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Sample records for clearance levels arising

  1. Waste Segregation Based on Derived Clearance Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Garisto, N.C.; Parhizgari, Z.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a radiological modeling in support of an application to release very low level radiologically contaminated waste from regulatory control and allow its haulage and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The Canadian regulatory body responsible for licensing operations involving nuclear materials (the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission), has not yet formally defined clearance levels for free release of low level radiologically contaminated waste. The IAEA clearance levels have been derived for certain situations and receptor characteristics, which might be too conservative for an actual case. A site-specific pathways analysis was therefore completed to define conditional clearance levels using the concept of de minimis dose limit. Derived Conditional Clearance Levels were calculated for each radionuclide based on the maximally exposed hypothetical individuals to determine whether each waste stream can be 'cleared' from regulatory controls. The results showed that haulage of the waste from the station to the haulage/processing facility and transportation of waste or sludge from the haulage/processing facility to the disposal facility, handling of the waste or sludge at the haulage/processing facility, and incineration and/or disposal of waste or sludge at the disposal facility would not expose the workers to doses above 0.1 {mu}Sv/yr., which is less than the de minimis dose limit of 10 {mu}Sv/yr. (authors)

  2. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chiu, Huang-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) "Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management". The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. PMID:23591296

  3. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  4. Prospective use of xenon /sup 133/Xe clearance for amputation level selection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Patton, D.; Childers, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Xenon /sup 133/Xe clearance was used to select the most distal amputation level that would allow sufficient blood flow for healing. Capillary blood flow was first measured at the most distal potential amputation level, then at successive proximal levels until an amputation site was found that had a capillary skin blood flow rate greater than or equal to 2.6 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Xenon /sup 133/Xe in saline was injected intracutaneously at each level, and flow rates were determined using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer system programmed for the Ketty-Schmidt formula modified for capillary blood flow. There were 45 cases, including one toes, six transmetatarsal, five Syme's, 25 below-knee, four knee disarticulation, three above-knee, and one hip disarticulation amputation. All amputations in patients with flow rates exceeding 2.4 mL/min/100 g of tissue healed, with two exceptions.

  5. Uncertainty of simulated groundwater levels arising from stochastic transient climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Burton, Aidan; Fowler, Hayley; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-05-01

    applied not only to the mean of climatic variables, but also across the statistical distributions of these variables. This is important as these distributions are expected to change in the future, with more extreme rainfall events, separated by longer dry periods. (2) The novel approach used in this study can simulate transient climate change from 2010 to 2085, rather than time series representative of a stationary climate for the period 2071-2100. (3) The weather generator is used to generate a large number of equiprobable climate change scenarios for each RCM, representative of the natural variability of the weather. All of these scenarios are applied as input to the Geer basin model to assess the projected impact of climate change on groundwater levels, the uncertainty arising for different RCM projections and the uncertainty linked to natural climatic variability. Using the output results from all scenarios, 95% confidence intervals are calculated for each year and month between 2010 and 2085. The climate change scenarios for the Geer basin model predict hotter and drier summers and warmer and wetter winters. Considering the results of this study, it is very likely that groundwater levels and surface flow rates in the Geer basin will decrease by the end of the century. This is of concern because it also means that groundwater quantities available for abstraction will also decrease. However, this study also shows that the uncertainty of these projections is relatively large compared to the projected changes so that it remains difficult to confidently determine the magnitude of the decrease. The use and combination of an integrated surface - subsurface model and stochastic climate change scenarios has never been used in previous climate change impact studies on groundwater resources. It constitutes an innovation and is an important tool for helping water managers to take decisions.

  6. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  7. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  8. Modeling Abrupt Change in Global Sea Level Arising from Ocean - Ice-Sheet Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, David M

    2011-09-24

    It is proposed to develop, validate, and apply a coupled ocean ice-sheet model to simulate possible, abrupt future change in global sea level. This research is to be carried out collaboratively between an academic institute and a Department of Energy Laboratory (DOE), namely, the PI and a graduate student at New York University (NYU) and climate model researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The NYU contribution is mainly in the area of incorporating new physical processes into the model, while the LANL efforts are focused on improved numerics and overall model development. NYU and LANL will work together on applying the model to a variety of modeling scenarios of recent past and possible near-future abrupt change to the configuration of the periphery of the major ice sheets. The project's ultimate goal is to provide a robust, accurate prediction of future global sea level change, a feat that no fully-coupled climate model is currently capable of producing. This proposal seeks to advance that ultimate goal by developing, validating, and applying a regional model that can simulate the detailed processes involved in sea-level change due to ocean ice-sheet interaction. Directly modeling ocean ice-sheet processes in a fully-coupled global climate model is not a feasible activity at present given the near-complete absence of development of any such causal mechanism in these models to date.

  9. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste.

  10. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue. PMID:6160621

  11. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J.

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  12. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of <30% as low. In the generalized linear model, initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min, 1 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of <10 mcg/mL in patients weighing <55 kg, but not in patients weighing ≥55 kg. Optimal VCM initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  13. Testing and Performance Validation of a Shielded Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor Designed for the Measurement of Low Level Waste-13043

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Burke, Kevin J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Beaven, Graham; Spence, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a shielded waste segregation and clearance monitor designed for the measurement of low-density low-level waste (LLW). The monitor is made of a measurement chamber surrounded by detectors and a shielded outer frame. The shielded chamber consists of a steel frame, which contains typically 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) of lead and 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of steel shielding. Inside the shielding are plastic scintillator panels, which serve as gross gamma ray detectors. The detector panels, with embedded photomultipliers, completely surround the internal measurement chamber on all 6 sides. Care has been taken to distribute the plastic scintillator detectors in order to optimise both the efficiency for gamma ray detection and at the same time achieve a volumetric sensitivity, which is as uniform as possible. A common high voltage power supply provides the bias voltage for each of the six photomultipliers. The voltage signals arising from the detectors and photomultipliers are amplified by six sensitive amplifiers. Each amplifier incorporates a single channel analyser with both upper and lower thresholds and the digitised counts from each detector are recorded on six scalars. Operation of the device is by means of a microprocessor from which the scalars are controlled. An internal load cell linked to the microprocessor determines the weight of the waste object, and this information is used to calculate the specific activity of the waste. The monitor makes background measurements when the shielded door is closed and a sample, usually a bag of low-density waste, is not present in the measurement chamber. Measurements of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of an earlier large volume prototype instrument are reported as part of the development of the Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor (WSCM) described in the paper. For the optimised WSCM a detection efficiency of greater than 32% was measured using a small Cs-137

  14. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  15. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  16. IL28B Genetic Variation Is Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus, Treatment Response, Serum IL-28B Levels in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Moli; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Wanyu; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Peng; Chi, Xiumei; Jiang, Yanfang; Gao, Yanhang; Zhong, Jin; Sun, Bing; Xu, Damo; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    Background The interleukin-28B gene (IL28B) locus has been associated with host resistance to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to PEG-IFN/RBV treatment in western populations. This study was to determine whether this gene variant is also associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection, treatment response and IL-28B protein production in Chinese patients. Methods We genotyped IL28B genetic variations (rs12980275, rs8103142, rs8099917 and rs12979860) by pyrosequencing DNA samples from cohorts consisting of 529 subjects with persistent HCV infection, 196 subjects who cleared the infection, 171 healthy individuals and 235 chronic HCV patients underwent IFN/RBV treatment. The expression of IL-28B were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results We found that the four IL28B variants were in complete linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.97–0.98). The rs12979860 CC genotype was strongly associated with spontaneously HCV clearance and successful IFN/RBV treatment compared to the CT/TT. IL-28B levels in persistent HCV patients were significantly lower than subjects who spontaneously resolved HCV and healthy controls and were also associated with high levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase). IL-28B levels were also significantly lower in individuals carrying T alleles than CC homozygous. Conclusions Thus, the rs12979860-CC variant upstream of IL28B gene is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV, susceptible to IFN/RBV treatment and increased IL-28B levels in this Chinese population. PMID:22649509

  17. Rabbit nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis: the effects of immunization on clearance and on serum and nasal antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, L A; Fitzgeorge, R B; Irons, L I; Morgan, C P; Robinson, A

    1982-06-01

    Two Bordetella pertussis antigen preparations, outer membrane protein (OMP) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), and a standard vaccine were used to immunize rabbits, and the effects on nasopharyngeal colonization by the organism were determined. Antibodies were measured in serum and in nasal washes by ELISA before and after challenge of the rabbits with 10(6) bacteria of strain M2. Recoveries of B. pertussis in nasal washes were used to assess colonization, which in controls persisted for at least 65 days. Some rabbits of all the immunized groups showed enhanced clearance, but there was no correlation between the elimination of B. pertussis and serum antibodies to OMP, FHA, lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytosis-promoting factor or agglutinogen 3. In contrast, nasal IgA antibody to FHA showed significant inverse correlation with bacterial persistence. Such antibody was induced by the OMP preparation as well as by FHA, but to different extents depending on the immunization schedule and adjuvant used. PMID:6282959

  18. Dual clearance squeeze film damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A dual clearance hydrodynamic liquid squeeze film damper for a gas turbine engine is described. Under normal operating conditions, the device functions as a conventional squeeze film damper, using only one of its oil films. When an unbalance reaches abusive levels, as may occur with a blade loss or foreign object damage, a second, larger clearance film becomes active, controlling vibration amplitudes in a near optimum manner until the engine can be safely shut down and repaired.

  19. Decreased clearance of serum retinol-binding protein and elevated levels of transthyretin in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Nimesh; Graham, Timothy E.; Tsuji, Yuki; Yang, Qin; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2009-01-01

    Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4) is secreted by liver and adipocytes and is implicated in systemic insulin resistance in rodents and humans. RBP4 normally binds to the larger transthyretin (TTR) homotetramer, forming a protein complex that reduces renal clearance of RBP4. To determine whether alterations in RBP4-TTR binding contribute to elevated plasma RBP4 levels in insulin-resistant states, we investigated RBP4-TTR interactions in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and high-fat-fed obese mice (HFD). Gel filtration chromatography of plasma showed that 88–94% of RBP4 is contained within the RBP4-TTR complex in ob/ob and lean mice. Coimmunoprecipitation with an RBP4 antibody brought down stoichiometrically equal amounts of TTR and RBP4, indicating that TTR was not more saturated with RBP4 in ob/ob mice than in controls. However, plasma TTR levels were elevated approximately fourfold in ob/ob mice vs. controls. RBP4 injected intravenously in lean mice cleared rapidly, whereas the t1/2 for disappearance was approximately twofold longer in ob/ob plasma. Urinary fractional excretion of RBP4 was reduced in ob/ob mice, consistent with increased retention. In HFD mice, plasma TTR levels and clearance of injected RBP4 were similar to chow-fed controls. Hepatic TTR mRNA levels were elevated approximately twofold in ob/ob but not in HFD mice. Since elevated circulating RBP4 causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice, these findings suggest that increased TTR or alterations in RBP4-TTR binding may contribute to insulin resistance by stabilizing RBP4 at higher steady-state concentrations in circulation. Lowering TTR levels or interfering with RBP4-TTR binding may enhance insulin sensitivity in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18285525

  20. Rollover, drowning, and discontinuous retreat: Distinct modes of barrier response to sea-level rise arising from a simple morphodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a simple morphodynamic model to investigate the long-term dynamic evolution of a coastal barrier system experiencing sea-level rise. Using a simplified barrier geometry, the model includes a dynamic shoreface profile that can be out of equilibrium and explicitly treats barrier sediment overwash as a flux. With barrier behavior primarily controlled by the maximum potential overwash flux and the rate of shoreface response, the modeled barrier system demonstrates four primary behaviors: height drowning, width drowning, constant landward retreat, and a periodic retreat. Height drowning occurs when overwash fluxes are insufficient to maintain the landward migration rate required to keep pace with sea-level rise. On the other hand, width drowning occurs when the shoreface response rate is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during overwash-driven landward migration. During periodic barrier retreat, the barrier experiences oscillating periods of rapid overwash followed by periods of relative stability as the shoreface resteepens. This periodic retreat, which occurs even with a constant sea-level rise rate, arises when overwash rates and shoreface response rates are large and of similar magnitude. We explore the occurrence of these behaviors across a wide range of parameter values and find that in addition to the maximum overwash flux and the shoreface response rate, barrier response can be particularly sensitive to the sea-level rise rate and back-barrier lagoon slope. Overall, our findings contrast with previous research which has primarily associated complex barrier behavior with changes in external forcing such as sea-level rise rate, sediment supply, or back-barrier geometry.

  1. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  2. Predictive role of minimal residual disease and log clearance in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilm's tumor 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Minervini, Maria Marta; Melillo, Lorella; di Nardo, Francesco; de Waure, Chiara; Scalzulli, Potito Rosario; Perla, Gianni; Valente, Daniela; Sinisi, Nicola; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as the degree of log clearance similarly identifies patients with poor prognosis. No comparison was provided between the two approaches in order to identify the best one to monitor follow-up patients. In this study, MRD and clearance were assessed by both multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression at different time points on 45 AML patients achieving complete remission. Our results by WT1 expression showed that log clearance lower than 1.96 after induction predicted the recurrence better than MRD higher than 77.0 copies WT1/10(4) ABL. Conversely, on MFC, MRD higher than 0.2 % after consolidation was more predictive than log clearance below 2.64. At univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRD values and log clearance below the optimal cutoffs were associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS). At the univariate analysis, positive MRD values were also associated with overall survival (OS). Therefore, post-induction log clearance by WT1 and post-consolidation MRD by MFC represented the most informative approaches to identify the relapse. At the optimal timing of assessment, positive MRD and log-clearance values lower than calculated thresholds similarly predicted an adverse prognosis in AML.

  3. IL-10 administration reduces PGE-2 levels and promotes CR3-mediated clearance of Escherichia coli K1 by phagocytes in meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Goth, Kerstin; Bonnet, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating neonatal Escherichia coli K1 meningitis and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains evidently warrants new prevention strategies. We observed that administration of interleukin (IL)-10 during high-grade bacteremia clears antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant E. coli from blood of infected mice. Micro-CT studies of brains from infected animals displayed gross morphological changes similar to those observed in infected human neonates. In mice, IL-10, but not antibiotic or anti-TNF antibody treatment prevented brain damage caused by E. coli. IL-10 administration elevated CR3 expression in neutrophils and macrophages of infected mice, whereas infected and untreated mice displayed increased expression of FcγRI and TLR2. Neutrophils or macrophages pretreated with IL-10 ex vivo exhibited a significantly greater microbicidal activity against E. coli compared with cells isolated from wild-type or IL-10−/− mice. The protective effect of IL-10 was abrogated when CR3 was knocked-down in vivo by siRNA. The increased expression of CR3 in phagocytes was caused by inhibition of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, which were significantly increased in neutrophils and macrophages upon E. coli infection. These findings describe a novel modality of IL-10–mediated E. coli clearance by diverting the entry of bacteria via CR3 and preventing PGE-2 formation in neonatal meningitis. PMID:20498022

  4. IL-10 administration reduces PGE-2 levels and promotes CR3-mediated clearance of Escherichia coli K1 by phagocytes in meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Goth, Kerstin; Bonnet, Richard; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-06-01

    Ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating neonatal Escherichia coli K1 meningitis and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains evidently warrants new prevention strategies. We observed that administration of interleukin (IL)-10 during high-grade bacteremia clears antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant E. coli from blood of infected mice. Micro-CT studies of brains from infected animals displayed gross morphological changes similar to those observed in infected human neonates. In mice, IL-10, but not antibiotic or anti-TNF antibody treatment prevented brain damage caused by E. coli. IL-10 administration elevated CR3 expression in neutrophils and macrophages of infected mice, whereas infected and untreated mice displayed increased expression of FcgammaRI and TLR2. Neutrophils or macrophages pretreated with IL-10 ex vivo exhibited a significantly greater microbicidal activity against E. coli compared with cells isolated from wild-type or IL-10-/- mice. The protective effect of IL-10 was abrogated when CR3 was knocked-down in vivo by siRNA. The increased expression of CR3 in phagocytes was caused by inhibition of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels, which were significantly increased in neutrophils and macrophages upon E. coli infection. These findings describe a novel modality of IL-10-mediated E. coli clearance by diverting the entry of bacteria via CR3 and preventing PGE-2 formation in neonatal meningitis. PMID:20498022

  5. Plasma levels, metabolic clearance rates, and rates of secretion of testosterone and estradiol-l7 beta in the silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Querat, B.; Hardy, A.; Leloup-Hatey, J.

    1985-09-01

    Testosterone (T) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) plasma levels and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured to investigate their ovarian production in immature silver eel. The dynamics of T and E2 metabolism were studied in catheterized eels using single injections of 0.2 to 0.5 microCi /sup 3/H-labeled steroid. The distribution volumes, biological half-life and MCR of nonconjugated tracers were calculated on the basis of a two-compartment model. At the end of the experiments, radioactivity was measured in different organs and tissues to localize the site of T and E2 catabolism. The volume of the inner compartment was 3.4% for T and E2. The outer compartment was larger for T (6.4%) than that for E2 (4.3%). The biological half-life was three to four times shorter for T (14.5 hr) than that for E2 (48.5 hr). The MCR for T (1.71 ml/kg body wt/hr) was higher than for E2 (0.51 ml/kg body wt/hr). Plasma levels were determined, using radioimmunoassay, on samples taken before injections of radiolabeled steroid. Free or protein-bound hormone levels were 0.12 and 0.31 ng/ml for T and E2, respectively. Conjugated T and E2 levels were, respectively, 0.13 and 0.23 ng/ml. Production rates were determined as the product of the MCR and the plasma concentration of the nonconjugated hormone. No significant differences were observed between the production rates of T and E2 (0.24 ng/kg body wt/hr). The liver was the principal site of metabolism for both hormones, which were excreted via the enterohepatic route. E2 injection gave rise to no metabolite in the plasma whereas after T injection a metabolite was produced, the concentration of which increased as a function of time. Its chromatographic properties were different from that of E2 or androstenedione, suggesting that no significant peripheral aromatization or 17-oxidoreduction occurs in the immature silver eel.

  6. Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, R L; Green, L; Kohli, R

    1982-01-01

    The serum hemodialysis clearance of theophylline was determined in 4 patients compared to systemic serum clearance off dialysis in 3 patients. The serum extraction ratio values obtained were compared to those of urea. Hemodialysis clearance of theophylline averaged 84.3 +/- 11.6 ml/min (mean +/- SD), and extraction ratios obtained were found to be a fairly consistent fraction of the urea extraction ratio (0.72 +/- 0.08). Hemodialysis clearance increased total body clearance (ClTB) off dialysis by 130%, 387%, and 176% in the patients who had their theophylline serum clearance estimated off dialysis. Difference in reported hemodialysis clearance are probably related to the type of dialyser used. Studies utilizing hollow fiber systems (the present study) consistently yielded higher theophylline dialysis clearance values than those using coil systems (84.3% to 88.1 ml/min versus 32 to 39.4 ml/min). Patients receiving theophylline on hemodialysis should be closely monitored for bronchospasm during and after the hemodialysis procedure. Measurement of serum concentrations should be employed to facilitate dosage increases during hemodialysis.

  7. The feasibility of recycling and clearance of active materials from fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, M.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Forrest, R. A.; Marshall, T. D.; Taylor, N. P.; Tobita, K.

    2007-08-01

    In order to minimize the quantity of active materials that require long-term storage, arising during operation and after fusion power plant decommissioning, maximum use should be made of both recycling within the nuclear industry and clearance. For the latter, revised limits have been recently issued at the international level and in the US and Europe. In this paper the implications for fusion materials of these new levels are considered. Concerning recycling, power plant studies have employed criteria based solely on radiological parameters. Reviews of remote procedures currently used within the nuclear industry suggest that these criteria have been unduly conservative and should be revised.

  8. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A; Ferrari, A; Tsoulou, E; Vlachoudis, V; Wijnands, T

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements-vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryomodule beam tubes-have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions.

  9. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff

    2013-07-01

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute groundwater

  10. Study of global operational needs for mine clearance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagden, Paddy M.

    2003-09-01

    The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining studied the needs of landmine clearance groups for equipment to carry out specific functions of mine clearance. This was done on a global level, and useful results were obtained, which will provide the basis for further analysis.

  11. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  12. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post‐operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported. PMID:17213351

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post-operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported.

  14. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  15. Some Practical Payments Clearance Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumlander, Deniss

    The globalisation of corporations' operations has produced a huge volume of inter-company invoices. Optimisation of those known as payment clearance can produce a significant saving in costs associated with those transfers and handling. The paper revises some common and so practical approaches to the payment clearance problem and proposes some novel algorithms based on graphs theory and heuristic totals' distribution.

  16. Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Foreign-Body Biofilm Infections through Reduction of the Cyclic Di-GMP Level in the Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Louise D.; van Gennip, Maria; Rybtke, Morten T.; Wu, Hong; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Alhede, Morten; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can engage in biofilm-based infections that evade immune responses and develop into chronic conditions. Because conventional antimicrobials cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. It has recently been established that the secondary messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) functions as a positive regulator of biofilm formation in several different bacteria. In the present study we investigated whether manipulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria potentially can be used for biofilm control in vivo. We constructed a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in which a reduction in the c-di-GMP level can be achieved via induction of the Escherichia coli YhjH c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Initial experiments showed that induction of yhjH expression led to dispersal of the majority of the bacteria in in vitro-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms. Subsequently, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilms growing on silicone implants, located in the peritoneal cavity of mice, dispersed after induction of the YhjH protein. Bacteria accumulated temporarily in the spleen after induction of biofilm dispersal, but the mice tolerated the dispersed bacteria well. The present work provides proof of the concept that modulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria is a viable strategy for biofilm control. PMID:23690403

  17. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  18. Anti-D immunoglobulin in Rh(D) negative volunteers: clearance of Rh(D) positive red cells and kinetics of serum anti-D levels.

    PubMed

    Stucki, M; Schnorf, J; Hustinx, H; Gerber, H; Lerch, P G; Halabi, A; Kleinbloesem, C H; Morell, A

    1998-06-01

    Properties of a new anti-D immunoglobulin were assessed in Rh(D) negative healthy male adults. Six volunteers received intravenous, and five volunteers intramuscular injections of 200 micrograms anti-D, 48 hours after pre-treatment with 5 mL of Rh(D) positive erythrocytes. Immediately after intravenous administration of anti-D, a rapid decrease of the Rh(D) positive erythroyctes was noted. After intramuscular injection of anti-D, there was a lag phase of 6 hours until the erythrocytes decreased, and the elimination rate was slower. Twenty-four hours after injection of anti-D, the Rh(D) positive erythrocytes were at the detection limit or no longer detectable in all volunteers. After intravenous administration, anti-D serum levels decreased from 45 ng/mL at 2 hours to 29 ng/mL at 24 hours, whereas after intramuscular administration, anti-D became detectable at 4 hours and increased to 11 ng/mL at 24 hours. During subsequent months, anti-D serum levels decreased at similar rates in both groups. After six months, anti-D was not detectable in any of the volunteers. Thus, the new anti-D immunoglobulin induced elimination of the Rh(D) positive erythrocytes and suggested that Rh(D) immunization of the volunteers was prevented.

