. Particular emphasis was placed on explaining the differences observed between the in-die and out-die method-comparison revealed that the differences are a consequence of the material's elastic properties. Larger error of in-die results can be expected for more elastic materials, and thus in-die Heckel should be used with some considerations. In contrast, the Walker model was found to be more robust and smaller differences were observed between the two methods. We consider the most correct results to have been obtained by the out-die approach, which excludes the elastic properties of the material evaluated. An excellent correlation between elastic determination at the single-particle level and multiple-particle scale was demonstrated, suggesting a great potential of nanoscale determination of a material's mechanical properties for better elucidation of deformation mechanisms.

  1. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  2. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  3. Weltall im Wandel. Die neue Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, H.

    Contents: Alte und neue Astronomie. Die Sterne des Milchstraßensystems. Sternentstehung und interstellare Materie. Unser Sonnensystem und seine Geschichte. Interplanetarer Staub. Vom Sterben der Sterne. Arbeitsmittel der optischen Astronomie. Ein neues Zentrum astronomischer Forschung. Galaxien. Ursprung und Entwicklung des Weltalls.

  4. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  5. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  6. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  7. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  8. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  9. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  10. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  11. Flexible, Ultra-Thin, Embedded Die Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Ryan J.

    As thin, flexible electronics solutions become more robust, their integration into everyday life becomes more likely. With possible applications in wearable electronics, biomedical sensors, or 'peel and stick' sensors, the reliability of these ultra-thin packages becomes paramount. Likewise, the density achievable with stacked packages benefits greatly from thinner die stacks. To this end, techniques previously developed have demonstrated packages with die thinned to approximately 20mum. Covered in this work are methods for thinning and packaging silicon die, as well as information on common materials used in these processes. The author's contribution is a fabrication process for embedding ultra-thin (approximately 10mum) silicon die in polyimide substrates. This method is fully illustrated in Chapter 3 and enumerated in the Appendix as a quick reference. Additionally, thermal cycle testing of passive daisy chain assemblies has shown promising reliability data. Packages were mounted in three alignments: flat, concave, and convex, and placed into thermal shock testing. Finally, the author discusses possible applications for this fabrication process, including the fabrication of multi-chip-modules.

  12. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  13. Die neue Kosmologie. Von Dunkelmaterie, GUTs und Superhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, J.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the American original "Bubbles, voids, and bumps in time: the new cosmology", published 1989 (see 49.003.045). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung des Weltalls: Eine Einleitung (A. P. Lightman). 2. Die Vermessung des Weltalls: Rotverschiebungen und Standardkerzen (R. P. Kirshner). 3. Die Kartierung des Weltalls: Scheiben und Blasen (M. J. Geller). 4. Die Bestimmung der Masse im Weltall: Dunkelmaterie und fehlende Masse (V. C. Rubin). 5. Der Beginn des Weltalls: Urknall und kosmische Inflation (A. H. Guth). 6. Die Ausweitung des Weltalls: Das Weltraumteleskop und Perspektiven für die nächsten 20 Jahre (J. E. Gunn).

  14. An integrated approach to model hepatic drug clearance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lichuan; Pang, K Sandy

    2006-11-01

    It has been well accepted that hepatic drug extraction depends on the blood flow, vascular binding, transmembrane barriers, transporters, enzymes and cosubstrate and their zonal heterogeneity. Models of hepatic drug clearances have been appraised with respect to their utility in predicting drug removal by the liver. Among these models, the "well-stirred" model is the simplest since it assumes venous equilibration, with drug emerging from the outflow being in equilibrium with drug within the liver, and the concentration is the same throughout. The "parallel tube" and dispersion models, and distributed model of Goresky and co-workers have been used to account for the observed sinusoidal concentration gradient from the inlet and outlet. Departure from these models exists to include heterogeneity in flow, enzymes, and transporters. This article utilized the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) liver model and its extension that include heterogeneity in enzymes and transporters to illustrate how in vitro uptake and metabolic data from zonal hepatocytes on transport and enzymes may be used to predict the kinetics of removal in the intact liver; binding data were also necessary. In doing so, an integrative platform was provided to examine determinants of hepatic drug clearance. We used enalapril and digoxin as examples, and described a simple liver PBPK model that included transmembrane transport and metabolism occurring behind the membrane, and a zonal model in which the PBPK model was expanded three sets of sub-compartments that are arranged sequentially to represent zones 1, 2, and 3 along the flow path. The latter model readily accommodated the heterogeneous distribution of hepatic enzymes and transporters. Transport and metabolic data, piecewise information that served as initial estimates, allowed for the unknown efflux and other intrinsic clearances to be estimated. The simple or zonal PBPK model provides predictive views on the hepatic removal of drugs and

  15. Analysis and design of a uniform-clearance, pumping-ring rod seal for the Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1980-01-01

    A uniform clearance pumping ring, as opposed to the conventional taper clearance one, is described. The uniform clearance concept eliminates complex elastohydrodynamic problems and enables a simple analytical treatment to be made. An analytical expression is derived for the pumping rate showing the effect of various design parameters on the pumping ring's performance. An optimum clearance is found by which the pumping rate is maximized and a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the potential of the uniform clearance design.

