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Sample records for clearance die szintigrafische

  1. Dying cell clearance and its impact on the outcome of tumor radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Kirsten; Ernst, Anne; Orth, Michael; Herrmann, Martin; Belka, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The induction of tumor cell death is one of the major goals of radiotherapy and has been considered to be the central determinant of its therapeutic outcome for a long time. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the success of radiotherapy does not only derive from direct cytotoxic effects on the tumor cells alone, but instead might also depend – at least in part – on innate as well as adaptive immune responses, which can particularly target tumor cells that survive local irradiation. The clearance of dying tumor cells by phagocytic cells of the innate immune system represents a crucial step in this scenario. Dendritic cells and macrophages, which engulf, process and present dying tumor cell material to adaptive immune cells, can trigger, skew, or inhibit adaptive immune responses, respectively. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of different forms of cell death induced by ionizing radiation, the multi-step process of dying cell clearance, and its immunological consequences with special regard toward the potential exploitation of these mechanisms for the improvement of tumor radiotherapy. PMID:22973558

  2. Desialylation of dying cells with catalytically active antibodies possessing sialidase activity facilitate their clearance by human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tomin, A; Dumych, T; Tolstyak, Y; Kril, I; Mahorivska, I; Bila, E; Stoika, R; Herrmann, M; Kit, Y; Bilyy, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently we reported the first known incidence of antibodies possessing catalytic sialidase activity (sialidase abzymes) in the serum of patients with multiple myeloma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies desialylate biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, gangliosides and red blood cells. Desialylation of dying cells was demonstrated to facilitate apoptotic cell clearance. In this study we assessed the possibility to facilitate dying cell clearance with the use of F(ab)2 fragments of sialidase abzymes. Two sources of sialidase abzymes were used: (i) those isolated from sera of patients with SLE after preliminary screening of a cohort of patients for sialidase activity; and (ii) by creating an induced sialidase abzyme through immunization of a rabbit with synthetic hapten consisting of a non-hydrolysable analogue of sialidase reaction conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Antibodies were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, protein-G affinity chromatography and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-SEC). Effect of desialylation on efferocytosis was studied using human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), both viable and aged, as prey, and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMa). Treatment of apoptotic and viable prey with both disease-associated (purified from blood serum of SLE patients) and immunization-induced (obtained by immunization of rabbits) sialidase abzymes, its F(ab)2 fragment and bacterial neuraminidase (as positive control) have significantly enhanced the clearance of prey by macrophages. We conclude that sialidase abzyme can serve as a protective agent in autoimmune patients and that artificial abzymes may be of potential therapeutic value.

  3. Clearance of autophagy-associated dying retinal pigment epithelial cells – a possible source for inflammation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári-Tóth, M; Kristóf, E; Veréb, Z; Akhtar, S; Facskó, A; Fésüs, L; Kauppinen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Petrovski, G

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo different forms of cell death, including autophagy-associated cell death during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Failure of macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) to engulf the different dying cells in the retina may result in the accumulation of debris and progression of AMD. ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells undergo autophagy-associated cell death upon serum depletion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Autophagy was revealed by elevated light-chain-3 II (LC3-II) expression and electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was confirmed by blocking the autophago-lysosomal fusion using chloroquine (CQ) in these cells. The autophagy-associated dying RPE cells were engulfed by human macrophages, DCs and living RPE cells in an increasing and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased the engulfment of the autophagy-associated dying cells by macrophages, whereas sorting out the GFP-LC3-positive/autophagic cell population or treatment by the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (TC) enhanced it. Increased amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were released when autophagy-associated dying RPEs were engulfed by macrophages. Our data suggest that cells undergoing autophagy-associated cell death engage in clearance mechanisms guided by professional and non-professional phagocytes, which is accompanied by inflammation as part of an in vitro modeling of AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27607582

  4. Neutrophils exert protection in early Aeromonas veronii infections through the clearance of both bacteria and dying macrophages.

    PubMed

    Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Rieger, Aja M; Churchill, Lucas J; Barreda, Daniel R

    2017-04-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals. Left untreated, natural infection in fish can prove fatal and result in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Neutrophils are essential innate effector cells that play critical roles in pathogen defense. Our aim was to investigate the immunological roles of teleost neutrophils during infection with A. veronii. We began by examining the functional defenses of neutrophils in vitro, where neutrophils efficiently killed the pathogen. In addition, we developed an in vivo infection model to assess the roles of neutrophils during an infection in goldfish. This allowed us to explore the complex dynamics between immune cells and Aeromonas veronii. Interestingly, our studies found that neutrophils are capable of sensing a diverse range of dead and dying cells, resulting in varying downstream responses. Herein, we report that neutrophils internalized dead or dying macrophages previously infected with A. veronii. Moreover, once internalized, neutrophils went on to display classical pro-inflammatory ROS responses, in contrast to the more typical anti-inflammatory responses seen in cells following the uptake of a dead host cell. This led us to hypothesize that during infection, neutrophils are capable of simultaneously clearing dead and dying cells as well as A. veronii. This study provides additional insights into the complex mechanisms by which neutrophils operate within an inflammatory site and contribute to the induction and regulation of acute inflammatory responses.

  5. Phagocytic Clearance in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Jennifer D.; Mandell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and debris have been intensely studied in invertebrate model organisms and in the mammalian immune system. This evolutionarily conserved process serves multiple purposes. Uncleared debris from dying cells or aggregated proteins can be toxic and may trigger exaggerated inflammatory responses. Even though apoptotic cell death and debris accumulation are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, relatively little attention has been paid to this important homeostatic function in the central nervous system (CNS). This review attempts to summarize our knowledge of phagocytic clearance in the CNS, with a focus on retinal degeneration, forms of which are caused by mutations in genes within known phagocytic pathways, and on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interest in phagocytic clearance mechanisms in AD was stimulated by the discovery that immunization could promote phagocytic clearance of amyloid-β; however, much less is known about clearance of neuronal and synaptic corpses in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Because the regulation of phagocytic activity is intertwined with cytokine signaling, this review also addresses the relationships among CNS inflammation, glial responses, and phagocytic clearance. PMID:21435432

  6. MINEFIELD CLEARANCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ACCURACY, DETONATIONS, EMPLACEMENT, ENEMY, EXPLOSIONS, GUNFIRE, MINE CLEARANCE , MINEFIELDS, MINES(ORDNANCE), RECIPROCATING ENGINES, RELIABILITY, SYNCHRONISM, TRANSVERSE, VELOCITY, VERTICAL ORIENTATION, VULNERABILITY.

  7. Elastic clearance change in axisymmetric shearing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    An axisymmetric shearing experiment is conducted for a sheet of low carbon steel and stainless steel. Elastic change in the clearance between punch and die is measured. The increase of the clearance in shearing is confirmed and the influence of sheared material's flow stress on the clearance change is shown. Finite element analysis (FEA) of shearing with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlman model (GTN model) is conducted for shearing of the carbon steels with rigid tools as a numerical experiment. Burr height is predicted in the FEA and the result is compared with the experimental result. In addition, the influence of the clearance on stress state in the material is investigated.

  8. Myeloid cell turnover and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, William J.; Bratton, Donna L.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Henson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the dual and intrinsically contradictory roles for myeloid cells in both protective and yet also damaging effects of inflammatory and immunological processes we suggest that it is important to consider the mechanisms and circumstances by which these cells are removed, either in the normal unchallenged state or during inflammation or disease. In this essay we address these subjects from a conceptual perspective, focusing as examples on four main myeloid cell types (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells) and their clearance from the circulation or from naïve and inflamed tissues. While the primary clearance process appears to involve endocytic uptake into macrophages, various tissue cell types can also recognize and remove dying cells though their overall quantitative contribution is unclear. In fact, surprisingly, given the wealth of study in this area over the last 30 years, our conclusion is that we are still challenged with substantial lack of mechanistic and regulatory understanding of when, how and by what mechanisms migratory myeloid cells come to die, are recognized as needing to be removed and indeed the precise processes of uptake of either the intact or fragmented cells. This reflects the extreme complexity and inherent redundancy of the clearance processes and argues for substantial investigative effort in this arena. In addition, it leads us to a sense that approaches to significant therapeutic modulation of selective myeloid clearance is still a long way off. PMID:27837740

  9. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  10. Tactics for Route Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    Tadics for Jtoute Clearance By William C. Schneck, Jr., and Brian M. Green I n Somalia, military police used mine detectors to sweep for command...useful lessons re- garding command-detonated mines and route clearance . It is not possible to completely eliminate losses from mines, but commanders...success, route clearance must be treated as a combined arms combat operation. Infantry, armor, engineer, artillery, aviation, intelligence, and

  11. Malaria parasite clearance.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J

    2017-02-23

    Following anti-malarial drug treatment asexual malaria parasite killing and clearance appear to be first order processes. Damaged malaria parasites in circulating erythrocytes are removed from the circulation mainly by the spleen. Splenic clearance functions increase markedly in acute malaria. Either the entire infected erythrocytes are removed because of their reduced deformability or increased antibody binding or, for the artemisinins which act on young ring stage parasites, splenic pitting of drug-damaged parasites is an important mechanism of clearance. The once-infected erythrocytes returned to the circulation have shortened survival. This contributes to post-artesunate haemolysis that may follow recovery in non-immune hyperparasitaemic patients. As the parasites mature Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes become more deformable, whereas Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes become less deformable, but they escape splenic filtration by sequestering in venules and capillaries. Sequestered parasites are killed in situ by anti-malarial drugs and then disintegrate to be cleared by phagocytic leukocytes. After treatment with artemisinin derivatives some asexual parasites become temporarily dormant within their infected erythrocytes, and these may regrow after anti-malarial drug concentrations decline. Artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum reflects reduced ring stage susceptibility and manifests as slow parasite clearance. This is best assessed from the slope of the log-linear phase of parasitaemia reduction and is commonly measured as a parasite clearance half-life. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of anti-malarial drug effects on parasite clearance has proved useful in predicting therapeutic responses and in dose-optimization.

  12. The clearance of dying cells: table for two

    PubMed Central

    Green, D R; Oguin, T H; Martinez, J

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytic cells of the immune system must constantly survey for, recognize, and efficiently clear the billions of cellular corpses that arise as a result of development, stress, infection, or normal homeostasis. This process, termed efferocytosis, is critical for the prevention of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and persistence of dead cells in tissue is characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus. The most notable characteristic of the efferocytosis of apoptotic cells is its ‘immunologically silent' response. Although the mechanisms by which phagocytes facilitate engulfment of dead cells has been a well-studied area, the pathways that coordinate to process the ingested corpse and direct the subsequent immune response is an area of growing interest. The recently described pathway of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) has shed some light on this issue. LAP is triggered when an extracellular particle, such as a dead cell, engages an extracellular receptor during phagocytosis, induces the translocation of autophagy machinery, and ultimately LC3 to the cargo-containing phagosome, termed the LAPosome. In this review, we will examine efferocytosis and the impact of LAP on efferocytosis, allowing us to reimagine the impact of the autophagy machinery on innate host defense mechanisms. PMID:26990661

  13. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  14. Advanced Thermal HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WojciechVoytek, Sak

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast acting HPT Active Clearance Control System to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions CHALLENGE: Reduction of HPT blade clearance throughout engine operation System complexity, reliability and cost must remain comparable or surpass today s engines Reduced clearance may increase possibility of rubs

  15. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  16. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  17. Clearance of Apoptotic Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Tsutsumi, Chikako; Qiao, Hong; Enaida, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Kubota, Toshiaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kura, Shinobu; Susin, Santos A.; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment. Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages. This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. The local injection of an antibody blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) or a peptide (GRGDSP)-blocking integrin αvβ3 revealed that phagocytotic clearance involves the PSR as well as integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment (but not the recognition) of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space. PMID:12759244

  18. Radial Clearance of Antifriction Bearings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The article concerns in detail the radial clearance of different antifriction bearings which belong to important parameters which influence the...longevity of the bearing to a certain extent. The effect of the influence of assembly and the wear on the radial clearance of different bearings, the...antifriction bearings operate and their respect in clearance and assembly can contribute substantially to decreasing the daily disproportionate bearing consumption for the repair and maintenance of different machines. (Author)

  19. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  20. Defects in the disposal of dying cells lead to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gaipl, Udo S; Franz, Sandra; Voll, Reinhard E; Sheriff, Ahmed; Kalden, Joachim R; Herrmann, Martin

    2004-12-01

    The fast and efficient uptake of dying cells is of main importance to prevent contact of the immune system with intracellular autoantigens. Insufficient clearance of the latter is discussed to drive the humoral autoimmune response in systemic lupus erythematosus. Many adaptor molecules and receptors are involved in the recognition of dying cells. In this paper we focus on the involvement of phosphatidylserine, glycoproteins, and complement and DNaseI in the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells, respectively. Furthermore, extracellular danger signals released from necrotic cells are discussed and the uptake process of primary necrotic cells is investigated in detail. Last but not least, the character and origin of clearance defects observed in some systemic lupus erythematosus patients is presented.

  1. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  2. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  3. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study on Blanking Process with Negative Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Kenji; Yanaga, Hiroki; Fukushima, Katsunori

    This study summarizes the characteristics of blanking behavior with a negative clearance. Several experiments were performed for two aluminum sheets over a wide range of clearances including negative values. Blanking with negatively large clearances was found to produce fine cut edges with less roll-over and no fracture zone even for a brittle material. Corresponding simulations were performed using the Ayada's criterion for predicting ductile fracture initiation. Each zone of blanked part edges such as roll-over and fractured zone agreed well with that obtained in the experiments except a few cases accompanied by secondary shear. The reason for prevention of fracture by using negative clearances was explained with the change of the damage value during the process; the damage value was kept low throughout the blanking operation since the mean stress dominating the damage value became compressive around the die edge. Influences of blanking parameters on load-stroke curves were also investigated. The curves for negative clearances showed gradual increase in load toward the end of stroke. The earlier fracture initiated, the earlier the load reached a peak. Simulated curves showed the same tendency and in good agreement with the experimental ones quantitatively.

  5. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  6. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  7. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  8. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  9. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  10. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  11. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  12. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  13. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  14. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair... to indicate an impaired clearance....

  15. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11008 Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance shall be conspicuously marked....

  16. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010... Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  17. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance...

  18. 2011 Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Clearance Determinations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Report on Security Clearance Determinations TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents...security clearance as of October 1, 201 1, categorized by government employees and contractors and by security clearance level

  19. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller... clearance between the blade tips and the airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary... blades or cuffs and stationary parts of the airplane; and (3) Positive clearance between other...

  20. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller... clearance between the blade tips and the airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary... blades or cuffs and stationary parts of the airplane; and (3) Positive clearance between other...

  1. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  2. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  3. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  4. Pultrusion Die Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor); Frye, Mark W. (Inventor); Stanfield, Clarence E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pultrusion die assemblies, and more particularly, to a pultrusion die assembly which incorporates a plurality of functions in order to produce a continuous, thin composite fiber reinforced thermoplastic material. The invention is useful for making high performance thermoplastic composite materials in sheets which can be coiled on a spool and stored for further processing.

  5. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  6. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  7. Extrusion die and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, G.D.

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity. 4 figures.

  8. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M.; Chaurio, Ricardo; Janko, Christina; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E.

    2013-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  9. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielf ältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Gr ößnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen k nnten f r seine Aktivä t verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  10. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  11. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  12. Clearance of von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Denis, Cécile V; Christophe, Olivier D; Oortwijn, Beatrijs D; Lenting, Peter J

    2008-02-01

    The life cycle of von Willebrand factor (VWF) comprises a number of distinct steps, ranging from the controlled expression of the VWF gene in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes to the removal of VWF from the circulation. The various aspects of VWF clearance have been the objects of intense research in the last few years, stimulated by observations that VWF clearance is a relatively common component of the pathogenesis of type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, improving the survival of VWF is now considered as a viable therapeutic strategy to prolong the half-life of factor VIII in order to optimise treatment of haemophilia A. The present review aims to provide an overview of recent findings with regard to the molecular basis of VWF clearance. A number of parameters have been identified that influence VWF clearance, including its glycosylation profile and a number of VWF missense mutations. In addition, in-vivo studies have been used to identify cells that contribute to the catabolism of VWF, providing a starting point for the identification of receptors that mediate the cellular uptake of VWF. Finally, we discuss recent data describing chemically modification of VWF as an approach to prolong the half-life of the VWF/FVIII complex.

  13. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  14. IgM Promotes the Clearance of Small Particles and Apoptotic Microparticles by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Litvack, Michael L.; Post, Martin; Palaniyar, Nades

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibodies are often involved in enhancing particle clearance by macrophages. Although the mechanisms of antibody-dependent phagocytosis have been studied for IgG in greater detail, very little is known about IgM-mediated clearance. It has been generally considered that IgM does not support phagocytosis. Recent studies indicate that natural IgM is important to clear microbes and other bioparticles, and that shape is critical to particle uptake by macrophages; however, the relevance of IgM and particle size in their clearance remains unclear. Here we show that IgM has a size-dependent effect on clearance. Methodology/Principal Findings We used antibody-opsonized sheep red blood cells, different size beads and apoptotic cells to determine the effect of human and mouse IgM on phagocytosis by mouse alveolar macrophages. Our microscopy (light, epifluorescence, confocal) and flow cytometry data show that IgM greatly enhances the clearance of small particles (about 1–2 micron) by these macrophages. There is an inverse relationship between IgM-mediated clearance by macrophages and the particle size; however, macrophages bind and internalize many different size particles coated with IgG. We also show that IgM avidly binds to small size late apoptotic cells or bodies (2–5 micron) and apoptotic microparticles (<2 µm) released from dying cells. IgM also promotes the binding and uptake of microparticle-coated beads. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, while the shape of the particles is important for non-opsonized particle uptake, the particle size matters for antibody-mediated clearance by macrophages. IgM particularly promotes the clearance of small size particles. This finding may have wider implications in IgM-mediated clearing of antigens, microbial pathogens and dying cells by the host. PMID:21448268

  15. Assisted Dying & Disability.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2017-07-01

    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal. I suggest that these changes are likely to only strengthen opposition to assisted dying from disability rights activists and people with disabilities. Second, I focus on respect for people with disabilities and in particular, respect for their autonomy and decision-making abilities. Third, I explore the opposition to assisted dying that focuses on risk and the vulnerability of people with disabilities. Here I suggest that this risk ought not to be of special concern. Ultimately, I conclude that upholding respect for the disabled requires the legalization of assisted dying, rather than the denial of access in a misguided effort to protect people with disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Microwave Blade Tip Clearance System: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisheimer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Newer engines use compressor bleed air and a model to close clearances open loop. Measuring clearances and closing the control loop can add additional efficiencies. Tip clearance control has been identified as a key technology for future engines Additional benefits in prognostics, NSMS, and condition-based maintenance. In the HPT for every 1 mil improvement in clearance: a) SFC decreases 0.1%; and b) EGT margin increases 1 C.