  19. Schwannoma arising from intramasseteric region.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Fu, Hong Hai; He, Jie; Zhu, Han Guang; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Schwannoma in the head and neck is usually arising in the parapharyngeal space, but intramasseteric schwannoma is very rare. We report a schwannoma arising from masseter muscle in a middle-aged woman, who presented with a history of a painless right cheek mass for 3 years. Computed tomography scan suggested that the mass was located within the masseter muscle. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and showed spindle neoplastic cells, which were suspected to be of mesenchymal tissue origin. The mass was completely resected under general anesthesia. It was a well-circumscribed and lobulated mass, 4 × 3 × 2 cm in size. Histological examination gave the diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings for S-100 and vimentin. Neurologic sequelae and recurrence were not found at 2 years after surgery. PMID:21119484

  20. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  1. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level. PMID:402305

  2. Autophagy promotes DNA-protein crosslink clearance.

    PubMed

    Mu, Haibo; Liu, Qianjin; Niu, Hong; Wang, Dongdong; Tang, Jiangjiang; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-02-01

    Toxic DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) can result from exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. DPCs can also accumulate during aging or stress. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying clearance of DPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we have identified an important role of autophagy in the processing of DPCs induced by three representative agents: formaldehyde, a chemical used widely in industry; UV light; and camptothecin, a cytotoxic anticancer drug. Autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ), promoted the accumulation of DPCs in damaged cells and injured organs. siRNA-mediated silencing of Atg5 or Atg7, two essential components for the formation of the autophagosome, gave similar results. In contrast, the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) attenuated DPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal the importance of autophagy in controlling the level of DPCs, and may open up a new avenue for understanding the formation and clearance of this detrimental DNA adduct. PMID:26921017

  3. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  4. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  5. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  6. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  7. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  8. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  9. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  11. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 25.925 Section 25.925... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances with the airplane at maximum weight, with the most...

  12. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller clearance. 23.925 Section 23.925... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller clearances are substantiated, propeller clearances, with the airplane at the...

  13. Leiomyosarcoma arising in a lipoleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Scurry, J; Hack, M

    1990-12-01

    A leiomyosarcoma arising in a uterine lipoleiomyoma is described in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor measured 11 cm and was located in the corpus uteri. It was composed of a mixture of firm, pale tan, whorled tissue and soft, white or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the firm tissue was a mixture of bland smooth muscle, fat and fibrous tissue, whereas the soft areas showed a malignant spindle cell tumor with smooth muscle differentiation. Pure sarcoma similar to the malignant portion of the lipoleiomyoma had metastasized to the vaginal wall.

  14. Creatinine clearance test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply energy, mainly to muscles. By comparing the creatinine level in urine with the creatinine level in blood , this test estimates the ...

  15. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A

    1979-01-01

    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  16. Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for Screening-Level Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Rats and Its Integration within PBPK Models to Predict Inhalation Pharmacokinetics in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peyret, Thomas; Krishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a screening-level Quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) for intrinsic clearance (CLint) obtained from in vivo animal studies and (ii) to incorporate it with human physiology in a PBPK model for predicting the inhalation pharmacokinetics of VOCs. CLint, calculated as the ratio of the in vivo Vmax (μmol/h/kg bw rat) to the Km (μM), was obtained for 26 VOCs from the literature. The QPPR model resulting from stepwise linear regression analysis passed the validation step (R2 = 0.8; leave-one-out cross-validation Q2 = 0.75) for CLint normalized to the phospholipid (PL) affinity of the VOCs. The QPPR facilitated the calculation of CLint (L PL/h/kg bw rat) from the input data on log Pow, log blood: water PC and ionization potential. The predictions of the QPPR as lower and upper bounds of the 95% mean confidence intervals (LMCI and UMCI, resp.) were then integrated within a human PBPK model. The ratio of the maximum (using LMCI for CLint) to minimum (using UMCI for CLint) AUC predicted by the QPPR-PBPK model was 1.36 ± 0.4 and ranged from 1.06 (1,1-dichloroethylene) to 2.8 (isoprene). Overall, the integrated QPPR-PBPK modeling method developed in this study is a pragmatic way of characterizing the impact of the lack of knowledge of CLint in predicting human pharmacokinetics of VOCs, as well as the impact of prediction uncertainty of CLint on human pharmacokinetics of VOCs. PMID:22685458

  17. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  18. Inherited disorders of bilirubin clearance.

    PubMed

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-03-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective (i) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, (ii) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g., Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), (iii) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or (iv) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  19. Melanoma arising after imiquimod use.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P

    2014-01-01

    Imiquimod belongs to the class of 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolones-drugs originally developed as nucleoside analogues with the aim of finding new potential antiviral agents (Harrison et al., 1988). Indeed, Imiquimod was first released as treatment for genital warts before its actions against skin cancer were studied. Imiquimod is a relatively small sized molecule (Mr = 240.3) and is hydrophobic, allowing it to penetrate the skin epidermal barrier and therefore making it suitable for topical formulations (Gerster et al., 2005). Imiquimod has shown itself effective against skin cancers and precancerous lesions, especially basal cell cancers and actinic keratosis (Salasche et al., 2002, Beutner et al., 1999). There have been reports of Imiquimod being used as topical treatment against cutaneous metastases of melanoma and some authors have reported its use as first-line therapy against melanoma in situ (Smyth et al., 2011, Gagnon, 2011). We report a case of an invasive malignant melanoma arising de novo at the specific site of application of Imiquimod (Aldara cream 5%) for a biopsy-proven superficial BCC. Therefore while Imiquimod has added to our topical armamentarium against skin cancer, care must be exercised in prescribing this treatment and it is especially important to follow up patients regularly. PMID:25431597

  20. Experimental study of tip clearance losses and noise in axial turbomachines and their reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kameier, F.; Neise, W.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental study is described to investigate the negative effects of the tip clearance gap on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of axial turbomachines. In addition to the increased broadband levels reported in the literature when the tip clearance is enlarged, significant level increases were observed within narrow frequency bands below the blade passing frequency. Measurements of the pressure and velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of the blade tips reveal that the tip clearance noise is associated with a rotating flow instability at the blade tip, which in turn is only present under reversed flow conditions in the tip clearance gap. A turbulence generator inserted into the tip clearance gap is found to be effective in eliminating the tip clearance noise and in improving the aerodynamic performance.

  1. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  2. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  3. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  4. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  5. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  6. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  7. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical...

  8. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  9. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  10. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  11. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  12. Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Development.

    PubMed

    Shklover, Jeny; Levy-Adam, Flonia; Kurant, Estee

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death and its specific form apoptosis play an important role during development of multicellular organisms. They are crucial for morphogenesis and organ sculpting as well as for adjusting cell number in different systems. Removal of apoptotic cells is the last critical step of apoptosis. Apoptotic cells are properly and efficiently recognized and eliminated through phagocytosis, which is performed by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or apoptotic cell clearance is a dynamic multistep process, involving interactions between phagocytic receptors and ligands on apoptotic cells, which are highly conserved in evolution. However, this process is extremely redundant in mammals, containing multiple factors playing similar roles in the process. Using model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and mouse permits addressing fundamental questions in developmental cell clearance by a comprehensive approach including powerful genetics and cell biological tools enriched by live imaging. Recent studies in model organisms have enhanced significantly our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of apoptotic cell clearance during development. Here, we review the current knowledge and illuminate the great potential of the research performed in genetic models, which opens new directions in developmental biology.

  13. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, P.J. ); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  14. Induction of bilirubin clearance by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Chua, Steven S; Qatanani, Mohammed; Han, Yunqing; Granata, Riccarda; Moore, David D

    2003-04-01

    Bilirubin clearance is one of the numerous important functions of the liver. Defects in this process result in jaundice, which is particularly common in neonates. Elevated bilirubin levels can be decreased by treatment with phenobarbital. Because the nuclear hormone receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) mediates hepatic effects of this xenobiotic inducer, we hypothesized that CAR could be a regulator of bilirubin clearance. Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor CAR increases hepatic expression of each of five components of the bilirubin-clearance pathway. This induction is absent in homozygous CAR null mice but is observed in mice expressing human CAR instead of mouse CAR. Pretreatment with xenobiotic inducers markedly increases the rate of clearance of an exogenous bilirubin load in wild-type but not CAR knockout animals. Bilirubin itself can also activate CAR, and mice lacking CAR are defective in clearing chronically elevated bilirubin levels. Unexpectedly, CAR expression is very low in livers of neonatal mice and humans. We conclude that CAR directs a protective response to elevated bilirubin levels and suggest that a functional deficit of CAR activity may contribute to neonatal jaundice. PMID:12644704

  15. Canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Erin E; Rulyak, Stephen J; Sekijima, John H; Yeh, Matthew M

    2007-10-01

    Canalicular adenomas are benign neoplasms that arise from salivary glands and often present as painless enlarging nodules. They have a predilection for upper lip but can be found throughout the oropharynx. To our knowledge, canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus has never been described in the English literature. Here we report a canalicular adenoma occurring in the esophagus.

  16. How Robust Are Malaria Parasite Clearance Rates as Indicators of Drug Effectiveness and Resistance?

    PubMed

    Hastings, Ian M; Kay, Katherine; Hodel, Eva Maria

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the most deadly of the human malarias. Malaria parasite clearance rates estimated from patients' blood following ACT treatment have been widely adopted as a measure of drug effectiveness and as surveillance tools for detecting the presence of potential artemisinin resistance. This metric has not been investigated in detail, nor have its properties or potential shortcomings been identified. Herein, the pharmacology of drug treatment, parasite biology, and human immunity are combined to investigate the dynamics of parasite clearance following ACT. This approach parsimoniously recovers the principal clinical features and dynamics of clearance. Human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates, unless or until artemisinin killing has fallen to near-ineffective levels. Clearance rates are therefore highly insensitive metrics for surveillance that may lead to overconfidence, as even quite substantial reductions in drug sensitivity may not be detected as lower clearance rates. Equally serious is the use of clearance rates to quantify the impact of ACT regimen changes, as this strategy will plausibly miss even very substantial increases in drug effectiveness. In particular, the malaria community may be missing the opportunity to dramatically increase ACT effectiveness through regimen changes, particularly through a switch to twice-daily regimens and/or increases in artemisinin dosing levels. The malaria community therefore appears overreliant on a single metric of drug effectiveness, the parasite clearance rate, that has significant and serious shortcomings.

  17. How Robust Are Malaria Parasite Clearance Rates as Indicators of Drug Effectiveness and Resistance?

    PubMed

    Hastings, Ian M; Kay, Katherine; Hodel, Eva Maria

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the most deadly of the human malarias. Malaria parasite clearance rates estimated from patients' blood following ACT treatment have been widely adopted as a measure of drug effectiveness and as surveillance tools for detecting the presence of potential artemisinin resistance. This metric has not been investigated in detail, nor have its properties or potential shortcomings been identified. Herein, the pharmacology of drug treatment, parasite biology, and human immunity are combined to investigate the dynamics of parasite clearance following ACT. This approach parsimoniously recovers the principal clinical features and dynamics of clearance. Human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates, unless or until artemisinin killing has fallen to near-ineffective levels. Clearance rates are therefore highly insensitive metrics for surveillance that may lead to overconfidence, as even quite substantial reductions in drug sensitivity may not be detected as lower clearance rates. Equally serious is the use of clearance rates to quantify the impact of ACT regimen changes, as this strategy will plausibly miss even very substantial increases in drug effectiveness. In particular, the malaria community may be missing the opportunity to dramatically increase ACT effectiveness through regimen changes, particularly through a switch to twice-daily regimens and/or increases in artemisinin dosing levels. The malaria community therefore appears overreliant on a single metric of drug effectiveness, the parasite clearance rate, that has significant and serious shortcomings. PMID:26239987

  18. How Robust Are Malaria Parasite Clearance Rates as Indicators of Drug Effectiveness and Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Katherine; Hodel, Eva Maria

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the most deadly of the human malarias. Malaria parasite clearance rates estimated from patients' blood following ACT treatment have been widely adopted as a measure of drug effectiveness and as surveillance tools for detecting the presence of potential artemisinin resistance. This metric has not been investigated in detail, nor have its properties or potential shortcomings been identified. Herein, the pharmacology of drug treatment, parasite biology, and human immunity are combined to investigate the dynamics of parasite clearance following ACT. This approach parsimoniously recovers the principal clinical features and dynamics of clearance. Human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates, unless or until artemisinin killing has fallen to near-ineffective levels. Clearance rates are therefore highly insensitive metrics for surveillance that may lead to overconfidence, as even quite substantial reductions in drug sensitivity may not be detected as lower clearance rates. Equally serious is the use of clearance rates to quantify the impact of ACT regimen changes, as this strategy will plausibly miss even very substantial increases in drug effectiveness. In particular, the malaria community may be missing the opportunity to dramatically increase ACT effectiveness through regimen changes, particularly through a switch to twice-daily regimens and/or increases in artemisinin dosing levels. The malaria community therefore appears overreliant on a single metric of drug effectiveness, the parasite clearance rate, that has significant and serious shortcomings. PMID:26239987

  19. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  20. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, Joseph H.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Sarna, Pawanjit S.; Murphy, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT) enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT) followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyzed for NO metabolites (NOx). Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC NOx concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32 μM versus after = 37 ± 17 μM; P < 0.002). CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC NOx. Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled NOx levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism. PMID:24349778

  1. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Joseph H; Wyatt, Todd A; Pavlik, Jacqueline A; Sarna, Pawanjit S; Murphy, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT) enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT) followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyzed for NO metabolites (NO x ). Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC NO x concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32  μ M versus after = 37 ± 17  μ M; P < 0.002). CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC NO x . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled NO x levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism. PMID:24349778

  2. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C. )

    1989-09-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume (1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area) approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine.

  3. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vissing, J.; Ohkuwa, Tetsuo; Ploug, T.; Galbo, H. Nagoya Institute of Technology )

    1988-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-({sup 3}H)deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared with nonimmobilized control rats. During running, glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels were always similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusion, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular affects steps involved in insulin-mediated action that are not part of contraction-induced glucose uptake and metabolism. Presence of intracellular 2DG shows that separate determination of phosphorylated 2DG is necessary for accurate estimates of glucose metabolism and that accumulation of phosphorylated 2DG does not accurately reflect glucose transport.

  4. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  5. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  7. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  8. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  14. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  19. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling....

  20. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  1. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  2. Lung-clearance mechanisms following inhalation of acid sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Silbaugh, S.A.; Carpenter, R.L.; Rowatt, J.D.; Hill, J.O.

    1982-08-01

    These studies have indicated that acute exposures (1-6 hrs) to sulfuric acid at levels of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/ can produce impairments in mucous clearance. The impairments can last for up to a week following a 1 hr exposure. These effects and studies by others suggest that high sulfate levels in polluted conditions may be one factor in observed increases of hospital visits for respiratory problems. Long term exposures to elevated levels of sulfates resulting in decreases of clearance could also be an initiating factor in producing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These studies have also shown that it is the larger size fraction (0.6 to 1.0 ..mu..m) of sulfuric acid mist in the urban aerosol which is predominantly responsible for at least the acute effects.

  3. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise /sup 201/TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD.

  4. Central role for PICALM in amyloid–β blood–brain barrier transcytosis and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Sagare, Abhay P.; Ma, Qingyi; Halliday, Matthew R.; Kong, Pan; Kisler, Kassandra; Winkler, Ethan A.; Ramanathan, Anita; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun; Owens, Nelly Chuqui; Rege, Sanket V.; Si, Gabriel; Ahuja, Ashim; Zhu, Donghui; Miller, Carol A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Maeda, Manami; Maeda, Takahiro; Sugawara, Tohru; Ichida, Justin K.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2015-01-01

    PICALM is highly validated genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we report that PICALM reductions in AD and murine brain endothelium correlate with amyloid–β (Aβ) pathology and cognitive impairment. Moreover, Picalm deficiency diminishes Aβ clearance across the murine blood–brain barrier (BBB) and accelerates Aβ pathology that is reversible by endothelial PICALM re–expression. Using human brain endothelial monolayer, we show that PICALM regulates PICALM/clathrin–dependent internalization of Aβ bound to the low density lipoprotein receptor related protein–1, a key Aβ clearance receptor, and guides Aβ trafficking to Rab5 and Rab11 leading to Aβ endothelial transcytosis and clearance. PICALM levels and Aβ clearance were reduced in AD–derived endothelial monolayers, which was reversible by adenoviral–mediated PICALM transfer. iPSC–derived human endothelial cells carrying the rs3851179 protective allele exhibited higher PICALM levels and enhanced Aβ clearance. Thus, PICALM regulates Aβ BBB transcytosis and clearance that has implications for Aβ brain homeostasis and clearance therapy. PMID:26005850

  5. Humanitarian IED clearance in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Molina, A.; Diaz, D.; Grasmueck, M.; Moreno, H. A.; Hernández, R. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED's) by insurgents in Colombia is characterized by a quick response to counter IED measures. Many current IED's do not contain any metal parts and can have any shape or form. Due to the low metal content or the absence of any metal parts, sensors based on metal detection are not useful anymore. Due to the wide variety of sizes, shapes, and enclosure materials of current IED's, one and two-dimensional GPR sensors using a "library" of known shapes as well as acoustic sensors using material characteristic frequencies have become ineffective. Therefore, the Colombian experience strongly suggests that chemical sensors are the way for IED detection in soils since they do not depend on IED metal content, size, or shape but only on the presence of explosives, a necessary ingredient for any IED. Promising recently developed chemical sensors make use of semiconducting organic polymers (SOPs) such as FIDO and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once an explosive has been detected, the IED needs to be identified and located. Therefore, there is a need for three-dimensional high resolution scans for identification of all subsoil features including rocks, roots, and IED's. The recently developed 3D-GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) can map all features of the subsoil with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm or less. The objectives of this contribution are to inform about the IED problem in Colombia and how novel technologies may contribute to humanitarian IED clearance under humid tropical conditions.

  6. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  7. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H. )

    1989-12-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of {sup 201}Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) {sup 201}Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial {sup 201}Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested.

  8. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  9. 33 CFR 117.47 - Clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 117.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE... specify otherwise for particular drawbridges, clearance gauges shall be designed, installed, and... appropriate bridge....

  10. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installed with enough clearance from any other underground structure to allow proper maintenance and to... prevent the heat from impairing the serviceability of the pipe. (d) Each pipe-type or bottle-type...

  11. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  12. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  13. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (<0.6 mm) to extra-large (>1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  14. Effect of glucagon infusion on the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F J; Davila, E; Gardner, L B

    1978-10-01

    Recent data seem to support a tubular defect as the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon has been proposed by some to be an important factor in this phenomenon. To examine the role of glucagon as this "tubular dysfunction factor", we investigated the effect of intravenously infused glucagon on the fractional excretion of amylase and the tubular handling of a low molecular weight protein, beta2 microglobulin, in normal, healthy volunteers. At glucagon levels far in excess of those seen in pancreatitis, the clearance ratio of beta2 microglobulin relative to creatinine increased, whereas the clearance ratio of amylase relative to creatinine did not increase above the normal range. The dissociation between beta2 microglobulin clearance and amylase clearance allows one to question the theory that tubular dysfunction is the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon does not appear to be the sole factor responsible for the elevation of renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

  15. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  16. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  17. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  18. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  19. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2014-03-01

    The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  2. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or...

  3. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  4. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  5. 31 CFR 205.20 - What is a clearance pattern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a clearance pattern? 205.20... Agreement § 205.20 What is a clearance pattern? States use clearance patterns to project when funds are paid... is applied. (c) A clearance pattern must include seasonal or other periodic variations in...

  6. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  7. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  8. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios and serum amylase isoenzymes in moderate renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Banks, P A; Sidi, S; Gelman, M L; Lee, K H; Warshaw, A L

    1979-12-01

    Both the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (normal 1.55%) and proportion of pancreatic isoamylase in serum (normal 41.0%) increase in acute pancreatitis, and are therefore useful measurements to support that diagnosis. Whether renal insufficiency interferes with the accuracy and specificity of these tests has been debated. Our study indicates that even moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 30.5 ml/minute) raises the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (3.23%) close enough to values characteristic of acute pancreatitis (4.41%) to cause potential diagnostic confusion. The fraction of pancreatic isoamylase in serum is also increased (69.9%), but not to the levels of acute pancreatitis (91.0%). We therefore caution against the use of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

  9. 75 FR 38959 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... established in the Federal Register of May 6, 2010 (75 FR 25038) (FRL-8823-5). In that document, EPA proposed... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 RIN 2070-AJ57 Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the... Federal Register of May 6, 2010, concerning several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair,...

  10. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Kavya; Cusack, Corey L.; Nnah, Israel C.; Khayati, Khoosheh; Saqcena, Chaitali; Huynh, Tuong B.; Noggle, Scott A.; Ballabio, Andrea; Dobrowolski, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD. PMID:26923592

  11. Active Piezoelectric Structures for Tip Clearance Management Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Managing blade tip clearance in turbomachinery stages is critical to developing advanced subsonic propulsion systems. Active casing structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators appear to be a promising solution. They can control static and dynamic tip clearance, compensate for uneven deflections, and accomplish electromechanical coupling at the material level. In addition, they have a compact design. To assess the feasibility of this concept and assist the development of these novel structures, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed in-house computational capabilities for composite structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors, and subsequently used them to simulate candidate active casing structures. The simulations indicated the potential of active casings to modify the blade tip clearance enough to improve stage efficiency. They also provided valuable design information, such as preliminary actuator configurations (number and location) and the corresponding voltage patterns required to compensate for uneven casing deformations. An active ovalization of a casing with four discrete piezoceramic actuators attached on the outer surface is shown. The center figure shows the predicted radial displacements along the hoop direction that are induced when electrostatic voltage is applied at the piezoceramic actuators. This work, which has demonstrated the capabilities of in-house computational models to analyze and design active casing structures, is expected to contribute toward the development of advanced subsonic engines.

  12. Solute clearance measurement in the assessment of dialysis adequacy among African continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abdu, Aliyu; Naidoo, Sagren; Malgas, Shirin; Naicker, Jocelyn T; Paget, Graham; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2015-01-01

    Solute clearance measurement is an objective means of quantifying the dose of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Despite continued debate on the interpretation and precise prognostic value of small solute clearance in PD patients, guidelines based on solute clearance values are common in clinical practice. There is limited information on the solute clearance indices and PD adequacy parameters among this predominantly low socioeconomic status PD population. We investigated the solute clearance among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and its relationship with other parameters of PD adequacy. Seventy patients on CAPD were studied in this cross-sectional study. Solute clearance was assessed using urea clearance (Kt/V). Linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with solute clearance, while analysis of variance was used to test the influence of weekly Kt/V on blood pressure (BP), hemoglobin (Hb) and other biochemical parameters. The mean age of the study population was 37.9 ± 12.4 years, 43% were females and 86% were black Africans. The mean duration on CAPD was 19.7 ± 20.8 months. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 144 ± 28 and 92 ± 17 mm Hg, respectively. The mean Hb was 11.1 ± 2.2 g/dL and the mean weekly Kt/V was 1.7 ± 0.3. Factors like systolic BP, Hb level, serum levels of cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and albumin were not significantly associated with the weekly Kt/V. We conclude that the dose of PD received by the majority of our patients in terms of the weekly Kt/V is within the recommended values and that this finding is significant considering the low socioeconomic background of our patients. There is no significant association between Kt/V and other indices of dialysis adequacy. PMID:26178569

  13. Extreme contagion in global habitat clearance.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Mace, Georgina M; McGowan, Philip J K; Fuller, Richard A

    2010-04-01

    Habitat clearance remains the major cause of biodiversity loss, with consequences for ecosystem services and for people. In response to this, many global conservation schemes direct funds to regions with high rates of recent habitat destruction, though some also emphasize the conservation of remaining large tracts of intact habitat. If the pattern of habitat clearance is highly contagious, the latter approach will help prevent destructive processes gaining a foothold in areas of contiguous intact habitat. Here, we test the strength of spatial contagion in the pattern of habitat clearance. Using a global dataset of land-cover change at 50 x 50 km resolution, we discover that intact habitat areas in grid cells are refractory to clearance only when all neighbouring cells are also intact. The likelihood of loss increases dramatically as soon as habitat is cleared in just one neighbouring cell, and remains high thereafter. This effect is consistent for forests and grassland, across biogeographic realms and over centuries, constituting a coherent global pattern. Our results show that landscapes become vulnerable to wholesale clearance as soon as threatening processes begin to penetrate, so actions to prevent any incursions into large, intact blocks of natural habitat are key to their long-term persistence.