  16. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla Pareja, Maria Eugenia; Colombo, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance. PMID:24137567

  17. Possible risks to human lungs from magnetometric dust clearance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, T. D.

    1981-03-01

    Cohen, Arai and Brain did a magnetization study on smokers and nonsmokers from which they conclude that the dust clearance ability of the cigarette smoker's lungs is markedly impaired. Their conclusion may be incorrect because they overlooked that during the magnetization phase of their experiment, iron oxide clusters were preferentially formed in smoker's bronchi because of their high mucus content and consequent low resistance to redistribution of particles. Prudence dictates avoidance of the Cohen, Arai, Brain type study until health hazards related to this work are investigated.

  18. The pharmacologic approach to airway clearance: mucoactive agents.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2006-01-01

    The term "mucoactive agent" refers to any medication used to improve the clearance of airway secretions. It is not synonymous with the word "mucolytic" as this strictly means a drug that decreases the viscosity of secretions. In many cases, decreased viscosity will adversely affect cough transport. For this reason many of the older mucolytic agents such as acetylcysteine are not effective for the therapy of lung disease and their use is not recommended. I review here the many classes of mucoactive agents and identify a number of medications with great promise for the treatment of chronic airway disease. PMID:16798570

  19. What is the best airway clearance technique in cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Main, Eleanor

    2013-05-01

    The global development of airway clearance techniques (ACTs) for cystic fibrosis (CF) and corresponding research spans over four decades. Five Cochrane reviews synthesising the evidence from a plethora of early short and medium term studies have not uncovered any superior method. Four recent long term RCT studies exposed fundamental shortcomings in the standard RCT trial design and the insensitivity of FEV1 in physiotherapy studies. Strong patient preference, lack of blinding and the requirement for effortful and demanding participation over long intervals will continue to derail efforts to find the best ACT for CF, unless they are addressed in future clinical trials. PMID:23541002

  20. Rab7 induces clearance of α-synuclein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Dinter, Elisabeth; Saridaki, Theodora; Nippold, Markus; Plum, Sarah; Diederichs, Leonie; Komnig, Daniel; Fensky, Luisa; May, Caroline; Marcus, Katrin; Voigt, Aaron; Schulz, Jörg B; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease can be caused by mutations in the α-synuclein gene and is characterized by aggregates of α-synuclein protein. Aggregates are degraded by the autophago-lysosomal pathway. Since Rab7 has been shown to regulate trafficking of late endosomes and autophagosomes, we hypothesized that over-expressing Rab7 might be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. To test this hypothesis, we expressed the pathogenic A53T mutant of α-synuclein in HEK293 cells and Drosophila melanogaster. In HEK293 cells, EGFP-Rab7-decorated vesicles contain α-synuclein. Rab7 over-expression reduced the percentage of cells with α-synuclein particles and the amount of α-synuclein protein. Time-lapse microscopy confirmed that particles frequently disappeared with Rab7 over-expression. Clearance of α-synuclein is explained by the increased occurrence of acidified α-synuclein vesicles with Rab7 over-expression, presumably representing autolysosomes. Rab7 over-expression reduced apoptosis and the percentage of dead cells in trypan blue staining. In the fly model, Rab7 rescued the locomotor deficit induced by neuronal expression of A53T-α-synuclein. These beneficial effects were not produced by Rab7 missense mutations causing Charcot Marie Tooth neuropathy, or by the related GTPases Rab5, Rab9, or Rab23. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Rab7 in neuromelanin granules purified from human substantia nigra, indicating that Rab7 might be involved in the biogenesis of these possibly protective, autophagosome-like organelles in dopaminergic neurons. Taken together, Rab7 increased the clearance of α-synuclein aggregates, reduced cell death, and rescued the phenotype in a fly model of Parkinson's disease. These findings indicate that Rab7 is rate-limiting for aggregate clearance, and that Rab7 activation may offer a therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. Cells over-expressing aggregation-prone A53T alpha-synuclein develop cytoplasmic aggregates mimicking changes observed in

  1. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Maria Eugenia Mansilla; Colombo, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.

  2. [Anguish about death and fear of dying, supportive care for the dying].