  17. Security Clearances: Consideration of Sexual Orientation in the Clearance Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    Until about 1991, when agencies began to change their security policies and practices regarding sexual orientation, there were a number of documented...cases where defense civilian or contractor employees’ security clearances were denied or revoked because of their sexual orientation. However our...forward and discuss their cases. Notwithstanding these limitations, our work disclosed no evidence that sexual orientation has been used as a criterion

  18. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and

  19. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor...

  20. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment. ...

  3. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a fair...

  4. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  5. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  6. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  7. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  8. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  9. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  10. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., an airplane with an aft mounted propeller must be designed such that the propeller will not contact...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  11. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., an airplane with an aft mounted propeller must be designed such that the propeller will not contact...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  12. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  13. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  14. The Role of Nucleotides and Purinergic Signaling in Apoptotic Cell Clearance – Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Billions of cells undergo apoptosis every day in healthy individuals. A prompt removal of dying cells prevents the release of pro-inflammatory intracellular content and progress to secondary necrosis. Thus, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic cells provokes autoimmunity and has been associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate and related nucleotides play an important role in the apoptotic clearance process. Here, we review the current understanding of nucleotides and purinergic receptors in apoptotic cell clearance and the potential therapeutic targets of purinergic receptor subtypes in inflammatory conditions. PMID:25566266

  15. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  16. Die einzelnen Beanspruchungsarten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Gert; Böge, Wolfgang

    Wird ein Stab mit beliebigem, gleichbleibendem Querschnitt durch die äußere Kraft F in der Schwerachse auf Zug oder Druck beansprucht, so wird bei gleichmäßiger Spannungsverteilung, also in genügender Entfernung vom Angriffspunkt der Kraft, die Zug- oder Druckspannung σ_{z,d}= Zug- oder Druckkraft F/Querschnittsfläche A {Zug- und Druck-Hauptgleichung} σ_{z,d}=F/A\\qquad σ&F&A N/mm2 & N&mm2 Je nach vorliegender Aufgabe kann die Hauptgleichung umgestellt werden zur Berechnung des erforderlichen Querschnitts (Querschnittsnachweis): A_{erf}=F/σ_{zul} Berechnung der vorhandenen Spannung (Spannungsnachweis): σ_{vorh}=F/A Berechnung der maximal zulässigen Belastung (Belastungsnachweis): F_{max}=σ_{zul}A Treten Zug- und Druckspannungen in einer Rechnung gleichzeitig auf, werden sie durch den Index z und d oder durch das Vorzeichen + und - unterschieden.

  17. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  18. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2016-05-05

    Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  19. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have fun with. That absence leaves a big hole in our lives. Maybe you had a pet that died . Remember the first few times you walked into the house after your dog or cat was gone? It was strange not to have ...

  20. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  1. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  2. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  3. When a Student Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    A student athlete died after the first day of football practice in Texas. His parents brought suit (Roventini v. Pasadena Independent School District) for monetary damages in federal district court contending that the defendants violated the student's rights. Presents the judge's analysis of the legal issues. Advises board members and…

  4. Dying to Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, a young football player died as a result of heat exhaustion suffered on the first day of football practice in Arkansas. Spurred by this tragedy, the district made some changes that every school district with an athletic program should consider. These include using a heat-stress monitor; abandoning the practice of group physical…

  5. Dying in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-06-22

    While surveys consistently show that about two thirds of people want to die at home, more than half of all deaths happen in hospitals. And in their last days, many people are cared for by generalist nursing staff who may be reticent, or even afraid, to talk about what is happening.

  6. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... container is gone, but what's inside — the water — remains. The part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part of a human that loves, feels, and creates; it's the part ...

  7. Prediction of drug clearance in children.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naïm; Valade, Elodie; De Sousa Mendes, Mailys; Fauchet, Floris; Benaboud, Sihem; Hirt, Déborah; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2015-07-01

    The pediatric population is often exposed to drugs without sufficient knowledge about pharmacokinetics. The prediction of accurate clearance values in children, especially in neonates and infants, will improve the rational in dosing decisions. Drug clearances from birth to adulthood were compiled after a systematic review of pharmacokinetic reports. The analysis was performed using NONMEM. Clearance predictions were then evaluated by external validation. Prediction errors were also compared with those obtained from weight-based allometric scaling and physiologically based clearance (PBCL) models. For the analysis, 17 and 15 drugs were used for model building and external validation, respectively. A model based on the adult drug clearance value and taking into account both weight and age was retained. Age-related maturation of clearance reached 90% of the adult value within 1.5 years of life. For children less than 2 years old, allometric scaling alone systematically overestimated clearances. Accounting for age improved the clearance prediction in the 6 months-2 years age group (prediction error < 25%). Predictions obtained from the PBCL approach were close to our results. This analysis established a single equation using the adult clearance value as well as individual age and weight to predict drug clearance in children older than 6 months.

  8. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  9. Effect of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes in numerical control rotary draw bending process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lu; Fang, Jun; Li, Yuan; Dai, Li; Xiong, Mengsi; Lu, Shiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Clearance between tube and all kinds of dies has a significant and complicated influence on wrinkling of 21-6-9 high-strength stainless steel tubes (HSST) during numerical control (NC) rotary draw bending process. To explore the effect of that, a three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the whole process for 21-6-9 HSST was build based on FE platform of ABAQUS and validated by the experiment. Then, simulation and study of the process was carried out based on the FE model and the influence laws of clearance on wrinkling of 21-6-9 HSST in NC rotary draw bending were obtained. The results show that the wrinkling wave degree increases obviously with the increase of clearance between mandrel and tube Cm and clearance between bending die and tube Cb, while decreases with increase of clearance between pressure die and tube Cp; the wrinkling wave degree decreases sharply when clearance between wiper die and tube Cw is less than 0.2mm, and the wrinkling wave degree hardly has no variation when Cw is greater than 0.2mm.

  10. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  11. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  12. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the auto-inflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D.; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W.; Green, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in dying cell clearance are postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)1. Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease2, and phagocytes from SLE patients often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we3–6 and others7 described a form of noncanonical autophagy called “LC3-associated phagocytosis” (LAP), wherein phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells3,4,7, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate phagosome maturation and digestion of cargo. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in atg58 and possibly atg79, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP3–7, as predisposition markers for SLE. Here, we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway display elevated serum inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. Dying cells, injected into LAP-deficient animals, are engulfed but not efficiently degraded, and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient animals accelerated SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. In contrast, animals deficient for genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dead cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and like wild-type animals, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:27096368

  13. Techniques and Procedures for Route Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    In response to the mme threal. in Bosnia, we haue included two articles with information on route- clearance techniques. The first article expands...Techniques and Procedures for Route Clearance By William C. Schneck, Jr. and Brian M. Green L and mines are the major threat to U.S. forces...learned many lessons about route clearance during the Vietnam War and had to relearn them a few years ago in Mogadishu, Somalia. While the U.S

  14. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  15. 'We Have No Dying Patients'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lisa

    1974-01-01

    A course on death and dying offered by the University of Maryland School of Nursing focuses on developing relationships between health care workers and dying people, using actual clients as the vehicle for learning. (Author/EA)

  16. Designing a Die for Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Designing a die is in every application field an intensive process of bringing together know how from design, testing and every-day use from previous dies with the new application requirements. Contribution deals with a knowledge oriented, modular and feature integrated computer aided design system for die development. This paper describes the concepts behind designing a hydroforming die for sheet metal forming, with easy application-use in small workshops for testing hydroforming capabilities of different materials.

  17. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  18. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Rep. George Brown dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    George E. Brown, ranking Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, died on July 15 at the age of 79 due to complications following a heart valve replacement last May. He was a strong advocate for science and environmental protection measures, and an independent thinker who sometimes found himself alone or far ahead of other people on issues. A congressman for 34 years who represented first the 29th Congressional District and then the 42nd District in California, Brown served on the science committee since 1965 and was chair from 1991 through 1994.

  20. Phagocytosis of dying tumor cells by human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Britta Janina; Lindau, Dennis; Ripper, Dagmar; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Glatzle, Jörg; Witte, Maria; Beck, Henning; Keppeler, Hildegard; Lauber, Kirsten; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2011-05-15

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an advanced form of metastatic disease characterized by cancer cell dissemination onto the peritoneum. It is commonly observed in ovarian and colorectal cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. Novel therapies consist of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, aiming at tumor cell death induction. The resulting dying tumor cells are considered to be eliminated by professional as well as semi-professional phagocytes. In the present study, we have identified a hitherto unknown type of 'amateur' phagocyte in this environment: human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HMCs). We demonstrate that HMCs engulf corpses of dying ovarian and colorectal cancer cells, as well as other types of apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric, confocal and electron microscopical analyses revealed that HMCs ingest dying cell fragments in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the internalized material subsequently traffics into late phagolysosomes. Regarding the mechanisms of prey cell recognition, our results show that HMCs engulf apoptotic corpses in a serum-dependent and -independent fashion and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that diverse opsonin receptor systems orchestrating dying cell clearance are expressed in HMCs at high levels. Our data strongly suggest that HMCs contribute to dying cell removal in the peritoneum, and future studies will elucidate in what manner this influences tumor cell dissemination and the antitumor immune response.

  1. 31 CFR 205.20 - What is a clearance pattern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a clearance pattern? 205.20... Agreement § 205.20 What is a clearance pattern? States use clearance patterns to project when funds are paid... patterns meet the following standards: (a) A clearance pattern must be auditable. (b) A clearance pattern...

  2. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic...

  3. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  4. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or taxiing... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of...

  5. Cardiopulmonary fitness and respirator clearance: an update.

    PubMed

    Belafsky, Sheri; Vlach, Justin; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses five key questions regarding respirator clearance: What is the efficacy of different methods of respirator clearance? Which diagnostic test is most predictive of cardiac event during respirator use? Is spirometry accurate in predicting respiratory distress/insufficiency during respirator use? Is exercise tolerance testing accurate in predicting cardiac injury during respirator use? Which periodicity of clearance evaluations is most protective against cardiac event during respirator use? The medical literature was searched using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Relevant articles were reviewed to assess current recommendations and practices in respirator clearance. Between the years 1970 and 2011, 144 articles were identified, and 21 were included in this review. Current recommendations for respirator clearance are based on consensus rather than outcome studies, and opinions differed between expert sources. Many authors observed the need for cost-effective respirator clearance, but none proposed evidence-based strategies. Prospective studies on respirator clearance that evaluate cardiac and pulmonary outcomes are necessary to establish an evidence base for improving the validity, efficiency, and consistency of respirator clearance testing.

  6. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  7. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  8. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  9. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export...

  10. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following: (a) Ground clearance. There must be a clearance of at least seven inches (for each airplane with nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or...

  11. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  4. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  5. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  7. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni, Sayed H.; Davis, Scott L.; Ford, Ryan; Liu, James C.; Marshall, Elaine; Schwahn, Scott O.; Welch, Keith

    2017-09-01

    A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property) from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1) clearance criteria, 2) process knowledge, and 3) measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  8. Nasal mucociliary clearance after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S P; Stiles, W; Slattery, W H; Krumerman, J; Parsons, J T; Mendenhall, W M; Cassisi, N J

    1995-04-01

    Irradiation has been demonstrated to cause decreased mucociliary clearance in animal models. We sought to verify this effect clinically by using the saccharin transport test to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance in 9 patients previously treated with radiation therapy to the nasal cavity. The patients also completed a questionnaire examining the prevalence of nasal symptoms before and after radiation therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy had no clearance of saccharin from the nasal cavity at a minimum of 20 minutes. The controls had a median clearance time of 5 minutes. The patients noted a higher prevalence of nasal congestion, drainage, and facial pain after radiation therapy. This study demonstrates that radiation therapy to the nasal cavity causes a decrease in nasal mucociliary clearance. This alteration should be considered when selecting therapy for malignancies in the nasal area.

  9. DOD Personnel Clearances. DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-13

    Services, House of Representatives DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry...Personnel Clearances . DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry Personnel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Accountability Office Why GAO Did This Study Highlights Accountability Integrity Reliability February 13, 2008 DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES DOD Faces Multiple

  10. The measurement of dog gastric mucosal blood flow by radioactive aniline clearance compared with amidopyrine clearance

    PubMed Central

    Curwain, B. P.; Holton, Pamela

    1973-01-01

    1. Methods for the estimation of radioactive aniline in body fluids are described. The recovery of aniline added to blood, plasma and gastric juice was over 90% of the recovery from saline. 2. In the doses used aniline caused methaemoglobinaemia of 5-11% of total haemoglobin. No other effect was detected. Gastric secretion was also unaffected. 3. Aniline clearance increased in parallel with acid secretion from Heidenhain pouches in conscious dogs and in anaesthetized dogs. In conscious dogs the ratio of aniline clearance to acid secretion was significantly higher for histamine stimulation than for pentagastrin stimulation. 4. Aniline and amidopyrine clearances were compared simultaneously in the same dogs. Aniline clearance was about 80% of amidopyrine clearance. 5. The proportion of aniline bound to plasma proteins was measured by two methods and found to be 25%. When aniline clearance was corrected for plasma binding, aniline and amidopyrine clearances were equal. PMID:4689959

  11. Die großen Zeppeline: Die Geschichte des Luftschiffbaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinheins, Peter; Meighörner, Wolfgang

    Über die glanzvolle Zeit der Zeppeline sind viele Bücher erschienen, die vorwiegend den Einsatz der Luftschiffe in Frieden und Krieg schildern. Nur wenige wissen, dass die Baugeschichte der Zeppeline eine der faszinierendsten Phasen der modernen Technik ist. Peter Kleinheins hat dieses Geschehen sachkundig aufgearbeitet und zusammengestellt. Entstanden ist eine reich illustrierte Dokumentation in einer interessanten Mischform aus zeitgenössischen Berichten und hochwertigen Originalquellen.

  12. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  13. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  14. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  15. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  16. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  17. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  18. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  19. Airway clearance therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pisi, Giovanna; Chetta, Alfredo

    2009-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening inherited disease affecting Caucasian people. In CF, the major feature of lung disease is the retention of mucus due to impaired clearance of abnormally viscous airway secretions. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) may significantly improve mucociliary clearance and gas exchange, thereby being of clinical benefit in reducing pulmonary complications in CF patients. ACTs include conventional chest physiotherapy, active cycle of breathing techniques, autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure and high-frequency chest compression. In order to suit the needs of patients, families and care-givers, ACTs need to be individually and continuously adapted.

  20. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  1. Shear-Joint Capability Versus Bolt Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Technical Memorandum presents theoretical study of relationships between load-bearing capabilities of shear joints that comprise plates clamped together by multiple bolts and clearances between bolts and boltholes in those joints.

  2. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  3. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attitude, whichever is most critical. In addition, there must be positive clearance between the propeller and the ground when in the level takeoff attitude with the critical tire(s) completely deflated...

  4. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  5. Shear joint capability versus bolt clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a conservative analysis approach into the determination of shear joint strength capability for typical space-flight hardware as a function of the bolt-hole clearance specified in the design are presented. These joints are comprised of high-strength steel fasteners and abutments constructed of aluminum alloys familiar to the aerospace industry. A general analytical expression was first arrived at which relates bolt-hole clearance to the bolt shear load required to place all joint fasteners into a shear transferring position. Extension of this work allowed the analytical development of joint load capability as a function of the number of fasteners, shear strength of the bolt, bolt-hole clearance, and the desired factor of safety. Analysis results clearly indicate that a typical space-flight hardware joint can withstand significant loading when less than ideal bolt hole clearances are used in the design.

  6. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  7. Dying and 'euthanasia'.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1992-07-01

    Medical progress, secularisation of life, growing acceptance of individual human rights (including the right to refuse medical treatment) and of shared decision-making in medicine have focused public attention on the ways in which life may, and perhaps even ought to, be allowed to end in our complex modern era. Intense and thoughtful bio-ethical debate over many years has 'unpacked' the many different understandings and interpretations of the word euthanasia. The consequent conceptual clarification together with recognition and acknowledgement of psychological implications has facilitated a growing rational consensus on openly accepting the withholding and withdrawing of treatment (under defined conditions) within the realm of sound medical practice. This is clearly distinct from assisted suicide and active euthanasia which are generally considered unacceptable perversions of medical practice. Given the ability to sustain life for prolonged periods, often in a permanent state of unconsciousness, the unrealistic expectations of some medical personnel and the lay public, the severe constraints on health care facilities in South Africa and the totally inadequate allocation of resources for highly effective medical treatments, it is appropriate to re-open public debate on the limits of 'striving officiously to keep alive' and on the distinction between 'allowing to die' and 'killing'. Concern that 'rational' arguments reflect moral decay rather than moral progress keeps the debate open and focuses attention on some 'slippery slope' consequences.

  8. Airway-clearance therapy guidelines and implementation.

    PubMed

    Lester, Mary K; Flume, Patrick A

    2009-06-01

    The clearance of secretions from the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is an important component in the fight to preserve their lung function. There is excessive inflammation in the airways of these patients, which is thought to be exaggerated by ineffective mucociliary clearance and bacterial infection. In 2005 the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation formed the Pulmonary Therapies Committee to review all of the medical literature on the various airway-clearance therapies used in treating CF lung disease. The recommendations were: an airway-clearance therapy should be performed by all patients with CF, no form of airway-clearance therapy stood out as being superior to another, and that patients may express a preference of one therapy over another. They also concluded that aerobic exercise is beneficial to patients with CF, as it is to everyone, and that exercise should be a component to the overall health routine of patients with CF. The challenge for respiratory and physical therapists together with the patient/family is to develop a plan of attack through the use of various airway-clearance therapies. The respiratory and physical therapists are integral in helping patients and families develop airway-clearance routines that aid in the removal of the secretions that cause airway obstruction. There is a wide range of airway-clearance therapies that therapists can choose from when they are teaching the patients and family members the strategies of secretion removal. The questions are: What therapy is best for what age or stage of lung disease? What therapies will the patient do? And which therapies will be covered by medical insurance? These are all fundamental questions that must be answered when guiding families in finding therapies that are effective and appropriate for each CF patient's unique situation.

  9. [A renal function analysis using computed tomography. CT clearance versus 131I-hippuran clearance].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, H; Klose, K

    1992-06-01

    The CT clearance in a number of urological patients (39 patients, 25 with normal renal function) was studied by means of an "area under curve" (AUC) method, using a region of interest. 31 patients were given meglumine ioxithalamate and 8 patients Iopamidol as a contrast medium. Both for total and partial function there was highly significant correlation with isotope clearance with good reproducibility. The difference in the pharmacokinetics of the contrast media affected the absolute clearance values.