  14. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  15. Clear cell chondrosarcomas arising from rare sites.

    PubMed

    Ogose, A; Motoyama, T; Hotta, T; Emura, I; Inoue, Y; Morita, T; Watanabe, H

    1995-09-01

    Three cases are reported of clear cell chondrosarcoma arising from unusual sites: talus, rib and vertebra. Radiographically, two tumors showed osteolytic features and the vertebral tumor showed osteoplastic change. Histologically, all tumors consisted of clear cells that had a centrally placed nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm, osteoclast-like giant cells, areas of conventional chondrosarcoma, and various amounts of reactive bone. The tumor in the talus was initially diagnosed as benign chondroblastoma, but it recurred. The rib tumor showed marked cystic formation stimulating aneurysmal bone cyst. The osteoplastic radiographic feature in vertebral tumor was considered to be due to the abundant bone formation. PMID:8548042

  16. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  17. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  18. Colchicine clearance is impaired in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Leighton, J A; Bay, M K; Maldonado, A L; Schenker, S; Speeg, K V

    1991-12-01

    Colchicine may have benefit in primary biliary cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease. It is currently used in patients with impaired liver function, yet little is known about its elimination in such patients. Colchicine clearance in the rat is significantly impaired in various models of liver disease. To study this in human beings, colchicine pharmacokinetics were compared in normal subjects and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Colchicine clearance was impaired in the cirrhotic patients. Normal subjects had a mean clearance of 10.65 +/- 1.82 ml/min.kg, whereas cirrhotic patients had a mean clearance of 4.22 +/- 0.45 ml/min.kg (p less than 0.01). The half-life was 57.4 +/- 14.2 min in control subjects vs. 114.4 +/- 19.7 min in cirrhotic patients (p = 0.054). Volume of distribution was not different in the two groups (0.718 +/- 0.1 L/kg in control subjects; 0.716 +/- 0.158 L/kg in cirrhotic patients, p greater than 0.99). No correlation was seen between colchicine clearance and bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time or Child-Pugh classification, but this may be the result of the small number of patients studied. Based on the values measured, it is estimated that colchicine steady state would change from an average 1.12 ng/ml in normal individuals to 2.82 ng/ml in the cirrhotic patients if 0.6 mg were taken every 12 hr. It is unknown whether this change would be clinically significant. These data show that cirrhosis impairs colchicine clearance and demonstrates that the liver is a major route of colchicine elimination.

  19. Active clearance control system for a turbomachine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Knapp, M. H.; Coulson, C. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An axial compressor is provided with a cooling air manifold surrounding a portion of the shroud, and means for bleeding air from the compressor to the manifold for selectively flowing it in a modulating manner axially along the outer side of the stator/shroud to cool and shrink it during steady state operating conditions so as to obtain minimum shroud/rotor clearance conditions. Provision is also made to selectively divert the flow of cooling air from the manifold during transient periods of operation so as to alter the thermal growth or shrink rate of the stator/shroud and result in adequate clearance with the compressor rotor.

  20. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  1. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  3. Prediction of hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance and human clearance values for drugs.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Katarina; Agababa, Danica

    2009-10-01

    Twenty-nine drugs of different structures were used in theoretical QSAR analysis of human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2) and in vitro CL'(int)) and whole body clearance (CL(blood)). The examined compounds demonstrated a wide range of scaled intrinsic clearance values. Constitutional, geometrical, physico-chemical and electronic descriptors were computed for the examined structures by use of the Marvin Sketch 5.1.3_2, the Chem3D Ultra 7.0.0 and the Dragon 5.4 program. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2)). Optimal QSAR models with nine and ten variables, R(2)>0.808 and cross-validation parameter q(pre)(2)>0.623, were selected and compared. Since the microsomal in vitro T(1/2) data can be used for calculation of in vitro CL'(int) and in vivo CL(blood), the developed QSAR model will enable one to analyze the kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in term of intrinsic clearance and whole body clearance. A comparison is made between predictions produced from the QSAR analysis and experimental data, and there appears to be generally satisfactory correlations with the literature values for intrinsic clearance data. PMID:19713138

  4. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  5. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function. PMID:6167484

  6. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Airway Clearance Therapies in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Shawna L; Rubin, Bruce K; Haas, Carl F; Volsko, Teresa A; Drescher, Gail S; O'Malley, Catherine A

    2015-07-01

    Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis. The routine use of bronchodilators to aid in secretion clearance is not recommended. The routine use of aerosolized N-acetylcysteine to improve airway clearance is not recommended. Aerosolized agents to change mucus biophysical properties or promote airway clearance are not recommended for adult or pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease, respiratory muscle weakness, or impaired cough. Mucolytics are not recommended to treat atelectasis in postoperative adult or pediatric patients, and the routine administration of bronchodilators to postoperative patients is not recommended. There is no high-level evidence related to the use of bronchodilators, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and novel therapy to promote airway clearance in these populations. PMID:26113566

  7. Characterizing clearance of helper adenovirus by a clinical rAAV1 manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Barbara A; Quigley, Paulene; Nichols, Gina; Moore, Christine; Pastor, Eric; Price, David; Ament, Jon W; Takeya, Ryan K; Peluso, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) are being developed as gene therapy delivery vehicles and as genetic vaccines, and some of the most scaleable manufacturing methods for rAAV use live adenovirus to induce production. One aspect of establishing safety of rAAV products is therefore demonstrating adequate and reliable clearance of this helper virus by the vector purification process. The ICH Q5A regulatory guidance on viral safety provides recommendations for process design and characterization of viral clearance for recombinant proteins, and these principles were adapted to a rAAV serotype 1 purification process for clinical vectors. Specific objectives were to achieve overall adenovirus clearance factors significantly greater than input levels by using orthogonal separation and inactivation methods, and to segregate adenovirus from downstream operations by positioning a robust clearance step early in the process. Analytical tools for process development and characterization addressed problematic in-process samples, and a viral clearance validation study was performed using adenovirus and two non-specific model viruses. Overall clearance factors determined were >23 LRV for adenovirus, 11 LRV for BVDV, and >23 LRV for AMuLV.

  8. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  9. Atorvastatin delays the glucose clearance rate in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daxin; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Wentao; Bai, Liang; Cheng, Gong; Chu, Yonglie; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-05-01

    The administration of statin might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypercholesterolemic patients based on the recent clinical evidence. However, the causal relationship must be clarified and confirmed in animal experiments. Therefore, we mimicked hypercholesterolemia by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and performed 16 weeks of atorvastatin administration to investigate the effect of statin on glucose metabolism. The intravenous glucose tolerance test showed that plasma glucose levels in the statin-treated rabbits were consistently higher and that there was a slower rate of glucose clearance from the blood than in HCD rabbits. The incremental area under the curve for glucose in the statin-treated rabbits was also significantly larger than in the HCD rabbits. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the intravenous insulin tolerance test. The glucose-lowering ability of exogenous insulin was not impaired by statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The administration of a single dose of statin did not affect glucose metabolism in normal rabbits. The statin also significantly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits, whereas it did not affect plasma levels of glucose and insulin. The current results showed that atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant delay of glucose clearance in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and this rabbit model could be suitable for studying the effects of statin on glucose metabolism.

  10. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this...); where the full investigative coverage cannot be completed, a counterintelligence scope...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1340 - Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint... abatement of lead-based paint or lead-based paint hazards shall be performed in accordance with 40 CFR 745... the steps set forth at 40 CFR 745.227(e)(8). If clearance is being performed after lead-based...

  15. 32 CFR 154.48 - Issuing clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., separated from DoD civilian employment, has no further official relationship with DoD, official action has... individual's relationship with DoD exists greater than 24 months and/or, the need for regular access to... Component may issue an interim clearance to personnel under their administrative jurisdiction pending...

  16. Mediators and mucociliary clearance in asthma.

    PubMed

    Pavia, D; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Clarke, S W

    1987-01-01

    Lung mucociliary clearance is significantly reduced in asthmatic patients compared to healthy controls even during clinical remission. Further retardation in mucous clearance occurs during sleep per se and this may be a contributing factor to nocturnal asthma. Chemical mediators of anaphylaxis appear to have various and, sometimes opposing effects on the two essential components for mucociliary clearance, namely cilia and mucus. Some mediators such as leukotrienes C4 and D4 are potent secretagogues and histamine increases the water flux into the lumen of the airways from the mucosa. Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) reduces mucus transport whereas histamine enhances it. Ciliostimulation has been reported following allergen challenge and this contrasts with the cilioinhibitory effect of asthmatics' sputa. It appears however, that the net effect of the various chemicals of anaphylaxis is one of impairment of mucus clearance. Some pharmacological agents, used for the relief of bronchospasm and control of asthma, also stimulate mucociliary transport, a desirable additional effect. PMID:3311245

  17. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be accomplished in accordance with 32 CFR part 159. The investigative requirement shall be the... be processed for a security clearance in accordance with 32 CFR part 353 and the provisions of this... cleared personnel. (7) To food service personnel, vendors and similar commercial sales or...

  18. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  19. Glioblastoma arising within a mediastinal mature teratoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Jentoft, Mark E; Boland, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    Herein we present the case of a 42-year-old man who presented with an anterior mediastinal mass, which was found to represent a mature teratoma. Within it, there was a secondary somatic malignant glial neoplasm with mitotic activity and necrosis, compatible with glioblastoma. He experienced early local recurrence and lymph node metastasis, but is alive and well 3 1/2 years after diagnosis. Neither the teratoma nor the glioblastoma components had abnormalities of chromosome 12, which may implicate that this teratoma was more closely related to those arising along the midline of infants and children (type I germ cell tumor) than to the typically malignant testicular examples, which often contain mixed germ cell elements (type II germ cell tumor). PMID:27327191

  20. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  1. 75 FR 70341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security..._Submission@omb.eop.gov . (SSA), Social Security Administration, DCBFM, Attn: Reports Clearance Officer,...

  2. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  3. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  4. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  5. WWW-based data entry for document clearance requests

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiak, D.M.

    1997-10-08

    All documents created at Argonne must be cleared before being published. The clearance process is coordinated by the Publications and Record Services. The Electronic Document Review and Clearance System (EDRC) consists of a Web-based system for submission of clearance requests, an electronic staging area for document awaiting review, and Web-based review and clearance of documents. This report covers the document clearing process, the EDRC system, expected benefits/costs, and a demonstration.

  6. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  7. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  8. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  10. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  13. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from... tracks at all locations where possible or the area shall be marked conspicuously....

  15. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  17. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  18. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  20. Wear analysis of revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, ZhengFeng; Zhao, Yang; Wang, XingGui

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the prediction of wear for revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems is investigated using a computational methodology. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a new hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The dynamics model of multibody system with clearance is established using dynamic segmentation modeling method and the computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint in multibody systems is presented. The main computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint includes two steps, which are dynamics analysis and wear analysis. The dynamics simulation of multibody system with revolute clearance joint is carried out and the contact forces are drawn and used to calculate the wear amount of revolute clearance joint based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, a four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the simulation and show the dynamics responses and wear characteristics of multibody systems with revolute clearance joint. The main results of this work indicate that the contact between the joint elements is wider and more frequent in some specific regions and the wear phenomenon is not regular around the joint surface, which causes the clearance size increase non-regularly after clearance joint wear. This work presents an effective method to predict wear of revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems.

  1. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  2. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  3. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer identified in 48 CFR 45... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  4. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  5. 75 FR 37518 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security...@ssa.gov . SSA submitted the information collection below to OMB for Emergency Clearance. SSA is requesting Emergency Clearance from OMB no later than July 6, 2010. Individuals can obtain copies of...

  6. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  7. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL... and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  8. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  9. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  10. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for clearance. 4.61 Section 4.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.61 Requirements for clearance....

  11. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.55 Title... borrower by a closing agent in connection with the transaction vary depending on whether a title...

  12. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69... ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a) Easements Costing in Excess of $1,000. Curative action and clearance of title...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  15. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  16. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  18. Alterations in lung clearance mechanisms due to single and repeated nitrogen dioxide exposures in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmuth, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was assessed following single, two-hour exposures to either 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, or 14 daily two hour exposures to 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 ppm NO/sub 2/. No significant changes in the mean residence time of tracer particles in the tracheobronchial region were produced under any exposure condition, indicating no effect upon mucociliary clearance. Macrophage functional properties were examined in vitro at select times following single, two hour in vivo exposures to 1.0 and 10.0 ppm NO/sub 2/. Macrophage number and viability were not affected; however, significant dose-related differences in phagocytosis and mobility were observed. These changes were associated with altered in vivo alveolar clearance patterns. Additional studies examined the effects of in vitro exposure to nitrite and hydrogen ion, two known NO/sub 2/ reaction products in the lung, on macrophage phagocytosis. While hydrogen ion had no effect at the levels used, nitrate was shown to enhance phagocytosis. These results demonstrate that alveolar clearance and macrophage function are altered by short-term NO/sub 2/ exposure at realistic, environmental levels. These data also provide insight into the mechanisms of NO/sub 2/-induced alteration in lung clearance pathways.

  19. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  20. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  1. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  2. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  3. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  4. Market Mechanism for Line Congestion Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes a mechanism for clearance of line congestion and power flow control in a deregulated market environment. The mechanism applies penalties to the bilateral transactions that cause line congestion by increasing the prices of such transactions. The market regulates itself by redefining the transactions and checking again for violations, applying penalties if necessary and repeating the process until all the demand is satisfied without causing line congestion to the system. A bilateral transaction matrix (BTM) creation algorithm developed by the authors and a DC power flow program are integrated as parts of the market mechanism proposed in this paper. The congestion is cleared by the market participants when they reschedule their transactions. This mechanism is useful to study the effects of bilateral transactions on a power system and helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to create rules and market mechanisms for line congestion clearance and power flow control.

  5. Airway clearance therapy: finding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Volsko, Teresa A

    2013-10-01

    Disease processes can impair ciliary function, alter secretion production and mucus rheology, and interfere with the cough reflex. Airway clearance therapy has been a cornerstone of therapy aimed at minimizing the devastating effects of airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation due to mucus stasis on the conducting airways and lung parenchyma. Although challenges to performing clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of airway clearance therapeutic modalities exist, resources are available in the literature. In addition to device evaluations and original clinical research, the expert opinion, systematic reviews, and evidence-based practice guidelines can be found. These tools can be used to develop protocols and pathways to guide our practice. Monitoring and reporting patient, process, and financial outcomes are essential steps germane to the implementation of evidence-based care.

  6. Axial compressor blade design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Engin

    region, this approach would entail a nominal performance penalty. Therefore, the chosen rotor design philosophy aims to keep the spanwise loading constant to avoid trading performance for desensitization. The rotor designs that resulted from this exercise are simulated in ANSYS CFX at different tip clearance sizes. The change in their performance with respect to tip clearance size (sensitivity) is compared both on an integral level in terms of pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, as well as on a detailed level in terms of aerodynamic losses and blockage associated with tip clearance flow. The sensitivity of aerodynamic stability is evaluated either directly through the simulations of the rotor characteristics up to the stall point (expensive in time and resources) for a few designs or indirectly through the position of the interface between the incoming and tip clearance flow with respect to the rotor leading edge plane. The latter approach is based on a generally observed stall criteria in modern axial compressors. The rotor designs are then assessed according to their sensitivity in comparison to that of the reference rotor design to detect features that can explain the trend in sensitivity to tip clearance size. These features can then be validated and the associated flow mechanisms explained through numerical simulations and modelling. Analysis of the database from the rotor parametric study shows that the observed trend in sensitivity cannot be explained by the shifting of the aerodynamic loading along the blade chord, as initially hypothesized based on the literature review. Instead, two flow features are found to reduce sensitivity of performance and stability to tip clearance, namely an increase in incoming meridional momentum in the tip region and a reduction/elimination of double leakage flow. Double leakage flow is the flow that exits the tip clearance of one blade and proceeds into the clearance of the adjacent blade rather than convecting downstream out

  7. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  8. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  9. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, James

    2007-01-01

    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  10. The tribological behaviour of different clearance MOM hip joints with lubricants of physiological viscosities.

    PubMed

    Hu, X Q; Wood, R J K; Taylor, A; Tuke, M A

    2011-11-01

    Clearance is one of the most influential parameters on the tribological performance of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints and its selection is a subject of considerable debate. The objective of this paper is to study the lubrication behaviour of different clearances for MOM hip joints within the range of human physiological and pathological fluid viscosities. The frictional torques developed by MOM hip joints with a 50 mm diameter were measured for both virgin surfaces and during a wear simulator test. Joints were manufactured with three different diametral clearances: 20, 100, and 200 microm. The fluid used for the friction measurements which contained different ratios of 25 percent newborn calf serum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with the obtained viscosities values ranging from 0.001 to 0.71 Pa s. The obtained results indicate that the frictional torque for the 20 microm clearance joint remains high over the whole range of the viscosity values. The frictional torque of the 100 microm clearance joint was low for the very low viscosity (0.001 Pa s) lubricant, but increased with increasing viscosity value. The frictional torque of the 200 microm clearance joint was high at very low viscosity levels, however, it reduced with increasing viscosity. It is concluded that a smaller clearance level can enhance the formation of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film, but this is at the cost of preventing fluid recovery between the bearing surfaces during the unloaded phase of walking. Larger clearance bearings allow a better recovery of lubricant during the unloaded phase, which is necessary for higher viscosity lubricants. The selection of the clearance value should therefore consider both the formation of the EHL film and the fluid recovery as a function of the physiological viscosity in order to get an optimal tribological performance for MOM hip joints. The application of either 25 per cent bovine serum or water in existing in vitro tribological study should

  11. Potential impact of mangrove clearance on biomass and biomass size spectra of nematode along the Sudanese Red Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Sabeel, Rasha Adam Osman; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The potential effect of mangrove clearance on nematode assemblage biomass, biomass size spectra (NBSS) and abundance/biomass curves (ABC) was investigated in three sites representing a varying degree of mangrove clearance as well as in three stations established at each sites representing high-, mid- and low-water levels. Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed.

  12. Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.

  13. Comparison of myocardial /sup 201/Tl clearance after maximal and submaximal exercise: implications for diagnosis of coronary disease: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.M.; Wisneski, J.; Kramer, B.; Hollenberg, M.; Gertz, E.; Stern, D.

    1982-05-01

    Recently the quantitation of regional /sup 201/Tl clearance has been shown to increase the sensitivity of the scintigraphic detection of coronary disease. Although /sup 201/Tl clearance rates might be expected to vary with the degree of exercise, this relationship has not been explored. We therefore evaluated the rate of decrease in myocardial /sup 201/Tl activity following maximal and submaximal stress in seven normal subjects and 21 patients with chest pain, using the seven-pinhole tomographic reconstruction technique. In normals, the mean /sup 201/Tl clearance rate declined from 41% +/- 7 over a 3-hr period with maximal exercise to 25% +/- 5 after 3 hr at a submaximal level (p less than 0.001). Similar differences in clearance rates were found in the normally perfused regions of the left ventricle in patients with chest pain, depending on whether or not a maximal end point (defined as either the appearance of ischemia or reaching 85% of age-predicted heart rate) was achieved. In five patients who did not reach these end points, 3-hr clearance rates in uninvolved regions averaged 25% +/- 2, in contrast to a mean of 38% +/- 5 for such regions in 15 patients who exercised to ischemia or an adequate heart rate. These findings indicate that clearance criteria derived from normals can be applied to patients who are stressed maximally, even if the duration of exercise is limited, but that caution must be used in interpreting clearance rates in those who do not exercise to an accepted end point.

  14. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-11-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  15. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  16. Mechanisms of Amyloid-β Peptide Clearance: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is still best known as a molecule to cause Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through accumulation and deposition within the frontal cortex and hippocampus in the brain. Thus, strategies on developing AD drugs have been focused on the reduc-tion of Aβ in the brain. Since accumulation of Aβ depends on the rate of its synthesis and clearance, the metabolic pathway of Aβ in the brain and the whole body should be carefully explored for AD research. Although the synthetic pathway of Aβ is equally important, we summarize primarily the clearance pathway in this paper because the former has been extensively reviewed in previous studies. The clearance of Aβ from the brain is accomplished by several mechanisms which include non-enzymatic and enzymatic pathways. Nonenzymatic pathway includes interstitial fluid drainage, uptake by microglial phagocytosis, and transport across the blood vessel walls into the circulation. Multiple Aβ-degrading enzymes (ADE) implicated in the clearance process have been identified, which include neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-9, glutamate carboxypeptidase II and others. A series of studies on Aβ clearance mechanism provide new insight into the pathogenesis of AD at the molecular level and suggest a new target for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:24130920

  17. Endoscopic measurements of canine colonic mucosal blood flow using hydrogen gas clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Soybel, D.I.; Wan, Y.L.; Ashley, S.W.; Yan, Z.Y.; Ordway, F.S.; Cheung, L.Y.

    1987-04-01

    We have examined the feasibility of hydrogen (H/sub 2/) clearance for endoscopic measurements of colonic mucosal blood flow in anesthetized dogs. In 6 animals, measurements of H2 clearance did not differ significantly in different regions of the sigmoid colon and they were highly reproducible on different days. In a total of 12 dogs, measurements of H2 clearance correlated closely with those obtained using radioactive microspheres under resting conditions and, in 4 dogs, during infusion of vasopressin. In 8 dogs, ligation of the major arteries supplying the sigmoid colon resulted in an acute 60% decrease in sigmoid mucosal blood flow; however, in 5 animals that survived the procedure, mucosal blood flow returned nearly to control levels as early as 3 days after operation. Endoscopic H/sub 2/ clearance thus appears to be feasible for measuring mucosal blood flow in the colon. Serial measurements of H/sub 2/ clearance may prove useful in characterizing the role of mucosal blood flow in the pathogenesis of various forms of human colonic disease.