    PubMed

    Bouregba, A; Lebret, T

    2008-11-01

    During metastatic patient follow up, anguish about death is different from the fear of dying. In fact anguish is unconscious and associated with anxiety, on the other hand the fear of dying is a reaction to the threat of imminent death. Physical pain and isolation are factors that increase the pangs of death. The support of friends and family constitutes a real benefit for the treatment of patients during this period.

  3. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  4. Experimental study of tip clearance losses and noise in axial turbomachines and their reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kameier, F.; Neise, W.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental study is described to investigate the negative effects of the tip clearance gap on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of axial turbomachines. In addition to the increased broadband levels reported in the literature when the tip clearance is enlarged, significant level increases were observed within narrow frequency bands below the blade passing frequency. Measurements of the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of the blade tips reveal that the tip clearance noise is associated with a rotating flow instability at the blade tip, which in turn is only present under reversed flow conditions in the tip clearance gap. A turbulence generator inserted into the tip clearance gap is found to be effective in eliminating the tip clearance noise and in improving the aerodynamic performance.

  5. Automation for "Direct-to" Clearances in Air-Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McNally, David

    2006-01-01

    A method of automation, and a system of computer hardware and software to implement the method, have been invented to assist en-route air-traffic controllers in the issuance of clearances to fly directly to specified waypoints or navigation fixes along straight paths that deviate from previously filed flight plans. Such clearances, called "direct-to" clearances, have been in use since before the invention of this method and system.

  6. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  7. Participation of the hypophyseal-adrenal cortex system in thrombin clearance during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Uljanov, A. M.; Shapiro, F. B.; Bazazyan, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thrombin marked with I-131 resulted in a considerable increase of the thrombined clearance rate in healthy male rats during stress caused by an immobilization lasting 30 minutes, and in an increase of thrombin clearance occurred by a combination of immobilization and administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Contrary to ACTH, the thrombin clearance is not stimulated in healthy animals by hydrocortisone. The results of the examination are presented.

  8. Test Rig for Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn; Steinetz, Bruce; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan; Melcher, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a fast-acting active clearance control system to improve turbine engine performance, reduce emissions, and increase service life. System studies have shown the benefits of reducing blade tip clearances in modern turbine engines. Minimizing blade tip clearances throughout the engine will contribute materially to meeting NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) turbine engine project goals. NASA GRC is examining two candidate approaches including rub-avoidance and regeneration which are explained in subsequent slides.

  9. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  10. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  11. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

  12. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Mermann, A C

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned.

  13. Dying in hospital: the residents' viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedzai, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of residents' (junior house officers') experiences and attitudes to the terminal care part of their work in four Glasgow teaching hospitals showed that even a month after starting work one-fifth of the respondents had not actively managed a dying patient. Sixty-four per cent thought that they had received inadequate teaching in terminal care. Depression and anxiety had been the most difficult symptoms encountered. The residents thought that the ward nursing staff contributed much more than their senior medical colleagues to both the medical and psychological aspects of terminal care. The results indicate a need for more undergraduate education in the most relevant areas, such as coping with the psychological problems of dying patients and their relatives. Newly qualified residents require more support from senior medical staff in looking after the terminally ill. PMID:6809204

  14. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  15. A porphyrin-PEG polymer with rapid renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haoyuan; Hernandez, Reinier; Geng, Jumin; Sun, Haotian; Song, Wentao; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A; Nickles, Robert J; Cheng, Chong; Cai, Weibo; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Tetracarboxylic porphyrins and polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamines were crosslinked in conditions that gave rise to a water-soluble porphyrin polyamide. Using PEG linkers 2 kDa or larger prevented fluorescence self-quenching. This networked porphyrin mesh was retained during dialysis with membranes with a 100 kDa pore size, yet passed through the membrane when centrifugal filtration was applied. Following intravenous administration, the porphyrin mesh, but not the free porphyrin, was rapidly cleared via renal excretion. The process could be monitored by fluorescence analysis of collected urine, with minimal background due to the large Stokes shift of the porphyrin (230 nm separating excitation and emission peaks). In a rhabdomyolysis mouse model of renal failure, porphyrin mesh urinary clearance was significantly impaired. This led to slower accumulation in the bladder, which could be visualized non-invasively via fluorescence imaging. Without further modification, the porphyrin mesh was chelated with (64)Cu for dynamic whole body positron emission tomography imaging of renal clearance. Together, these data show that small porphyrin-PEG polymers can serve as effective multimodal markers of renal function. PMID:26517562