  10. I Could Have Died Laughing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael Forrest; Smith, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Notes that caregivers of the dying would do well to consider the prescriptive power of humor when confronting the challenges of healthy care for the terminally ill. Addresses laughter as the best medicine not only for the dying person but also for family and principal caregivers. Includes examples of therapeutic use of humor with the terminally…

  11. ADAPTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TURBINE ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center primarily deals in developing controls, dynamic models, and health management technologies for air and space propulsion systems. During the summer of 2004 I was granted the privilege of working alongside professionals who were developing an active clearance control system for commercial jet engines. Clearance, the gap between the turbine blade tip and the encompassing shroud, increases as a result of wear mechanisms and rubbing of the turbine blades on shroud. Increases in clearance cause larger specific fuel consumption (SFC) and loss of efficient air flow. This occurs because, as clearances increase, the engine must run hotter and bum more fuel to achieve the same thrust. In order to maintain efficiency, reduce fuel bum, and reduce exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the clearance must be accurately controlled to gap sizes no greater than a few hundredths of an inch. To address this problem, NASA Glenn researchers have developed a basic control system with actuators and sensors on each section of the shroud. Instead of having a large uniform metal casing, there would be sections of the shroud with individual sensors attached internally that would move slightly to reform and maintain clearance. The proposed method would ultimately save the airline industry millions of dollars.

  12. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  13. The evidence for secretion clearance techniques.

    PubMed

    Hess, D R

    2001-11-01

    Many acute and chronic respiratory diseases are associated with increased respiratory secretions in the airways. Narrative reviews and a few systematic reviews of secretion clearance techniques have been published. These reviews raise concerns regarding the lack of evidence to support the various secretion clearance techniques. I conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the following subjects: chest physical therapy, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, forced expiratory technique, autogenic drainage, high-frequency chest wall compression, flutter device and secretions, positive expiratory pressure and secretions, intrapulmonary percussion, mechanical in-exsufflation and secretions. This was followed by a comprehensive search of cross-references to identify additional studies. The results of this review are reported herein. There are a number of methodological limitations of the literature reporting studies of the use of secretion clearance techniques. Most of the studies were small, most used crossover designs, and few used sham therapy. Many studies were limited to short-term outcomes such as sputum clearance with a single treatment session. Despite the clinical observation that retained secretions are detrimental to respiratory function and despite anecdotal associations between secretion clearance and improvements in respiratory function, there is a dearth of high-level evidence to support any secretion clearance technique.

  14. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  15. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  16. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  17. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  18. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  19. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  20. 48 CFR 245.7203 - Assigning plant clearance case numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assigning plant clearance....7203 Assigning plant clearance case numbers. (a) Use a three-part, 11-character number constructed as... clearance number on DD Form 1635, Plant Clearance Case Register, or mechanized equivalent....

  1. 48 CFR 245.7202 - Establishing a plant clearance case.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance case. 245.7202 Section 245.7202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....7202 Establishing a plant clearance case. (a) Upon receipt of an acceptable inventory schedule or a DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record, the plant clearance officer shall establish a plant clearance case...

  2. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  3. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer...

  4. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  5. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  6. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  7. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  8. Nuclear Receptors and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: Stimulating the Macrophage’s Appetite

    PubMed Central

    A-Gonzalez, Noelia; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages occurs as a coordinated process to ensure tissue homeostasis. Macrophages play a dual role in this process; first, a rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the dying cells is needed to eliminate uncleared corpses that can promote inflammation. Second, after engulfment, macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype, to avoid unwanted immune reactions against cell components. Several nuclear receptors, including liver X receptor and proliferator-activated receptor, have been linked to these two important features of macrophages during apoptotic cell clearance. This review outlines the emerging implications of nuclear receptors in the response of macrophages to cell clearance. These include activation of genes implicated in metabolism, to process the additional cellular content provided by the engulfed cells, as well as inflammatory genes, to maintain apoptotic cell clearance as an “immunologically silent” process. Remarkably, genes encoding receptors for the so-called “eat-me” signals are also regulated by activated nuclear receptors after phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, thus enhancing the efficiency of macrophages to clear dead cells. PMID:24860573

  9. Dying: A universal human experience?

    PubMed

    Bregman, L

    1989-03-01

    This paper explores the question, "Is there a universal psychological experience suffered by all dying persons?" a question to which the popular theory of Kübler-Ross presupposes an affirmative answer. Our answer takes three steps: first, a comparison between the Kübler-Ross model of dying and that of the late medievalBook of the Craft of Dying centered upon the five Kübler-Ross "stages"; second, a philosophical critique of the terms of this comparison; and third, a revised look at the alleged similarities between the two models, providing a deeper look at the moral and spiritual assumptions behind each.

  10. The role of the effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 for cell death and corpse clearance in the developing optic lobe in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Hiromi; Hara, Yusuke; Togane, Yu; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Hiraoka, Tsuyoshi; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2015-08-15

    In the developing Drosophila optic lobe, cell death occurs via apoptosis and in a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern of dying cell clusters. We analyzed the role of effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 in optic lobe cell death and subsequent corpse clearance using mutants. Neurons in many clusters required either drICE or dcp-1 and each one is sufficient. This suggests that drICE and dcp-1 function in cell death redundantly. However, dying neurons in a few clusters strictly required drICE but not dcp-1, but required drICE and dcp-1 when drICE activity was reduced via hypomorphic mutation. In addition, analysis of the mutants suggests an important role of effecter caspases in corpse clearance. In both null and hypomorphic drICE mutants, greater number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed than in wild type, and many TUNEL-positive cells remained until later stages. Lysotracker staining showed that there was a defect in corpse clearance in these mutants. All the results suggested that drICE plays an important role in activating corpse clearance in dying cells, and that an additional function of effector caspases is required for the activation of corpse clearance as well as that for carrying out cell death.

  11. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: airway clearance therapies.

    PubMed

    Flume, Patrick A; Robinson, Karen A; O'Sullivan, Brian P; Finder, Jonathan D; Vender, Robert L; Willey-Courand, Donna-Beth; White, Terry B; Marshall, Bruce C

    2009-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized by dehydration of airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, there is difficulty clearing pathogens from the lung, and patients experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. Clearance of airway secretions has been a primary therapy for those with CF, and a variety of airway clearance therapies (ACTs) have been developed. Because ACTs are intrusive and require considerable time and effort, it is important that appropriate techniques are recommended on the basis of available evidence of efficacy and safety. Therefore, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for each therapy and provide guidance for their use. A systematic review was commissioned, which identified 7 unique reviews and 13 additional controlled trials that addressed one or more of the comparisons of interest and were deemed eligible for inclusion. Recommendations for use of the ACTs were made, balancing the quality of evidence and the potential harms and benefits. The committee determined that, although there is a paucity of controlled trials that assess the long-term effects of ACTs, the evidence quality overall for their use in CF is fair and the benefit is moderate. The committee recommends airway clearance be performed on a regular basis in all patients. There are no ACTs demonstrated to be superior to others, so the prescription of ACTs should be individualized. Aerobic exercise is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for airway clearance and for its additional benefits to overall health.

  12. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  13. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  14. Effects of airborne pollutants on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.

    1986-04-01

    The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of data on the effect of in vivo air pollutant exposures on the clearance of test particles from airways. Data from both animals and humans are compared whenever possible, so that estimates of human health effects may be made. Mechanisms of action are also discussed, presenting the view that for low level exposures, changes in secretions are probably responsible for most observed changes in clearance. The pollutants pertinent to this review are those that are common in the environment and most likely to have impacts on large numbers of people: sulfur oxides, sulfuric acid mist, O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, particulates, diesel exhaust, and cigarette smoke.149 references.

  15. Effects of airborne pollutants on mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, R K

    1986-01-01

    The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of data on the effect of in vivo air pollutant exposures on the clearance of test particles from airways. Data from both animals and humans are compared whenever possible, so that estimates of human health effects may be made. Mechanisms of action are also discussed, presenting the view that for low level exposures, changes in secretions are probably responsible for most observed changes in clearance. The pollutants pertinent to this review are those that are common in the environment and most likely to have impacts on large numbers of people: sulfur oxides, sulfuric acid mist, O3, NO2, particulates, diesel exhaust, and cigarette smoke. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 4. PMID:3519203

  16. Heat treatment of forging dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovnar, S. A.; Kadnikov, S. A.

    1987-08-01

    In forging-die production there is a considerable range of forging dies which are promising for a changeover into advanced heat treatment involving bulk temper hardening and surface hardening using induction heating. The heat treatment suggested provides a saving of material resources as a result of improving the life of forging dies by a factor of 1.5-3 depending on the grade of die steel. As a result of induction hardening of forging dies, after temper hardening close to the boundary of the hardened layer a zone of reduced hardness forms whose unfavorable effect may be reduced by using before induction surface hardening bulk warming in a furnace or deep induction heating with a reduced energy concentration in the heating zone to the tempering temperature in the temper hardening cycle. In order to improve the uniformity of induction surface hardening for dies with a complex working shape it is desirable to use heating at reduced power with an increase in heating time.

  17. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS).

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2015-12-01

    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  18. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela; Holland, Anne E

    2013-05-31

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production and these features may be associated with progressive decline in clinical status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine the effects of ACTs on the rate of acute exacerbations, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis.Secondary: to determine whether a) ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis and b) ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to October 2012, PEDro in October 2012 and handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT to no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies involving 51 participants met the inclusion criteria of the review, all of which were cross-over design. Four studies were on adults with stable bronchiectasis, and the other study was on clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies were single treatment sessions, two were longer-term studies. The interventions varied and some control groups received a sham intervention while others were inactive. The methodological quality of the studies was variable and the studies were not able to blind participants and personal. Heterogeneity between studies precluded these data from meta-analysis and the review was therefore narrative.One study on 20 adults comparing an airway oscillatory device with no treatment found no significant

  19. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Holland, Anne E

    2015-11-23

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production, features that may be associated with progressive decline in clinical and functional status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine effects of ACTs on rates of acute exacerbation, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. Secondary: to determine whether:• ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis; and• ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to November 2015 and PEDro in March 2015, and we handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT versus no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Seven studies involving 105 participants met the inclusion criteria of this review, six of which were cross-over in design. Six studies included adults with stable bronchiectasis; the other study examined clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies provided single treatment sessions, two lasted 15 to 21 days and two were longer-term studies. Interventions varied; some control groups received a sham intervention and others were inactive. The methodological quality of these studies was variable, with most studies failing to use concealed allocation for group assignment and with absence of blinding of participants and personnel for outcome measure assessment. Heterogeneity between studies precluded inclusion of

  20. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mucociliary clearance from the calf lung.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C D

    1983-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance rate constants for ten calves were obtained using Technetium 99m-sulphur colloid complex. The mean rate constant measured at the lung for all calves was 0.012 (+/- 0.009) min-1 (half-life 58 minutes). The clearance rate constants obtained from measurements made at the larynx were higher (0.02 +/- 0.007 min-1), although not significantly higher, than those determined from measurements taken at the lung. The constants can be used to predict the particle burden on the lungs of calves kept under husbandry systems of varying air hygiene. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6640409

  2. [Dose and time dependency of "CT clearance"].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, H A; Klose, K J; Dexheimer, C; von Steinijans

    1989-06-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of "CT clearance" on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be preferred in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes.

  3. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  4. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; O'Flaherty, E J; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Green, F H; Vallyathan, V

    2001-08-01

    To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in this study had worked in the Beckley, West Virginia, area and died during the 1960s. The data used to develop this model include exposure to respirable coal mine dust by intensity and duration within each job, lung and lymph node dust burdens at autopsy, pathological classification of fibrotic lung disease, and smoking history. Initial parameter estimates for this model were based on both human and animal data of particle deposition and clearance and on the biological and physical factors influencing these processes. Parameter estimation and model fit to the data were determined using least squares. Results show that the end-of-life lung dust burdens in these coal miners were substantially higher than expected from first-order clearance kinetics, yet lower than expected from the overloading of alveolar clearance predicted from rodent studies. The best-fitting and most parsimonious model includes processes for first-order alveolar-macrophage-mediated clearance and transfer of particles to the lung interstitium. These results are consistent with the particle retention patterns observed previously in the lungs of primates. The findings indicate that rodent models extrapolated to humans, without adjustment for the kinetic differences in particle clearance and retention, would be inadequate for predicting lung dust burdens in humans. Also, this human lung kinetic model predicts greater retained lung dust burdens from occupational exposure than predicted from current human models based on lower exposure data. This model is useful for risk assessment of particle-induced lung diseases, by estimating equivalent internal

  5. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Element of the Intelligence Community .................... 7 i. The time in days to process the shortest and longest security clearance determination...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Intelligence Authorization Act (IAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 20101 requires the President to submit an annual Report on Security

  6. 29 CFR 1918.41 - Coaming clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hatch beams and hatch covers are not protected by a coaming at least 24-inch (.61 m) high, a taut... athwartship hatch beams, and at both ends of those hatches with fore and aft hatch beams, before intermediate deck hatch covers and hatch beams are removed or replaced. Exception: The three-foot (.91 m) clearance...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  10. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Personnel Security Investigative Requirements § 154.16...

  11. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Personnel Security Investigative Requirements § 154.16...

  12. Effects of Bearing Clearance on Turbopump Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Effects of bearing clearances, or "dead bands," on bearing loads and rotor stability in turbopumps examined in a 194-page report. Relatively simple mathematical force model for analyzing effects highlighted. Report shows nonlinear characteristics resulting from bearing dead bands have significant effect on dynamics of turbomachinery and not ignored as in the past.

  13. Clearance of seborrhoeic keratoses with topical dobesilate

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Salgüero, Irene; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    A patient with two seborrhoeic keratoses in the face received a single daily application of dobesilate cream during 6 months. Dobesilate achieved complete clearance of the seborrhoeic keratosis lesions with good cosmoses, suggesting that this compound is a safe and efficient candidate in the treatment of seborrhoeic keratoses. PMID:22729328

  14. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be...

  16. Control of signaling-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells by the tumor suppressor p53

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Kwon, Eunjeong; Hwang, So-Young; Chu, Kiki; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Jo, Seung-Hee; Weins, Astrid; Hakroush, Samy; Cebulla, Angelika; Sykes, David B.; Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter; Fisher, David E.; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W.

    2016-01-01

    The inefficient clearance of dying cells can lead to abnormal immune responses, such as unresolved inflammation and autoimmune conditions. We show that tumor suppressor p53 controls signaling-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through its target, Death Domain1α (DD1α), which suggests that p53 promotes both the proapoptotic pathway and postapoptotic events. DD1α appears to function as an engulfment ligand or receptor that engages in homophilic intermolecular interaction at intercellular junctions of apoptotic cells and macrophages, unlike other typical scavenger receptors that recognize phosphatidylserine on the surface of dead cells. DD1α-deficient mice showed in vivo defects in clearing dying cells, which led to multiple organ damage indicative of immune dysfunction. p53-induced expression of DD1α thus prevents persistence of cell corpses and ensures efficient generation of precise immune responses. PMID:26228159

  17. Carbamazepine clearance and seizure stability during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Emily L; Stowe, Zachary N; Ritchie, James C; Newport, D Jeffrey; Newman, Melanee L; Knight, Bettina; Pennell, Page B

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the alterations in total and free carbamazepine (CBZ) and in total and free carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EPO) clearances during pregnancy, to calculate the change in free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-EPO during pregnancy, and to determine whether seizure worsening is associated with a low ratio to nonpregnant baseline concentration of total or free CBZ or CBZ-EPO. Women on CBZ were enrolled before conception or during pregnancy in this prospective, observational study. Concomitant medications and seizure frequency were recorded. Serum total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO were collected at each visit. Changes in the clearance of all four compounds and free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-EPO were compared with nonpregnant baseline. During pregnancy, the ratios to baseline concentrations of total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO were compared for months with and without increased seizure frequency. Total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO clearances were calculated in 15 pregnancies in 12 women. Clearances did not change for any of these compounds during pregnancy. The free fraction of CBZ increased from 0.23 at baseline to a maximum of 0.32 in the third trimester (p=0.008). In the six women on CBZ monotherapy with adequate seizure diaries and blood sampling, seizure worsening did not correspond to a ratio to baseline concentration of less than 0.65 for total or free CBZ or CBZ-EPO. In conclusion, total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO clearances did not change substantially during pregnancy, and seizure frequency worsening was not associated with decreased concentrations of total or free CBZ; therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring may not be necessary for all women on CBZ during pregnancy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed before definitive recommendations can be made. Carbamazepine monotherapy may be a relatively safe and cost effective treatment option for women with focal epilepsy syndromes during pregnancy.

  18. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  20. Early Enhanced Local Neutrophil Recruitment in Peritonitis-Induced Sepsis Improves Bacterial Clearance and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Craciun, Florin L.; Schuller, Elizabeth R.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are critical for the rapid eradication of bacterial pathogens, but they also contribute to the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. We hypothesized that increasing early recruitment of neutrophils to the focus of infection will increase bacterial clearance and improve survival. Sepsis was induced in mice, using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); blood samples were collected at 6 and 24 h; and survival was followed for 28 d. In separate experiments, peritoneal bacteria and inflammatory cells were measured. Septic mice predicted to die based on IL-6 levels (Die-P) had higher concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the peritoneum and plasma compared with those predicted to live (Live-P). At 6 h, Live-P and Die-P had equivalent numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and bacteria. In Die-P mice the number of peritoneal bacteria increased between 6 and 24 h post-CLP, whereas in Live-P it decreased. The i.p. injection of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in naive mice resulted in local neutrophil recruitment. When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. This early increase in neutrophils induced by exogenous chemokines resulted in significantly fewer peritoneal bacteria by 24 h [CFU (log) = 6.04 versus 4.99 for vehicle versus chemokine treatment; p < 0.05]. Chemokine treatment significantly improved survival at both 5 d (40 versus 72%) and 28 d (27 versus 52%; p < 0.02 vehicle versus chemokines). These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis. PMID:21041722

  1. Early enhanced local neutrophil recruitment in peritonitis-induced sepsis improves bacterial clearance and survival.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Florin L; Schuller, Elizabeth R; Remick, Daniel G

    2010-12-01

    Neutrophils are critical for the rapid eradication of bacterial pathogens, but they also contribute to the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. We hypothesized that increasing early recruitment of neutrophils to the focus of infection will increase bacterial clearance and improve survival. Sepsis was induced in mice, using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); blood samples were collected at 6 and 24 h; and survival was followed for 28 d. In separate experiments, peritoneal bacteria and inflammatory cells were measured. Septic mice predicted to die based on IL-6 levels (Die-P) had higher concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the peritoneum and plasma compared with those predicted to live (Live-P). At 6 h, Live-P and Die-P had equivalent numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and bacteria. In Die-P mice the number of peritoneal bacteria increased between 6 and 24 h post-CLP, whereas in Live-P it decreased. The i.p. injection of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in naive mice resulted in local neutrophil recruitment. When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. This early increase in neutrophils induced by exogenous chemokines resulted in significantly fewer peritoneal bacteria by 24 h [CFU (log) = 6.04 versus 4.99 for vehicle versus chemokine treatment; p < 0.05]. Chemokine treatment significantly improved survival at both 5 d (40 versus 72%) and 28 d (27 versus 52%; p < 0.02 vehicle versus chemokines). These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis.

  2. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone. ...

  3. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program...

  4. The assessment of glomerular function: creatinine clearance or plasma creatinine?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D. B.; Dillon, S.; Payne, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Plasma creatinine concentration is superior to creatinine clearance for the detection of abnormal glomerular function, of changes of glomerular function in patients with chronic renal disease. Creatinine clearance should be abandoned as the routine assessment of glomerular function. PMID:673986

  5. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  6. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  7. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  8. WWW-based data entry for document clearance requests

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiak, D.M.