  18. Mechanisms of Aβ Clearance and Degradation by Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Miriam; Sastre, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells have a variety of functions in the brain, ranging from immune defense against external and endogenous hazardous stimuli, regulation of synaptic formation, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic support for neurons. Their dysregulation can contribute to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the most important functions of glial cells in AD is the regulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the brain. Microglia and astrocytes have been reported to play a central role as moderators of Aβ clearance and degradation. The mechanisms of Aβ degradation by glial cells include the production of proteases, including neprilysin, the insulin degrading enzyme, and the endothelin-converting enzymes, able to hydrolyse Aβ at different cleavage sites. Besides these enzymes, other proteases have been described to have some role in Aβ elimination, such as plasminogen activators, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and matrix metalloproteinases. Other relevant mediators that are released by glial cells are extracellular chaperones, involved in the clearance of Aβ alone or in association with receptors/transporters that facilitate their exit to the blood circulation. These include apolipoproteins, α2macroglobulin, and α1-antichymotrypsin. Finally, astrocytes and microglia have an essential role in phagocytosing Aβ, in many cases via a number of receptors that are expressed on their surface. In this review, we examine all of these mechanisms, providing an update on the latest research in this field. PMID:27458370

  19. Mechanisms of Aβ Clearance and Degradation by Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ries, Miriam; Sastre, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells have a variety of functions in the brain, ranging from immune defense against external and endogenous hazardous stimuli, regulation of synaptic formation, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic support for neurons. Their dysregulation can contribute to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most important functions of glial cells in AD is the regulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the brain. Microglia and astrocytes have been reported to play a central role as moderators of Aβ clearance and degradation. The mechanisms of Aβ degradation by glial cells include the production of proteases, including neprilysin, the insulin degrading enzyme, and the endothelin-converting enzymes, able to hydrolyse Aβ at different cleavage sites. Besides these enzymes, other proteases have been described to have some role in Aβ elimination, such as plasminogen activators, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and matrix metalloproteinases. Other relevant mediators that are released by glial cells are extracellular chaperones, involved in the clearance of Aβ alone or in association with receptors/transporters that facilitate their exit to the blood circulation. These include apolipoproteins, α2macroglobulin, and α1-antichymotrypsin. Finally, astrocytes and microglia have an essential role in phagocytosing Aβ, in many cases via a number of receptors that are expressed on their surface. In this review, we examine all of these mechanisms, providing an update on the latest research in this field. PMID:27458370

  20. The effect of complement depletion on lung clearance of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gross, G N; Rehm, S R; Pierce, A K

    1978-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of hypocomplementemia on early pulmonary clearance of four species of bacteria. The experiments were performed in an inbred animal model to minimize immunologic variability. Complement was depleted by cobra venom factor, and activity in serum was monitored with a phagocytic assay. Bacterial specific antibodies were examined by an indirect radioimmunoassay, and animals with high levels of activity were excluded from anaysis. 4 h after aerosolization with Streptococcus pneumoniae, complement-depleted animals had cleared only 75% of the initial number of organisms, whereas saline-treated controls cleared 91% (P less than 0.01). Aerosolization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was followed at 4 h by a twofold greater growth of organisms in the complement-depleted animals (446% of original deposition) as compared to the saline-treated controls (211% of original deposition) (P less than 0.02). Clearance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were similar in complement-depleted animals and saline-treated controls. These experiments suggest that hypocomplementemia predisposes to bacterial pneumonia and may explain the high incidence of pulmonary infections in patients having impaired complement activity. Our results further indicate that varying defense mechanisms may be involved with clearing the lung of differing bacterial species. PMID:27534

  1. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K

    1981-05-30

    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  2. Osmotic diuresis-induced hypernatremia: better explained by solute-free water clearance or electrolyte-free water clearance?

    PubMed

    Popli, Subhash; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia may result from inadequate water intake, excessive water loss or a combination of the two. Osmotic diuresis leads to losses of both solute and water. The relationship between solute and water losses determines the resulting changes in serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Total solute loss is routinely higher than loss of water in osmotic diuresis. Theoretically, then, decreases in serum osmolality (and serum sodium concentration) should follow. In clinical situations of osmotic diuresis, however, reduction in osmolality can take place, but not reduction in serum sodium concentration. It is of note that serum sodium concentration changes are related to urinary losses of sodium and potassium but not to the loss of total solute. In osmotic diuresis, the combined loss of sodium and potassium per liter of urine is lower than the concurrent serum sodium level. Consequently, hypernatremia can ensue. A patient who presented with osmotic diuresis and hypernatremia is described here. In this patient, we have shown that electrolyte-free water clearance is a better index of the effect of osmotic diuresis on serum sodium concentration than the classic solute-free water clearance.

  3. Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance.

    PubMed

    Matsunga, S K; Plezia, P M; Karol, M D; Katz, M D; Camilli, A E; Benowitz, N L

    1989-10-01

    Theophylline disposition was examined in seven passive smokers, defined as nonsmokers with long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, and seven age-matched nonsmokers with minimal smoke exposure. Subjects were given an intravenous infusion of aminophylline (6 mg/kg) and blood samples were drawn before and during the 48-hour postinfusion period. Clearance for passive smokers was 6.01 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg and for nonsmokers, clearance was 4.09 x 10(-2) L/hr.kg (p less than 0.025). Terminal elimination half-life for passive smokers was 6.93 hours versus 8.69 hours for nonsmokers (p less than 0.05). The mean residence time for passive smokers was 9.89 hours. For nonsmokers, the mean residence time was 13.11 hours (p less than 0.05). These measurements were statistically different, whereas there was no difference in volume of distribution between the groups, suggesting that passive smokers metabolize theophylline more rapidly than nonsmokers. Plasma and urine cotinine and nicotine concentrations were measured in all subjects. There was a significant difference between the subject groups in plasma (p less than 0.004) and urine (p less than 0.002) cotinine concentrations. Theophylline clearance correlated with both plasma (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01) and urine (r = 0.79, p less than 0.01) cotinine concentrations. Additional studies should be conducted to further define the pharmacokinetic characteristics of passive smokers and to assess the effects of passive smoking on drugs metabolized by the mixed function oxidase system. PMID:2791443

  4. Lithium clearance in mineralocorticoid escape in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, W.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Mees, E.J.D.

    1987-03-01

    Lithium clearance (C/sub Li/) has been advanced as an indicator of Na delivery from the proximal tubules. The authors studied C/sub Li/ in eight healthy males before and after mineralocorticoid escape, a maneuver that may induce suppression of fractional proximal Na reabsorption (FPR/sub Na/). FPR/sub Na/ was also estimated from changes in maximal free water clearance (C/sub H/sub 2/O/). Plasma volume was measured as the /sup 131/I-labeled albumin distribution space. Extracellular fluid volume was estimated as the /sup 82/Br vector distribution volume. According to the latter method, FPR/sub Na/ dropped whereas inulin clearance rose. The changes in C/sub Li/ were surprisingly large. If lithium is a valid marker of Na handling in the proximal tubule in humans, this change would imply a fall in FPR/sub Na/, suggesting a much larger shift in tubular Na reabsorption in escape than hitherto suspected. In addition, it would suggest that the inevitable back diffusion of a part of the solute-free water in the distal nephron, and thus overestimation of FPR/sub Na/ by the C/sub H/sub 2/O/ method, increases importantly during escape. Alternately, lithium may not be a good marker of proximal tubular Na handling. For instance, both lithium reabsorption and escape may take place beyond the proximal tubule, or lithium may be excreted in the distal nephron in certain conditions. Present methods do not permit further analysis of these options in the human model.

  5. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  6. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  7. Mucociliary clearance following segmental tracheal reversal.

    PubMed

    Delaere, P R; Liu, Z; Delanghe, G; Gyselen, K; Jorissen, M; Feenstra, L

    1996-04-01

    Ciliated tracheal epithelium is arranged in a polarized pattern oriented according to the inferior-superior axis of the trachea and is responsible for the transport of mucus toward the larynx. In this study, ciliary beat orientation and the influence of external factors on mucociliary clearance direction were studied in rabbit inverted cervical tracheas. The animals displayed normal respiration postoperatively. After 16 weeks, airway clearance was studied by observation of the movement of silicone particles placed in the inverted segment and in normal parts of the ciliated epithelium. Cilia exhibited unidirectional and coordinated movement within inverted tracheal segments. As shown by the direction of effective flow produced by beating cilia and by scanning electron microscopy, the cilia in the inverted segment beat in the opposite direction from the cilia in the remainder of the trachea. This study demonstrated that ciliary orientation is irreversibly determined, but the reversal of ciliary beating within the cervical trachea had no adverse effects on the survival of the animals.

  8. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  9. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with (3H)choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day.

  10. Renal Clearance of Mineral Metabolism Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Rhee, Eugene P; Elmariah, Sammy; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    CKD leads to disturbances in multiple interrelated hormones that regulate bone and mineral metabolism. The renal handling of mineral metabolism hormones in humans is incompletely understood. We determined the single-pass renal clearance of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, vitamin D metabolites, and phosphate from paired blood samples collected from the abdominal aorta and renal vein in 17 participants undergoing simultaneous right and left heart catheterization and estimated associations of eGFR with the renal elimination of metabolites. The mean age ±SD of the study population was 71.4±10.0 years and 11 participants (65%) were male. We found a relatively large mean±SD single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone (44.2%±10.3%) that exceeded the extraction of creatinine (22.1%±7.9%). The proportionate renal extraction of parathyroid hormone correlated with eGFR. The renal extraction of fibroblast growth factor 23 was, on average, lower than that of parathyroid hormone with greater variability across individuals (17.1%±19.5%). There were no differences in the mean concentrations of vitamin D metabolites across the renal vein and artery. In summary, we demonstrate substantial single-pass renal extraction of parathyroid hormone at a rate that exceeds glomerular filtration. Impaired renal clearance of parathyroid hormone may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.

  11. Transcriptional Activation of Lysosomal Exocytosis Promotes Cellular Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Diego L.; Fraldi, Alessandro; Bouche, Valentina; Annunziata, Fabio; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Spampanato, Carmine; Puri, Claudia; Pignata, Antonella; Martina, Jose A.; Sardiello, Marco; Palmieri, Michela; Polishchuk, Roman; Puertollano, Rosa; Ballabio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Summary Lysosomes are cellular organelles primarily involved in degradation and recycling processes. During lysosomal exocytosis, a Ca2+-regulated process, lysosomes are docked to the cell surface and fuse with the plasma membrane (PM), emptying their content outside the cell. This process has an important role in secretion and PM repair. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB) regulates lysosomal exocytosis. TFEB increases the pool of lysosomes in the proximity of the PM and promotes their fusion with PM by raising intracellular Ca2+ levels through the activation of the lysosomal Ca2+ channel MCOLN1. Induction of lysosomal exocytosis by TFEB overexpression rescued pathologic storage and restored normal cellular morphology both in vitro and in vivo in lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Our data indicate that lysosomal exocytosis may directly modulate cellular clearance and suggest an alternative therapeutic strategy for disorders associated with intracellular storage. PMID:21889421

  12. Error Correction for Foot Clearance in Real-Time Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Y.; Bakar, N. A.; Mazalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Mobility performance level, fall related injuries, unrevealed disease and aging stage can be detected through examination of gait pattern. The gait pattern is normally directly related to the lower limb performance condition in addition to other significant factors. For that reason, the foot is the most important part for gait analysis in-situ measurement system and thus directly affects the gait pattern. This paper reviews the development of ultrasonic system with error correction using inertial measurement unit for gait analysis in real life measurement of foot clearance. This paper begins with the related literature where the necessity of measurement is introduced. Follow by the methodology section, problem and solution. Next, this paper explains the experimental setup for the error correction using the proposed instrumentation, results and discussion. Finally, this paper shares the planned future works.

  13. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  14. ESR measurement of radical clearance in lung of whole mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Utsumi, H.; Hamada, A. )

    1991-06-14

    Clearance of the nitroxide radicals, hydroxy-TEMPO and carboxy-PROxYL, in whole-mouse lung was directly measured by in vivo ESR. After injecting a nitroxide radical, distribution of the nitroxide radical all over the lung was confirmed by ESR imaging. The ESR signal of hydroxy-TEMPO was reduced in the lung and the clearance obeyed first-order kinetics, whereas the signal of carboxy-PROxYL remained constant. Comparison of the clearance rates of live and dead mice indicated the presence of 2 different clearance systems in the lung: loss of its paramagnetism in the lung, and transfer from alveolar to the blood circulation system.

  15. A case of delayed methotrexate clearance following administration of a complementary medication containing chlorophyll.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally L; Sanders, Julie; Seymour, John F; Mellor, James D

    2014-06-01

    A 54-year-old male with relapsed primary cerebral lymphoma and normal renal function was treated with methotrexate (MTX) 3 g/m(2) monthly by intravenous infusion. Throughout treatment the patient self-administered a complementary medicine (Jason Winter's chlorophyll®), which he was advised to cease during methotrexate treatment due to the potential for unknown interactions. For the first four cycles, chlorophyll was ceased two days prior to commencement of methotrexate and withheld until clearance. These cycles were administered without complication, and the methotrexate level reduced to <0.05 µmol/L within three days of each dose. Prior to cycle 5, chlorophyll was not ceased and there were no changes to concomitant medications. A literature search found no documented interactions between methotrexate and chlorophyll and the chemotherapy was administered without a delay in treatment. The methotrexate level three days post-administration was 0.36 µmol/L and did not reduce to <0.05 µmol/L until day 10. Consequently, from cycles 6 to 12, the methotrexate dose was halved, and the patient ceased chlorophyll 48 h prior to methotrexate administration until clearance. There were no further episodes of delayed methotrexate clearance. No impurities were detected in a sample of Jason Winter's chlorophyll®. It is therefore likely that the patient's delayed methotrexate clearance was due to an interaction with chlorophyll. It is recommended that such chlorophyll containing preparations be avoided in patients treated with methotrexate.

  16. Clearance and binding of radiolabeled glycoproteins by cells of the murine mononuclear phagocyte system

    SciTech Connect

    Imber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The clearance and binding of radiolabeled lactoferrin and fast ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin were studied. Both glycoproteins cleared rapidly following intravenous injection in mice, and both bound specifically to discrete receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. The simultaneous presence of excess, unlabeled ligands specific for receptors recognizing terminal fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine or galactose residues did not inhibit the clearance or binding of either lactoferrin or fast-..cap alpha../sub 2/M. The clearance and binding of enzymatically defucosylated lactoferrin was indistinguishable from native lactoferrin, indicating that terminal ..cap alpha..(1-3)-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not necessary for receptor recognition. The clearance and binding of two fast -..cap alpha../sub 2/M forms, ..cap alpha../sub 2/M-trypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/M-MeNH/sub 2/ cross compete with each other. Saturation binding studies indicated that the total binding of mannosyl -BSA, fusocyl-BSA, and N-acetylglucosaminyl-BSA to macrophages activated by BCG was approximately 15% of the levels observed with inflammatory macrophages elicited by thioglycollate broth. Cross-competition binding studies demonstrated a common surface receptor mediated binding of all three neoglycoprotein ligands and was identical to the receptor on mononuclear phagocytes that binds mannosyl- and N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated glycoproteins. These results suggest that difference between discrete states of macrophage function may be correlated with selective changes in levels of the surface receptor for mannose-containing glycoproteins.

  17. Adenocarcinoma arising in colonic duplication cysts with calcification: CT findings of two cases.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y; Nakamura, H

    1998-01-01

    We report the computed tomographic findings of mucinous adenocarcinoma with calcification arising from duplication cyst of the colon in two adult cases. In both cases, serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were high. Differential diagnosis of intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic tumors with mucinous density includes duplication cyst, and its malignant change should be considered when serum level of CEA is high.

  18. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected (125)I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of (125)I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of (125)I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in (125)I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes

  19. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: Kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected 125I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of 125I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of 125I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in 125I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes A

  20. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected (125)I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of (125)I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of (125)I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in (125)I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes

  1. Nrf2 enhances myocardial clearance of toxic ubiquitinated proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying; Wang, Hui; Li, Bin; Shao, Lei; Lai, Yimu; Horvath, Gary; Wang, Qian; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant genes and other cytoprotective phase II detoxifying enzymes. While knockout of Nrf2 exaggerates cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction in diverse pathological settings, pharmacological activation of Nrf2 protects against cardiomyocyte injury and cardiac dysfunction. In contrast, there is also a concern that the chronic activation of Nrf2 secondary to oxidative stress is a contributing mechanism for the reductive stress-mediated heart failure. However, a direct link between cardiac specific activation of Nrf2 and cardiac protection or dysfunction in vivo remains to be established. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic activation of Nrf2 (Nrf2(ctg)) on cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction. We found that the cardiomyocyte-specific activation of Nrf2 suppressed myocardial oxidative stress as well as cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction in a setting of sustained pressure overload induced by transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC) in mice. Notably, the constitutive activation of Nrf2 increased the steady level of autophagosomes while decreasing the ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the heart after TAC. Nrf2 gene gain- and loss-of-function approaches revealed that Nrf2 enhances autophagosome formation and autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes. Unexpectedly, while Nrf2 minimally regulated apoptosis, it suppressed significantly the proteotoxic necrosis in cardiomyocytes. In addition, Nrf2 attenuated the proteocytotoxicity presumably via enhancing autophagy-mediated clearance of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time that cardiac specific activation of Nrf2 suppresses cardiac maladaptive remodeling and dysfunction most likely by enhancing autophagic clearance of toxic protein

  2. Nrf2 enhances myocardial clearance of toxic ubiquitinated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying; Wang, Hui; Li, Bin; Shao, Lei; Lai, Yimu; Horvath, Gary; Wang, Qian; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Janicki, Joseph S.; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant genes and other cytoprotective phase II detoxifying enzymes. While knockout of Nrf2 exaggerates cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction in diverse pathological settings, pharmacological activation of Nrf2 protects against cardiomyocyte injury and cardiac dysfunction. In contrast, there is also a concern that the chronic activation of Nrf2 secondary to oxidative stress is a contributing mechanism for the reductive stress-mediated heart failure. However, a direct link between cardiac specific activation of Nrf2 and cardiac protection or dysfunction in vivo remains to be established. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic activation of Nrf2 (Nrf2ctg) on cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction. We found that the cardiomyocyte-specific activation of Nrf2 suppressed myocardial oxidative stress as well as cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction in a setting of sustained pressure overload induced by transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC) in mice. Notably, the constitutive activation of Nrf2 increased the steady level of autophagosomes while decreasing the ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the heart after TAC. Nrf2 gene gain- and loss-of-function approaches revealed that Nrf2 enhances autophagosome formation and autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes. Unexpectedly, while Nrf2 minimally regulated apoptosis, it suppressed significantly the proteotoxic necrosis in cardiomyocytes. In addition, Nrf2 attenuated the proteocytotoxicity presumably via enhancing autophagy-mediated clearance of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time that cardiac specific activation of Nrf2 suppresses cardiac maladaptive remodeling and dysfunction most likely by enhancing autophagic clearance of toxic protein

  3. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Clohessy, Penelope; Polis, Suzanne; Post, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to be unlikely in pregnancy due to the relative immunosuppression and increase in viraemia that occurs. We report the first case of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurring in pregnancy. PMID:27757149

  4. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  5. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  6. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  7. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  8. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  9. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  10. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  11. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section 706.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and...

  12. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It...

  13. Land clearance in the irish neolithic: new evidence and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J R; Smith, A G; Pearson, G W; Crowder, A

    1971-05-01

    Time scales are derived, from radiocarbon dating of pollen diagrams, for Neolithic land clearance at three Irish sites. Three stages are distinguished beginning in the 4th millennium B.C.: stage A, clearance and farming (possibly arable), 100 to 400 years; stage B, farming (possibly pastoral), 150 to 200 years; and stage C, forest regeneration, 50 to 100 years.

  14. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary...

  15. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  16. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  17. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  18. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  19. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  20. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  1. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  2. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  3. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  4. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  5. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  6. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  7. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  8. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe...

  9. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance function. 945.670-1 Section 945.670-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function....

  10. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  11. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  12. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  13. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  14. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  15. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  16. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  17. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  18. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305 Section 3285.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance...

  20. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  1. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  2. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  3. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  4. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated...

  5. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  6. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  7. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  8. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  9. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency, when... a purpose listed in § 93.309(c), no person may operate an aircraft within 500 feet of any terrain...

  10. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  11. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  12. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  13. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  14. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  15. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  16. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  17. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  18. Do dialysate conductivity measurements provide conductivity clearance or ionic dialysance?

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, T

    2006-11-01

    Dialysate conductivity measurements allow on-line estimation of urea clearance during hemodialysis session. Conductivity measurements provide a value of 'conductivity clearance' for some authors, but a value of 'ionic dialysance' for others. This paper aims at explaining which term should be the more appropriate. Clearance is a parameter defined for measuring the power of a mechanism, which aims at 'clearing' a solution by depurating some solutes. In hemodialysis, clearance measures the efficacy of patient's depuration. In contrast, dialysance measures the capability of transferring solutes between blood and dialysate. The conventional definition of dialysance, requiring the absence of convective transfer, should be generalized to the case of the usual presence of ultrafiltration during the hemodialysis session. For a solute (as urea) absent from the dialysate delivered to the dialyzer inlet, the clearance is equal to its dialysance. In order to avoid a dramatic fall in ionic concentrations during hemodialysis treatment, the clearance of ions is reduced by adding these ions in the dialysate and becomes lower than their dialysance. Conductivity measurements provide a value of electrolytes dialysance. Thus the term of 'ionic dialysance' is more appropriate than the term of 'conductivity clearance'. Nevertheless ionic dialysance represents a good estimation of urea clearance.

  19. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Collet, Séverine H. Picard-Hagen, Nicole Lacroix, Marlène Z. Puel, Sylvie Viguié, Catherine Bousquet-Melou, Alain Toutain, Pierre-Louis Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  20. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  1. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  2. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  3. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  4. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  5. Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio and serum immunoreactive trypsin in digestive and pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, G; Fabris, C; Bonvicini, P; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Pedrazzoli, S; Burlina, A; Naccarato, R

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio (Ctr/Ccr) and serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was evaluated in a total of 168 subjects with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr) and serum amylase levels were also evaluated in order to establish their possible relationship with Ctr/Ccr and IRT values. Elevated Ctr/Ccr and IRT values were observed in several patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Abnormal IRT and Ctr/Ccr values were found in 28.2 and 4% of non-pancreatic digestive diseases, respectively. IRT and amylase serum levels showed consensual modifications, while Ctr/Ccr showed a behavior different from that of Cam/Ccr. Liver damage seems to play a role in increasing serum IRT levels of patients without pancreatic involvement, while the increased Ctr/Ccr seems to depend on other factors, for instance renal tubular dysfunction.

  6. A Study on the Requirements for Fast Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the requirements of a control system for active turbine tip clearance control in a generic commercial turbofan engine through design and analysis. The control objective is to articulate the shroud in the high pressure turbine section in order to maintain a certain clearance set point given several possible engine transient events. The system must also exhibit reasonable robustness to modeling uncertainties and reasonable noise rejection properties. Two actuators were chosen to fulfill such a requirement, both of which possess different levels of technological readiness: electrohydraulic servovalves and piezoelectric stacks. Identification of design constraints, desired actuator parameters, and actuator limitations are addressed in depth; all of which are intimately tied with the hardware and controller design process. Analytical demonstrations of the performance and robustness characteristics of the two axisymmetric LQG clearance control systems are presented. Takeoff simulation results show that both actuators are capable of maintaining the clearance within acceptable bounds and demonstrate robustness to parameter uncertainty. The present model-based control strategy was employed to demonstrate the tradeoff between performance, control effort, and robustness and to implement optimal state estimation in a noisy engine environment with intent to eliminate ad hoc methods for designing reliable control systems.