  16. Clearance Pathways and Tumor Targeting of Imaging Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mengxiao; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A basic understanding of how imaging nanoparticles are removed from the normal organs/tissues but retained in the tumors is important for their future clinical applications in early cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss current understandings of clearance pathways and tumor targeting of small-molecule- and inorganic-nanoparticle-based imaging probes with an emphasis on molecular nanoprobes, a class of inorganic nanoprobes that can escape reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake and be rapidly eliminated from the normal tissues/organs via kidneys but can still passively target the tumor with high efficiency through the enhanced permeability permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The impact of nanoparticle design (size, shape, and surface chemistry) on their excretion, pharmacokinetics, and passive tumor targeting were quantitatively discussed. Synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and EPR effect offers a promising pathway to design low-toxicity and high-contrast-enhancement imaging nanoparticles that could meet with the clinical translational requirements of regulatory agencies. PMID:26149184

  17. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality.

  18. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Astroglial Potassium and Glutamate Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Giselle; Sibille, Jérémie; Zapata, Jonathan; Rouach, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that astrocytes play essential roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Nevertheless, how neuronal activity alters astroglial functional properties and whether such properties also display specific forms of plasticity still remain elusive. Here, we review research findings supporting this aspect of astrocytes, focusing on their roles in the clearance of extracellular potassium and glutamate, two neuroactive substances promptly released during excitatory synaptic transmission. Their subsequent removal, which is primarily carried out by glial potassium channels and glutamate transporters, is essential for proper functioning of the brain. Similar to neurons, different forms of short- and long-term plasticity in astroglial uptake have been reported. In addition, we also present novel findings showing robust potentiation of astrocytic inward currents in response to repetitive stimulations at mild frequencies, as low as 0.75 Hz, in acute hippocampal slices. Interestingly, neurotransmission was hardly affected at this frequency range, suggesting that astrocytes may be more sensitive to low frequency stimulation and may exhibit stronger plasticity than neurons to prevent hyperexcitability. Taken together, these important findings strongly indicate that astrocytes display both short- and long-term plasticity in their clearance of excess neuroactive substances from the extracellular space, thereby regulating neuronal activity and brain homeostasis. PMID:26346563

  19. Sulforaphane enhances progerin clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Diana; Roedl, Daniela; Gordon, Leslie B; Djabali, Karima

    2015-02-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670) is a rare multisystem childhood premature aging disorder linked to mutations in the LMNA gene. The most common HGPS mutation is found at position G608G within exon 11 of the LMNA gene. This mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal tail of prelamin A, and the truncated protein is called progerin. Progerin only undergoes a subset of the normal post-translational modifications and remains permanently farnesylated. Several attempts to rescue the normal cellular phenotype with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) and other compounds have resulted in partial cellular recovery. Using proteomics, we report here that progerin induces changes in the composition of the HGPS nuclear proteome, including alterations to several components of the protein degradation pathways. Consequently, proteasome activity and autophagy are impaired in HGPS cells. To restore protein clearance in HGPS cells, we treated HGPS cultures with sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from cruciferous vegetables. We determined that SFN stimulates proteasome activity and autophagy in normal and HGPS fibroblast cultures. Specifically, SFN enhances progerin clearance by autophagy and reverses the phenotypic changes that are the hallmarks of HGPS. Therefore, SFN is a promising therapeutic avenue for children with HGPS.

  20. Bacterial clearance in the intact and regenerating liver

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.; Katz, S.; Dunn, S.P.; Cikrit, D.; Rosenthal, R.; Grosfeld, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    The Kupffer cells in the liver play an important role in reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by clearing particulate matter and bacteria from the blood stream. While hepatocyte regeneration and function have been extensively studied following partial hepatectomy, little information is available concerning RES function in the regenerating liver. This study investigates hepatic RES function by evaluating bacterial clearance (live E. coli) in the intact and regenerating liver. Thirty-four young male Sprague Dawley rats were studied. Twenty-two animals underwent a standard 70% partial hepatectomy using ligature technique and 12 had a sham operation. Both groups of rats received 10(9) organism of TVS labeled E coli, intravenously at 24 hours, 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Rats were killed 10 minutes following injection and liver, lung, spleen, and kidney harvested, fixed, and radioactivity was determined using a scintillation spectrometer interfaced with a micro-computer counting the TVS radiolabel. The total organ count of trapped bacteria in liver in partially hepatectomized rats was lower than intact controls at 24 hours, but was similar at 72 hours, 2 1/2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Partial hepatectomy increased the amount of bacterial trapping in the lung at 24 hours and 72 hours and returned to normal at 2 1/2 weeks and 6 weeks. Splenic activity was increased following hepatectomy at 2 1/2 weeks. Renal clearance was increased at 72 hours and 2 1/2 weeks.