    1997-10-08

    All documents created at Argonne must be cleared before being published. The clearance process is coordinated by the Publications and Record Services. The Electronic Document Review and Clearance System (EDRC) consists of a Web-based system for submission of clearance requests, an electronic staging area for document awaiting review, and Web-based review and clearance of documents. This report covers the document clearing process, the EDRC system, expected benefits/costs, and a demonstration.

  9. Adjustable Bearing System with Selectively Optimized Installational Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-30

    ÄÖQ¥ÄL1HE mssx^. Navy Case No. 78,325 PATENTS ADJUSTABLE BEARING SYSTEM WITH SELECTIVELY OPTIMIZED INSTALLATIONAL CLEARANCES BACKGROUND OF THE... clearance 7 conditions. 8 9 10 .. small range of clearances within which to accommodate various operational conditions. Thus, a 12 very tight... clearance is extremely difficult to achieve for certain installations or conditions such as 13 quiet submarine control surface operation and

  10. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  11. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  12. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  13. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency,...

  14. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency,...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  16. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  17. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  20. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  2. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  5. 75 FR 70341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of... Desk Officer and SSA Reports Clearance Officer to the following addresses or fax numbers. (OMB),...

  6. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  8. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It is recognized that clearance of counsel for the parties is sometimes desirable for proper preparation of a...

  9. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  10. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  11. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  12. 75 FR 37518 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of... Desk Officer and SSA Reports Clearance Officer to the following addresses or fax numbers. (OMB),...

  13. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  15. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case. ...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main frame...

  1. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  2. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  3. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  4. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  5. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  6. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  7. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  8. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  9. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  10. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  11. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  12. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  13. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies... responsible for requesting clearance of its counsel well in advance so that clearance requirements will...

  14. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  15. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  16. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  17. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  18. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  19. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  20. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  1. Market Mechanism for Line Congestion Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes a mechanism for clearance of line congestion and power flow control in a deregulated market environment. The mechanism applies penalties to the bilateral transactions that cause line congestion by increasing the prices of such transactions. The market regulates itself by redefining the transactions and checking again for violations, applying penalties if necessary and repeating the process until all the demand is satisfied without causing line congestion to the system. A bilateral transaction matrix (BTM) creation algorithm developed by the authors and a DC power flow program are integrated as parts of the market mechanism proposed in this paper. The congestion is cleared by the market participants when they reschedule their transactions. This mechanism is useful to study the effects of bilateral transactions on a power system and helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to create rules and market mechanisms for line congestion clearance and power flow control.

  2. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  3. Augmented Renal Clearance in Pediatric Patients With Febrile Neutropenia Associated With Vancomycin Clearance.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keita; Ihara, Setsuko; Kinae, Ayumi; Ikegaya, Kenichi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Hirano, Keiko; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin (VCM) dosage optimization in the early stages of therapy is required to achieve target trough serum concentrations, particularly in critically ill patients. Augmented renal clearance (ARC), commonly characterized by an enhanced renal clearance, has been associated with subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors including febrile neutropenia for both ARC and VCM clearance in Japanese pediatric patients. A total of 109 pediatric patients with normal renal function were included in this observational study. From VCM serum concentrations, individual VCM clearance was estimated by the Bayesian method using a 1-compartment model. Patients were classified on the basis of the presence of febrile neutropenia, cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation. Risk factors for ARC, as defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above median value (≥160 mL·min·1.73 m), were evaluated. Febrile neutropenia was only an independent risk factor for ARC (odds ratio, 5.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-21.66, P = 0.0030), which was the result of a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of febrile neutropenia with VCM clearance, the significant independent factors of VCM clearance were age and eGFR but not febrile neutropenia, as estimated by the stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. This observational study concluded that febrile neutropenia, a significant risk factor for ARC, indirectly influenced VCM clearance towing to an elevated eGFR. Cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation were not significantly associated with ARC; however, more studies are needed to validate this observation. Adjustment of the initial dosage of VCM is required for achieving optimal therapeutic concentrations in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia.

  4. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C. Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Methods Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. Results After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Conclusions Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection. PMID:28125841

  5. Army Delivers Route Clearance Vehicle Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Husky Vehicle-Mount- ed Mine-Detection (VMMD) System, the Buffalo® Mine- Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV), the Panther Medium Mine-Protected...cord (POR) RCVs—the Husky, the Buf- falo, and the Panther . POR-configured Huskys, Buffalos, and Panthers have already been fielded in-theater—albeit...IED vehicle equipped with a distinctive hydraulic arm that inter- rogates suspected explosive hazards and clears them when necessary. The Panther

  6. Activating the 42d Clearance Company

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    System– Enhanced. ■ Establishing supply and maintenance accounts. ■ Procuring the unit guidon . Other documents created to expedite and track the...SUBTITLE Activating the 42d Clearance Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Engineer School,Engineer Professional Bulletin,464 MANSCEN

  7. Reduced methadone clearance during aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Thong, Nancy; Flockhart, David A

    2012-08-01

    Methadone is increasingly used in pain management and is a cornerstone in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. It is subject to highly variable clearance among patients. The complete metabolic disposition of methadone is likely to involve a number of enzymes, including specifically CYP2B6. Previous studies in vitro suggest that metabolism by aromatase may also contribute. Single-dose methadone pharmacokinetics (2 mg, intravenous) were studied in 15 healthy postmenopausal women in the presence and absence of a potent aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. A sequential design was used, involving a control period followed by treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/d, 11 days), in which each subject served as her own control. On average, letrozole treatment reduced methadone systemic clearance by 22% (P = 0.001), increased methadone AUC by 23% (P = 0.007), and increased elimination half-life by 21% (P = 0.042). The plasma parent-to-metabolite ratio also increased (P = 0.009), and there was a linear relationship (R2 = 0.74) between change in this plasma ratio and change in methadone AUC0-∞. In contrast, there was no such association with change in apparent urinary methadone clearance. Letrozole did not change methadone distribution half-life or its volume of distribution. Overall, these data demonstrate a significant decrease in methadone clearance during coadministration of letrozole, consistent with decreased metabolism brought about by aromatase inhibition. An involvement of aromatase in the disposition of methadone may help explain the difficulty in methadone dosing and suggests a broader role for this catalyst of endogenous steroid metabolism in xenobiotic drug disposition.

  8. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  9. Oxidative burst and neutrophil elastase contribute to clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Steve; Weber, Michael; Stein, Pamela; Bosmann, Markus; Stassen, Michael; Kreft, Andreas; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P

    2014-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are important for the control of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major threat to immunocompromised individuals. For clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus infections, PMN employ their potent oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. To clarify the relative contribution of these mechanisms, we analyzed p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) and elastase (ELA) deficient mice (ELANE) after intratracheal infection with A. fumigatus. Infected p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) mice died within 4 days and had a significant higher fungal burden in the lungs compared to wild-type controls. Interestingly, the survival of ELANE mice after infection was unimpaired suggesting that ELA is not essential here. Nevertheless, A. fumigatus clearance was delayed in ELANE mice indicating a partial contribution of ELA to fungal immunity. Comparing p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) or ELANE mice for PMN activation and recruitment to the lungs, we were unable to detect significant differences in vitro or in vivo among mutant or wild-type strains suggesting intact PMN functionality of basic effector mechanisms. Fungal killing in vitro by ELA deficient PMN was comparably reduced as in p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) deficient PMN corroborating the importance of oxidative and non-oxidative PMN mechanisms for the control of fungal outgrowth. Taken together, this suggests that intact oxidative as well as non-oxidative PMN effector functions are highly relevant for the control of A. fumigatus infections in vitro and in vivo. While ELA contributes to clearance of A. fumigatus, the oxidative functions are essential for survival.

  10. Elastase-mediated phosphatidylserine receptor cleavage impairs apoptotic cell clearance in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Vandivier, R. William; Fadok, Valerie A.; Hoffmann, Peter R.; Bratton, Donna L.; Penvari, Churee; Brown, Kevin K.; Brain, Joseph D.; Accurso, Frank J.; Henson, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an early and sustained influx of inflammatory cells into the airways and by release of proteases. Resolution of inflammation is normally associated with the orderly removal of dying apoptotic inflammatory cells through cell recognition receptors, such as the phosphatidylserine receptor, CD36, and αv integrins. Accordingly, removal of apoptotic inflammatory cells may be impaired in persistent inflammatory responses such as that seen in cystic fibrosis airways. Examination of sputa from cystic fibrosis and non–cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients demonstrated an abundance of apoptotic cells, in excess of that seen in patients with chronic bronchitis. In vitro, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis airway fluid directly inhibited apoptotic cell removal by alveolar macrophages in a neutrophil elastase-dependent manner, suggesting that elastase may impair apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Flow cytometry demonstrated that neutrophil elastase cleaved the phosphatidylserine receptor, but not CD36 or CD32 (FcγRII). Cleavage of the phosphatidylserine receptor by neutrophil elastase specifically disrupted phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, implying a potential mechanism for delayed apoptotic cell clearance in vivo. Therefore, defective airway clearance of apoptotic cells in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis may be due to elastase-mediated cleavage of phosphatidylserine receptor on phagocytes and may contribute to ongoing airway inflammation. PMID:11877474

  11. Evaluation of lung clearance of inhaled pertechnegas.

    PubMed

    Fanti, S; Compagnone, G; Pancaldi, D; Franchi, R; Corbelli, C; Marengo, M; Onofri, C; Galassi, R; Levorato, M; Monetti, N

    1996-02-01

    Pertechnegas is a new ventilation agent produced by modifying the atmosphere of combustion of Technegas. Due to its rapid disappearance from the lungs, Pertechnegas has been suggested as useful in measuring pulmonary epithelial permeability. This study aimed to assess the reliability of ventilation scans with Pertechnegas to evaluate alveolar-capillary permeability. Six non-smokers with no evidence of pulmonary disease were investigated. Scintigraphic data were used to evaluate the site of Pertechnegas deposition (by assessing the Penetration Index [PI] of the gas), its clearance rate (by calculating the time to half-clearance [T1/2]) and its lung distribution (by means of a pixel-by-pixel analysis. PI measurements produced a mean value of 88.8 +/- 13.3% (range 69-117%). Time activity curves showed a fast clearance in all cases (mean T1/2 = 10.7 +/- 2.1 min, range 8.1-14.3 min). Comparison of statistical indices of uniform deposition (skewness and kurtosis) indicated satisfactory homogeneity of Pertechnegas distribution throughout the lungs. These data show that after inhalation Pertechnegas has a peripheral deposition and a homogeneous distribution in the lungs and is rapidly cleared through the alveolar-capillary barrier. In conclusion Pertechnegas can be recommended as a potential radiopharmaceutical for studying the pulmonary epithelial barrier.

  12. Antipyrine clearance during occupational exposure to styrene.

    PubMed Central

    Døssing, M

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have indicated that styrene, which is a widely used organic solvent, may induce the microsomal enzyme function of the liver. Thirteen workers with long-term exposure to styrene in a polyester plant were investigated. They worked at air concentrations about the maximal allowed time-weighted average concentration of styrene in most Western countries (50 ppm). The clearance of antipyrine was determined from saliva concentrations before and after three weeks free of exposure and then again three weeks after returning to work. Thirteen matched controls were investigated with similar intervals and methods. No significant differences were found between the half life, apparent volume of distribution, or clearance of antipyrine either within the groups or between the groups. The data exclude (95% confidence limit) the possibility that occupational exposure to styrene at concentrations about 50 ppm stimulates the microsomal enzyme function of the liver to a degree compatible with an increase in antipyrine clearance of more than 2 ml x min-1 (3%). While the first antipyrine estimation was carried out under medical supervision, the workers themselves managed to perform the antipyrine test correctly after verbal and written instructions. This has broadened the application of the antipyrine test. PMID:6131688

  13. Airway clearance strategies for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Kathryn L

    2002-07-01

    Clinicians who care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have many techniques to choose from to facilitate mucus clearance. Little has been published about when to introduce the various techniques and in what order to teach them. Debates have occurred over these issues in the CF community, and there is now consensus on some topics. It is very important to teach adherence to therapy at an early age. Adherence to an airway clearing regimen assists in maintaining good pulmonary function in CF patients. Knowing when and how to introduce airway clearance techniques beyond chest physiotherapy (CPT) is clinically relevant and useful. A 5-position modified CPT routine can be used with infants and children, and it takes less time and may improve adherence. Infants and toddlers can be taught breathing games that eventually lead them to perform diaphragmatic breathing and huffing. Once they have mastered diaphragmatic breathing and huffing, children can be taught the active cycle of breathing technique. Modified CPT can be phased out at that point. Positive expiratory pressure therapy can usually be introduced around 6-7 years of age. High-frequency chest wall oscillation, oscillating positive expiratory pressure, and autogenic drainage all follow. CF patients should be given every opportunity to learn and master various techniques to promote mucus clearance.

  14. Effect of ultrafiltration on peritoneal dialysis drug clearances.

    PubMed

    Lau, A H; Chow-Tung, E; Assadi, F K; Fornell, L; John, E

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of dialysate osmolarity on peritoneal dialysis drug transfer, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital, and tobramycin were determined in 10 rabbits using dialysate containing 1.5 and 4.25% glucose. Urea and creatinine clearances were also obtained for comparison. Under similar dialysis conditions, the peritoneal clearances of the three drugs remained unchanged for the two types of dialysate. In contrast, the peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine were significantly higher with the use of 4.25% glucose dialysate (p less than 0.001). Thus, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital and tobramycin are not significantly affected by hypertonicity-induced ultrafiltration during acute peritoneal dialysis.

  15. Influence of clearance between piston and cylinder on piston friction

    SciTech Connect

    Takiguchi, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Furuhama, S

    1988-01-01

    It is desired to minimize clearance between the piston and the cylinder to reduce noise and suppress vibration. Although significant effort has been made for this purpose, increased piston friction force and the occurrence of seizure still prevent the ideal clearance from being realized. In order to determine the lower limit of the piston clearance, it is crucial to clarify the following unknowns; which part of piston contributes to friction increase as the piston clearance is decreased, during which phase of the piston motion the friction increase occurs, and how the piston clearance affects lubrication phenomena.

  16. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  17. A micro-mechanical evaluation of the effects of die hardener on die stone.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Hong; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Planitz, Nina; Swain, Michael V

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of a die hardener penetrated layer and evaluate its protective effects on the surface of die stone. A commercial die hardener (PDQ die hardener, Whipmix corp., USA) was tested on a die stone (GC Fujirock EP die stone, GC Europe, Belgium) and a dental plaster (Dental Stone, United States Gypsum Company, USA). Nanoindentation and micro-scratch tests were performed on both coated and uncoated specimens. The scratch damage was observed by SEM and the penetration depth of die hardener was detected by the affiliated EDX. Upon drying, the die hardener penetrated into the die stone to a depth of 3-5 microm, and deposited a thin film on the surface of die stone. Although the die hardener penetrated layer did not show improved mechanical properties, the die hardener film on the surface did protect the specimens from abrasion damage.

  18. Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.

  19. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  20. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  1. Integrated Forming Simulations and Die Structural Analysis for Optimal Die Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Liu, Malcolm; Dong, Jennifer; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuan-tao

    2005-08-01

    After gaining a huge success in applying stamping simulations and formability analysis to validate die face developments, GM moves forward to winning total manufacturability in stamping process. Of which, ensuring die structure integrity and minimizing weight is one of the important initiatives. Stamping die design (or solid modeling of stamping dies) was traditionally conducted by following the die design manuals and standards. For any design changes beyond the standards, however, there are no math-based tools available to die designers to verify the outcome of the changes. Die structural analysis (DSA) provides a math-tool to validate the design changes and quantify the safety factors. Several years ago, GM Manufacturing Engineering — Die Center started die structural analysis to meet the increasing demands of customer needs in various areas: (1) to validate design changes; (2) to identify root cause of die breakage during the tryout and stamping operations and propose repair schemes; (3) to optimize the die design for weight reduction; (4) to improve press throughput via optimizing the scrap chute openings, and (5) to provide a math-based tool to validate revisions to the current die design standards. In the integrated forming and die structural analysis, after successful line die surface developments, the forming loads (binder force, pad force, and forming tonnages) are extracted from forming simulations and applied to solid die members for structural analyses of stress, strains, and deflections. In the past few years, Die Center conducted static, dynamic and fatigue analysis for many dies that covers the die design changes requested by die design, die construction and stamping plants. This paper presents some fundamentals and issues of integrated forming and die structural analysis and illustrates the significant impact of die structural analysis on die design, die construction and production stamping.

  2. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas D G; Sinha, Devan; Gilbert, Barnabas J

    2014-01-15

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion "This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying". This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework.

  3. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  4. Adolescents’ Perceived Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Millstein, Susan G.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although adolescents’ expectations are accurate or moderately optimistic for many significant life events, they greatly overestimate their chances of dying soon. We examine here whether adolescents’ mortality judgments are correlated with their perceptions of direct threats to their survival. Such sensitivity would indicate the importance of ensuring that adolescents have accurate information about those threats, as well as the psychological support needed to deal with them. Methods Data from two separate studies were used: a national study of 3,436 14–18 year old adolescents and a regional sample of 124 7th graders and 132 9th graders, 12–16 years old. Participants were asked about their chance of dying in the next year and before age 20, and about the extent of various threats to their physical well being. Results Adolescents in both samples greatly overestimated their chance of dying. Those mortality estimates were higher for adolescents who reported direct threats (e.g., an unsafe neighborhood). Thus, adolescents were sensitive to the relative size of threats to their survival, but not to the implications for absolute risk levels. Conclusions Contrary to the folk wisdom that adolescents have a unique sense of invulnerability, those studied here reported an exaggerated sense of mortality, which was highest among those reporting greater threats in their lives. Such fears could affect adolescents’ short-term well being and future planning. PMID:20159504

  5. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  6. Letting die and mercy killing.

    PubMed

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

    2003-01-01

    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  7. Dying autologous cells as instructors of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Munoz, L E; Herrmann, M; Berens, C

    2015-01-01

    In an organism, cell death occurs at many different sites and in many different forms. It is frequently part of normal development or serves to maintain cell homeostasis. In other cases, cell death not only occurs due to injury, disease or infection, but also as a consequence of various therapeutic interventions. However, in all of these scenarios, the immune system has to react to the dying and dead cells and decide whether to mount an immune response, to remain quiet or to initiate healing and repopulation. This is essential for the organism, testified by many diseases that are associated with malfunctioning in the cell death process, the corpse removal, or the ensuing immune responsiveness. Therefore, dying cells generally have to be considered as instructors of the immune system. How this happens and which signals and pathways contribute to modulate or shape the immune response is still elusive in many conditions. The articles presented in this Special Issue address such open questions. They highlight that the context in which cell death occurs will not only influence the cell death process itself, but also affect the surrounding cellular milieu, how the generation and presence of 'eat me' signals can have an impact on cell clearance, and that the exact nature of the residual 'debris' and how it is processed are fundamental to determining the immunological consequences. Hopefully, these articles initiate new approaches and new experiments to complete our understanding of how cell death and the immune system interact with each other.