  7. Predicting clearance in humans from in vitro data.

    PubMed

    Obach, R Scott

    2011-01-01

    The use of in vitro metabolism in scaling to predict human clearance of new chemical entities has become a commonplace activity in the research and development of new drugs. The measurement of in vitro lability in human liver microsomes, a rich source of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, has become a high throughput screen in many research organizations which is a testament to its usefulness in drug design. In this chapter, the methods used to scale in vitro clearance data to predict in vivo clearance are described. Importantly, the numerous assumptions that are required in order to use in vitro data in this manner are laid out. These include assumptions regarding the scaling process as well as technical aspects of the generation of the in vitro data. Finally, some other drug clearance processes that have been emerging as important are described with regard to ongoing research efforts to develop clearance prediction methods.

  8. 78 FR 40729 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...: Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Washington... Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery Abstract: The...

  9. D0 Solenoid Chimney Routing Clearances

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1994-02-23

    This engineering note contains information about the measured clearances along the chimney route from the solenoid to the control dewar. This type of information is best conveyed by sketches and a few photos. Twelve photos taken on 2/17/94 are included which gIVe perspective views along the path. The detector was parked in the collision hall on this date. The CF iron was split open to the east and the South EF iron was rolled back. Also the South EndCap Calorimeter was rolled to the south on this day. This allowed personnel access and the photographic opportunity. A full set of raw dimensional sketches are included. These sketches were generated by me using a 25 foot tape measure and a note pad. The sketches are in chronological order with the most recent on top. The first sketch, 5/18/94, describes the 'tightest' location for the upward incline portion of the chimney. The sketches on 2/14/94 thru 2/16/94 are refinements of the early 1992 and 1993 sketches. They pick out quite a bit more detail of specific detector components along the path. The dimensional sketches of 1992 and 1993 gave information in not as much detail and therefore gave a more constrained clearance description. Most of the information of the early sketches was jotted down on the plan view dated 10-29-92. This sketch also had some information lifted from prints which later was superseded by the 1994 sketches. I tried to label components and give views either titled 'Elevation' or 'Plan' which refers to a top view looking down. Also where I could I jotted down direction, ie. South, East etc. Hopefully with a little effort one can decifer it. The curvature of the CC was determined from a three dimensional topographical survey. This survey information is stored in an electronic drawing file 3823.111-ME-317165, 'Solenoid-CC south face 3D shape survey'. The 'z' dimensions for the radial chimney path were picked off this drawing. A curvature was then generated knowing many points by radial and z

  10. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings.

    PubMed

    Williams, I D; Cole, C

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  11. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  12. Pulmonary Responses to Stachybotrys chartarum and Its Toxins: Mouse Strain Affects Clearance and Macrophage Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Jamie H. Rosenblum; Molina, Ramon M.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Amuzie, Chidozie J.; Pestka, James J.; Coull, Brent A.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated differences in the pulmonary and systemic clearance of Stachybotrys chartarum spores in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6J. To evaluate clearance, mice were intratracheally instilled with a suspension of radiolabeled S. chartarum spores or with unlabeled spores. The lungs of C57BL/6J mice showed more rapid spore clearance than the lungs of BALB/c mice, which correlated with increased levels of spore-associated radioactivity in the GI tracts of C57BL/6J as compared with BALB/c mice. To identify mechanisms responsible for mouse strain differences in spore clearance and previously described lung inflammatory responses, we exposed alveolar macrophages (AMs) lavaged from BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice to S. chartarum spores, S. chartarum spore toxin (SST), and satratoxin G (SG) in vitro. The S. chartarum spores were found to be highly toxic with most cells from either mouse strain being killed within 24 h when exposed to a spore:cell ratio of 1:75. The spores were more lethal to AMs from C57BL/6J than those from BALB/c mice. In mice, the SST elicited many of the same inflammatory responses as the spores in vivo, including AM recruitment, pulmonary hemorrhage, and cytokine production. Our data suggest that differences in pulmonary spore clearance may contribute to the differences in pulmonary responses to S. chartarum between BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Enhanced AM survival and subsequent macrophage-mediated inflammation may also contribute to the higher susceptibility of BALB/c mice to S. chartarum pulmonary effects. Analogous genetic differences among humans may contribute to reported variable sensitivity to S. chartarum. PMID:20385656

  13. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone.

  14. Network Structures Arising from Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Baktash

    Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), a widespread synaptic modification mechanism, is sensitive to correlations between presynaptic spike trains, and organizes neural circuits in functionally useful ways. In this dissertation, I study the structures arising from STDP in a population of synapses with an emphasis on the interplay between synaptic stability and Hebbian competition, explained in Chapter 1. Starting from the simplest description of STDP which relates synaptic modification to the intervals between pairs of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, I show in Chapter 2 that stability and Hebbian competition are incompatible in this class of "pair-based" STDP models, either when hard bounds or soft bounds are imposed to the synapses. In chapter 3, I propose an alternative biophysically inspired method for imposing bounds to synapses, i.e. introducing a small temporal shift in the STDP window. Shifted STDP overcomes the incompatibility of synaptic stability and competition and can implement both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian forms of competitive plasticity. In light of experiments the explored a variety of spike patterns, STDP models have been augmented to account for interactions between multiple pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In chapter 4, I study the stability/competition interplay in three different proposed multi-spike models of STDP. I show that the "triplet model" leads to a partially steady-state distribution of synaptic weights and induces Hebbian competition. The "suppression model" develops a stable distribution of weights when the average weight is high and shows predominantly anti-Hebbian competition. The "NMDAR-based" model can lead to either stable or partially stable synaptic weight distribution and exhibits both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian competition, depending on the parameters. I conclude that multi-spike STDP models can produce radically different effects at the population level depending on how they implement multi-spike interactions

  15. Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters.

  16. Radioaerosol lung clearance in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.P.; Baughman, R.P.; Hughes, J.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.

    1985-05-01

    Pulmonary radioaerosol clearance rate of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in 14 patients with untreated sarcoidosis was compared with /sup 67/Ga lung scan and increased lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Nine healthy nonsmoking subjects had a mean DTPA clearance rate of 1.18%/min (range, 0.54 to 1.60%/min). Eight of 14 patients with sarcoidosis had clearance rates greater than 1.60%/min. Of those 8 patients with abnormal DTPA clearance, 4 had positive gallium scans, 4 had more than 17% lymphocytes in the BAL fluid, and 3 had both tests positive. To study the cause of abnormal DTPA clearance, 23 subjects (including 3 normal controls, all 14 patients with sarcoidosis, and 6 patients with localized disease on chest roentgenogram) underwent both DTPA clearance studies and BAL for quantitation of the amount of albumin in lung fluid. There was a positive correlation between the rate of DTPA clearance and the albumin concentration in lung fluid (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01).

  17. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  18. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  19. Dynamic modelling and experimental study of cantilever beam with clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Jin, W.; Han, L.; He, Z.

    2012-05-01

    Clearances occur in almost all mechanical systems, typically such as the clearance between slide plate of gun barrel and guide. Therefore, to study the clearances of mechanisms can be very important to increase the working performance and lifetime of mechanisms. In this paper, rigid dynamic modelling of cantilever with clearance was done according to the subject investigated. In the rigid dynamic modelling, clearance is equivalent to the spring-dashpot model, the impact of beam and boundary face was also taken into consideration. In ADAMS software, the dynamic simulation was carried out according to the model above. The software simulated the movement of cantilever with clearance under external excitation. Research found: When the clearance is larger, the force of impact will become larger. In order to study how the stiffness of the cantilever's supporting part influences natural frequency of the system, A Euler beam which is restricted by a draught spring and a torsion spring at its end was raised. Through numerical calculation, the relationship between natural frequency and stiffness was found. When the value of the stiffness is close to the limit value, the corresponding boundary condition is illustrated. An ADAMS experiment was carried out to check the theory and the simulation.

  20. Distribution and clearance of radioactive aerosol on the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    McLean, J A; Bacon, J R; Mathews, K P; Thrall, J H; Banas, J M; Hedden, J; Bayne, N K

    1984-03-01

    The distribution and clearance of aerosolized radioactive technetium 99m pertechnate in physiologic buffered saline was analyzed in four human adult asymptomatic volunteers following delivery into one nostril in the same manner as for nasal challenge testing (i.e., 0.1 ml via a 251 DeVilbiss atomizer powered by a compressor delivering 0.10 +/- 0.01 gm/spray). For comparison, squeeze bottles and spray bottles from commercial sources, a 114 and a 127 DeVilbiss atomizer, and a pipette were employed. Lateral imagery via minicomputer processing was used to determine both distribution and clearance of the radiotracer. The counts after 1 minute were lower following pipette delivery than with the other devices. None yielded discernable , wide-spread distribution of aerosol throughout the nasal cavity. Following delivery from the 251 atomizer, mean clearance at 17 minutes was 60.0%. Similar clearance rates were obtained with the other spraying methods except for lower values with the squeeze bottle. Analysis of six hour clearance studies by linear regression showed a relatively rapid initial phase, which is probably due largely to mucociliary clearance, and a prolonged late phase related to the very slow disappearance of residual material located far anteriorly in the nose. Achieving good initial retention and rapid clearance of material deposited anteriorly in the nose are desirable attributes of devices employed for administering materials intranasally.

  1. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  2. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  3. Tip-Clearance Vortex Characterized With Three-Dimensional Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, W. Trevor

    2002-01-01

    dynamics researchers to validate their predictions to a level of accuracy not previously attainable. In an effort to understand the effects of this flow phenomenon on the operation of the low speed axial compressor, data were acquired at two mass flow coefficients: 0.395 (design operating point) and 0.35 (operating point just above stall). In order to identify the spatial extent, location, and magnitude of the tip clearance vortex for each mass flow condition, data were acquired at five equally spaced spanwise locations, from 90- to 100-percent span. The data presented shows a cross section of the tip clearance vortex at 94-percent span and a mass flow coefficient of 0.395, where the color contours represent the radial velocity component. The blue (flow towards the hub) and red (flow towards the casing) regions illustrate the extent of the tip clearance vortex. The interface between the blue and red regions delineates the location of the vortex core.

  4. Clearance from the anterior chamber of RBCs from human diabetics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.A.; Hatchell, D.L.; Collier, B.D.; Knobel, J.

    1984-06-01

    Erythrocytes from diabetic patients manifest decreased deformability and increased adherence. These abnormal membrane properties may diminish the ability of erythrocytes (RBCs) from diabetics to undergo deformation in passage through the trabecular meshwork. Using sodium chromate Cr 51-labeled RBCs from type I diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy and normal control subjects, we studied RBC clearance from the rabbit anterior chamber. The mean time for 50% clearance (T50) of RBCs from diabetics (76 hours) was significantly longer than that for RBCs from normal subjects (19.5 hours). In this model, RBCs from diabetics have a slower clearance from the anterior chamber than do RBCs from normal subjects.

  5. Toward a Fast-Response Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Kypuros, Javier A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, technologies developed for clearance control can benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first portion of the paper addresses the research from a programmatic viewpoint. Recent studies that provide motivation for the work, identification of key technologies, and NASA's plan for addressing deficiencies in the technologies are discussed. The later portion of the paper drills down into one of the key technologies by presenting equations and results for a preliminary dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena.

  6. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. PMID:26070577

  7. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  8. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance.

  9. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  10. Thymoma type B1 arising in a giant supradiaphragmatic thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Han, Unsal; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Yanik, Serdar

    2014-11-01

    Thymolipomas are uncommon tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They may extend into, but rarely stem from, the chest cavity. Furthermore, thymoma arising in a thymolipoma is extremely rare. We report a unique case of thymoma type B1 that originated form a giant thymolipoma located in the chest cavity, which was resected by a lateral thoracotomy in a 23-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymoma type B1 arising within a giant thymolipoma.

  11. Pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Ahmad, Faiz U; Morcos, Jacques J

    2016-10-01

    Schwannomas arising from the trochlear nerve are very rare and to our knowledge, less than 35 histologically documented cases have been reported in the literature. There are no reports of a schwannoma in the pineal region. We report a 24-year-old woman who underwent a para-occipital trans-tentorial approach and gross total excision of a pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve. This is the first such reported case. PMID:27496528

  12. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies.

  13. Metabolic clearance and production rates of human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A L; Finster, J L; Mintz, D H

    1969-12-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of human growth hormone (HGH) was determined by the constant infusion to equilibrium technique utilizing HGH-(125)I. 22 control subjects had a MCR of 229 +/-52 ml/min (mean +/-SD). No difference was evident between sexes, or between various age groups. Patients with acromegaly demonstrated normal MCR's. Moreover, acute elevations of plasma growth hormone concentrations in normal subjects did not alter the MCR of HGH. The MCR was relatively constant from day to day and within the day when subjects were evaluated in the supine position. In contrast, the assumption of the upright position was associated with a mean 24% decrease in the MCR. These results were contrasted with the MCR of HGH observed in a small number of patients with altered thyroid function or diabetes mellitus. In six patients with hypothyroidism the MCR (131 +/-36 ml/min) was significantly decreased (P < 0.001); whereas the MCR in eight patients with hyperthyroidism (240 +/-57 ml/min) did not differ from control subjects. The MCR in eight patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (IID) (185 +/-41 ml/min) and in eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDD) (136 +/-31 ml/min) were significantly different from control subjects (P = < 0.05 and P = < 0.001, respectively). These data were interpreted to indicate that the plasma HGH-removing mechanism(s) is not saturated at physiologic plasma HGH levels, that plasma HGH levels alone may not permit distinction between variations in pituitary release of the hormone and its rate of clearance from the plasma, and that the estimation of the MCR of HGH may help clarify the mechanism of abnormal plasma HGH responses to various stimuli. Production rates of HGH (PR) in control subjects (347 +/-173 mmug/min) were contrasted with hyperthyroid patients (529 +/-242 mmug/min, P < 0.05), hypothyroid patients (160 +/-69 mmug/min, P < 0.02), IID (245 +/-100 mmug/min, NS), and IDD (363 +/-153 mmug/min, NS

  14. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  15. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  16. Further Characterization of an Active Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    A new test chamber and precision hydraulic actuation system were incorporated into an active clearance control (ACC) test rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. Using the improved system, a fast-acting, mechanically-actuated, ACC concept was evaluated at engine simulated temperatures and pressure differentials up to 1140 F and 120 psig, on the basis of secondary seal leakage and kinematic controllability. During testing, the ACC concept tracked a simulated flight clearance transient profile at 1140 F, 120 psig, with a maximum error of only 0.0012 in. Comparison of average dynamic leakage of the system with average static leakage did not show significant differences between the two operating conditions. Calculated effective clearance values for the rig were approximately 0.0002 in. at 120 psig, well below the industry specified effective clearance threshold of 0.001 in.

  17. High Temperature Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanically actuated blade tip clearance control concept was evaluated in a nonrotating test rig to quantify secondary seal leakage at elevated temperatures. These tests were conducted to further investigate the feasibility of actively controlling the clearance between the rotor blade tips and the surrounding shroud seal in the high pressure turbine (HPT) section of a turbine engine. The test environment simulates the state of the back side of the HPT shroud seal with pressure differentials as high as 120 psig and temperatures up to 1000 F. As expected, static secondary seal leakage decreased with increasing temperature. At 1000 F, the test rig's calculated effective clearance (at 120 psig test pressure) was 0.0003 in., well within the industry specified effective clearance goal.

  18. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... Defense requirements, the appropriate DE will obtain a certificate as to the extent of contamination...

  19. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  20. Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Alphavirus Infection from Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Beth; Hardwick, J. Marie; Trapp, Bruce D.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Griffin, Diane E.

    1991-11-01

    Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression.

  1. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  2. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  3. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clearance, the following information will be furnished to the DE upon completion of the neutralization: (a) Records of the neutralization work performed, including statement of methods employed. (b) List...

  4. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G.

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  5. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  6. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  7. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  8. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed..., if possible, as part of the permanent history of the property involved, with the proper county...

  9. 54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. CLEARANCE OF SITE PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION OF BREAKER BUILDING, AND CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT FOR RAILROAD SPUR. c.1898 (AKZO No. A-3) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

  10. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

  11. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  12. Influence of clearance on the time-dependent performance of the hip following hemiarthroplasty: A finite element study with biphasic acetabular cartilage properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junyan; Hua, Xijin; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    Hip hemiarthroplasty is a common treatment for femoral neck fracture. However, the acetabular cartilage may degenerate after hemiarthroplasty leading to postoperative failure and the need for revision surgery. The clearance between the acetabular cartilage and head of the prosthesis is one of the potential reasons for this failure. In this study, the influence of joint clearance on the biomechanical function of a generic hip model in hemiarthroplasty was investigated using biphasic numerical simulation. Both a prolonged loading period of 4000 s and dynamic gait load of 10 cycles were considered. It was found that a larger clearance led to a higher stress level, a faster reduction in load supported by the fluid and a faster cartilage consolidation process. Additionally, the mechanical performance of the acetabular cartilage in the natural model was similar to that in the hemiarthroplasty model with no clearance but different from the hemiarthroplasty models with clearances of 0.5 mm and larger. The results demonstrated that a larger clearance in hip hemiarthroplasty is more harmful to the acetabular cartilage and prosthesis heads with more available dimensions (i.e. smaller increments in diameter) could be manufactured for surgeons to achieve a lower clearance, and reduced contact stress in hemiarthroplasty surgeries. PMID:24957488

  13. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  14. Calculation of tip clearance effects in a transonic compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1996-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concerning the use of the simple clearance model. Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computer results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  15. Calculation of Tip Clearance Effects in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.

    1998-01-01

    The flow through the tip clearance region of a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) was computed and compared to aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer data. Tip clearance effects were modeled both by gridding the clearance gap and by using a simple periodicity model across the ungridded gap. The simple model was run with both the full gap height, and with half the gap height to simulate a vena-contracta effect. Comparisons between computed and measured performance maps and downstream profiles were used to validate the models and to assess the effects of gap height on the simple clearance model. Recommendations were made concern- ing the use of the simple clearance model Detailed comparisons were made between the gridded clearance gap solution and the laser anemometer data near the tip at two operating points. The computed results agreed fairly well with the data but overpredicted the extent of the casing separation and underpredicted the wake decay rate. The computations were then used to describe the interaction of the tip vortex, the passage shock, and the casing boundary layer.

  16. Long-term clearance from small airways decreases with age.

    PubMed

    Svartengren, M; Falk, R; Philipson, K

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increases with age. Age has been found to be negatively associated with large airway clearance. The small airways region is considered important for development of airway disease. Clearance after the first 24 h was studied in 46 healthy subjects with a wide age distribution, (mean 42, range 19-81 yrs). All subjects inhaled monodisperse 6 microm Teflon particles labelled with 111In, with an extremely slow inhalation flow (0.05 L.s-1). The particles were mainly deposited in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured at 0 and 24 h, and at 7, 14 and 21 days after inhalation. Significant relationships were found for the individual 24 h "large" airway clearance in per cent of initial lung deposition with age, forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity. Age was negatively associated with "small" airway clearance after 24 h as estimated at 2, 7, 14 and 21 days. Using stepwise linear regression only age remained significantly associated to clearance. In conclusion, small airway clearance over 21 days was found to decrease with age. This might be one factor associated with the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms associated among the elderly.

  17. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  18. Clearance of theophylline by hemodialysis in one patient with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chang, D B; Kuo, S H; Yang, P C; Shen, F H; Luh, K T

    1992-11-01

    The clearance of theophylline by hemodialysis was determined in one patient who had polycystic kidney with chronic renal failure and bronchial asthma. The serum levels of theophylline were determined by enzymatic immunoassay on two consecutive days, once on a dialysis day and again on a nondialysis day. Clearance of theophylline by hemodialysis was 119 ml/min, and the extraction efficiency was 0.56. The elimination half-life of theophylline shortened from 5.7 h to 1.6 h during hemodialysis. The dialysis rate constant (Kd) was 0.32/h, and 79 percent of the total body store of the drug was removed during a 4-h dialysis. Patients receiving theophylline who are maintained on hemodialysis should be closely monitored for bronchospasm during and after the hemodialysis procedure. Measurement of serum concentrations of theophylline should be employed to facilitate increases in dosage during hemodialysis.

  19. Lung clearance and retention of toner, utilizing a tracer technique, during chronic inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Creutzenberg, O; Dasenbrock, C; Kilpper, R; MacKenzie, J C; Morrow, P; Mermelstein, R

    1991-08-01

    Male and female F-344 rats were exposed to 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months to a special test toner at 0, 1, 4, and 16 mg/m3, TiO2 at 5 mg/m3, or SiO2 at 1 mg/m3 by the inhalation route. 59Fe-labeled iron oxide and 85Sr-labeled polystyrene particles were periodically inhaled by the nose-only route and used to measure alveolar clearance rates during the course of the study. This method was used to describe a maximum functionally tolerated dose (MFTD). Pulmonary retention of toner and control materials (TiO2 and SiO2) was measured after 3, 9, 15, 21, and 24 months of exposure. The quantity of all three materials retained in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes increased with exposure duration and level. The final pulmonary burdens of toner at the three exposure levels were 0.22, 1.73, and 15.6 mg/lung, respectively. Alveolar clearance of both tracers was substantially impaired at the toner high-exposure level, and moderately slowed at the toner middle-exposure level. The excessive quantity of toner retained and the substantially retarded clearance in the toner high-exposure group are indicative of "lung overloading." Alveolar clearance of 85Sr-polystyrene particles was slightly slowed in the TiO2-exposed group and substantially impaired in the SiO2-exposed group. The alveolar clearance of the unexposed rats decreased about 30% during the study, a change ascribed to aging. For a general description of the toxicokinetics of the various dusts, a semiempirical kinetic model was developed, which could generally be useful for the extrapolation of lung retention of insoluble particles from a subchronic to a chronic inhalation study. Both the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the MFTD were exceeded at the toner high-exposure level during the study in rats.

  20. Immune enhancement of pulmonary clearance of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E J; Hart, D A; McGehee, J L; Toews, G B

    1988-01-01

    BALB/c mice systemically immunized by intraperitoneal injection with whole, viable cells of two different strains of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) exhibited a markedly enhanced ability to clear the homologous strain of NTHI from the lower respiratory tract. Immunization did not influence the number of phagocytic cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from mice before or after intrapulmonary challenge with NTHI. Immunization also induced the synthesis of relatively large quantities of NTHI-directed antibodies which were detectable in both the bloodstream and the alveolar spaces of the lung. Radioimmunoprecipitation and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses indicated that these antibodies were directed against both the proteins and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in the NTHI outer membrane. Bactericidal and opsonophagocytic assays determined that the NTHI-directed antibodies in the serum were functional and able to kill or opsonize the homologous NTHI strain. Mice immunized with an NTHI major outer membrane protein-LOS complex also had an increased ability to effect pulmonary clearance of NTHI. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from these animals immunized with the outer membrane protein-LOS complex contained relatively high levels of antibodies to both of these antigens. The serum from these animals also possessed bactericidal and opsonic activity against the homologous NTHI strain. These results indicate that systemic immunization can enhance the ability of experimental animals to clear NTHI from the lower respiratory tract and suggest that immunoprophylaxis of NTHI pulmonary disease may be feasible. Images PMID:3257203

  1. Ext1 heterozygosity causes a modest effect on postprandial lipid clearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Hans L; Bernelot Moens, Sophie J; Gordts, Philip L S M; Stanford, Kristin I; Foley, Erin M; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Witjes, Julia J; Hassing, H Carlijne; Tanck, Michael W; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Levels, J Han; Kastelein, John J P; Stroes, Erik S G; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Esko, Jeff D; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-03-01

    Elevated nonfasting TG-rich lipoprotein levels are a risk factor for CVD. To further evaluate the relevance of LDL-receptor (LDLr) pathway and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in TG homeostasis, we analyzed fasting and postprandial TG levels in mice bearing combined heterozygous mutations in both Exostosin (Ext) 1 and Ldlr, in subjects with hereditary multiple exostosis (HME) due to a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in EXT1 or EXT2 (N = 13), and in patients with heterozygous mutations in LDLR [familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)] and SNPs in major HSPG-related genes (n = 22). Mice bearing a homozygous mutation in hepatic Ext1 exhibited elevated plasma TGs similar to mice lacking other key enzymes involved in HSPG assembly. Compound heterozygous mice lacking Ldlr and Ext1 showed synergy on plasma TG accumulation and postprandial clearance. In human subjects, a trend was observed in HME patients toward reduced postprandial TG clearance with a concomitant reduction in chylomicron clearance [area under the curve (AUC)-retinyl ester (RE) HME, 844 ± 127 vs. controls, 646 ± 119 nM/h, P = 0.09]. Moreover, in FH subjects with a high HSPG gene score, retinyl palmitate excursions were higher (AUC-RE, 2,377 ± 293 vs. 1,565 ± 181 nM/h, P < 0.05). Incremental AUC-apoB48 was similar between the groups. In conclusion, the data are supportive for a minor yet additive role of HSPG in human postprandial TG clearance, and further studies are warranted. PMID:25568062

  2. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  3. Primary salivary duct carcinoma arising from the Stensen duct.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kenji; Hirano, Takashi; Okamoto, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) arising from the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. The patient was a 56-year-old man who presented with a palpable, elastic, hard mass without tenderness in the right cheek. Computed tomography revealed a tumor of the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. Supraomohyoid right neck dissection and total right parotidectomy were performed, and the histologic diagnosis was SDC of the Stensen duct. Postoperatively, the patient received no additional treatment. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was observed during 4 years of follow-up examination. SDC of the Stensen duct is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there is no report that describes primary SDC arising from that location. We also believe this is the first report that describes the clinical course of primary SDC arising from a Stensen duct. PMID:27657321

  4. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  5. Approximate theoretical model for the five electronic states ( Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) arising from the ground 3d 9 configuration in nickel halide molecules and for rotational levels of the two Ω = 1/2 states in that manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2011-05-01

    In the first part of this paper an effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators is set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni +X -, with an electronic 3d 9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni + moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X - moiety. From a crystal-field point of view, interactions of the positive d-hole with the cylindrically symmetrical electric charge distribution of the hypothetical NiX - closed-shell core can then be parameterized by three terms in a traditional expansion in spherical harmonics: C0 + C2Y20( θ, ϕ) + C4Y40( θ, ϕ). Interaction of the hole with the magnetic field generated by its own orbital motion can be parameterized by a traditional spin-orbit interaction operator A L · S. The Hamiltonian matrix is set up in a basis set consisting of the 10 Hund's case (a) basis functions | L, Λ; S , Σ> that arise when L = 2 and S = 1/2. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the four parameters C0, C2, C4, and A which lead to good agreement, except for the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. The large equal and opposite residuals of the | Ω| = 1/2 states can be reduced to values comparable with those for the | Ω| = 3/2 and | Ω| = 5/2 states by fixing A to its value in Ni + and then introducing an empirical correction factor for one off-diagonal orbital matrix element. In the second part of this paper the usual effective Hamiltonian B( J- L- S) 2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2 B, but that

  6. Effect of mouse strain as a background for Alzheimer’s disease models on the clearance of amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Novel animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are relentlessly being developed and existing ones are being fine-tuned; however, these models face multiple challenges associated with the complexity of the disease where most of these models do not reproduce the full phenotypical disease spectrum. Moreover, different AD models express different phenotypes that could affect their validity to recapitulate disease pathogenesis and/or response to a drug. One of the most important and understudied differences between AD models is differences in the phenotypic characteristics of the background species. Here, we used the brain clearance index (BCI) method to investigate the effect of strain differences on the clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) from the brains of four mouse strains. These mouse strains, namely C57BL/6, FVB/N, BALB/c and SJL/J, are widely used as a background for the development of AD mouse models. Findings showed that while Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was comparable between the 4 strains, levels of LRP1, an Aβ clearance protein, was significantly lower in SJL/J mice compared to other mouse strains. Furthermore, these mouse strains showed a significantly different response to rifampicin treatment with regard to Aβ clearance and effect on brain level of its clearance-related proteins. Our results provide for the first time an evidence for strain differences that could affect ability of AD mouse models to recapitulate response to a drug, and opens a new research avenue that requires further investigation to successfully develop mouse models that could simulate clinically important phenotypic characteristics of AD. PMID:27478623

  7. Influence of unlabeled monoclonal anti-mouse antibody on the clearance rate of radiolabeled mouse monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Laino, L.; Jackson, G.; Fisher, S.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1985-05-01

    High blood background levels of intact radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) after intravenous (iv) injection are problematic. The injection of unlabeled polyclonal antimouse Abs following injection with labeled MoAbs produces accelerated MoAb clearance. This study evaluates a Mo antimouse Ab for efficacy of accelerating radio MoAb clearance. HB-58 is a rat/mouse MoAb which binds strongly to mouse kappa light chains present in 95% of murine monoclonals. It is unreactive with rat, rabbit or human kappa chains. Six rats were injected iv with 30 ..mu..Ci (approximately 6 ..mu..g) of I-125 UPC-10, a non-specific IgG2ak MoAb that is bound to well by HB-58. No alteration was seen in the clearance of UPC-10 in any of the animals, regardless of the injection type or amount on the second day. In addition, no increase in liver or spleen activity was seen in those rats that received HB-58. The lack of change in rate of clearance and biodistribution of UPC-10 after the iv injection of a purified, specific, anti-mouse MoAb is in marked contrast to the accelerated clearance reported following polyclonal anti-mouse antibody administration. This may be due to the inability of MoAbs to cross link. These preliminary studies suggest that Mo anti-mouse Abs, at these dose levels, are not useful in achieving increased rates of radiolabeled murine MoAb clearance.

  8. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  9. Malignancy arising in endometriosis associated with unopposed estrogen replacement.

    PubMed

    Reimnitz, C; Brand, E; Nieberg, R K; Hacker, N F

    1988-03-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a well documented phenomenon. Although it occurs most commonly in the ovaries, there have been approximately 50 reported cases of extraovarian malignant transformation of endometriosis. This paper presents two cases of malignancy arising from a dormant focus of endometriosis after total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and exogenous estrogen replacement therapy. These malignancies are often well differentiated and may behave similarly to estrogen-induced endometrial carcinomas. After surgical castration of a premenopausal woman with endometriosis, the use of progestins in replacement therapy may reduce the risk of malignancy arising in endometriosis.

  10. Respiratory clearance of aerosolized radioactive solutes of varying molecular weight

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Montgomery, A.B.; Lipavsky, A.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Murray, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    To determine the influence of varying molecular weight (mol wt) on respiratory clearance of aerosolized solutes, we studied eight radiopharmaceuticals, each administered to four dogs: sodium /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate (TcO4), /sup 99m/Tc glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GH), 51Cr-ethylenedinitrotetraacetate ((51Cr)EDTA), /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((99mTc) DTPA), /sup 111/In diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ((/sup 111/In)DTPA), /sup 67/Ga desferoxaminemesylate ((/sup 67/Ga)DFOM), /sup 99m/Tc dextran ((/sup 99m/Tc)DX) and /sup 111/In transferrin ((/sup 111/In)TF). After aerosolization (0.8 m MMD, 2.4 GSD), clearance was determined for 30 min and then corrected by intravenous injection for nonairspace radioactivity. In-TF clearance (0.11 +/- 0.10%/min) was lower than TcO4 (6.32 +/- 0.62%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)GH (1.50 +/- 0.37%/min), (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA (2.38 +/- 1.02%/min), (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA (3.51 +/- 0.40%/min), (/sup 111/In)DTPA (2.35 +/- 0.42%/min), (/sup 67/Ga) DFOM (1.99 +/- 0.49%/min) and (/sup 99m/Tc)DX (1.81 +/- 0.75%/min) clearances (p less than 0.001). TcO4 clearance was higher than others (p less than 0.001). Technetium binding to DX was unsatisfactory; aerosolization caused unbinding from DTPA. We conclude that respiratory clearance of large mol wt solutes within 30 min is negligible and, that clearance of molecules between 347-5099 daltons differs greatly, suggesting that binding and/or intrapulmonary retention affect transfer.

  11. Alcoholic pancreatitis and parotitis: utility of lipase and urinary amylase clearance determinations.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J L; Wilson, J A

    1986-07-01

    Acute alcoholic pancreatitis is a clinical diagnosis made in patients who have acute upper abdominal pain, emesis, and hyperamylasemia soon after ingesting alcohol. We sought to determine whether the clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis was supported by elevated serum levels of pancreatic isoamylase, currently the most specific test for pancreatitis. Serum lipase levels and urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios were examined for comparison with pancreatic isoamylase concentrations. Potential sources for salivary isoamylasemia were explored with technetium scans of the parotid glands. Of 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of alcoholic pancreatitis, 16 had elevated levels of pancreatic isoamylase, and 17 had salivary hyperamylasemia. The diagnostic specificity of the serum lipase level or the urinary amylase/creatinine clearance ratio was excellent compared to that of the pancreatic isoamylase level. Three patients had elevated levels of salivary isoamylase only. Scans of the parotid glands in the study group revealed significantly higher uptake values than scans in nonalcoholic control subjects, suggesting one possible source of elevated levels of salivary isoamylase.

  12. A leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

    PubMed

    Yagi, K; Hamada, Y; Yasui, N

    2006-12-01

    Vascular leiomyomas, or angioleiomyomas, are benign tumours originating from smooth non-striated muscle. Leiomyomas in the hand are uncommon and their pre-operative diagnosis is difficult. We report a 65 year-old woman who developed a vascular leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

  13. ARISE: A Challenging 25-m Space Antenna Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Hoferer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth). Future scientific and communications missions are conceptualizing using very large reflector antennas in space. The antenna dimensions are targeted from lOm to 25m beyond. Frequencies coveting L-band through W-band are being considered. these challenging missions, one may refer to ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), which is projected to utilize a 25-m dual Gregorian optics operating from 8 GHz to 86 Gl-lz . An artist's renditions Gregorian antenna concept is shown . The objective of this mission is to create a space-based VLBI system (integrated with ground based antennas) for high resolution mapping of black holes. Successful realization of ARISE necessitates development of several technologies . The most crucial technology is that of the deployable 25-m reflector that must work at frequencies as high as 43 and 86 GHz. The current baseline selection for ARISE is an inflatable antenna, under development for several other applications in communications and remote sensing.

  14. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  15. Errors arising from incorrect orientation of E test strips.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S; Yam, T S

    1995-01-01

    Major errors arise if E test strips are placed upside down. Asymmetric zones, or no zone at all, may result. MICs indicated by upside-down tests were almost always considerably higher than true values. This situation differs markedly from that for conventional testing, where orientation of disks is not important. PMID:7665686

  16. Accelerating the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy induction by europium hydroxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Li; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Yi; Man, Na; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Xu, Jing; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the well-known pathways to accelerate the clearance of protein aggregates, which contributes to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are numerous reports that demonstrate the induction of autophagy with small molecules including rapamycin, trehalose and lithium, however, there are few reports mentioning the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins through autophagy induction by nanoparticles. In the present article, we have demonstrated that europium hydroxide [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can reduce huntingtin protein aggregation (EGFP-tagged huntingtin protein with 74 polyQ repeats), responsible for neurodegenerative diseases. Again, we have found that these nanorods induce authentic autophagy flux in different cell lines (Neuro 2a, PC12 and HeLa cells) through the expression of higher levels of characteristic autophagy marker protein LC3-II and degradation of selective autophagy substrate/cargo receptor p62/SQSTM1. Furthermore, depression of protein aggregation clearance through the autophagy blockade has also been observed by using specific inhibitors (wortmannin and chloroquine), indicating that autophagy is involved in the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation. Since [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can enhance the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation via autophagy induction, we strongly believe that these nanorods would be useful for the development of therapeutic treatment strategies for various neurodegenerative diseases in near future using nanomedicine approach.

  17. Novel lanthanide-labeled metal oxide nanoparticles improve the measurement of in vivo clearance and translocation.

    PubMed

    Abid, Aamir D; Anderson, Donald S; Das, Gautom K; Van Winkle, Laura S; Kennedy, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    The deposition, clearance and translocation of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles in a mouse lung were investigated experimentally. Nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis. The particle size, crystallinity and surface properties were characterized. Following instillation, the concentrations of particles in organs were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The protein corona coating the nanoparticles was found to be similar to the coating on more environmentally relevant nanoparticles such as iron oxide. Measurements of the solubility of the nanoparticles in surrogates of biological fluids indicated very little propensity for dissolution, and the elemental ratio of particle constituents did not change, adding further support to the contention that intact nanoparticles were measured. The particles were intratracheally instilled into the mouse lung. After 24 hours, the target organs were harvested, acid digested and the nanoparticle mass in each organ was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The nanoparticles were detected in all the studied organs at low ppb levels; 59% of the particles remained in the lung. A significant amount of particles was also detected in the feces, suggesting fast clearance mechanisms. The nanoparticle system used in this work is highly suitable for quantitatively determining deposition, transport and clearance of nanoparticles from the lung, providing a quantified measure of delivered dose. PMID:23305071

  18. In vitro formation and i vivo clearance of fibrinogen: fibrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, L A; Harwig, S; Lee, J

    1975-07-01

    Fbrinogen:fibrin complexes have been previously described in various thrombotic disorders. To evaluate further the properties of fibrinogen:fibrin complexes, and theirin vitro and in vivo behavior, soluable fibrinogen:fibrin complexes have been formed invitro using mixtures of '131l-fibrinogen ('131l-F) and '125l-fibrin ('125l-fb). By means of Sepharose 4B chromatography, a macromolecular complex (peak one) containing both moieties could be separated from a lower molecular weight peak two containg noncomplexed material. The latter eluted at the same position as did intact fibrogen. Both the '131l-F and '125l-fb components of peak one were rapidly catabolized when injected into rabbits with residual blood activity at 24 hours of 8 per cent and 4 per cent, respectively. Peak two behavedas a simple mixture with corresponding 24-hour levels at 31 per cent and 3 per cent. Gel filtration of postinjuection plasma samples demonstrated that peak one remained as macromolecular complex. Preinjection crosslinking of the F:fb complex with factor xiii did not substantially change the blood clearance. Prior blockage of the reticuloendotheial system with Thorotrast or carbon resulted in impaired clearance of peak one. The data provide evidence that fibrinogen and fibrin can form a macromolecular complex which is stable both in vitro and vivo. Further, the reticuloendotheialsystem was shown to mediate the the in vivo clearance of this complex. This latterfinding may be of pathophysiologic significance.

  19. Novel lanthanide-labeled metal oxide nanoparticles improve the measurement of in vivo clearance and translocation.

    PubMed

    Abid, Aamir D; Anderson, Donald S; Das, Gautom K; Van Winkle, Laura S; Kennedy, Ian M

    2013-01-10

    The deposition, clearance and translocation of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles in a mouse lung were investigated experimentally. Nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis. The particle size, crystallinity and surface properties were characterized. Following instillation, the concentrations of particles in organs were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The protein corona coating the nanoparticles was found to be similar to the coating on more environmentally relevant nanoparticles such as iron oxide. Measurements of the solubility of the nanoparticles in surrogates of biological fluids indicated very little propensity for dissolution, and the elemental ratio of particle constituents did not change, adding further support to the contention that intact nanoparticles were measured. The particles were intratracheally instilled into the mouse lung. After 24 hours, the target organs were harvested, acid digested and the nanoparticle mass in each organ was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The nanoparticles were detected in all the studied organs at low ppb levels; 59% of the particles remained in the lung. A significant amount of particles was also detected in the feces, suggesting fast clearance mechanisms. The nanoparticle system used in this work is highly suitable for quantitatively determining deposition, transport and clearance of nanoparticles from the lung, providing a quantified measure of delivered dose.

  20. The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10–14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2–3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity. PMID:27754341

  1. Clearance rate and BP-ANN model in paraquat poisoned patients treated with hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lufeng; Hong, Guangliang; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin; Lin, Guanyang; Zhang, Xiuhua; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of hemoperfusion (HP) on the clearance rate of paraquat (PQ) and develop a clearance model, 41 PQ-poisoned patients who acquired acute PQ intoxication received HP treatment. PQ concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to initial PQ concentration, study subjects were divided into two groups: Low-PQ group (0.05-1.0 μg/mL) and High-PQ group (1.0-10 μg/mL). After initial HP treatment, PQ concentrations decreased in both groups. However, in the High-PQ group, PQ levels remained in excess of 0.05 μg/mL and increased when the second HP treatment was initiated. Based on the PQ concentrations before and after HP treatment, the mean clearance rate of PQ calculated was 73 ± 15%. We also established a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model, which set PQ concentrations before HP treatment as input data and after HP treatment as output data. When it is used to predict PQ concentration after HP treatment, high prediction accuracy (R = 0.9977) can be obtained in this model. In conclusion, HP is an effective way to clear PQ from the blood, and the PQ concentration after HP treatment can be predicted by BP-ANN model. PMID:25695058

  2. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of UC-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( UC-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from UC-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of UC-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of UC-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides.

  3. Novel lanthanide-labeled metal oxide nanoparticles improve the measurement of in vivo clearance and translocation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The deposition, clearance and translocation of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles in a mouse lung were investigated experimentally. Nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis. The particle size, crystallinity and surface properties were characterized. Following instillation, the concentrations of particles in organs were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The protein corona coating the nanoparticles was found to be similar to the coating on more environmentally relevant nanoparticles such as iron oxide. Measurements of the solubility of the nanoparticles in surrogates of biological fluids indicated very little propensity for dissolution, and the elemental ratio of particle constituents did not change, adding further support to the contention that intact nanoparticles were measured. The particles were intratracheally instilled into the mouse lung. After 24 hours, the target organs were harvested, acid digested and the nanoparticle mass in each organ was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The nanoparticles were detected in all the studied organs at low ppb levels; 59% of the particles remained in the lung. A significant amount of particles was also detected in the feces, suggesting fast clearance mechanisms. The nanoparticle system used in this work is highly suitable for quantitatively determining deposition, transport and clearance of nanoparticles from the lung, providing a quantified measure of delivered dose. PMID:23305071

  4. Autophagy is involved in oral rAAV/Aβ vaccine-induced Aβ clearance in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Kuerban, Bolati; Jin, Ying-Lan; Le, Weidong; Hara, Hideo; Fan, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Tabira, Takeshi; Chui, De-Hua

    2015-08-01

    The imbalance between ß-amyloid (Aß) generation and clearance plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sporadic form of AD is characterized by an overall impairment in Aß clearance. Immunotherapy targeting Aß clearance is believed to be a promising approach and is under active clinical investigation. Autophagy is a conserved pathway for degrading abnormal protein aggregates and is crucial for Aß clearance. We previously reported that oral vaccination with a recombinant AAV/Aß vaccine increased the clearance of Aß from the brain and improved cognitive ability in AD animal models, while the underlying mechanisms were not well understood. In this study, we first demonstrated that oral vaccination with rAAV/Aß decreased the p62 level and up-regulated the LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio in APP/PS1 mouse brain, suggesting enhanced autophagy. Further, inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway may account for autophagy enhancement. We also found increased anti-Aß antibodies in the sera of APP/PS1 mice with oral vaccination, accompanied by elevation of complement factors C1q and C3 levels in the brain. Our results indicate that autophagy is closely involved in oral vaccination-induced Aß clearance, and modulating the autophagy pathway may be an important strategy for AD prevention and intervention.

  5. Direct measurement of first-pass ileal clearance of a bile acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method of directly measuring ileal bile acid absorption efficiency during a single enterohepatic cycle (first-pass ileal clearance). This has become feasible for the first time because of the availability of the synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid 75Selena-homocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT). Together with the corresponding natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine (labeled with 14C), SeHCAT was infused distal to an occluding balloon situated beyond the ampulla of Vater in six healthy subjects. Completion of a single enterohepatic cycle was assessed by obtaining a plateau for 75SeHCAT activity proximal to the occluding balloon, which prevented further cycles. Unabsorbed 75SeHCAT was collected after total gut washout, which was administered distal to the occluding balloon. 75SeHCAT activity in the rectal effluent measured by gamma counter was compared with that of absorbed 75SeHCAT level measured by gamma camera and was used to calculate first-pass ileal clearance. This was very efficient (mean value, 96%) and showed very little variation in the six subjects studied (range, 95%-97%). A parallel time-activity course in hepatic bile for 14C and 75Se during a single enterohepatic cycle, together with a ratio of unity for 14C/75Se in samples obtained at different time intervals, suggests that 75SeHCAT is handled by the ileum like the natural bile acid cholic acid-taurine. Extrapolation of 75SeHCAT first-pass ileal clearance to that of the natural bile acid therefore seems justifiable. In a subsidiary experiment, ileal absorption efficiency per day for 75SeHCAT was also measured by scanning the gallbladder area on 5 successive days after the measurement of first-pass ileal clearance. In contrast with absorption efficiency per cycle, absorption efficiency per day varied widely (49%-86%).

  6. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.

  7. Lipid composition and physical state effects on cellular cholesteryl ester clearance.

    PubMed

    Adelman, S J; Glick, J M; Phillips, M C; Rothblat, G H

    1984-11-25

    The influence of lipid composition and physical state on the rate of cholesteryl ester clearance from cytoplasmic inclusions has been investigated. Our findings demonstrate that the increased rate of clearance correlates with an increased cellular triglyceride content and a more fluid cholesteryl ester physical state. Cultured rat hepatoma cells were induced to accumulate esterified cholesterol in a smectic liquid-crystalline state by exposure to free cholesterol-rich phospholipid dispersions. Addition of cis-unsaturated fatty acids to this loading medium (either oleate, linoleate, linolenate, or eicosadienoate) resulted in a substantial increase in cellular triglyceride content (greater than 7 times non-fatty acid-treated), cellular cholesteryl esters in a liquid state, and a rate of cholesteryl ester clearance twice that of control (approximately 34% versus 17% in 12 h). In studies with oleic acid, storage of cellular cholesteryl esters in a liquid state was found to be dependent on the presence of triglycerides, and the rate at which these cells hydrolyzed cholesteryl esters was proportional to triglyceride levels. Cells exposed to either linoleic or linolenic acid hydrolyzed cholesteryl esters at the faster rate, but in contrast to findings with oleate and eicosadienoate, the storage of cholesteryl esters in a liquid state may also be a consequence of the modified fatty acyl composition of the cholesteryl esters themselves. Addition of a saturated fatty acid (palmitate) or a fatty acid with a trans-double bond (elaidate) to the cholesterol loading media had little effect on cellular triglyceride content, cholesteryl ester physical state, or the rate of cholesteryl ester clearance.