  8. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  9. Clearance of minute virus of mice by flocculation and microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Han, Binbing; Carlson, Jonathan O; Powers, Scott M

    2004-06-20

    Clearance of minute virus of mice (MVM) from CHO cell suspensions by flocculation and microfiltration has been investigated. MVM is a parvovirus that is recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for validating clearance of parvoviruses. The feed streams were flocculated using a cationic polyelectrolyte. Virus clearance in excess of 10,000-fold was obtained in the bulk permeate for flocculated feeds streams. However, the level of clearance was only about 10- to 100-fold for unflocculated feed streams. The results suggest that virus clearance involves interactions between the MVM particles, the cationic polyelectrolyte, and the CHO cells present. Validating virus clearance is a major concern in the biotechnology industry. New unit operations are frequently added to the purification train simply to validate virus clearance. However, many of these unit operations are less effective at validating clearance of nonenveloped viruses. Validating clearance of parvoviruses is often particularly problematic as they are nonenveloped and the virus particles are small (18 to 24 nm), making physical removal difficult. The results obtained herein indicate that addition of the cationic polyelectrolyte not only results in significant clearance of MVM but also leads to an increase in permeate flux. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lithium clearance in mineralocorticoid escape in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, W.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Mees, E.J.D.

    1987-03-01

    Lithium clearance (C/sub Li/) has been advanced as an indicator of Na delivery from the proximal tubules. The authors studied C/sub Li/ in eight healthy males before and after mineralocorticoid escape, a maneuver that may induce suppression of fractional proximal Na reabsorption (FPR/sub Na/). FPR/sub Na/ was also estimated from changes in maximal free water clearance (C/sub H/sub 2/O/). Plasma volume was measured as the /sup 131/I-labeled albumin distribution space. Extracellular fluid volume was estimated as the /sup 82/Br vector distribution volume. According to the latter method, FPR/sub Na/ dropped whereas inulin clearance rose. The changes in C/sub Li/ were surprisingly large. If lithium is a valid marker of Na handling in the proximal tubule in humans, this change would imply a fall in FPR/sub Na/, suggesting a much larger shift in tubular Na reabsorption in escape than hitherto suspected. In addition, it would suggest that the inevitable back diffusion of a part of the solute-free water in the distal nephron, and thus overestimation of FPR/sub Na/ by the C/sub H/sub 2/O/ method, increases importantly during escape. Alternately, lithium may not be a good marker of proximal tubular Na handling. For instance, both lithium reabsorption and escape may take place beyond the proximal tubule, or lithium may be excreted in the distal nephron in certain conditions. Present methods do not permit further analysis of these options in the human model.

  11. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  12. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  13. Carbamazepine clearance in hemodialysis and hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Oles, K S; Gal, P; Love, J M

    1989-02-01

    A 47-year-old woman with endstage renal disease and dialysis-induced encephalopathy was being treated with carbamazepine for myoclonus. Her carbamazepine serum concentration appeared to be therapeutic at 5.1 micrograms/ml. She experienced a seizure while on hemodialysis/hemoperfusion that was possibly related to the removal of carbamazepine during dialysis. The elimination of carbamazepine on a dialysis day was compared with elimination on a nondialysis day. The half-life and apparent clearance were the same for each day, indicating that hemodialysis/hemoperfusion had little effect on the overall removal of carbamazepine from the body. The possible reasons for this lack of effect are discussed.

  14. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  15. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  16. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...main molded blade with a span of 3.42 in., a removable molded blade segment with a span of 0.1875 in., and removable blade tip winglets made of glass...segment and the main blade to vary the distance between the blade end and the front wall of the cascade section. The winglets were machined using a

  17. In vivo characterization of microglial engulfment of dying neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Morsch, Marco; Radford, Rowan; Lee, Albert; Don, Emily K; Badrock, Andrew P; Hall, Thomas E; Cole, Nicholas J; Chung, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are specialized phagocytes in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). As the resident immune cells of the CNS they play an important role in the removal of dying neurons during both development and in several neuronal pathologies. Microglia have been shown to prevent the diffusion of damaging degradation products of dying neurons by engulfment and ingestion. Here we describe a live imaging approach that uses UV laser ablation to selectively stress and kill spinal neurons and visualize the clearance of neuronal remnants by microglia in the zebrafish spinal cord. In vivo imaging confirmed the motile nature of microglia within the uninjured spinal cord. However, selective neuronal ablation triggered rapid activation of microglia, leading to phagocytic uptake of neuronal debris by microglia within 20-30 min. This process of microglial engulfment is highly dynamic, involving the extension of processes toward the lesion site and consequently the ingestion of the dying neuron. 3D rendering analysis of time-lapse recordings revealed the formation of phagosome-like structures in the activated microglia located at the site of neuronal ablation. This real-time representation of microglial phagocytosis in the living zebrafish spinal cord provides novel opportunities to study the mechanisms of microglia-mediated neuronal clearance.

  18. In vivo characterization of microglial engulfment of dying neurons in the zebrafish spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Morsch, Marco; Radford, Rowan; Lee, Albert; Don, Emily K.; Badrock, Andrew P.; Hall, Thomas E.; Cole, Nicholas J.; Chung, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are specialized phagocytes in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). As the resident immune cells of the CNS they play an important role in the removal of dying neurons during both development and in several neuronal pathologies. Microglia have been shown to prevent the diffusion of damaging degradation products of dying neurons by engulfment and ingestion. Here we describe a live imaging approach that uses UV laser ablation to selectively stress and kill spinal neurons and visualize the clearance of neuronal remnants by microglia in the zebrafish spinal cord. In vivo imaging confirmed the motile nature of microglia within the uninjured spinal cord. However, selective neuronal ablation triggered rapid activation of microglia, leading to phagocytic uptake of neuronal debris by microglia within 20–30 min. This process of microglial engulfment is highly dynamic, involving the extension of processes toward the lesion site and consequently the ingestion of the dying neuron. 3D rendering analysis of time-lapse recordings revealed the formation of phagosome-like structures in the activated microglia located at the site of neuronal ablation. This real-time representation of microglial phagocytosis in the living zebrafish spinal cord provides novel opportunities to study the mechanisms of microglia-mediated neuronal clearance. PMID:26379496

  19. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  20. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  1. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  2. Dynamics analysis of space robot manipulator with joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Bai, Zheng Feng

    2011-04-01

    A computational methodology for analysis of space robot manipulator systems, considering the effects of the clearances in the joint, is presented. The contact dynamics model in joint clearance is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered using the Coulomb friction model. The space robot system dynamic equation of manipulator with clearance is established. Then the dynamics simulation is presented and the dynamics characteristics of robot manipulator with clearance are analyzed. This work provides a practical method to analyze the dynamics characteristics of space robot manipulator with joint clearance and improves the engineering application. The computational methodology can predict the effects of clearance on space robot manipulator preferably, which is the basis of space robot manipulator design, precision analysis and ground test.

  3. CF6 High Pressure Compressor and Turbine Clearance Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. A.; Cline, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    In the CF6 Jet Engine Diagnostics Program the causes of performance degradation were determined for each component of revenue service engines. It was found that a significant contribution to performance degradation was caused by increased airfoil tip radial clearances in the high pressure compressor and turbine areas. Since the influence of these clearances on engine performance and fuel consumption is significant, it is important to accurately establish these relatonships. It is equally important to understand the causes of clearance deterioration so that they can be reduced or eliminated. The results of factory engine tests run to enhance the understanding of the high pressure compressor and turbine clearance effects on performance are described. The causes of clearance deterioration are indicated and potential improvements in clearance control are discussed.

  4. Impact of convective transport on dialyzer clearance.

    PubMed

    Galach, Magda; Ciechanowska, Anna; Sabalińska, Stanislawa; Waniewski, Jacek; Wójcicki, Jan; Weryńskis, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The results of predictions of three mathematical models used to describe the impact of convective flow on dialyzer clearance are presented. These models are based on the ordinary differential equations, which describe changes of solute concentration and solute and fluid flows along the module length. One of the models takes into consideration the existence of the boundary layers on both sides of the membrane wall, by including in the equations two parameters kB and kD, which describe mass transport coefficients in blood and dialysate, respectively. In the second model, the boundary layers are included in one lumped membrane permeability parameter. The diffusive membrane permeability was calculated from pure diffusive clearance, which was taken from experimental results. In the third model, a linear dependence of transmittance coefficient and ultrafiltration flow was proposed. The theoretical results were compared with data obtained in experiments carried out in vitro with four types of high-flux hollow-fiber dialyzers. The comparisons demonstrate that the first two models are of similar accuracy and the third model is not suitable for small solutes.

  5. Physiotherapy for airway clearance in adults.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J A

    1999-12-01

    Techniques for augmenting, when necessary, the normal mucociliary and cough clearance mechanisms of the lungs are not new, but, in more recent years, techniques have been developed which are effective, comfortable and can be used independent of an assistant in the majority of adolescents and adults. Postural drainage with chest clapping and chest shaking has, in most parts of the world, been replaced by the more effective techniques of the active cycle of breathing, autogenic drainage, R-C Cornet, Flutter, positive expiratory pressure mask, high-frequency chest wall oscillation and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation. Glossopharyngeal breathing is being considered again and is often a useful technique for increasing the effectiveness of cough in patients with tetraplegia or neuromuscular disorders. The evidence in support of these techniques is variable, and the literature is confusing and conflicting. There may or may not be significant differences among the techniques in the short or long term. Many of the regimens now include the forced expiratory manoeuvre of a "huff" and this has probably increased the effectiveness of airway clearance. If objective differences are small, individual preferences and cultural influences may be significant in increasing adherence to treatment and in the selection of an appropriate regimen or regimens for an individual patient.

  6. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  7. Measuring foot placement and clearance during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Muhaidat, Jennifer; Kerr, Andrew; Rafferty, Danny; Skelton, Dawn A; Evans, Jonathan J

    2011-03-01

    Falls during stair descent are a serious problem and can lead to accidental death. Inappropriate foot placement on, and clearance over, steps have been identified as causes for falls on stairs. This study investigated a new method for measuring placement and clearance during stair descent in 10 healthy young subjects. The effect of foot length was accounted for during the measurement of foot placement by calculating the percentage length of the foot overhanging the step. Foot clearance was measured as the resultant of the minimum vertical and horizontal distances from the heel of the foot to the edge of the step. Clearance was divided into landing and passing clearance depending on the planned placement of the foot in relation to the step edge being cleared. Each subject performed seven trials of stairs descent. Mean (SD) and CV (SD) were 16% (6), 0.28 (0.15) for placement; 45.88 (10.05), 0.21 (0.07) for landing clearance; 107.25 (5.59), 0.25 (0.08) for passing clearance. There was no statistically significant effect of trial on placement and clearance (p>0.05). There was a significant effect of step number on landing and passing clearance (p=0.01, p<0.001 respectively). Landing and passing clearances were greater for the third step compared to the second step. Passing clearance was also significantly greater than landing clearance (p<0.001). The repeatable methods and findings from this study might be useful in providing a technical background and normal values for the design of future gait studies on stairs.

  8. Airway clearance techniques in the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McIlwaine, M P; Davidson, A G

    1996-11-01

    Airway clearance is a major component of the management of cystic fibrosis. In North America, the airway clearance technique of choice has been physiotherapy using postural drainage combined with chest percussion, deep breathing and vibration. The disadvantages of this technique, the introduction of newer airway clearance techniques, and a greater emphasis on exercise has sparked a growing trend to prescribing individualized programs combining exercise with strategies adapted to the needs of each patient.

  9. Modeling of Inhalation Administration of Vapors with Capacity Limited Clearance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-12

    airways and vapors. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reverse side It neceeer mod identify by block’ mber) :o-*actors, affecting dependence of metabolic clearance ...Administration of Vapors Interim Scientific Report with Capacity Limited Clearance 6-30-81 until 6-30-82 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 8...capacity limited metabolism, computer, gases, interaction of vapors in the body, intrinsic clearance , multi-compartmental simulation model, respiratory

  10. Application of clearance automatic laser inspection system to clearance measurement of concrete waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed for the clearance measurement of metal scraps. It utilizes three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, y-ray measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, and has outstanding detection ability. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of background (BG) gamma rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be compensated for to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for y-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To apply CLALIS to the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the original activity evaluation method was improved by adding a new compensation procedure. In this procedure, BG count rate due to natural radionuclides is estimated by a Monte Carlo calculation with pre-analyzed data of a representative sample of the measurement target. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in concrete differs markedly depending on the production location of its components, such as cement and aggregates. In this study, using six mock concrete waste samples, which were composed of cement and fine aggregate from various production locations, the accuracy of BG compensation was experimentally estimated. In addition, the accuracy of calibration for concrete waste was also estimated using a number of mock concrete segments of small and large triangular prisms. By considering the uncertainties of BG compensation and calibration, the detection limit of CLALIS for concrete waste was estimated. As a result, it was revealed that CLALIS could be applied to the clearance measurement of concrete segments when the mass of the measurement target is greater than approximately 1.1 kg and the key radionuclide is Co-60

  11. ESR measurement of radical clearance in lung of whole mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Utsumi, H.; Hamada, A. )

    1991-06-14

    Clearance of the nitroxide radicals, hydroxy-TEMPO and carboxy-PROxYL, in whole-mouse lung was directly measured by in vivo ESR. After injecting a nitroxide radical, distribution of the nitroxide radical all over the lung was confirmed by ESR imaging. The ESR signal of hydroxy-TEMPO was reduced in the lung and the clearance obeyed first-order kinetics, whereas the signal of carboxy-PROxYL remained constant. Comparison of the clearance rates of live and dead mice indicated the presence of 2 different clearance systems in the lung: loss of its paramagnetism in the lung, and transfer from alveolar to the blood circulation system.

  12. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  13. Epithelial repair is a two-stage process driven first by dying cells and then by their neighbours.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Dorothy; Mehonic, Aida; Kajita, Mihoko; Peter, Loïc; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume; Gale, Jonathan E

    2014-03-15

    Epithelial cells maintain an essential barrier despite continuously undergoing mitosis and apoptosis. Biological and biophysical mechanisms have evolved to remove dying cells while maintaining that barrier. Cell extrusion is thought to be driven by a multicellular filamentous actin ring formed by neighbouring cells, the contraction of which provides the mechanical force for extrusion, with little or no contribution from the dying cell. Here, we use live confocal imaging, providing time-resolved three-dimensional observations of actomyosin dynamics, to reveal new mechanical roles for dying cells in their own extrusion from monolayers. Based on our observations, the clearance of dying cells can be subdivided into two stages. The first, previously unidentified, stage is driven by the dying cell, which exerts tension on its neighbours through the action of a cortical contractile F-actin and myosin ring at the cell apex. The second stage, consistent with previous studies, is driven by a multicellular F-actin ring in the neighbouring cells that moves from the apical to the basal plane to extrude the dying cell. Crucially, these data reinstate the dying cell as an active physical participant in cell extrusion.

  14. CSF clearance in Alzheimer Disease measured with dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-03-16

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) comes from primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents where predominant extra-cranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Using dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F-THK5117 a tracer for tau pathology, the ventricular CSF time activity was used as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested three hypotheses: 1. Extra-cranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; 2. CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and 3. CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: 15 subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers were examined with (18)F-THK5117. 10 subjects additionally received (11)C-PiB PET scans and 8 were PiB positive. Ventricular time activity curves (TAC) of (18)F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated TAC from extra-cranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF positive extra-cranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinates CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  16. Pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA aerosol clearance and survival in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)

    PubMed Central

    Mogulkoc, N; Brutsche, M; Bishop, P; Murby, B; Greaves, M; Horrocks, A; Wilson, M; McCullough, C; Prescott, M; Egan, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Clearance of inhaled technetium 99m-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs is a potential indicator of disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
METHODS—We prospectively analysed the usefulness of this technique for predicting survival in 106 non-smoking patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern IPF diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) scanning or histological examination (M/F 65/41, mean (SD) age 61 (11) years). DTPA clearance was analysed according to both mono-exponential and bi-exponential models. Half times for the fast (t0.5F) and slow (t0.5S) components of clearance, the percentage contribution of the fast component (fF), and half time for mono-exponential approximation to the early part of the clearance curve (t0.5) were calculated.
RESULTS—The patients had substantially faster t0.5 (mean 23.9 (9.6) minutes) than normal values (>45 minutes). Thirty seven patients (35%) died during follow up (median 15 months). Univariate Cox regression analysis identified significant predictors of survival as age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), % predicted TLC, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), % predicted TLCO, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), oxygen saturation, t0.5F, and HRCT fibrosis score. Multiple stepwise Cox regression analysis identified t0.5F (p=0.03, hazard ratio 0.747, 95% CI 0.578 to 0.964), % predicted TLC (p=0.02, hazard ratio 0.976, 95% CI 0.956 to 0.995), % predicted TLCO (p=0.003, hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.935 to 0.986), and age (p=0.003, hazard ratio 1.062, 95% CI 1.021 to 1.104) as independent predictors of survival.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest that 99mTc-DTPA clearance t0.5F measurement may predict survival in patients with UIP pattern IPF.

 PMID:11713353

  17. Improved Flight Test Procedures for Flutter Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick C.; Brenner, Martin J.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    Flight flutter testing is an integral part of flight envelope clearance. This paper discusses advancements in several areas that are being investigated to improve efficiency and safety of flight test programs. Results are presented from recent flight testing of the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft. A wingtip excitation system was used to generate aeroelastic response data. This system worked well for many flight conditions but still displayed some anomalies. Wavelet processing is used to analyze the flight data. Filtered transfer functions are generated that greatly improve system identification. A flutter margin is formulated that accounts for errors between a model and flight data. Worst-case flutter margins are computed to demonstrate the flutter boundary may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated. This paper concludes with developments for a distributed flight analysis environment and on-line health monitoring.

  18. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-02-27

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale.

  19. [Mucociliary clearance function and medicamentous modification].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F

    1996-09-01

    Mucociliary clearance represents a complex self-cleaning mechanism of the lung and is based on the functional unity of ciliated columnar cells and the special viscoelastic properties of the secretion produced in the tracheobronchial system. It has been known for a long time that intubation and mechanical ventilation can impair mucous transport and lead to morphological damage to the tracheobronchial mucosa. Recent studies made it clear, however, that mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia using an appropriate anaesthesiological technique has no deleterious effect on mucus transport in patients with healthy lungs. Ventilated patients in the intensive-care unit frequently have impaired mucus transport, which is associated with the development of retention of secretion and nosocomial pneumonia. In these patients a number of factors combine to form a formidable potential insult to the mucociliary transport mechanism. Numerous drugs can affect mucociliary transport. Beta-mimetics and theophylline, in particular, have a favourable effect on mucociliary transport, whereas the effect of mucolytic agents is controversial.