  8. In vivo Differential Brain Clearance and Catabolism of Monomeric and Oligomeric Alzheimer's Aβ protein

    PubMed Central

    McIntee, Farron L.; Giannoni, Patrizia; Blais, Steven; Sommer, George; Neubert, Thomas A.; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major constituent of the brain deposits found in parenchymal plaques and cerebral blood vessels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of investigation support the notion that synaptic pathology, one of the strongest correlates to cognitive impairment, is related to the progressive accumulation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. Since the process of oligomerization/fibrillization is concentration-dependent, it is highly reliant on the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate the steady state levels of Aβ influencing the delicate balance between rate of synthesis, dynamics of aggregation, and clearance kinetics. Emerging new data suggest that reduced Aβ clearance, particularly in the aging brain, plays a critical role in the process of amyloid formation and AD pathogenesis. Using well-defined monomeric and low molecular mass oligomeric Aβ1-40 species stereotaxically injected into the brain of C57BL/6 wild-type mice in combination with biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses in CSF, our data clearly demonstrate that Aβ physiologic removal is extremely fast and involves local proteolytic degradation leading to the generation of heterogeneous C-terminally cleaved proteolytic products, while providing clear indication of the detrimental role of oligomerization for brain Aβ efflux. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy studies provide insight into the cellular pathways involved in the brain removal and cellular uptake of Aβ. The findings indicate that clearance from brain interstitial fluid follows local and systemic paths and that in addition to the blood-brain barrier, local enzymatic degradation and the bulk flow transport through the choroid plexus into the CSF play significant roles. Our studies highlight the diverse factors influencing brain clearance and the participation of various routes of elimination opening up new research opportunities for the understanding of altered mechanisms triggering AD pathology and for the

  9. Effect of inspiratory resistance and PEEP on /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brodovich, H.; Coates, G.; Marrin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of markedly negative pleural pressure (Ppl) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the pulmonary clearance (k) of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA). A submicronic aerosol containing /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was insufflated into the lungs of anesthetized intubated sheep. In six experiments k was 0.44 +/- 0.46% (SD)/min during the initial 30 min and was unchanged during the subsequent 30-min interval (k = 0.21 +/- 12%/min) when there was markedly increased inspiratory resistance. A 3-mm-diam orifice in the inspiratory tubing created the resistance. It resulted on average in a 13-cmH2O decrease in inspiratory Ppl. In eight additional experiments sheep were exposed to 2, 10, and 15 cmH2O PEEP (20 min at each level). During 2 cmH2O PEEP k = 0.47 +/- 0.15%/min, and clearance increased slightly at 10 cmH2O PEEP (0.76 +/- 0.28%/min, P less than 0.01). When PEEP was increased to 15 cmH2O a marked increase in clearance occurred (k = 1.95 +/- 1.08%/min, P less than 0.001). The experiments demonstrate that markedly negative inspiratory pressures do not accelerate the clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from normal lungs. The effect of PEEP on k is nonlinear, with large effects being seen only with very large increases in PEEP.

  10. TREM2 deficiency reduces the efficacy of immunotherapeutic amyloid clearance.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xianyuan; Werner, Georg; Bohrmann, Bernd; Liesz, Arthur; Mazaheri, Fargol; Capell, Anja; Feederle, Regina; Knuesel, Irene; Kleinberger, Gernot; Haass, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches are currently the most advanced treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) bind to amyloid plaques and induce their clearance by microglia via Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Dysfunctions of microglia may play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis and could result in reduced efficacy of antibody-mediated Aβ clearance. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), a microglial gene involved in phagocytosis, were genetically linked to late onset AD Loss of TREM2 reduces the ability of microglia to engulf Aβ. We have now investigated whether loss of TREM2 affects the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. We show that anti-Aβ antibodies stimulate Aβ uptake and amyloid plaque clearance in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of TREM2. However, TREM2-deficient N9 microglial cell lines, macrophages as well as primary microglia showed significantly reduced uptake of antibody-bound Aβ and as a consequence reduced clearance of amyloid plaques. Titration experiments revealed that reduced efficacy of amyloid plaque clearance by Trem2 knockout cells can be compensated by elevating the concentration of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:27402340

  11. Simulating Arctic clouds during Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromwich, D. H.; Hines, K. M.; Wang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The representation within global and regional models of the extensive low-level cloud cover over polar oceans remains a critical challenge for quantitative studies and forecasts of polar climate. In response, the polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) is used to simulate the meteorology, boundary layer, and Arctic clouds during the September-October 2014 Arctic Radiation- IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) project. Polar WRF was developed with several adjustments to the sea ice thermodynamics in WRF. ARISE was based out of Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska and included multiple instrumented C-130 aircraft flights over open water and sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Arctic boundary layer clouds were frequently observed within cold northeasterly flow over the open ocean and ice. Preliminary results indicate these clouds were primarily liquid water, with characteristics differing between open water and sea ice surfaces. Simulated clouds are compared to ARISE observations. Furthermore, Polar WRF simulations are run for the August-September 2008 Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) for comparison to the ARISE. Preliminary analysis shows that simulated low-level water clouds over the sea ice are too extensive during the the second half of the ASCOS field program. Alternatives and improvements to the Polar WRF cloud schemes are considered. The goal is to use the ARISE and ASCOS observations to achieve an improved polar supplement to the WRF code for open water and sea ice that can be provided to the Polar WRF community.

  12. Delayed luminescence of biological systems arising from correlated many-soliton states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizhik, Larissa; Scordino, Agata; Triglia, Antonio; Musumeci, Francesco

    2001-09-01

    The kinetics of the delayed luminescence arising from correlated coherent many-soliton states in low-dimensional macromolecular systems, is calculated and shown to be different from the one arising from independent soliton states. The correlation between coherent electron states is essential at relatively high levels of excitation in the presence of very long macromolecules in a system. These conditions can be fulfilled in such biological systems, like algae Acetabularia Acetabulum. The cytoskeleton of this unicellular alga contains macromolecular structures (actin filaments, microtubules, etc.) of the length of several hundreds angstroms and more, in which many-soliton coherent states can exist. Indeed, the correlated coherent model is shown to give better fit of the experimental data for this type of algae in a wide range of intensities of the stimulating light, as compared with the model of noncorrelated solitons. The nonlinearity of the dependence of delayed luminescence intensity on the level of excitation increases with the increase of correlation between solitons.

  13. Birefringing arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Heritage, J. P.; Gustafson, T. K.; Chiao, R. Y.; Mctague, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The refractive index change in a collisionless gas is evaluated from the Stark shifts of the rotational energy levels that arise from the polarizability anisotropy. For the limit of an extremely short-duration excitation, a multilevel coherent effect resulted in delayed refractive index bursts. Both stationary and transient responses of this birefringence to an optical field were considered for symmetric top molecules, with particular emphasis on the special case of linear molecules.

  14. Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Heritage, J. P.; Gustafson, T. K.; Chiao, R. Y.; Mctague, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The refractive-index change in a collisionless gas is evaluated from the Stark shifts of the rotational energy levels that arise from the polarizability anisotropy. In the limit of an extremely-short-duration excitation, a multilevel coherent effect results in delayed refractive-index bursts. Both stationary and transient responses of this birefringence to an optical field are considered for symmetric-top molecules, with particular emphasis on the special case of linear molecules.

  15. HPT Clearance Control: Intelligent Engine Systems-Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The following work has been completed to satisfy the Phase I Deliverables for the "HPT Clearance Control" project under NASA GRC's "Intelligent Engine Systems" program: (1) Need for the development of an advanced HPT ACC system has been very clearly laid out, (2) Several existing and potential clearance control systems have been reviewed, (3) A scorecard has been developed to document the system, performance (fuel burn, range, payload, etc.), thermal, and mechanical characteristics of the existing clearance control systems, (4) Engine size and flight cycle selection for the advanced HPT ACC system has been reviewed with "large engine"/"long range mission" combination showing the most benefit, (5) A scoring criteria has been developed to tie together performance parameters for an objective, data driven comparison of competing systems, and (6) The existing HPT ACC systems have been scored based on this scoring system.

  16. Impaired lipid clearance in patients with previous acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, S; Nervi, F; Llanos, O; León, P; Valdivieso, V

    1985-01-01

    Fasting serum triglycerides were measured in 52 patients who had sustained an attack of pancreatitis (gall stone related 33, alcoholism six) at least six months earlier. Several patients (23%) had raised fasting serum triglycerides, with a type IV phenotype in all but one patient. The 40 patients with normal fasting serum triglycerides received an oral load of 100 g sunflower oil to compare their clearance of dietary triglycerides with that of a control group of 54 subjects. The clearance of ingested triglycerides was significantly impaired in the patients - irrespective of the presumed aetiological factor, or clinical condition associated with pancreatitis - compared with the clearance in controls. A triglyceride tolerance test is the only way to detect those patients in whom a future attack of pancreatitis may be precipitated by a diet rich in fat, or endogenous over production of triglycerides as after an alcoholic debauch. PMID:4029716

  17. Tumor Presence Induces Global Immune Changes and Enhances Nanoparticle Clearance.

    PubMed

    Kai, Marc P; Brighton, Hailey E; Fromen, Catherine A; Shen, Tammy W; Luft, J Christopher; Luft, Yancey E; Keeler, Amanda W; Robbins, Gregory R; Ting, Jenny P Y; Zamboni, William C; Bear, James E; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2016-01-26

    Long-circulating nanoparticles are essential for increasing tumor accumulation to provide therapeutic efficacy. While it is known that tumor presence can alter the immune system, very few studies have explored this impact on nanoparticle circulation. In this report, we demonstrate how the presence of a tumor can change the local and global immune system, which dramatically increases particle clearance. We found that tumor presence significantly increased clearance of PRINT hydrogel nanoparticles from the circulation, resulting in increased accumulation in the liver and spleen, due to an increase in M2-like macrophages. Our findings highlight the need to better understand interactions between immune status and nanoparticle clearance, and suggest that further consideration of immune function is required for success in preclinical and clinical nanoparticle studies.

  18. Inefficient clearance of myelin debris by microglia impairs remyelinating processes

    PubMed Central

    Lampron, Antoine; Larochelle, Antoine; Laflamme, Nathalie; Préfontaine, Paul; Plante, Marie-Michèle; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Yong, V. Wee; Stys, Peter K.; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between remyelinating and demyelinating rates underlies degenerative processes in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. An optimal therapeutic strategy would be to stimulate remyelination while limiting demyelination. Although accumulation of myelin debris impairs remyelination, the mechanisms regulating the clearance of such debris by mononuclear phagocytic cells are poorly understood. We demonstrate that after cuprizone intoxication, CCR2-dependent infiltration of mouse bone marrow–derived cells is abundant in demyelinating areas, but that these cells do not impact demyelination. However, in CX3CR1-deficient mice, the clearance of myelin debris by microglia was blocked greatly, affecting the integrity of the axon and myelin sheaths and thus preventing proper remyelination. These results highlight the crucial role played by CX3CR1 in myelin removal and show that there can be no efficient remyelination after a primary demyelinating insult if myelin clearance by microglia is impaired. PMID:25779633

  19. Improving mucociliary clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Angshu; Chahal, Kamaljeet; Austin, Gillian; Chakravorty, Indranil

    2009-04-01

    Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of life (HRQL). Institution based pulmonary rehabilitation programs incorporating airway clearance techniques have been shown to improve HRQL, reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance but are often difficult to provide due to restricted accessibility and resource implications. This review examines the current evidence base and best clinical practice in the area of airway clearance. Mechanical devices such as the flutter valves, positive end expiratory pressure and high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) may be able to provide the benefits of improved airway clearance in the patient's home potentially with reduced demands on healthcare resources.

  20. Fiber-optic laser Doppler turbine tip clearance probe.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lars; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen

    2006-05-01

    A laser Doppler based method for in situ single blade tip clearance measurements of turbomachines with high precision is presented for what we believe is the first time. The sensor is based on two superposed fanlike interference fringe systems generated by two laser wavelengths from a fiber-coupled, passive, and therefore compact measurement head employing diffractive optics. Tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm (833 Hz, 586 m/s tip speed) are reported. At these speeds the measured uncertainty of the tip position was less than 20 microm, a factor of 2 more accurate than that of capacitive probes. The sensor offers great potential for in situ and online high-precision tip clearance measurements of metallic and nonmetallic turbine blades. PMID:16642064

  1. Red Blood Cell Membrane as a Biomimetic Nanocoating for Prolonged Circulation Time and Reduced Accelerated Blood Clearance.

    PubMed

    Rao, Lang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jun-Hua; Cai, Bo; Yu, Guang-Tao; Yu, Xiaolei; He, Zhaobo; Huang, Qinqin; Li, Andrew; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Liu, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tza-Huei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    For decades, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely incorporated into nanoparticles for evading immune clearance and improving the systematic circulation time. However, recent studies have reported a phenomenon known as "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)" where a second dose of PEGylated nanomaterials is rapidly cleared when given several days after the first dose. Herein, we demonstrate that natural red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a superior alternative to PEG. Biomimetic RBC membrane-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs) rely on CD47, which is a "don't eat me" marker on the RBC surface, to escape immune clearance through interactions with the signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRP-α) receptor. Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs exhibit extended circulation time and show little change between the first and second doses, with no ABC suffered. In addition, the administration of Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs does not elicit immune responses on neither the cellular level (myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)) nor the humoral level (immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG)). Finally, the in vivo toxicity of these cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles is systematically investigated by blood biochemistry, hematology testing, and histology analysis. These findings are significant advancements toward solving the long-existing clinical challenges of developing biomaterials that are able to resist both immune response and rapid clearance. PMID:26488923

  2. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  3. Effects of desipramine on norepinephrine clearance in congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Clemson, B.; Baily, R.G.; Davis, D.; Zelis, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) in congestive heart failure (CHF) is caused by increased NE spillover and decreased NE clearance. To evaluate the effects of neuronal uptake blockade on NE clearance, we studied NE kinetics during steady-state infusions of (3H)NE, before and after oral desipramine (DMI, 50 mg) in 11 patients with CHF and 8 normal volunteers. Baseline plasma NE was greater in the CHF group (637 +/- 56 vs. 271 +/- 32 pg/ml; P less than 0.001), NE clearance was lower in CHF (1.31 +/- 0.21 vs. 1.94 +/- 0.17 l.min-1.m-2; P = 0.026), and NE spillover was greater in CHF (4.71 +/- 0.78 vs. 3.04 +/- 0.35 nmol.min-1.m-2, P = 0.054). After DMI, plasma NE rose significantly in CHF (778 +/- 67; P = 0.008), and NE clearance decreased further in CHF (0.97 +/- 0.16; P = 0.024), but neither changed in normal subjects. NE spillover did not change in either group. There appears to be an enhanced effect of DMI on NE clearance in CHF patients. Two general mechanisms may be responsible for this finding, an increased concentration of drug, possibly caused by a decreased volume of distribution, and an increased sensitivity of neuronal amine pumps to DMI. Both mechanisms may reflect a more general abnormality of clearance of drugs and hormones related to abnormalities of tissue perfusion in CHF.

  4. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  5. FcRn Rescues Recombinant Factor VIII Fc Fusion Protein from a VWF Independent FVIII Clearance Pathway in Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    van der Flier, Arjan; Liu, Zhan; Tan, Siyuan; Chen, Kai; Drager, Douglas; Liu, Tongyao; Patarroyo-White, Susannah; Jiang, Haiyan; Light, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a longer lasting recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein, rFVIIIFc, to extend the half-life of replacement FVIII for the treatment of people with hemophilia A. In order to elucidate the biological mechanism for the elongated half-life of rFVIIIFc at a cellular level we delineated the roles of VWF and the tissue-specific expression of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the biodistribution, clearance and cycling of rFVIIIFc. We find the tissue biodistribution is similar for rFVIIIFc and rFVIII and that liver is the major clearance organ for both molecules. VWF reduces the clearance and the initial liver uptake of rFVIIIFc. Pharmacokinetic studies in FcRn chimeric mice show that FcRn expressed in somatic cells (hepatocytes or liver sinusoidal endothelial cells) mediates the decreased clearance of rFVIIIFc, but FcRn in hematopoietic cells (Kupffer cells) does not affect clearance. Immunohistochemical studies show that when rFVIII or rFVIIIFc is in dynamic equilibrium binding with VWF, they mostly co localize with VWF in Kupffer cells and macrophages, confirming a major role for liver macrophages in the internalization and clearance of the VWF-FVIII complex. In the absence of VWF a clear difference in cellular localization of VWF-free rFVIII and rFVIIIFc is observed and neither molecule is detected in Kupffer cells. Instead, rFVIII is observed in hepatocytes, indicating that free rFVIII is cleared by hepatocytes, while rFVIIIFc is observed as a diffuse liver sinusoidal staining, suggesting recycling of free-rFVIIIFc out of hepatocytes. These studies reveal two parallel linked clearance pathways, with a dominant pathway in which both rFVIIIFc and rFVIII complexed with VWF are cleared mainly by Kupffer cells without FcRn cycling. In contrast, the free fraction of rFVIII or rFVIIIFc unbound by VWF enters hepatocytes, where FcRn reduces the degradation and clearance of rFVIIIFc relative to rFVIII by cycling rFVIIIFc back to the liver sinusoid and

  6. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  7. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  8. Myofibroblastoma arising in mammary hamartoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Diego M; Cruz, Dênnis Baroni; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Pêgas, Karla Laís; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare mesenchymal tumor arising in breast's soft tissue with a great variety of microscopic features that can be mistaken with a wide variety of biphasic lesions. The authors report a rare case of myofibroblastoma of the breast arising in a mammary hamartoma (MH), present a review of the clinicopathological features of these lesions, and make some diagnostic considerations. The tumour consisted of a well-circumscribed nodule. MFB component comprised about fifty percent of the lesion and was made up of bipolar spindle cells arranged in fascicular clusters separated by bands of hyalinized collagen. There were fat cells and several residual hamartoma glands intermingled and distorted in MFB area. MFB component was positive for Desmin, CD34, bcl-2, and Calponin. To the best of our knowledge, MFB has not been reported in MH, neither has any of the reports described mammary glands joined within MFB. PMID:21151720

  9. Adenocarcinoma arising in warthin tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamide; Öztarakçi, Hüseyin; Sayar, Çağdaş; Ağirbaş, Şule

    2012-01-01

    Warthin tumor is a well-defined benign salivary gland neoplasm consisting of both epithelial and lymphoid components. The tumor is the second most common benign tumor next to pleomorphic adenoma. We present a case of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise classified, arising in unilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland in a 63-year-old male patient. Carcinomas arising in or from the epithelial component of a preexisting parotid Warthin tumor are rare and differential diagnosis of metastasis from an adenocarcinoma in Warthin tumor is important. The patient underwent a complete and thorough work-up, and no other primary malignant lesion was found. No other primary malignant lesion had manifested at the last one year follow-up period.

  10. Solitary Osteochondroma Arising from Cervical Spina Bifida Occulta

    PubMed Central

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina. PMID:24383028

  11. Nasal solitary fibrous tumor arising from the anterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David L; Moe, Kris S

    2004-11-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal, spindle cell neoplasm that was originally found in pleural tissue. Recently, however, numerous extrapleural sites have been discovered, including the nasal cavity. We present the 15th case of a nasal SFT, and the first such tumor to arise from the cribriform plate and extend into the anterior cranial fossa. In addition to highlighting the aggressive nature of this tumor, we review its clinical features and the diagnostic difficulties posed by SFT.

  12. Papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Takeda, Eizo; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shimono, Masaki; Inoue, Takashi

    2003-11-01

    We report a rare case of a papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip. This tumor was not distinctly encapsulated and had proliferated replacing the ductal epithelium. Mast cells were found not only in the stroma but also in the oncocytic epithelial layer. There was a strong immunoreaction with mitochondrial antibody in the epithelial layer. Only one case (0.9%) of papillary cystadenoma has occurred among the 110 benign intraoral salivary gland tumors seen in our hospital from 1966 through September 2003.

  13. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action. PMID:25383034

  14. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact–friction contact events in rotating machinery

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact–friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action. PMID:25383034

  15. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action.

  16. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  18. Effect of atropine on oral clearance of a radiolabeled sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    LaForce, F.M.; Thompson, B.; Trow, R.

    1984-11-01

    Physical clearance is an important oral defense mechanism against gram-negative rods. The authors describe a simple technique that uses commercially available technetium-99m sulfur colloid to measure oral clearance. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was sprayed into the mouth, and clearance was measured as the percent decrease in radiolabel counts over 2 hours using a radioisotope camera. Results using this technique compared favorably with clearance data using Tc-99m radiolabeled Escherichia coli. Atropine significantly decreased oral clearance rates of the colloid. Decreased clearance may be an important risk factor in the development of gram-negative rod colonization in hospitalized patients. 15 references, 3 figures.

  19. Neither Classical nor Alternative Macrophage Activation Is Required for Pneumocystis Clearance during Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo-Qian; Wang, Jing; Hoy, Zachary; Keegan, Achsah; Bhagwat, Samir; Gigliotti, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis is a respiratory fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia [PcP]) in immunocompromised patients. Alveolar macrophages are critical effectors for CD4+ T cell-dependent clearance of Pneumocystis, and previous studies found that alternative macrophage activation accelerates fungal clearance during PcP-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, the requirement for either classically or alternatively activated macrophages for Pneumocystis clearance has not been determined. Therefore, RAG2−/− mice lacking either the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) receptor (IFN-γR) or interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) were infected with Pneumocystis. These mice were then immune reconstituted with wild-type lymphocytes to preserve the normal T helper response while preventing downstream effects of Th1 or Th2 effector cytokines on macrophage polarization. As expected, RAG2−/− mice developed severe disease but effectively cleared Pneumocystis and resolved IRIS. Neither RAG/IFN-γR−/− nor RAG/IL-4Rα−/− mice displayed impaired Pneumocystis clearance. However, RAG/IFN-γR−/− mice developed a dysregulated immune response, with exacerbated IRIS and greater pulmonary function deficits than those in RAG2 and RAG/IL-4Rα−/− mice. RAG/IFN-γR−/− mice had elevated numbers of lung CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and NK cells but severely depressed numbers of lung CD8+ T suppressor cells. Impaired lung CD8+ T cell responses in RAG/IFN-γR−/− mice were associated with elevated lung IFN-γ levels, and neutralization of IFN-γ restored the CD8 response. These data demonstrate that restricting the ability of macrophages to polarize in response to Th1 or Th2 cytokines does not impair Pneumocystis clearance. However, a cell type-specific IFN-γ/IFN-γR-dependent mechanism regulates CD8+ T suppressor cell recruitment, limits immunopathogenesis, preserves lung function, and enhances the resolution of Pc

  20. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness?