  20. Miscellaneous losses. [tip clearance and disk friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The boundary-layer losses associated with the flow process in the blade channel are discussed. To determine the overall design point efficiency of a turbine, other losses must also be considered; these include tip clearance loss and disk friction loss. The sum of these losses normally comprises all the losses that are considered in the design of a full admission axial flow turbine. If, however, a partial admission turbine is being considered, there are additional losses that must be included. The partial admission losses usually considered are the pumping loss in the inactive blade channels and the filling-and-emptying loss in the blade passages as they pass through the admission arc. Finally, a loss that occurs at off-design operation of any turbine is the incidence loss.

  1. Anthrax edema toxin impairs clearance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sastalla, Inka; Tang, Shixing; Crown, Devorah; Liu, Shihui; Eckhaus, Michael A; Hewlett, Indira K; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2012-02-01

    The anthrax edema toxin (ET) of Bacillus anthracis is composed of the receptor-binding component protective antigen (PA) and of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic moiety, edema factor (EF). Uptake of ET into cells raises intracellular concentrations of the secondary messenger cyclic AMP, thereby impairing or activating host cell functions. We report here on a new consequence of ET action in vivo. We show that in mouse models of toxemia and infection, serum PA concentrations were significantly higher in the presence of enzymatically active EF. These higher concentrations were not caused by ET-induced inhibition of PA endocytosis; on the contrary, ET induced increased PA binding and uptake of the PA oligomer in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the PA receptors TEM8 and CMG2 in both myeloid and nonmyeloid cells. ET effects on protein clearance from circulation appeared to be global and were not limited to PA. ET also impaired the clearance of ovalbumin, green fluorescent protein, and EF itself, as well as the small molecule biotin when these molecules were coinjected with the toxin. Effects on injected protein levels were not a result of general increase in protein concentrations due to fluid loss. Functional markers for liver and kidney were altered in response to ET. Concomitantly, ET caused phosphorylation and activation of the aquaporin-2 water channel present in the principal cells of the collecting ducts of the kidneys that are responsible for fluid homeostasis. Our data suggest that in vivo, ET alters circulatory protein and small molecule pharmacokinetics by an as-yet-undefined mechanism, thereby potentially allowing a prolonged circulation of anthrax virulence factors such as EF during infection.

  2. Psychiatry and the dying prisoner.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life. This article presents the common elements of prison hospice programmes and the role psychiatry plays in this multidisciplinary effort. The right-to-die movement holds future implications for correctional mental health professionals. The historical and legal background of this international movement is presented with particular attention given to landmark cases and statutes protecting institutionalized patients.

  3. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  4. Bacteria Interactions with Dying Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smriga, S.; Juarez, G.; Fernandez, V.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Dying phytoplankton are surrounded by microscale gradients of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can attract bacteria. These 'phycospheres' may impact the trophic transfer of DOM in the marine microbial food web and enable the growth of bacterial populations, yet these effects remain poorly quantified particularly in relation to the physiological state of the phytoplankton. We dissected phycosphere interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution using the model diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the bacterium Marinobacter adhaerans. Diatom stress was stimulated by addition of polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA) and both diatom and bacterial responses were captured via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. We found that stressed diatoms underwent lysis 10-15 h after PUA treatment. Coordinated with the timing of this transition into phytodetritus, wild-type Marinobacter accumulated via chemotaxis near the diatoms immediately following lysis. In contrast, at lysis there was no accumulation of either a non-chemotactic or a non-motile mutant of Marinobacter, pointing to behavioral rather than demographic responses as drivers for the accumulation. Despite the lack of response, non-chemotactic as well as non-swimming bacterial cells that by chance attached to or were located near (<30 µm) stressed diatoms experienced more growth than cells further afield. Growth within the phycosphere was even greater after diatom lysis. Through quantification at the microscale, these results reveal that chemotaxis may precede rapid bacterial attachment to stressed and dying diatoms and may be integral to the microbial colonization of new phytodetritus during phytoplankton blooms and bloom collapses in coastal ecosystems. Even while chemotactic cells retain a growth advantage given their ability to sense and respond to lysis events, phycosphere DOM provides growth benefits to both motile and non-motile taxa that become attached to or happen to be co-located with new

  5. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  6. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  7. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  8. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  9. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  10. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed...

  11. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title...

  13. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological contaminants...

  14. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question...

  15. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question...

  16. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  17. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  18. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  19. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  20. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....204-73 Section 952.204-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... granted by the Secretary of Energy. In addition, a Facility Clearance and foreign ownership, control and... Department of Energy Facility Clearance generally need not resubmit the following foreign...

  1. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  2. 5 CFR 720.307 - Interagency report clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency report clearance. 720.307 Section 720.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Interagency report clearance. The reports contained in this regulation have been cleared in accordance...

  3. 10 CFR 95.53 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.53 Section 95.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.53 Termination of facility...

  4. 48 CFR 245.7310-8 - Antitrust clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust clearance. 245.7310-8 Section 245.7310-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Antitrust clearance. When property with an acquisition cost of $3 million or more is to be sold, include...

  5. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency,...

  6. 33 CFR 160.115 - Withholding of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding of clearance. 160.115... § 160.115 Withholding of clearance. Each District Commander or Captain of the Port may request the Secretary of the Treasury, or the authorized representative thereof, to withhold or revoke the...

  7. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry and clearance. 122.26 Section 122.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  8. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  9. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  10. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  11. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  12. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  13. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  14. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  16. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents... address the problem of overhead clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with accurate vertical air draft information, a maritime organization has...

  17. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  18. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  19. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  20. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Collet, Séverine H. Picard-Hagen, Nicole Lacroix, Marlène Z. Puel, Sylvie Viguié, Catherine Bousquet-Melou, Alain Toutain, Pierre-Louis Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  1. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    PubMed

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance.

  2. 76 FR 17978 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in compliance...

  3. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND...

  4. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  5. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  6. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND...

  8. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  9. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  10. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed...

  11. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  12. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  13. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  14. Benefits of Improved HP Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Albers, Bob; Sak, Wojciech; Seitzer, Ken; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the NASA Propulsion 21 program, GE Aircraft Engines was contracted to develop an improved high pressure turbine(HPT) active clearance control (ACC) system. The system is envisioned to minimize blade tip clearances to improve HPT efficiency throughout the engine operation range simultaneously reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

  15. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  16. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  17. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  18. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  19. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  20. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  1. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  2. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  3. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  4. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  5. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  6. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  7. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  8. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  9. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  10. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  11. Comparison of serum iohexol clearance and plasma creatinine clearance in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katherine E; Wilcke, Jeff R; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L; McKenzie, Harold C; Scarratt, W Kent

    2009-12-01

    Objective-To determine whether a limited sampling time method based on serum iohexol clearance (Cl(iohexol)) would yield estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinically normal horses similar to those for plasma creatinine clearance (Cl(creatinine)). Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-A bolus of iohexol (150 mg/kg) was administered IV, and serum samples were obtained 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after injection. Urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine was measured during three 20-minute periods. The GFR determined by use of serum Cl(iohexol) and plasma Cl(creatinine) was compared with limits of agreement plots. Results-Values obtained for plasma Cl(creatinine) ranged from 1.68 to 2.69 mL/min/kg (mean, 2.11 mL/min/kg). Mean serum Cl(iohexol) was 2.38 mL/min/kg (range, 1.95 to 3.33 mL/min/kg). Limits of agreement plots indicated good agreement between the methods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Use of serum Cl(iohexol) yielded estimates of GFR in clinically normal adult horses similar to those for plasma Cl(creatinine). This study was the first step in the evaluation of the use of serum Cl(iohexol) for estimating GFR in adult horses.

  12. The scavenger receptor SCARF1 mediates apoptotic cell clearance and prevents autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ortiz, Zaida G.; Pendergraft, William F.; Prasad, Amit; Byrne, Michael H.; Iram, Tal; Blanchette, Christopher J.; Luster, Andrew D.; Hacohen, Nir; Khoury, Joseph El; Means, Terry K.

    2013-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is critical for control of tissue homeostasis however the full range of receptor(s) on phagocytes responsible for recognition of apoptotic cells remains to be identified. Here we show that dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and endothelial cells use scavenger receptor type F family member 1 (SCARF1) to recognize and engulf apoptotic cells via C1q. Loss of SCARF1 impairs uptake of apoptotic cells. Consequently, in SCARF1-deficient mice, dying cells accumulate in tissues leading to a lupus-like disease with the spontaneous generation of autoantibodies to DNA-containing antigens, immune cell activation, dermatitis and nephritis. The discovery of SCARF1 interactions with C1q and apoptotic cells provides insights into molecular mechanisms involved in maintenance of tolerance and prevention of autoimmune disease. PMID:23892722

  13. Monitoring the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Zao; Lu, Nan; He, Xiangwei; Zhou, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying the mechanisms -controlling cell death, including apoptosis, a cell suicide event, and necrosis, pathological cell deaths caused by environmental insults or genetic alterations. C. elegans has also been established as a model for understanding how dying cells are cleared from animal bodies. In particular, the transparent nature of worm bodies and eggshells make C. elegans particularly amenable for live-cell microscopy. Here we describe methods for identifying apoptotic and necrotic cells in living C. elegans embryos, larvae, and adults and for monitoring their clearance during development. We further discuss specific methods to distinguish engulfed from unengulfed apoptotic cells, and methods to monitor cellular and molecular events occurring during phagosome maturation. These methods are based on Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscopy or fluorescence microscopy using GFP-based reporters.

  14. Impaired Clearance of Apoptotic Cells in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Szondy, Zsuzsa; Garabuczi, Éva; Joós, Gergely; Tsay, Gregory J.; Sarang, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis every day. Removal of the dead cells by phagocytosis (a process called efferocytosis) must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory cell contents that damages the tissue environment and provokes autoimmunity. In addition, detection and removal of apoptotic cells generally induces an anti-inflammatory response. As a consequence improper clearance of apoptotic cells, being the result of either genetic anomalies and/or a persistent disease state, contributes to the establishment and progression of a number of human chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune and neurological disorders, inflammatory lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, or atherosclerosis. During the past decade, our knowledge about the mechanism of efferocytosis has significantly increased, providing therapeutic targets through which impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and the consequent inflammation could be influenced in these diseases. PMID:25136342

  15. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  16. 76 FR 36167 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... the request for OMB's clearance of this information collection. Issued in Washington, DC on June 15, 2011. Carla Scott, FAA Information Collection Clearance Officer, IT Enterprises Business...

  17. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  18. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  19. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W,; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  20. Foot clearance during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Kathryn A; Okita, Noriaki; Higginson, Jill S; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2005-02-01

    It is likely that many stair accidents result from a trip during stair negotiation, yet few studies have examined the exact nature of balance loss during falls on stairs. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential age-related differences in the minimum clearance of the foot during stair descent, and to explore whether the minimum foot clearance was affected by the available ambient lighting. Twelve young adults (24+/-3.3 years) and 10 older adults (73.7+/-1.9 years) participated in the study. The older adults had significantly greater within subject coefficients of variation compared to the young adults, and had a significantly larger number of minimum foot clearances which fell below 5 mm. While the young subjects increased their minimum clearance by 3.6 mm on average in response to a decrease in ambient lighting, the older adults maintained the same clearance over all stairs except one. These results suggest that the variability of minimum foot clearance, and lack of precautionary increases in foot clearance under reduced lighting may contribute to falls on stairs by the elderly.

  1. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  2. Inter-individual variation in midazolam clearance in children

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Mohammed I; Sammons, Helen; Choonara, Imti

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent of inter-individual variation in clearance of midazolam in children and establish which factors are responsible for this variation. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify papers describing the clearance of midazolam in children. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. From the papers, the range in plasma clearance and the coefficient of variation (CV) in plasma clearance were determined. Results 25 articles were identified. Only 13 studies gave the full range of clearance values for individual patients. The CV was greater in critically ill patients (18%–170%) than non-critically ill patients (13%–54%). Inter-individual variation was a major problem in all age groups of critically ill patients. The CV was 72%–106% in preterm neonates, 18%–73% in term neonates, 31%–130% in infants, 21%–170% in children and 47%–150% in adolescents. The mean clearance was higher in children (1.1–16.7 mL/min/kg) than in neonates (0.78–2.5 mL/min/kg). Conclusions Large inter-individual variation was seen in midazolam clearance values in critically ill neonates, infants, children and adolescents. PMID:25281734

  3. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  4. A novel relay method for determining low-clearance values.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Trapa, Patrick; Obach, R Scott; Atkinson, Karen; Bi, Yi-An; Wolford, Angela C; Tan, Beijing; McDonald, Thomas S; Lai, Yurong; Tremaine, Larry M

    2012-09-01

    A novel relay method has been developed using cryopreserved human hepatocytes to measure intrinsic clearance of low-clearance compounds. The relay method involved transferring the supernatant from hepatocyte incubations to freshly thawed hepatocytes at the end of the 4-h incubation to prolong the exposure time to active enzymes in hepatocytes. An accumulative incubation time of 20 h or longer in hepatoctyes can be achieved using the method. The relay method was validated using seven commercial drugs (diazepam, disopyramide, theophylline, timolol, tolbutamide, S-warfarin, and zolmitriptan) that were metabolized by various cytochrome P450s with low human in vivo intrinsic clearance at approximately 2 to 15 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹. The results showed that the relay method produced excellent predictions of human in vivo clearance. The difference between in vitro and in vivo intrinsic clearance was within 2-fold for most compounds, which is similar to the standard prediction accuracy for moderate to high clearance compounds using hepatocytes. The relay method is a straightforward, relatively low cost, and easy-to-use new tool to address the challenges of low clearance in drug discovery and development.

  5. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  6. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  7. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  8. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  9. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  10. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  11. Puzzling cases about killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Favor, C D

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of euthanasia often appeal to the distinction between killing people and letting them die. Favor asks whether this distinction is morally important--in particular, whether killing is worse than merely letting someone die, even when the motivations and consequences are the same. She explores our moral intuitions via a discussion of various subtly different hypothetical examples.

  12. Killing and letting die: a defensible distinction.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, W

    1996-04-01

    The distinction between killing and letting die is investigated and clarified. It is then argued that in most cases, though not in all, it is worse to kill than to let die. In euthanasia the significance of the distinction is diminished, but still important.

  13. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  14. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  15. Killing, letting die, and simple conflicts.

    PubMed

    Malm, H M

    1989-01-01

    Proponents of the moral equivalence of killing and letting die argue that in cases of simple conflict, where one agent must either perform a positive act and kill one person, or not perform that act and allow another person to die, the agent's alternatives are clearly morally equivalent. Malm rejects this view in a three part essay. He argues that in cases of simple conflict, the acts of killing and letting die are morally different, and that killing is not in itself worse than letting die. Malm considers and rejects the suggestion that the agent should decide randomly between the two alternatives. He concludes that while simple conflict cases require us to recognize a morally significant difference between killing and letting die, they do not require us to recognize a morally significant difference between acting and refraining.

  16. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-optical measurement system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  17. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  18. Toward a Fast-Response Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Kypuros, Javier A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, technologies developed for clearance control can benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first portion of the paper addresses the research from a programmatic viewpoint. Recent studies that provide motivation for the work, identification of key technologies, and NASA's plan for addressing deficiencies in the technologies are discussed. The later portion of the paper drills down into one of the key technologies by presenting equations and results for a preliminary dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena.

  19. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Ion exchange chromatography of proteins and clearance of aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Y; Hinckley, P; Hewig, A; Vedantham, G

    2009-06-01

    Clearance of product related aggregates in therapeutic proteins is a major focus of purification process development. A typical purification process will have one or two chromatographic steps that remove these product related aggregates to an acceptable level. Both cation exchange and anion exchange chromatography can provide robust clearance of aggregates. The primary factors that are critical for aggregate clearance are: resin chemistry, binding and elution condition, peak collection and column load factor. This review covers how these factors can be optimized to increase the effectiveness of ion exchange chromatography in removing aggregates.

  1. Modeling of Inhalation Administration of Vapors with Capacity Limited Clearance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    7 D-i 38 847 MODELING OF INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF VAPORS WITH 1/277I CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE (I) MI M UNIV FLA DEPT OFANESTHESIOLOGY V THOMAS...WITH CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE r-.4 AFOSR Grant No. 4#F03A I/ 1l.;Li C for the period June 30, 1981 to August 31, 1983 Vera Thomas, Ph.D. Professor...PERIOD COVEREDFinal : .0,,,0 MODELING OF INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF VAPORS Fia". -" WITH CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE 6/30/81 thru 6/31/83 6. PERFORMING

  2. Simple sampling strategy for measuring inulin renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Hishida, Akira; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2009-02-01

    In the standard method of inulin clearance (Cin), three sets of serum and urine samples are collected during a 2-hour clearance period. For a practical use of this method, sampling should be the minimal number allowable while still providing enough accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of inulin renal clearance with assumed single urine collection with a period such as 30, 60 or 90 minutes. Inulin clearance data collected by the standard method from 737 individuals were used. Changes of serum inulin concentrations between 45 and 105 minutes after the start of the infusion were analyzed. We used first urine collection to calculate the inulin clearance with single urine collection (Cin-30 min). We assumed single urine collection for 60 or 90 minutes by combining the urine data of the consecutive 30-minute periods. Inulin clearances (Cin-60 min, Cin-90 min) were calculated from the assumed single urine collections, respectively. Serum inulin concentration did not reach equilibrium during the clearance period. It increased in subjects with low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreased in subjects with normal GFR. The amount of the change was small and -0.5 +/- 12.6% in subjects with GFR over 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Cin-30 min, Cin-60 min and Cin-90 min showed high correlation coefficients against Cin-ST (0.962, 0.988 and 0.998, respectively). Systemic biases in these clearances were negligible (under 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Root mean square error (RMSE) were 10.4, 5.3 and 2.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for Cin-30 min, Cin-60 min and Cin-90 min, respectively. These data indicated that accuracy of inulin clearance depends on the duration of the urine collection period. Inulin clearance with a single urine collection is a convenient method. We showed that single urine collection for 30 minutes or a longer period has reasonable accuracy in calculation of inulin clearance. We propose a method of inulin clearance with single urine collection for 60

  3. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    PubMed

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  4. Awareness of dying: it needs words.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Martine E; van Zuylen, Lia; Veerbeek, Laetitia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to study to what extent dying patients are aware of the imminence of death, whether such awareness is associated with patient characteristics, symptoms and acceptance of dying, and whether medical records and nurses' and family caregivers' views on patients' awareness of dying agree. Nurses and family caregivers of 475 deceased patients from three different care settings in the southwest Netherlands were requested to fill out questionnaires. The two groups were asked whether a patient had been aware of the imminence of death. Also, medical records were screened for statements indicating that the patient had been informed of the imminence of death. Nurses completed questionnaires about 472 patients, family caregivers about 280 patients (response 59%). According to the medical records, 51% of patients had been aware of the imminence of death; according to nurses, 58%; according to family caregivers, 62%. Patients who, according to their family caregiver, had been aware of the imminence of death were significantly more often in peace with dying and felt more often that life had been worth living. Inter-rater agreement on patients' awareness of dying was fair (Cohen's kappa = 0.23-0.31). Being aware of dying is associated with acceptance of dying, which supports the idea that open communication in the dying phase can contribute to the quality of the dying process. However, views on whether or not patients are aware of the imminence of death diverge between different caregivers. This suggests that communication in the dying phase of patients is open for improvement.

  5. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  6. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C. )

    1989-09-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume (1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area) approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine.

  7. [Where do people die?: On the question of dying in institutions].

    PubMed

    Thönnes, M; Jakoby, N R

    2011-10-01

    There is a great discrepancy in society between the number of people that prefer to die within their home and the number of cases where this wish actually becomes reality. The most frequent place of dying in Western societies is not the home but an institution, such as a hospital or nursing home. But what is the actual distribution of places of dying? Can we identify social patterns of dying related to the various places of dying? The article provides a theoretical and empirical overview of place of dying as a social phenomenon. Contemporary discourse on the institutionalization of dying is subjected to critical scrutiny in light of the state of the art of research.

  8. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  9. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

  10. Intradialytic clearance of opioids: methadone versus hydromorphone.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Ryan; Giladi, Hili; Brecht, Krista; Ware, Mark A; Hebert, Terence E; Joseph, Lawrence; Shir, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic pain associated with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. The stability of opioid analgesia during dialysis may vary among different opioids. No studies to date have corroborated this clinical observation by directly comparing plasma concentrations of different opioids during dialysis. We compared changes in peridialysis plasma concentrations of 2 pharmacokinetically distinct opioids, methadone and hydromorphone (HM). Fourteen dialysis patients with chronic pain received either methadone or HM for at least 2 weeks before beginning the study. Blood samples were obtained immediately before, during, and after hemodialysis in 2 separate dialysis sessions, 1 week apart, and were analyzed for opioid concentrations. Methadone plasma concentrations were more stable during hemodialysis compared to HM: the mean percent change of methadone plasma levels was 14.9% ± 8.2% (± SD) compared with 55.1% ± 8.1% in the HM treatment group, a difference of 40.2% (95% confidence interval 17.14 to 63.14). The mean plasma clearance of methadone was 19.9 ± 8.5 mL/min (± SD) compared with 105.7 ± 8.3 mL/min for HM, a difference of 85.7 mL/min (95% confidence interval 61.9 to 109.1). There were no differences between the 2 opioid groups in pain scores, side effect profile, and quality of life. Methadone therapy was not associated with an increased rate of adverse events. If confirmed by larger clinical studies, methadone could be considered as one of the opioids of choice in dialysis patients.

  11. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  12. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  13. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The need for blade tip clearance instrumentation has been intensified recently by advances in technology of gas turbine engines. A new laser-optical measurement system has been developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  14. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...

  15. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  16. Further Characterization of an Active Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    A new test chamber and precision hydraulic actuation system were incorporated into an active clearance control (ACC) test rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. Using the improved system, a fast-acting, mechanically-actuated, ACC concept was evaluated at engine simulated temperatures and pressure differentials up to 1140 F and 120 psig, on the basis of secondary seal leakage and kinematic controllability. During testing, the ACC concept tracked a simulated flight clearance transient profile at 1140 F, 120 psig, with a maximum error of only 0.0012 in. Comparison of average dynamic leakage of the system with average static leakage did not show significant differences between the two operating conditions. Calculated effective clearance values for the rig were approximately 0.0002 in. at 120 psig, well below the industry specified effective clearance threshold of 0.001 in.

  17. Mucociliary clearance mechanism in smoking and nonsmoking normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Isawa, T.; Teshima, T.; Hirano, T.; Ebina, A.; Konno, K.

    1984-03-01

    Mucociliary clearance mechanisms were evaluated in 17 normal subjects visually and qualitatively by radioaerosol inhalation cinescintigraphy of the lung, and quantitatively by calculating the following indices: (a) overall or regional lung retention ratio; (b) airway deposition ratio; (c) airway retention ratio; (d) airway clearance efficiency; and (e) alveolar deposition ratio. The inhaled aerosol deposited homogeneously throughout the lungs, and mucus transport was always cephalad in direction and constant in velocity, although a temporary stasis of mucus was seen in smokers. Overall lung retention ratio was significantly smaller and airway deposition ratio was significantly larger in the smokers than in nonsmokers, but there was no difference between the groups in airway retention ratio or airway clearance efficiency. There was an inverse relationship between alveolar deposition ratio and cigarette consumption. Mucociliary clearance mechanisms were well maintained in the normal subjects, but in the smokers inhaled aerosol tended to deposit more proximally.

  18. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND... River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs to...

  3. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  4. 54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, AND CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT FOR RAILROAD SPUR. c.1898 (AKZO No. A-3) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

  5. Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Alphavirus Infection from Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Beth; Hardwick, J. Marie; Trapp, Bruce D.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Griffin, Diane E.

    1991-11-01

    Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression.

  6. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  7. Control of Small Robotic Vehicles In Unexploded Ordnance Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    Proceedings of the IEEE ICRA97, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 20-25, 1997 ISBN 0-7803-3904-5 Control of Small Robotic Vehicles In Unexploded...multiple small robotic vehicles for performing mine field clearance, and the related problem of clearing unexploded ordnance from areas of interest...charge that could be detonated upon command. Results given in this paper includes the performance of clearance operations with behavior based robots

  8. Measuring Motor-Shaft Clearance And Wobble During Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin James

    1996-01-01

    Noncontact proximity sensor, preferably eddy-current liftoff probe, provides realtime measurement of distance and small variations of distance between two mechanical components designed to be maintained at precise, fixed distance. In particular, system intended for use in measuring lateral clearance and variations in lateral clearance (wobble) of motor shaft relative to motor housing while shaft turning. Provides early indication of wear in motor bearings. Rate of rotation also measured.

  9. Enhanced Bomb Effects for Obstacle Clearance (Analysis Task)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced Bomb Effects for Obstacle Clearance (Analysis Task) Tim Hennessey Diane Nell Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division 101 Strauss...need for a system capable of simultaneously breaching obstacles and clearing mines, in-stride, from over the horizon, during an amphibious assault...In response to the obstacle -breaching concern, the Enhanced Bomb Effects for Obstacle Clearance program was started. The purpose of the NSWCDD/CSS

  10. Caring for dying people in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Hallett, Christine E; Luker, Karen A

    2003-12-01

    Fifty-four per cent of people who die in England and Wales do so in hospital. Evidence suggests that care delivered to dying people in hospital does not match up to the ideal of a good death. These studies have provided organizational and structural explanations of nurses' behaviour that support argument for change at the macro level, in order to improve the quality of care delivered to dying people. There has been little study of the perceptions of nurses working in acute medical settings in relation to their experience of caring for dying people. Therefore, there is little evidence on which to base supportive strategies at the level of individual nurses. In this study we set out to develop an understanding of care for dying people in hospital, from the perspective of newly qualified staff nurses in the UK. The purpose was to build a theory of how nurses might be helped to deliver quality care to dying people in hospital. This paper is based on an exploratory study underpinned by phenomenological philosophy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 newly qualified nurses, focusing on their experiences of caring for dying people on medical wards in two acute hospitals in England in 1999. The interview transcripts were interpreted using a phenomenological approach. The findings presented in this paper relate to commonalities found to underlie study participants' perceptions of their experiences. All the nurses' stories were found to be built around six essences - the personal ideal, the actual, the unknown, the alone, tension and anti-tension. These essences, and the relationships between them, were used to build a model of the experience of caring for dying people in hospital. This descriptive study of the experience of individual nurses does not examine the wider social context. It attempts to complement existing sociological theory of death and dying. The study revealed how a group of newly qualified nurses experienced caring for dying people. We theorize that

  11. Calculation of Tip Clearance Effects in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1998-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concern- ing the use of the simple clearance model Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computed results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  12. Calculation of tip clearance effects in a transonic compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1996-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concerning the use of the simple clearance model. Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computer results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  13. A high sensitivity inductive sensor for blade tip clearance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2014-06-01

    A multiplexed inductive sensor consisting of multiple mini-sized planar spiral coils for detecting multiple tip clearances of rotor blades is presented. The sensor measures the tip clearances by monitoring the inductance changes of planar spiral coils caused by the passage of the rotor blades. A resonance frequency division multiplexing technique and parallel LC resonance measurement were applied to the multiple sensor coils, making it feasible to measure multiple tip clearances using only one set of measurement electronics with high sensitivity and resolution. The results from tests conducted on a bench-top test rig have demonstrated that the sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple tip clearances from 0 to 5 mm with a 10 μm resolution at a high rotary speed up to 80 000 RPM. With its high resolution, high sensitivity and capability of monitoring a large number of tip clearances simultaneously, this sensor can potentially be used for advanced active tip clearance control in turbine machinery.

  14. Model of mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis lungs.

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, P; Bessonov, N; Volpert, V; Tiddens, H A W M; Cornu, C; Nony, P; Caudri, D

    2015-05-07

    Mucus clearance is a primary innate defense mechanism in the human airways. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CF is characterized by dehydration of airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, microorganisms are not efficiently removed from the airways, and patients experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. We propose a new physiologically based mathematical model of muco-ciliary transport consisting of the two major components of the mucociliary clearance system: (i) periciliary liquid layer (PCL) and (ii) mucus layer. We study mucus clearance under normal conditions and in CF patients. Restoring impaired clearance of airway secretions in one of the major goals of therapy in patients with CF. We consider the action of the aerosolized and inhaled medication dornase alfa, which reduces the viscosity of cystic fibrosis mucus, by selectively cleaving the long DNA strands it contains. The results of the model simulations stress the potential relevance of the location of the drug deposition in the central or peripheral airways. Mucus clearance was increased in case the drug was primarily deposited peripherally, i.e. in the small airways.

  15. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  17. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  18. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  19. Hubble View of a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-21

    This image of a dying star, protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306, containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. Taken by NASA Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

  20. Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Abaquin, Carmencita; Perrin, Margot E; Eaton, Linda; Balabagno, Araceli O; Rue, Tessa; Ramos, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue for palliative nursing in the Philippines. Methods The study recruited 230 nurses to complete the ICNP Dignified Dying survey. Participants rated ICNP nursing intervention items and identified additional interventions for promoting dignified dying. Results All of the intervention items were scored on average as being at least ‘slightly important’. The three top-ranked nursing intervention categories were providing social support, maintaining privacy boundaries, and relieving psychological distress. Conclusions The ICNP Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue lists nursing interventions that are appropriate to promoting dignity at the end of life in the Philippines. PMID:21471908

  1. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  2. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Clearance for Research in Development of Disclosure Forms September 20, 2011. Summary: The Bureau of...): ``Generic Clearance for Research in Development of Disclosure Forms'' to OMB for review and clearance under... Clearance for Research in Development of Disclosure Forms. Abstract: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

  3. 48 CFR 245.603-70 - Contractor performance of plant clearance duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plant clearance duties. 245.603-70 Section 245.603-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE..., Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.603-70 Contractor performance of plant clearance duties... clearance functions if the volume of plant clearance warrants performance by the contractor. (2) The...

  4. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  5. 48 CFR 245.7002 - Duties and responsibilities of plant clearance officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... responsibilities of plant clearance officers. 245.7002 Section 245.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Appointment of Property Administrators and Plant Clearance Officers 245.7002 Duties and responsibilities of plant clearance officers. The plant clearance officer shall— (a) Instruct the contractor on...

  6. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  7. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  8. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  9. Is killing no worse than letting die?

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, W

    1995-01-01

    Those who wish to refute the view that it is worse to kill than to let die sometimes produce examples of cases in which an agent lets someone die but would be generally agreed to be no less reprehensible than if he had killed. It is argued that the examples produced typically possess a feature which makes their use in this context illegitimate, and that when modified to remove this feature, they provide support for the view which they were designed to undermine.

  10. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  11. [Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by inulin clearance: comparison with creatinine clearance].

    PubMed

    Orita, Yoshimasa; Gejyo, Fumitake; Sakatsume, Minoru; Shiigai, Tatsuo; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Imai, Enyu; Fujii, Takashi; Endoh, Masayuki; Jinde, Kiichiro; Haneda, Masakazu; Sugimoto, Toshiro; Hishida, Akira; Takahashi, Satoru; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Hora, Kazuhiko; Okada, Yoichi; Hosaka, Shigetoshi; Oguchi, Tomomasa; Kanno, Yutaka; Nishio, Yasuhide; Yano, Shintaro; Aikawa, Kazuo; Yasui, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Inulin clearance (Cin) is widely believed to be the gold standard of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, in Japan, Cin has not been officially recognized by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan for clinical use. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) has been used to estimate the renal function of patients, but there have been many studies in which Ccr estimates were GFR falsely high because the metabolism and tubular excretion of creatinine widely varied according to the pathophysiological state of the patient. In the present study, we determined Cin and Ccr simultaneously in 116 adult patients with renal diseases and diabetic mellitus. The clearance study was performed by the modified Wesson's method. The inulin preparation was FFI-1010 (Fuji Yakuhin Co. Ltd.). Inulin in serum and urine was determined by the newly devised enzymatic assay (Toyobo Co. Ltd.), which is specific for inulin. The mean Cin was 35.0 +/- 14.4 ml/min/1.73 m2. The mean Ccr(the enzyme assay) was 63.6 +/- 24.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 and that of the kinetic Jaffe assay was 55.3 +/- 19.3 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean Ccr/Cin was 1.93 +/- 0.73, 1.69 +/- 0.62, respectively. This ratio was significantly different(p < 0.05) in the degree of reduction of Cin, with values of 2.07 +/- 0.82 (Cin < 40 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 1.64 +/- 0.32(40 < Cin < 80 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Only 8 patients were classified into the same degree of reduced renal function (the Guideline of Japanese Society of Nephrology). The findings of this study suggest that the GFR determined by Ccr could misjudge the renal function of patient and delay the administration of proper treatment of the patient. Introduction of Cin into the clinical field is necessary to avoid this delay.

  12. Clearance Prediction of Targeted Covalent Inhibitors by In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Hepatic and Extrahepatic Clearance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leung, Louis; Yang, Xin; Strelevitz, Timothy J; Montgomery, Justin; Brown, Matthew F; Zientek, Michael A; Banfield, Christopher; Gilbert, Adam M; Thorarensen, Atli; Dowty, Martin E

    2017-01-01

    The concept of target-specific covalent enzyme inhibitors appears attractive from both an efficacy and a selectivity viewpoint considering the potential for enhanced biochemical efficiency associated with an irreversible mechanism. Aside from potential safety concerns, clearance prediction of covalent inhibitors represents a unique challenge due to the inclusion of nontraditional metabolic pathways of direct conjugation with glutathione (GSH) or via GSH S-transferase-mediated processes. In this article, a novel pharmacokinetic algorithm was developed using a series of Pfizer kinase selective acrylamide covalent inhibitors based on their in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of systemic clearance in rats. The algorithm encompasses the use of hepatocytes as an in vitro model for hepatic clearance due to oxidative metabolism and GSH conjugation, and the use of whole blood as an in vitro surrogate for GSH conjugation in extrahepatic tissues. Initial evaluations with clinical covalent inhibitors suggested that the scaling algorithm developed from rats may also be useful for human clearance prediction when species-specific parameters, such as hepatocyte and blood stability and blood binding, were considered. With careful consideration of clearance mechanisms, the described in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approach may be useful to facilitate candidate optimization, selection, and prediction of human pharmacokinetic clearance during the discovery and development of targeted covalent inhibitors.

  13. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  14. Clearance and binding of native and defucosylated lactoferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Imber, M J; Pizzo, S V

    1983-01-01

    These studies explore the role of carbohydrate recognition systems and the direct involvement of terminal alpha 1-3-linked fucose in the clearance of lactoferrin from the murine circulation and in the specific binding of lactoferrin to receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. As previously reported, radiolabelled lactoferrin cleared very rapidly (t1/2 less than 1 min) after intravenous injection into mice. However, competing levels of ligands specific for the hepatic galactose receptor (asialo-orosomucoid), the hepatic fucose receptor (fucosyl-bovine serum albumin), and the mononuclear-phagocyte system pathway recognizing mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose (mannosyl-, N-acetylglucosaminyl- and fucosyl-bovine serum albumin) did not block radiolabelled lactoferrin clearance in vivo or binding to mouse peritoneal macrophage monolayers in vitro. Almond emulsin alpha 1-3-fucosidase was used to prepare defucosylated lactoferrin in which 88% of the alpha 1-3-linked fucose was hydrolysed. No difference in clearance or receptor binding was observed between radiolabelled native and defucosylated lactoferrin. Fucoidin, a fucose-rich algal polysaccharide, completely inhibits the clearance in vivo and macrophage binding in vitro of lactoferrin. This effect, however, is probably not the result of competition for binding to the fucose receptor, since gel-filtration studies demonstrated formation of a stable complex between lactoferrin and fucoidin. The present results indicate that the lactoferrin-clearance pathway is distinct from several pathways mediating glycoprotein clearance through recognition of terminal galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine or mannose. Furthermore, alpha 1-3-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not essential for lactoferrin clearance in vivo or specific binding to macrophage receptors in vitro. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6882370

  15. Thermal Modelling In Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Davey, K.; Watari, H.

    2004-06-01

    The pressure die casting process is cyclic and the temperature levels in the die are principally dictated by the total energy received from the casting. It is thus extremely important that any solidification model for the casting is able to predict energy extraction rates to a high degree of accuracy. In this paper an efficient three dimensional hybrid thermal model for the pressure die casting process is described. The finite element method (FEM) is used for modelling heat transfer in the casting, coupled to a boundary element (BE) model for the die. The FEM can efficiently account for the non-linearity introduced by the release of latent heat on solidification, whereas the BEM is ideally suited for modelling linear heat conduction in the die, as surface temperatures are of principal importance. The FE formulation for the casting is based on a control volume capacitance method, which is shown to provide high accuracy and stability. This method is similar to the apparent and effective heat capacitance methods, which are popular approaches used where conduction predominates over other heat transfer mechanisms. These methods involve the specification of element or nodal capacitances to accommodate for the release of latent heat. Unfortunately they suffer from a major drawback in that energy is not correctly transported through elements and so providing a source of inaccuracy. The control volume capacitance method allows for the transport of mass arising from volumetric shrinkage and ensures that energy is correctly transported. The BE model caters for surface phenomena such as boiling in the cooling channels, which is important, as this effectively controls the manner in which energy is extracted. The die temperature is decomposed into two components, one a steady-state part and the other a time-dependent perturbation. This approach enables the transient die temperatures to be calculated in an efficient way, since only die surfaces close to the die cavity are

  16. A comparison of the accuracy of three removable die systems and two die materials.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, I; Mohan, J; Arunachalam, K S; Zankari, V

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional shift of three commonly used die systems (Conventional system, Pindex system, Di-Lok tray system) with two commercially available type IV die stones (Ultra rock and Pearl stone). Under controlled conditions, ten casts, each with two removable dies, were constructed for each system for a total of 30 casts and 60 removable dies. Before and after sectioning measurements to within 0.01 mm in horizontal and vertical planes were recorded and differences calculated. Data were analyzed with 't' tests, one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. The results demonstrated that among the die systems compared, no single system was superior to the others in all respects. But among the die materials, dies poured in Pearl stone exhibited more dimensional changes than Ultra rock (p<0.05). Selection of die material is as critical as selection of any particular die system for successful fabrication of fixed partial denture and implant prosthesis.

  17. Estimating creatinine clearance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sheila M; Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini B

    2011-07-01

    To determine which body weight descriptor most accurately predicts measured creatinine clearance (Cl(cr)) and whether rounding serum creatinine concentration (S(cr)) to 1 mg/dl when it is less than 1 mg/dl accurately predicts measured Cl(cr). Meta-analysis of 13 English-language trials comparing 24-hour measured Cl(cr) with Cockcroft-Gault estimated Cl(cr) by using various body weights or rounded S(cr) values. A total of 1197 patients (mean age 53.3 yrs, 48.7% male) were included in the meta-analysis. A thorough literature search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed (1976-June 2010) to identify relevant clinical trials. Patient population, number of subjects, age, and 24-hour measured and estimated Cl(cr) were extracted independently by two investigators by using standardized data collection forms. Mean difference (MD) between estimated and measured Cl(cr) was assessed. Thirteen studies met all selection criteria. A random-effects model was applied secondary to a high level of heterogeneity among the studies (I(2)>50%). Total body weight in the Cockcroft-Gault equation overestimated measured Cl(cr) (MD 15.91 ml/min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.17-24.65 ml/min). Ideal body weight underestimated Cl(cr) (MD-5.15 ml/min, 95% CI -9.92 to -0.38 ml/min). No body weight (i.e., assumes body weight is 72 kg, thus removing the factor of 72 from the denominator of the equation) closely estimated Cl(cr) (MD 0.43 ml/min, 95% CI -5.42-6.27 ml/min). Adjusted body weight with correction factors of 0.3 or 0.4 also closely estimated Cl(cr) (MD 4.55 ml/min, 95% CI -11.41-20.50 ml/min, and MD 19.94 ml/min, 95% CI -9.6-49.49 ml/min, respectively). Total body weight with a rounded S(cr) value closely estimated measured Cl(cr) (MD 3.51 ml/min, 95% CI -17.18-24.20 ml/min). Ideal body weight with a rounded S(cr) value underestimated Cl(cr) (MD -29.45 ml/min, 95% CI -48.46 to -10.43). Using the Cockcroft-Gault equation with no body weight and actual S

  18. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Comer, Angela C.; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0 mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24 h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1 − Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p = 0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p = 0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS < 9) (33.8% vs 27.1% [p = 0.0001]), had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (1.4% vs 3.9% [p = 0.0001]), but also had lower average lactate clearance (37.8% vs 47.6% [p = 0.0001]). The lactate clearance of the sober patients (47.6 [SD 33.5]) was twice that of those with +BAC >400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. Conclusions In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate

  19. Ethical challenges when caring for dying children.

    PubMed

    Furingsten, Lovisa; Sjögren, Reet; Forsner, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Caring for dying children presents special challenges, according to the children themselves, their relatives and healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to describe caring as represented in healthcare workers' experiences of caring for dying children. A phenomenological approach was chosen, in-depth interviews were carried out and data were analysed in four steps focusing on (a) open reading, (b) meaning units, (c) constituents and (d) essence. Four nurses in a general acute paediatric care setting in Sweden participated after providing written informed consent. Voluntary participation and confidentiality were ensured, and the study was ethically approved. The essence of caring for dying children was likened to a musically attuned composition, comprising five constituents: presence, self-knowledge, injustice in dying, own suffering and in need of others. Presence was found to be a prerequisite for caring when a child is dying. Self-knowledge and support from others can be of help when struggling with emotional pain and injustice. Caring for dying children has been found to be a delicate task for healthcare workers all over the world, and the ethical dimension is emphasized in international research. In this study, emotional pain and suffering accompanied caring, but an atmosphere in which it is possible to give and get support from colleagues and to have time to grieve and time to focus on the patient's needs may ease the burden, as can having time to process thoughts about life and death, and a possibility to grow in self-knowledge. Caring in ethically demanding situations may be facilitated through presence, atmosphere, self-knowledge and time. The challenge does not demand highly technological solutions; these assets are readily available, no matter where on earth. However, there is a need to further investigate these prerequisites for caring, particularly when a child is dying. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  1. Compassionate community networks: supporting home dying.

    PubMed

    Abel, Julian; Bowra, Jon; Walter, Tony; Howarth, Glennys

    2011-09-01

    How may communities be mobilised to help someone dying at home? This conceptual article outlines the thinking behind an innovative compassionate community project being developed at Weston-super-Mare, UK. In this project, a health professional mentors the dying person and their carer to identify and match: (a) the tasks that need to be done and (b) the members of their social network who might help with these tasks. Network members may subsequently join a local volunteer force to assist others who are network poor. Performing practical tasks may be more acceptable to some family, friends and neighbours than having to engage in a conversation about dying, and provides a familiarity with dying that is often lacking in modern societies, so in this model, behavioural change precedes attitudinal change. The scheme rejects a service delivery model of care in favour of a community development model, but differs from community development schemes in which the mentor is a volunteer rather than a health professional, and also from those approaches that strive to build community capacity before any one individual dying person is helped. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. There is a need for evaluation of this and similar schemes, and for basic research into naturally occurring resource mobilisation at the end of life.

  2. Impaired lipid clearance in patients with previous acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, S; Nervi, F; Llanos, O; León, P; Valdivieso, V

    1985-01-01

    Fasting serum triglycerides were measured in 52 patients who had sustained an attack of pancreatitis (gall stone related 33, alcoholism six) at least six months earlier. Several patients (23%) had raised fasting serum triglycerides, with a type IV phenotype in all but one patient. The 40 patients with normal fasting serum triglycerides received an oral load of 100 g sunflower oil to compare their clearance of dietary triglycerides with that of a control group of 54 subjects. The clearance of ingested triglycerides was significantly impaired in the patients - irrespective of the presumed aetiological factor, or clinical condition associated with pancreatitis - compared with the clearance in controls. A triglyceride tolerance test is the only way to detect those patients in whom a future attack of pancreatitis may be precipitated by a diet rich in fat, or endogenous over production of triglycerides as after an alcoholic debauch. PMID:4029716

  3. Application of Dsm in Obstacle Clearance Surveying of Aerodrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, X.; Lv, S. H.; Li, L. L.; Zhou, X. J.; Wang, H. Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM), digital surface model (DSM) receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS) to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  4. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M

    1994-01-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the end of exposure, and the fiber numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant difference in length of residual ceramic fibers in the lungs was found among the groups. The geometric mean diameter and number of ceramic fibers, however, decreased according to the clearance period. These findings suggest that the fibers were dissolved at their surface. PMID:7882924

  5. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades.

  6. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kavya; Cusack, Corey L; Nnah, Israel C; Khayati, Khoosheh; Saqcena, Chaitali; Huynh, Tuong B; Noggle, Scott A; Ballabio, Andrea; Dobrowolski, Radek

    2016-03-08

    Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  7. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  8. Tumor Presence Induces Global Immune Changes and Enhances Nanoparticle Clearance.

    PubMed

    Kai, Marc P; Brighton, Hailey E; Fromen, Catherine A; Shen, Tammy W; Luft, J Christopher; Luft, Yancey E; Keeler, Amanda W; Robbins, Gregory R; Ting, Jenny P Y; Zamboni, William C; Bear, James E; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-01-26

    Long-circulating nanoparticles are essential for increasing tumor accumulation to provide therapeutic efficacy. While it is known that tumor presence can alter the immune system, very few studies have explored this impact on nanoparticle circulation. In this report, we demonstrate how the presence of a tumor can change the local and global immune system, which dramatically increases particle clearance. We found that tumor presence significantly increased clearance of PRINT hydrogel nanoparticles from the circulation, resulting in increased accumulation in the liver and spleen, due to an increase in M2-like macrophages. Our findings highlight the need to better understand interactions between immune status and nanoparticle clearance, and suggest that further consideration of immune function is required for success in preclinical and clinical nanoparticle studies.

  9. Improving mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Angshu; Chahal, Kamaljeet; Austin, Gillian; Chakravorty, Indranil

    2009-04-01

    Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of life (HRQL). Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. This review examines the current evidence base and best clinical practice in the area of airway clearance. Mechanical devices such as the flutter valves, positive end expiratory pressure and high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may be able to provide the benefits of improved airway clearance in the patient's home potentially with reduced demands on healthcare resources.

  10. Advances in airway clearance technologies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Holland, Anne E

    2013-12-01

    Techniques to promote clearance of sputum from the airways (airway clearance techniques; ACTs) have existed in clinical practice for more than a century. This review examines current evidence and clinical recommendations regarding ACTs for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Comparisons between this literature and reports of current practice suggest that discrepancies may exist in relation to the clinical management of sputum in individuals with COPD. The novel application of newer technologies has enhanced our ability to assess the complex physiological processes underpinning airway clearance therapy. The potential for physiologically tailored ACT prescription may, however, depend on the capacity for translation of such technology from the research setting into the clinical environment. Future directions regarding this common form of therapy will be discussed, including identification of the key research priorities to optimize evidence-based practice in this area.

  11. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  12. Acute Mucociliary Clearance Response to Aerobic Exercise in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ercy M C; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ito, Juliana T; Lima, Fabiano F; Rodrigues, Fernanda M M; Manzano, Beatriz M; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Cecílio, Michel J; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra C; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the main defense mechanism of the respiratory system, and it is influenced by several stimuli, including aerobic exercise and cigarette smoking. We evaluated the acute response of mucociliary clearance to aerobic exercise in smokers and nonsmokers compared with that found after acute smoking and smoking combined with exercise. Also, we investigated whether there was a correlation between mucociliary clearance and the autonomic nervous system under these conditions. Twenty-one smokers were evaluated for mucociliary clearance by saccharin transit time (STT), and the response of the autonomic nervous system was evaluated by heart rate variability after aerobic exercise, after exercise followed by smoking, after acute smoking, and after rest. For comparison, 17 nonsmokers were also assessed during exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with the Tukey test or the Friedman test followed by the Dunn test was used to evaluate the STT, autonomic response, and other variables to exercise and/or smoking in smokers. A paired t test or Wilcoxon test was used to analyze responses to exercise in nonsmokers. Correlations were evaluated using Pearson or Spearman coefficients. The STT was reduced after exercise in both groups, with similar responses between them. Other stimuli also reduced the STT. The STT showed a negative correlation with sympathetic activity in smokers and a positive correlation with the parasympathetic system in nonsmokers. Although impaired in smokers, mucociliary clearance responded to the stimulus of exercise, as demonstrated by similar STTs compared with nonsmokers. This response was correlated with the autonomic nervous system in both groups. In smokers, mucociliary clearance also responded to the stimuli of smoking and exercise followed by smoking. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Determining vancomycin clearance in an overweight and obese population.

    PubMed

    Leong, Julie V B; Boro, Maureen S; Winter, Michaele

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of calculating vancomycin clearance were compared to determine the best body weight measure to use when dosing vancomycin for overweight and obese patients. Hospitalized veterans weighing more than 120% of their ideal body weight (IBW) with serum vancomycin concentrations (SVCs) drawn between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, were eligible for study inclusion. Exclusion criteria included weight of more than 300% the IBW, unstable renal function, dialysis, uncertain vancomycin dosing or sampling times, and distribution-phase sampling. Data from January 1 through December 31, 2003 (phase 1) determined the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance for the Leonard and Boro method. The bias and precision of the modified Leonard and Boro method using the best-fit weight for vancomycin clearance were then compared with those of the Rushing and Ambrose method for predicting SVCs from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005 (phase 2). Forty-eight patients were included in phase 1, with 67 SVCs for analysis. During phase 1, adjusted body weight (ABW), using the Leonard and Boro method, was superior in predicting vancomycin clearance and the resultant SVCs. A total of 96 patients were included in phase 2 of the study, with 160 SVCs for analysis. The modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting vancomycin clearance. Use of ABW proved to be superior compared with total body weight when estimating vancomycin clearance in overweight and obese patients. While there was no difference in bias between methods, the modified Leonard and Boro method was significantly more precise than the Rushing and Ambrose method in predicting SVCs when dosing vancomycin for obese patients.

  14. Clearance of the cervical spine in clinically unevaluable trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Casey H; Milby, Andrew H; Guo, Wensheng; Schuster, James M; Gracias, Vicente H; Stein, Sherman C

    2010-08-15

    Meta-analytic costeffectiveness analysis. Our goal was to compare the results of different management strategies for trauma patients in whom the cervical spine was not clinically evaluable due to impaired consciousness, endotracheal intubation, or painful distracting injuries. We performed a structured literature review related to cervical spine trauma, radiographic clearance techniques (plain radiography, flexion/extension, CT, and MRI), and complications associated with semirigid collar use. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool data from multiple sources to calculate pooled mean estimates of sensitivities and specificities of imaging techniques for cervical spinal clearance, rates of complications from various clearance strategies and from empirical use of semirigid collars. A decision analysis model was used to compare outcomes and costs among these strategies. Slightly more than 7.5% of patients who are clinically unevaluable have cervical spine injuries, and 42% of these injuries are associated with spinal instability. Sensitivity of plain radiography or fluoroscopy for spinal clearance was 57% (95% CI: 57%-60%). Sensitivities for CT and MRI alone were 83% (82%-84%) and 87% (84%-89%), respectively. Complications associated with collar use ranged from 1.3% (2 days) to 7.1% (10 days) but were usually minor and short-lived. Quadriplegia resulting from spinal instability missed by a clearance test had enormous impacts on longevity, quality of life, and costs. These impacts overshadowed the effects of prolonged collar application, even when the incidence of quadriplegia was extremely low. As currently used, neuroimaging studies for cervical spinal clearance in clinically unevaluable patients are not cost-effective compared with empirical immobilization in a semirigid collar.

  15. Effects of desipramine on norepinephrine clearance in congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Clemson, B.; Baily, R.G.; Davis, D.; Zelis, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) in congestive heart failure (CHF) is caused by increased NE spillover and decreased NE clearance. To evaluate the effects of neuronal uptake blockade on NE clearance, we studied NE kinetics during steady-state infusions of (3H)NE, before and after oral desipramine (DMI, 50 mg) in 11 patients with CHF and 8 normal volunteers. Baseline plasma NE was greater in the CHF group (637 +/- 56 vs. 271 +/- 32 pg/ml; P less than 0.001), NE clearance was lower in CHF (1.31 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.94 +/- 0.17 l.min-1.m-2; P = 0.026), and NE spillover was greater in CHF (4.71 +/- 0.78 vs. 3.04 +/- 0.35 nmol.min-1.m-2, P = 0.054). After DMI, plasma NE rose significantly in CHF (778 +/- 67; P = 0.008), and NE clearance decreased further in CHF (0.97 +/- 0.16; P = 0.024), but neither changed in normal subjects. NE spillover did not change in either group. There appears to be an enhanced effect of DMI on NE clearance in CHF patients. Two general mechanisms may be responsible for this finding, an increased concentration of drug, possibly caused by a decreased volume of distribution, and an increased sensitivity of neuronal amine pumps to DMI. Both mechanisms may reflect a more general abnormality of clearance of drugs and hormones related to abnormalities of tissue perfusion in CHF.

  16. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  17. Acts and omissions, killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-11

    Gillon asks what, if any, moral importance resides in the distinction between killing and letting die in the context of medical care. He considers and rejects the acts and omissions doctrine, which claims that actions (killing) resulting in some undesirable end are in general morally worse than failures to act (allowing to die) that have the same result. He also refutes the argument that the moral distinction between killing and letting die is one of harming versus benefitting, and that a physician has a responsibility not to harm (kill) a patient but no duty to help (keep alive). Gillon concludes by discussing the moral claims upon which the Roman Catholic rejection of the acts and omissions doctrine is based, which are the subjects of his next British Medical Journal article on medical ethics.

  18. The right to be allowed to die.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G

    1983-09-01

    The unbridled use of modern medical skills and technology in preserving life at all costs has stimulated interest in expressing a 'right to die' by the legally competent patient who is anxious to protect his autonomy. Some recent decisions by American courts are seen to threaten this 'right to die' of competent patients and imply that legally incompetent patients including children should not have this right under any circumstances, even when expressed on their behalf by guardians, nearest relatives or parents. It is argued that this is contrary to 'natural justice' as viewed by most people. It should be possible to develop procedures which are protective of the basic 'right to life' of the incompetent yet will recognise circumstances where they could be allowed to die. This paper was presented at the 1983 annual conference of the London Medical Group, 'Human Rights in Medicine'.

  19. Is there a duty to die?

    PubMed

    Hardwig, J

    1997-01-01

    Many people were outraged when Richard Lamm claimed that old people had a duty to die. Modern medicine and an individualistic culture have seduced many to feel that they have a right to health care and a right to live, despite the burdens and costs to our families and society. But in fact there are circumstances when we have a duty to die. As modern medicine continues to save more of us from acute illness, it also delivers more of us over to chronic illnesses, allowing us to survive far longer than we can take care of ourselves. It may be that our technological sophistication coupled with a commitment to our loved ones generates a fairly widespread duty to die.

  20. Cervical spine clearance in the traumatically injured patient: is multidetector CT scanning sufficient alone? Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Chew, Brandon G; Swartz, Christopher; Quigley, Matthew R; Altman, Daniel T; Daffner, Richard H; Wilberger, James E

    2013-11-01

    Clearance of the cervical spine in patients who have sustained trauma remains a contentious issue. Clinical examination alone is sufficient in neurologically intact patients without neck pain. Patients with neck pain or those with altered mental status or a depressed level of consciousness require further radiographic evaluation. However, no consensus exists as to the appropriate imaging modality. Some advocate multidetector CT (MDCT) scanning alone, but this has been criticized because MDCT is not sensitive in detecting ligamentous injuries that can often only be identified on MRI. Patients were identified retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database at a Level I trauma center. All patients admitted between January 2004 and June 2011 who had a cervical MDCT scan interpreted by a board-certified radiologist as being without evidence of acute traumatic injury and who also had a cervical MRI study obtained during the same hospital admission were included. Data collected included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of MRI, the indication for and findings on MRI, and the number, type, and indication for cervical spine procedures. A total of 1004 patients were reviewed, of whom 614 were male, with an overall mean age of 47 years. The indication for MRI was neck pain in 662 patients, altered mental status in 467, and neurological signs or symptoms in 157. The MRI studies were interpreted as normal in 645 patients, evidencing ligamentous injury alone in 125, and showing nonspecific degenerative changes in the remaining patients. Of the 125 patients with ligamentous injuries, 66 (52.8%) had documentation of clearance (29 clinical, 37 with flexion-extension radiographs). Another 32 patients were presumed to be self-cleared, bringing the follow-up rate to 82% (98 of 119). Five patients died prior to clearance, and 1 patient was transferred to another facility prior to clearance. Based on these data, the 95% confidence