    PubMed

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H

    1982-01-01

    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

  1. Metabolic clearance of recombinant human growth hormone in health and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Girard, J; Ritz, E; Mehls, O

    1994-01-01

    Despite the increasing therapeutic use of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), its metabolic clearance has not been investigated in detail. To evaluate the kinetics of rhGH as a possible function of GH plasma concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we investigated the steady state metabolic clearance rate (MCR), disappearance half-life, and apparent volume of distribution of rhGH at low and high physiological as well as supraphysiological plasma GH levels during pharmacological suppression of endogenous GH secretion in human subjects with normal and reduced renal function. GH in plasma and urine was determined by an immunoradiometric assay, and GFR by inulin clearance. In all subjects MCR decreased and plasma half-life increased with increasing plasma GH concentrations (P < 0.001). MCR of rhGH was approximately half in patients with chronic renal failure at each GH level and plasma half-life was increased by 25-50%. Allowing for the linear dependence of MCR on GFR and assuming single-compartment distribution, the estimated renal fraction of total MCR was 25-53 and 4-15% in controls and patients, respectively. Saturation of extrarenal disposal of GH was suggested by an inverse hyperbolic relationship between extrarenal MCR and plasma GH concentrations in all subjects. Fractional GH excretion was up to 1,000-fold higher in patients than in controls. We conclude that MCR of hGH is a function of plasma GH concentrations and GFR. Extrarenal elimination is saturable in the upper physiological range of GH concentrations, whereas renal MCR is independent of plasma GH levels. The kidney handles GH like a microprotein involving glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and urinary excretion. Images PMID:8132756

  2. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness?

    PubMed

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H

    1982-01-01

    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease. PMID:6172175

  3. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  4. Cafeteria diet inhibits insulin clearance by reduced insulin-degrading enzyme expression and mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Brandimarti, P; Costa-Júnior, J M; Ferreira, S M; Protzek, A O; Santos, G J; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Rezende, L F

    2013-11-01

    Insulin clearance plays a major role in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in physiological and/or pathological conditions, such as obesity-induced type 2 diabetes as well as diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate cafeteria diet-induced obesity-induced changes in insulin clearance and to explain the mechanisms underlying these possible changes. Female Swiss mice were fed either a standard chow diet (CTL) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 8 weeks, after which we performed glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, insulin dynamics, and insulin clearance tests. We then isolated pancreatic islets for ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as liver, gastrocnemius, visceral adipose tissue, and hypothalamus for subsequent protein analysis by western blot and determination of mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The cafeteria diet induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and increased insulin secretion and total insulin content. More importantly, mice that were fed a cafeteria diet demonstrated reduced insulin clearance and decay rate as well as reduced insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) protein and mRNA levels in liver and skeletal muscle compared with the control animals. Furthermore, the cafeteria diet reduced IDE expression and alternative splicing in the liver and skeletal muscle of mice. In conclusion, a cafeteria diet impairs glucose homeostasis by reducing insulin sensitivity, but it also reduces insulin clearance by reducing IDE expression and alternative splicing in mouse liver; however, whether this mechanism contributes to the glucose intolerance or helps to ameliorate it remains unclear.

  5. Pregnancy does not alter the metabolic clearance of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.K.; Ford, K.K.; Langman, C.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Increased circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) during pregnancy could be due to an increase in production or decrease in the metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D. To answer this question an isotope dilution method was used to determine the clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D in pregnant and aged-matched nonpregnant female rats. A bolus of 0.146 muCi 1,25(OH)2(3H)D3 was given to 60 pregnant and 60 aged-matched nonpregnant rats and the disappearance of the isotope was followed in these animals over the next 48 h. In 12 pregnant rats vs. 14 nonpregnant controls not injected with tracer, plasma calcium (9.6 +/- 0.41 vs. 10.7 +/- 0.17 mg/ml) and 25(OH)D (17.1 +/- 1.15 vs. 25.4 +/- 1.58 ng/ml) levels were significantly lower (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001), whereas plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels (110 +/- 16.1 pg/ml vs. 77 +/- 6.0 pg/ml) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). Clearance rates of 1,25(OH)2D of 25.8 +/- 1.31 microliters/min in pregnant rats and 20.2 20.2 +/- 1.38 microliters/min in nonpregnant aged-matched rats were not significantly different. Similarly, the apparent volume of distribution of 1,25(OH)2D in the pregnant rats (15 +/- 1.0 ml) was not significantly different from that in the nonpregnant control animals (18 +/- 2.1 ml). Production rates of.1,25(OH)2D were elevated in the pregnant rats (2.83 pg/min) compared with the nonpregnant controls (1.55 pg/min). In conclusion, the elevated maternal plasma 1,25(OH)2D level during pregnancy is a result of increased production and is not due to a decreased clearance.

  6. IL-10 neutralization promotes parasite clearance in splenic aspirate cells from patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shalini; Kumar, Rajiv; Maurya, Radheshyam; Nylén, Susanne; Ansari, Nasim; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam; Sacks, David

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the failure to contain the growth of Leishmania parasites in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are not understood. L donovani amastigotes were quantified in cultured splenic aspirate cells to assess the function of IL-10 in lesional tissue ex vivo. In 67 patients with active VL, IL-10 neutralization promoted parasite killing in 73% and complete clearance in 30%, while 18% had more parasites and 9% did not change. The splenic cells secreted increased levels of both tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interferon γ (IFNγ) under IL-10-neutralizing conditions. These findings provide direct support for targeting IL-10 as an approach to therapy in human VL. PMID:21881130

  7. A study of uranium lung clearance at a uranium processing plant.

    PubMed

    Barber, J M; Forrest, R D

    1995-05-01

    A study has been made of the retention of uranium in the lungs of persons exposed chronically to low levels of uranium aerosols at the Y-12 Plant. A new characterization of the workplace aerosols shows an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 8 microns to be representative of the uranium oxides handled at the Y-12 Plant. The usual ICRP respiratory-system model is employed in conjunction with bioassay data from worker exposures to deduce a new set of parameters to describe lung clearance of these aerosols. This new assessment leads to good agreement between in vivo estimates of uranium lung burdens. PMID:7730062

  8. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  9. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  10. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it...

  11. Decreased renal clearance of digoxin in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Naafs, M A; van der Hoek, C; van Duin, S; Koorevaar, G; Schopman, W; Silberbusch, J

    1985-01-01

    Renal digoxin clearance was compared in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation with well preserved cardiac function (n = 9; salt intake +/- 170 mmol daily) and patients with chronic congestive heart failure (n = 10; salt intake 50 mmol daily and maintenance treatment with diuretics). There was no difference between the groups concerning digoxin dosage, creatinine clearance, diuresis or sodium excretion in the urine. Digoxin clearance in chronic heart failure proved to be significantly lower than in atrial fibrillation (48 +/- 21 vs 71 +/- 36 ml X min-1, p less than 0.05), and Cdig/Ccreat was similarly reduced at 0.73 +/- 0.15 compared to 1.09 +/- 0.27 (p less than 0.005). Steady state serum digoxin concentration was significantly higher in patients with congestive heart failure (1.44 +/- 0.47 vs 0.87 +/- 0.33 micrograms X 1(-1), p less than 0.01). Chronic congestive heart failure is a state with reduced digoxin clearance by the kidney, which could lead to digoxin intoxication not explicable by overdose, reduced renal function or the effect of interacting drugs. PMID:4007028

  12. 11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. MODEL 200 CRANE, GENERAL ARRANGEMENT & CLEARANCES. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by "Gould." Sheet A2, No. 6365. Scale not given. August 10, 1942. "Proposal no. 318." blueline print - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  13. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices,...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330 Section 56.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices,...

  15. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-12 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS...

  16. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  17. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R James; Whelan, Eoin C; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-19

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1) and 1.5 × 10(8) M(-1) cm(-1) respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract. PMID:27378394

  18. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9306 - Warning devices for restricted clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warning devices for restricted clearances. 57.9306 Section 57.9306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  3. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Business clearance review. 801.602-76 Section 801.602-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  4. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...: Unclassified. SYSTEM LOCATION: Department of State, 301 4th St., SW., Room 750 Washington, DC 20547. CATEGORIES... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records Summary: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to...

  5. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M‑1 cm‑1 and 1.5 × 108 M‑1 cm‑1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  6. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... code for the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards Reporting System if access to nuclear..., if applicable, appointment of a Materials Control and Accountability Representative; and (7) Access... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facility clearance....

  7. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question and, secondarily, the prevention of accidents resulting from the sale and/or use of the scrap...

  8. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  10. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor personnel. 2452.237-75 Section 2452.237-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...). The Contractor shall provide the GTR with the names and Social Security numbers of all such...

  11. 77 FR 22831 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... decision at 76 FR 54700. The current information collection request (ICR) requests approval for the public... for Emergency Clearance When we originally published the banning decision rules at 76 FR 54700, the..., and other incoming documents, or to fulfill requests for reports. This would bottleneck or...

  12. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  14. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  15. 33 CFR 151.1508 - Revocation of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1508 Revocation of clearance. A COTP may request the District Director of Customs...

  16. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-13 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for reasons of safety of navigation, the District Commander may require or authorize the installation...

  17. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repaired. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-14 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for reasons of safety of navigation, the District Commander may require or authorize the installation...

  18. The Genesis and Justification of Forms Clearance Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Joseph W.; Wallman, Katherine K.

    The central reports clearance authority of the Federal Government is a legislatively sanctioned mechanism for applying constraints on the conduct of statistical and other data gathering activities by Federal Departments and agencies and other research parties funded by Federal government contracts. General recommendations for improving the overall…

  19. Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Model 200 crane, general arrangement & clearances. Colby Steel & Engineering Company, Vancouver B.C., Seattle, New York. Two elevations and cab plan. No architect noted, drawn by Gould. Sheet A2, no 6365. Scaled not given. August 10, 1942. Proposal no. 318. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Description of Petition for Rulemaking In its Petition for Rulemaking dated... meeting notice (78 FR 49543, 49544, August 14, 2013) and copy of Task 13-10, Recommendation to Establish... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft)...

  1. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    PubMed

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease. PMID:22034769

  2. Seal Investigations of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Taylor, Shawn; Oswald, Jay; DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve upon current thermal active clearance control methods, a first generation, fast-acting mechanically actuated, active clearance control system has been designed and installed into a non-rotating test rig. In order to harvest the benefit of tighter blade tip clearances, low-leakage seals are required for the actuated carrier segments of the seal shroud to prevent excessive leakage of compressor discharge (P3) cooling air. The test rig was designed and fabricated to facilitate the evaluation of these types of seals, identify seal leakage sources, and test other active clearance control system concepts. The objective of this paper is to present both experimental and analytical investigations into the nature of the face-seal to seal-carrier interface. Finite element analyses were used to examine face seal contact pressures and edge-loading under multiple loading conditions, varied E-seal positions and two new face seal heights. The analyses indicated that moving the E-seal inward radially and reducing face seal height would lead to more uniform contact conditions between the face seal and the carriers. Lab testing confirmed that moving the balance diameter inward radially caused a decrease in overall system leakage.

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  5. Influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Gao, B.; Yang, L.; Du, W. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Computing models are always simplified to save the computing resources and time. Particularly, the clearance that between impeller and pump casing is always ignored. But the completer model is, the more precise result of numerical simulation is in theory. This paper study the influence of clearance model on numerical simulation of centrifugal pump. We present such influence via comparing performance, flow characteristic and pressure pulsation of two cases that the one of two cases is the model pump with clearance and the other is not. And the results show that the head decreases and power increases so that efficiency decreases after computing with front and back cavities. Then no-leakage model would improve absolute velocity magnitude in order to reach the rated flow rate. Finally, more disturbance induced by front cavity flow and wear-ring flow would change the pressure pulsation of impeller and volute. The performance of clearance flow is important for the whole pump in performance, flow characteristic, pressure pulsation and other respects.

  6. OMB Forms Clearance: Restrictions on Educational Research Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.

    Forms Clearance standards and regulations are used by the Office of Management and Budget and by the Education Division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in order to upgrade the quality of federal data collection, to minimize cost, minimize reporting burden, maximize utility, and to protect the privacy rights of respondents.…

  7. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  8. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  9. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  10. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  11. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 14.93 or § 14.94, or penalties assessed against the importer or exporter under 50 CFR part 11. This... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53 Section 14.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  13. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING IN AND RECEIVING INFORMATION FROM THE NATIONAL DRIVER REGISTER PROBLEM DRIVER POINTER SYSTEM Pt....

  15. 19 CFR 122.158 - Other entry and clearance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other entry and clearance requirements. 122.158 Section 122.158 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.158 Other entry...

  16. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-23 Tailshaft clearance... the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is... propelling machinery is located aft, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when weardown is 1.6...

  17. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-23 Tailshaft clearance... the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is... propelling machinery is located aft, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when weardown is 1.6...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Pt. 512, App. F Appendix F to...

  19. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.23 Examination and clearance of baggage. (a) Articles free of duty. The... United States may examine and pass, without limitation as to value, the following articles in such baggage or otherwise accompanying such person: (1) All articles which are for the personal or...

  20. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.23 Examination and clearance of baggage. (a) Articles free of duty. The... United States may examine and pass, without limitation as to value, the following articles in such baggage or otherwise accompanying such person: (1) All articles which are for the personal or...

  1. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. Here we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, despite the fact that MRSA super-infection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared to mice infected with bacteria alone, post-influenza MRSA infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for ROS production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to WT animals, gp91phox−/− mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91phox+/− mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection. PMID:24563256

  2. The diabetes-susceptible gene SLC30A8/ZnT8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Motoyuki; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hara, Akemi; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Kawaguchi, Minako; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takeshi; Fukunaka, Ayako; Shimizu, Tomoaki; Mita, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Akio; Imaizumi, Mica O.; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Hojyo, Shintaro; Fukada, Toshiyuki; Kawauchi, Takeshi; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Hirano, Toshio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Watada, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated that common variants of solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8), which delivers zinc ion from the cytoplasm into insulin granules. Although it is well known that insulin granules contain high amounts of zinc, the physiological role of secreted zinc remains elusive. In this study, we generated mice with β cell–specific Slc30a8 deficiency (ZnT8KO mice) and demonstrated an unexpected functional linkage between Slc30a8 deletion and hepatic insulin clearance. The ZnT8KO mice had low peripheral blood insulin levels, despite insulin hypersecretion from pancreatic β cells. We also demonstrated that a substantial amount of the hypersecreted insulin was degraded during its first passage through the liver. Consistent with these findings, ZnT8KO mice and human individuals carrying rs13266634, a major risk allele of SLC30A8, exhibited increased insulin clearance, as assessed by c-peptide/insulin ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrated that zinc secreted in concert with insulin suppressed hepatic insulin clearance by inhibiting clathrin-dependent insulin endocytosis. Our results indicate that SLC30A8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance and that genetic dysregulation of this system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24051378

  3. Uses of ANSI/HPS N13.12-1999, "Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance" and Comparison with Existing Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Stansbury, Paul S.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2001-04-30

    In August of 1999, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved a standard for clearance of materials contaminated with residual levels of radioactivity. "Clearance," as used in the standard, means the movement of material from the control of a regulatory agency to a use or disposition that has no further regulatory controls of any kind. The standard gives derived screening levels (DSLs) in Bq/g and Bq/cm2 for 50 radionuclides. Items or materials with residual surface and volume radioactivity levels below the DSLs can be cleared, that is, managed without regard to their residual radioactivity. Since federal agencies are to use voluntary, industry standards developed by the private sector whenever possible, the standard should play an important role in DOE's regulatory process. The thrust of this report is to explain the standard, make simple observations on its usefulness to DOE, and to explore uses of the standard within DOE facilities beyond the clearance of radioactive materials.

  4. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-03-19

    Before researchers apply nanomaterials (NMs) in biomedicine, they need to understand the blood circulation and clearance profile of these materials in vivo. These qualities determine the balance between nanomaterial-induced activity and unwanted toxicity. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics: they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and their highly active contact interfaces exhibit diverse functionalities. Any new and unexpected circulation features and clearance patterns are of great concern in toxicological studies and pharmaceutical screens. A number of studies have reported that NMs can enter the bloodstream directly during their application or indirectly via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Due to the small size of NMs, the blood can then transport them throughout the circulation and to many organs where they can be stored. In this Account, we discuss the blood circulation and organ clearance patterns of NMs in the lung, liver, and kidney. The circulation of NMs in bloodstream is critical for delivery of inhalable NMs to extrapulmonary organs, the delivery of injectable NMs, the dynamics of tissue redistribution, and the overall targeting of drug carriers to specific cells and organs. The lung, liver, and kidney are the major distribution sites and target organs for NMs exposure, and the clearance patterns of NMs in these organs are critical for understanding the in vivo fate of NMs. Current studies suggest that multiple factors control the circulation and organ clearance of NMs. The size, shape, surface charge, surface functional groups, and aspect ratio of NMs as well as tissue microstructures strongly influence the circulation of NMs in bloodstream, their site-specific extravasation, and their clearance profiles within organs. Therefore structure design and surface modification can improve biocompatibility, regulate the in vivo metabolism, and reduce the toxicity of NMs. The biophysicochemical interactions

  5. Adaptation of a single injection clearance method to physiological and pathophysiological facts. A review of data obtained in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, M; Schafroth, M; Bretscher, D; Schneider, A; Oetliker, O

    1977-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of 395 51Chromiumethylenediaminotetraacetate single injection clearances performed in infants and children is presented. In 61% of infants and 30% of the children the clearance values were calculated on the basis of a plasma disappearance half time of the reference substance, which was longer than the standard study, i.e. on the basis of extrapolated data. Plasma creatinine and urea levels were found to be appropriate indicators for predicting the plasma disappearance half time of the marker substance. 14 additional patients were studied prospectively with a duration of the study predicted by means of the plasma creatinine and urea levels. In these patients, separate determinations of the clearances using either the data obtained during the standard time of procedure only, or the data of the entire study, clearly demonstrated that the clearances obtained by means of the standard procedure overestimated glomerular filtration rate. The analysis of the data in infants show that the plasma urea level is a reasonably good indicator for predicting the time schedule of the study whereas plasma creatinine should not be used. Additionally the retrospective data indicate that a prolongation of the study should be recommended in all infants. This study demonstrates the necessity and offers means of adapting the time schedule of isotope single injection clearances to physiological and pathophysiological facts.

  6. Pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours arising from the pleura.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, A; Kilic, D; Hatipoglu, A; Bakirci, T; Bilezikci, B

    2006-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is one of the rare tumours which arise from visceral pleura. Klemperer and Rabin first described SFT as a distinct clinical entity among primary pleural tumoUrs in 1931. Approximately 820 cases have been reported in literature to date. The management of patients with SFT is complete resection of the tumour and follow up of the patient to detect any possible late recurrence. In the present paper, we report two cases of pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura that appeared as a wandering chest nodule to which surgical resection undertaken at our hospital. The aim is to summarise our experience in the management of solitary fibrous tumour.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor arising from the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. To our knowledge, only 30 cases of SFTs in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have been reported in the literature. We describe an SFT that arose from the right sphenoid sinus and extended to the nasal cavity and epipharynx. The tumor was completely removed by endoscopic sinus surgery without complication. The patient is taking an uneventful course without any evidence of recurrence of the disease 8 months after surgery now.

  8. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.

    1984-03-01

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank. PMID:18094473

  10. Retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Sala, F; Bouillane, P J; Francisci, M P; Diaz, F; Lena, P; Kreitmann, P; Batt, M

    2001-11-01

    This report describes a novel technique used for management of retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. The procedure consists of endoaortic exclusion of the aneurysmal neck, using a prosthetic patch after sternotomy during circulatory arrest, and antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia. The advantages of this technique are avoidance of hemorrhagic complications during clamping of the aneurysmal neck, limiting of the extent of dissection of the aortic arch, and elimination of the risk of inadvertent left recurrent nerve paralysis. Antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia provides good cerebral protection and decreases the duration and consequences of extracorporeal circulation.

  11. Endoscopic resection of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Jung, Bong Jin; Rha, Ki Sang; Park, Chan Ii

    2005-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumor of the salivary glands. It has rarely been reported arising in the nasopharynx. A pleomorphic adenoma originating from the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx was found in a 61-year-old female who presented with nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. It was successfully removed by combined transnasal and transoral surgery under endoscopic visualization. Endoscope-guided surgery may be helpful for the complete resection of benign nasopharyngeal tumors whilst minimizing injury to the Eustachian tube openings or velopharynx.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  13. CAP-D3 Promotes Bacterial Clearance in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Repressing Expression of Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Jacqueline R.; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Deutschman, Emily; Kim, Yeojung; West, Gail; Sadler, Tammy; Stylianou, Eleni; Krokowski, Dawid; Hatzoglou, Maria; de la Motte, Carol; Rubin, Brian P.; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Defects in colonic epithelial barrier defenses are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The proteins that regulate bacterial clearance in the colonic epithelium have not been completely identified. The chromosome-associated protein D3 (dCAP-D3), regulates responses to bacterial infection. We examined whether CAP-D3 promotes bacterial clearance in human colonic epithelium. METHODS Clearance of Salmonella or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82 was assessed by gentamycin protection assays in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressing small hairpin RNAs against CAP-D3. We used immunoblot assays to measure levels of CAP-D3 in colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC and healthy individuals (controls). RNA sequencing identified genes activated by CAP-D3. We analyzed the roles of CAP-D3 target genes in bacterial clearance using gentamycin protection and immunofluorescence assays and studies with pharmacologic inhibitors. RESULTS CAP-D3 expression was reduced in colonic epithelial cells from patients with active UC. Reduced CAP-D3 expression decreased autophagy and impaired intracellular bacterial clearance by HT-29 and Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells. Lower levels of CAP-D3 increased transcription of genes encoding SLC7A5 and SLC3A2, whose products heterodimerize to form an amino acid transporter in HT-29 cells following bacterial infection; levels of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 were increased in tissues from patients with UC, compared with controls. Reduced CAP-D3 in HT-29 cells resulted in earlier recruitment of SLC7A5 to Salmonella-containing vacuoles, increased activity of mTORC1, and increased survival of bacteria. Inhibition of SLC7A5–SLC3A2 or mTORC1 activity rescued the bacterial clearance defects of CAP-D3– deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS CAP-D3 downregulates transcription of genes that encode amino acid transporters (SLC7A5 and SLC3A2) to promote bacterial autophagy by colon epithelial cells. Levels of CAP-D3 protein are reduced in patients with

  14. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.66 Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  15. 75 FR 53012 - Form Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for Extension of Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... be obtained upon written request to the Selective Service System, Reports Clearance Officer, 1515... Selective Service System, Reports Clearance Officer, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia...

  16. 77 FR 69658 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... approximately 4,350 respondents will be involved in exploratory, field test, pilot, cognitive, and focus group work conducted under this clearance over the requested 3-year clearance period. The average...

  17. 76 FR 49838 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

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  18. 76 FR 45573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: Office of the... Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Health Information Technology Research Center survey. Abstract:...

  19. 77 FR 19673 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To Conduct Voluntary Customer/Partner...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance To... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Generic Clearance to Conduct... strategy in ] accomplishing reinvention goals is the ability to periodically receive input and...

  20. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (P< .001). Repeated measures pairwise correlation between any of the methods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies.