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Sample records for clearance levels arising

  1. Proficiency testing criteria for clearance level in solid waste gamma measurement in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chiu, Huang-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the measurement quality for clearance level in solid waste material, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) established the criteria for proficiency testing of clearance level measurement. INER and the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) organized the Technique Committee Meeting twice to discuss these criteria in 2011. The participating laboratories must completely conform to the ISO/IEC 17025, and they also must meet the requirements of the criteria. According to the criteria, the participating laboratories analyzed the minimum detectable amount (MDA) and that should be less than 20% of the clearance level (AMDA) given in the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) "Regulations on Clearance Level for Radioactive Waste Management". The testing results should conform to the deviation and traceability requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Creatinine clearance and contrast nephropathy in patients with normal creatinine levels].

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Carda, Rocío; Manzano, María del C; Ruiz-Mateos, Borja; García-Rubira, Juan C; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Macaya, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    The main risk factor for contrast nephropathy is the presence of poor renal function. Plasma creatinine level is not a reliable measure of renal function as its value could lie within the normal range despite the presence of significant nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the creatinine clearance rate as a predictor of contrast nephropathy in patients with a normal plasma creatinine level. The study included 273 consecutive patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) and a normal plasma creatinine level at admission who underwent coronary angiography. Patients who developed contrast nephropathy had a lower creatinine clearance rate at admission (66.3 mL/min vs. 83.4 mL/min; P<.001). A creatinine clearance rate < 80 mL/min had a sensitivity of 81% for predicting contrast nephropathy. Creatinine clearance should be measured routinely in patients with NSTEACS who are scheduled for coronary angiography.

  3. Cervical spine clearance protocols in Level I, II, and III trauma centers in California.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Murat; Theologis, Alexander A; Dionisio, Robert; Mackersie, Robert; McClellan, R Trigg

    2015-03-01

    Cervical spine clearance protocols were developed to standardize the clearance of the cervical spine after blunt trauma and prevent secondary neurologic injuries. The degree of incorporation of evidence-based guidelines into protocols at trauma centers in California is unknown. To evaluate the cervical spine clearance protocols in all trauma centers of California. An observational cross-sectional study. Included from Level I, II, III trauma centers in California. The self-reported outcomes of each trauma center's cervical spine clearance protocols were assessed. Level I (n=15), II (n=30), and III (n=11) trauma centers in California were contacted. Each available protocol was reviewed for four scenarios: clearing the asymptomatic patient, the initial imaging modality used in patients not amenable to clinical clearance, and the management strategies for patients with persistent neck pain with a negative computed tomography (CT) scan and those who are obtunded. Results were compared with the 2009 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) cervical spine clearance guidelines. The response rate was 96%. Sixty-three percent of California's trauma centers (Level I, 93%; Level II, 60%; Level III, 27%) had written cervical spine clearance protocols. For asymptomatic patients, 83% of Level I and 61% of Level II centers used National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study criteria with/without painless range of motion. For those requiring imaging, 67% of Level I and 56% of Level II centers stated a CT scan should be the first line of imaging. For obtunded patients and patients with persistent neck pain and a negative CT scan, more than 90% of Level I and more than 70% of Level II trauma centers incorporated the 2009 EAST recommendations. No institution recommended passive flexion-extension radiographs for the obtunded patient. Written cervical spine clearance protocols exist in 63% of California's trauma centers and only 51% of the centers have protocols that

  4. [Manual airway clearance techniques in adults and adolescents: What level of evidence?

    PubMed

    Cabillic, Michel; Gouilly, Pascal; Reychler, Gregory

    2016-04-13

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to grade the levels of evidence of the most widely used manual airway clearance techniques. A literature search was conducted over the period 1995-2014 from the Medline, PEDro, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, REEDOC and kinedoc databases, with the following keywords: "postural drainage", "manual vibrations", "manual chest percussion", "directed cough", "increased expiratory flow", "ELTGOL", "autogenic drainage" and "active cycle of breathing technique". Two-hundred and fifty-six articles were identified. After removing duplicates and reading the titles and abstracts, 63 articles were selected, including 9 systematic reviews. This work highlights the lack of useful scientific data and the difficulty of determining levels of evidence for manual airway clearance techniques. Techniques were assessed principally with patients with sputum production (cystic fibrosis, DDB, COPD, etc.). It also shows the limited pertinence of outcome measures to quantify congestion and hence the efficacy of airway clearance techniques. The 1994 consensus conference summary table classifying airway clearance techniques according to physical mechanism provides an interesting tool for assessment, grouping together techniques having identical mechanisms of action. From the findings of the present systematic review, it appears that only ELTGOL, autogenic drainage and ACBT present levels of evidence "B". All other techniques have lower levels of evidence. II. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  6. Contamination levels and doses to staff arising from the use of Technegas.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J J; Anderson, P; James, J M; Shields, R A; Prescott, M C

    1994-06-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the levels of airborne activity and contamination arising from Technegas ventilation scintigraphy and to estimate doses to staff. The maximum air concentration was below the 99Tcm-derived air concentration limit and considerably lower than reported levels for conventional radioaerosols. The level of contamination on staff gloves and aprons exceeded the body surface contamination limit in 63 and 9% of cases, respectively. Levels of contamination and air concentration were generally higher if the patient had difficulty with the administration procedure. Room surface contamination was very low. In 24% of cases activity was detectable on staff (either in the hair or nose) using gamma camera imaging. Annual skin doses from these sources are calculated to be below the limit for deterministic effects. Whole body effective doses are calculated to be similar to those received by staff performing other nuclear medicine studies. However, care should be exercised to keep exposure from both airborne and fixed sources to a minimum and a regular review of contamination levels is recommended. We recommend the wearing of gloves for all Technegas administrations and disposable hats and masks may be considered in certain cases.

  7. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  8. Prospective use of xenon /sup 133/Xe clearance for amputation level selection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Henry, R.E.; Malone, J.M.; Daly, M.J.; Patton, D.; Childers, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Xenon /sup 133/Xe clearance was used to select the most distal amputation level that would allow sufficient blood flow for healing. Capillary blood flow was first measured at the most distal potential amputation level, then at successive proximal levels until an amputation site was found that had a capillary skin blood flow rate greater than or equal to 2.6 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Xenon /sup 133/Xe in saline was injected intracutaneously at each level, and flow rates were determined using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer system programmed for the Ketty-Schmidt formula modified for capillary blood flow. There were 45 cases, including one toes, six transmetatarsal, five Syme's, 25 below-knee, four knee disarticulation, three above-knee, and one hip disarticulation amputation. All amputations in patients with flow rates exceeding 2.4 mL/min/100 g of tissue healed, with two exceptions.

  9. Serum leptin level has a positive correlation with BMI and creatinine clearance in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Seirafian, S; Momeni, A; Taheri, S; Mortazavi, M; Paknahad, Z

    2012-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were enrolled from October 2007 to February 2008. Serum levels of leptin, albumin, triglyceride, dialysis adequacy (total KT/V), renal creatinine clearance (Cr Cl), mid arm circumference and demographic findings were measured in all patients. The mean age of patients was 53±14.76. The history of hemodialysis was seen in 23 patients. Mean serum leptin level in women and men were 27±23µg/l and 16±13µg/l, respectively. A significant correlation of serum leptin level with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and renal Cr Cl (p<0.001) was found. There was no significant correlation of serum leptin level with KT/V, duration of renal failure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and mid arm circumference (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that serum leptin level has a direct positive correlation with renal Cr Cl in CAPD patients. This may explain the increase in mortality in patients with lower serum leptin levels (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 25).

  10. High-Level Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation Used to Treat Intractable Pain Arising from Transverse Myelitis Caused by Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Kyung; Hong, Seok Ho

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treatment of various chronic painful conditions is well established. Very few reports have documented the use of SCS for treatment of chronic pain after spinal cord injury. We present a case showing a good outcome after such treatment, and suggest that high cervical stimulation may be efficacious. A 53-year-old male underwent SCS on the C1-3 level for treatment of intractable neuropathic pain below the T3 level, and in the upper extremities, arising from spinal cord injury resulting from transverse myelitis caused by schistosomiasis. High cervical SCS significantly improved the pain in the upper extremities and at the T3-T10 dermatome level. The patient continues to report excellent pain relief 9 months later. The present case suggests that high cervical stimulation may improve chronic pain in the upper extremities and the T3-T10 dermatome level arising from spinal cord injury. PMID:20224718

  11. Parkin clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria regulates ROS levels and increases survival of human chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M Y; Khan, N M; Ahmad, I; Haqqi, T M

    2017-08-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chondrocyte death are important contributors to the development and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we determined the expression and role of Parkin in the clearance of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions. Human chondrocytes were from the unaffected area of knee OA cartilage (n = 12) and were stimulated with IL-1β to mimic pathological conditions. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ROS levels were determined using specific dyes and flow cytometry. Autophagy was determined by Western blotting for ATG5, Beclin1, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. siRNA, wild-type and mutant Parkin plasmids were transfected using Amaxa system. Apoptosis was determined by PI staining of chondrocytes and TUNEL assay. IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes showed high levels of ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane damage, accumulation of damaged mitochondria and higher incidence of apoptosis. IL-1β stimulation of chondrocytes with depleted Parkin expression resulted in sustained high levels of ROS, accumulation of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria and enhanced apoptosis. Parkin translocation to depolarized/damaged mitochondria and recruitment of p62/SQSTM1 was required for the elimination of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes. Importantly we demonstrate that Parkin elimination of depolarized/damaged mitochondria required the Parkin ubiquitin ligase activity and resulted in reduced ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis in OA chondrocytes under pathological conditions. Our data demonstrates that Parkin functions to eliminate depolarized/damaged mitochondria in chondrocytes which is necessary for mitochondrial quality control, regulation of ROS levels and chondrocyte survival under pathological conditions

  12. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  13. Multi-Level Management and Literacy: Issues Arising from the Catch Up Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clipson-Boyles, Suzi; Blandford, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Explores whether primary schoolchildren's success in reading and writing depends on managing of literacy teaching at different levels, not simply the underlying pedagogic principles. Communication breakdowns in England's Catch Up Project illustrate how increasingly complex variables become in a top-down approach. (Contains 38 references.) (MLH)

  14. Modeling Abrupt Change in Global Sea Level Arising from Ocean - Ice-Sheet Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, David M

    2011-09-24

    It is proposed to develop, validate, and apply a coupled ocean ice-sheet model to simulate possible, abrupt future change in global sea level. This research is to be carried out collaboratively between an academic institute and a Department of Energy Laboratory (DOE), namely, the PI and a graduate student at New York University (NYU) and climate model researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The NYU contribution is mainly in the area of incorporating new physical processes into the model, while the LANL efforts are focused on improved numerics and overall model development. NYU and LANL will work together on applying the model to a variety of modeling scenarios of recent past and possible near-future abrupt change to the configuration of the periphery of the major ice sheets. The project's ultimate goal is to provide a robust, accurate prediction of future global sea level change, a feat that no fully-coupled climate model is currently capable of producing. This proposal seeks to advance that ultimate goal by developing, validating, and applying a regional model that can simulate the detailed processes involved in sea-level change due to ocean ice-sheet interaction. Directly modeling ocean ice-sheet processes in a fully-coupled global climate model is not a feasible activity at present given the near-complete absence of development of any such causal mechanism in these models to date.

  15. High serum levels of soluble Fas (sFas) in CKD patients: effects of renal clearance, reabsorption and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dalboni, M A; Cenedeze, M A; Manfredi, S R; Cruz Andreoli, M C; Pavao Dos Santos, O; Canziani, M E; Boim, M A; Goes, M A; Draibe, S A; Balakrishnan, V; Cendoroglo, M

    2008-05-01

    Increased serum concentrations of soluble Fas (sFas) have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about the renal clearance of sFas, whether sFas is reabsorbed in the renal tubules, or the behavior of sFas synthesis in CKD. We studied 69 patients with CKD (60+/-15 years old, creatinine clearance 37+19 ml/min/1.73 m2) and 14 healthy subjects (61+/-17 years, creatinine clearance 79+/-24 ml/min/1.73 m2). ELISA was used to measure the levels of sFas (pg/mL) and retinol binding protein (RBP - mg/L). RT-PCR was used to quantify sFasmRNA of leukocytes. Serum sFas levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD (2781+/-1214 vs. 2196+/-773, p=0.02). The concentrations of sFas in 24-hour urine samples (23+/-27 vs. 40+/-17, p=0.006) and sFas Clearance (0.019+/-0.022 vs. 0.036+/-0.020, p=0.01) were significantly lower in patients with CKD. sFas clearance correlated with creatinine clearance (r=0.25, p=0.02). Urine concentrations of RBP correlated with sFas concentrations in the urine (r=0.80, p<0.001). sFasmRNA were higher in patients with CKD (3.9+/-1.8 vs. 2.5+/-0.9, p<0.001). In CKD patients, the decrease in renal function is followed by a decrease in sFas clearance and an increase in serum sFas. In patients with proximal tubule dysfunction (high urinary RBP concentrations), urinary sFas is also increased, suggesting that sFas is reabsorbed by the proximal tubule. It is possible that an increase in sFas synthesis also contributes to the increase of serum sFas concentrations in uremia.

  16. Multi-Level Interactions Arising from Herbivory: A Simulation Analysis of Deciduous Forests Utilizing Foret.

    PubMed

    Dyer, M I; Shugart, H H

    1992-11-01

    We examined potential effects of herbivory on temperate forest ecosystems using FORET, a forest succession simulation model with the capacity for treating various hierarchical levels for long time periods. Two species of trees were chosen for evaluating herbivory effects: white oak (Quercus alba), a relatively slow-growing shade-tolerant species, and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), a fast-growing shade-intolerant species. Both are dominants in the Southeastern U.S. forest system selected as a basis for this study. The study focused on four hierarchical levels, covering individual, phenotypic, interspecific, and community interactions. Simulations of herbivory were arrived at by stochastically varying annual incidence that herbivores were present on each simulation plot over a 500-yr period, and by modifying the proportion of energy allocated to either tree growth, or to its defense from herbivore attack. Two hypothetical tree phenotypes were considered, one that allocated specified amounts of energy to herbivore defense mechanisms at all times, and the other that made the allocation only when herbivores were present according to the stochastic determination made for a specific study period. Thus, one phenotype was fixed in its life history strategy; the other was given a facultative strategy where it switched its growth and defense tactics as a function of variation in herbivore presence. The results of the simulations suggest how deciduous forests may respond to long-term variations in the intensity of herbivore stress on two dominant tree species, and show the importance of hierarchical relationships within the community. White oak tended to show a greater sensitivity to interspecific interactions; tulip poplar showed a higher sensitivity to intraspecific interactions. Changes in growth rates associated with the switching strategies (an ultimate factor) were more important in answering variations in productivity than was impact imparted by annual changes

  17. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF.

  18. [Current problems arising from not having biosafety level 4 laboratories in Japan--qualitative study of infectious disease experts].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2009-09-01

    No public consensus exists yet on handling Biosafety Level 4 agents and no laboratory is operational at BSL4 in Japan. A discussion that includes neighboring residents and experts should be initiated to communicate risks. In this article, we present the current situation and prioritize problems we presently face. A three-stage Delphi survey was conducted. The subjects were twenty-two persons with extensive experience and knowledge of infectious diseases. Seven projections and issues were made with regard to the problems arising from the lack of an operational BSL4 laboratory. These were tabulated by the KJ method. The top seven projections were scored, such that the top received 7 points and the last received 1 point. A total of 51 projections were obtained for the first part of the survey, 39 for the second, and 29 for the last. The projection with the highest score was that it is impossible to cope with newly emerging infectious diseases. The second was that complete diagnoses are impossible without a BSL4 laboratory. All projections and issues were divided into the following four main groups: issues for researchers and laboratory staff, clinical practice and research on BSL4 agents, domestic and global security, and Japan's international position. We clarified possible problem arising from not having BSL4 laboratories in Japan. The identification of projections by the Delphi survey in this study should be considered as one of many attempts to develop effective risk communication strategies.

  19. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J.

    2011-08-02

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

  1. MINEFIELD CLEARANCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ACCURACY, DETONATIONS, EMPLACEMENT, ENEMY, EXPLOSIONS, GUNFIRE, MINE CLEARANCE , MINEFIELDS, MINES(ORDNANCE), RECIPROCATING ENGINES, RELIABILITY, SYNCHRONISM, TRANSVERSE, VELOCITY, VERTICAL ORIENTATION, VULNERABILITY.

  2. Testing and Performance Validation of a Shielded Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor Designed for the Measurement of Low Level Waste-13043

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Burke, Kevin J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Beaven, Graham; Spence, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a shielded waste segregation and clearance monitor designed for the measurement of low-density low-level waste (LLW). The monitor is made of a measurement chamber surrounded by detectors and a shielded outer frame. The shielded chamber consists of a steel frame, which contains typically 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) of lead and 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of steel shielding. Inside the shielding are plastic scintillator panels, which serve as gross gamma ray detectors. The detector panels, with embedded photomultipliers, completely surround the internal measurement chamber on all 6 sides. Care has been taken to distribute the plastic scintillator detectors in order to optimise both the efficiency for gamma ray detection and at the same time achieve a volumetric sensitivity, which is as uniform as possible. A common high voltage power supply provides the bias voltage for each of the six photomultipliers. The voltage signals arising from the detectors and photomultipliers are amplified by six sensitive amplifiers. Each amplifier incorporates a single channel analyser with both upper and lower thresholds and the digitised counts from each detector are recorded on six scalars. Operation of the device is by means of a microprocessor from which the scalars are controlled. An internal load cell linked to the microprocessor determines the weight of the waste object, and this information is used to calculate the specific activity of the waste. The monitor makes background measurements when the shielded door is closed and a sample, usually a bag of low-density waste, is not present in the measurement chamber. Measurements of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of an earlier large volume prototype instrument are reported as part of the development of the Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor (WSCM) described in the paper. For the optimised WSCM a detection efficiency of greater than 32% was measured using a small Cs-137

  3. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  4. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    PubMed

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the “amyloid cascade” hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels. PMID:26075716

  6. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  7. HBV/HCV co-infection is associated with a high level of HCV spontaneous clearance among drug users and blood donors in China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Rong, X; Wang, M; Xu, R; Huang, K; Liao, Q; Huang, J; Chen, J; Li, C; Tang, X; Shan, Z; Zhang, M; Nelson, K; Fu, Y

    2016-12-12

    Understanding the biology of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to improved strategies to prevent the sequelae associated with chronic HCV infection. Chronic infections with hepatitis virus are very common in China, but the factors associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV have not been adequately studied. We evaluated the spontaneous clearance of HCV among 1918 drug users and 1526 HCV-seropositive blood donors in Guangzhou, China. Among participants who were co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 41.38% of drug users and 39.47% of blood donors had cleared their HCV infection without antiviral therapy compared to 9.41% of drug users and 16.73% of blood donors who were mono-infected with a single virus (P<.01). The proportion of subjects who had cleared their HCV infection was significantly greater in the co-infected subjects whose serum HBV DNA was greater than 2000IU/mL than those with lower levels. A multiple logistic regression analysis found female gender, IL28B rs8099917 TT genotype, HBV co-infection and blood donors (vs drug users) associated with increased spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Although acute HCV infections are common in China, the incidence of chronic HCV may be reduced among the high prevalence of chronic HBV and IL28B genotypes associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in Chinese populations.

  8. 2011 Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Clearance Determinations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Report on Security Clearance Determinations TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents...security clearance as of October 1, 201 1, categorized by government employees and contractors and by security clearance level

  9. Rapid clearance of herpes simplex virus type 2 by CD8+ T cells requires high level expression of effector T cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Bird, Melanie D.; Chu, Chin-Fun; Johnson, Alison J.; Friedrich, Brian M.; Allman, Windy R.; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are important for resolution of HSV-2 lesions from the female genital epithelium. It is uncertain whether optimal clearance of viruses such as HSV-2 that cause a limited, non-systemic infection solely requires expression of effector functions by infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes, or if the clearance rate is reflective of the expression level of critical effector functions. To address this, CD8+ T cells from normal OT-I mice or OT-I mice deficient in IFNγ (IFNγ−/−) or the IFNγ receptor (IFNγR−/−) were activated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ or IL-4 to generate a series of effector populations (Tc1 and Tc2-like respectively) that secreted different levels of IFNγ and expressed different levels of HSV-specific cytolytic function. Compared with Tc1 cells, Tc2-like cells produced the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, exhibited decreased IFNγ secretion, diminished proliferation in vitro, and decreased antigen-specific cytolysis in vivo. Clearance of an ovalbumin-expressing HSV-2 strain (HSV-2 tk− OVA) by adoptively transferred Tc2-like cells was delayed relative to Tc1 cell recipients. Because donor Tc2-like cells proliferated in vivo and infiltrated the infected genital epithelium similar to Tc1 cells, the diminished virus clearance by Tc2-like effector cells correlated with reduced expression of critical effector functions. Together, these results suggest that high level expression of protective T cell functions by effector T cells is necessary for optimal clearance of HSV-2 from the genital epithelium. These results have important implications for vaccines designed to elicit CD8+ T cells against viruses such as HSV-2 that infect the genital tract. PMID:21444117

  10. Rapid clearance of herpes simplex virus type 2 by CD8+ T cells requires high level expression of effector T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michelle H; Bird, Melanie D; Chu, Chin-Fun; Johnson, Alison J; Friedrich, Brian M; Allman, Windy R; Milligan, Gregg N

    2011-04-01

    CD8(+) T cells are important for resolution of HSV-2 lesions from the female genital epithelium. It is uncertain whether optimal clearance of viruses such as HSV-2 that cause a limited, non-systemic infection solely requires expression of effector functions by infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes, or if the clearance rate is reflective of the expression level of critical effector functions. To address this, CD8(+) T cells from normal OT-I mice or OT-I mice deficient in IFNγ (IFNγ(-/-)) or the IFNγ receptor (IFNγR(-/-)) were activated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ or IL-4 to generate a series of effector populations (Tc1 and Tc2-like respectively) that secreted different levels of IFNγ and expressed different levels of HSV-specific cytolytic function. Compared with Tc1 cells, Tc2-like cells produced the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, exhibited decreased IFNγ secretion, diminished proliferation in vitro, and decreased antigen-specific cytolysis in vivo. Clearance of an ovalbumin-expressing HSV-2 strain (HSV-2 tk(-) OVA) by adoptively transferred Tc2-like cells was delayed relative to Tc1 cell recipients. Because donor Tc2-like cells proliferated in vivo and infiltrated the infected genital epithelium similar to Tc1 cells, the diminished virus clearance by Tc2-like effector cells correlated with reduced expression of critical effector functions. Together, these results suggest that high level expression of protective T cell functions by effector T cells is necessary for optimal clearance of HSV-2 from the genital epithelium. These results have important implications for vaccines designed to elicit CD8(+) T cells against viruses such as HSV-2 that infect the genital tract.

  11. System-Level Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator for Active Clearance Control in the High-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes results of a numerical analysis evaluating the feasibility of high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) for active clearance control actuation in the high-pressure turbine section of a modern turbofan engine. The prototype actuator concept considered here consists of parallel HTSMA wires attached to the shroud that is located on the exterior of the turbine case. A transient model of an HTSMA actuator was used to evaluate active clearance control at various operating points in a test bed aircraft engine simulation. For the engine under consideration, each actuator must be designed to counteract loads from 380 to 2000 lbf and displace at least 0.033 inches. Design results show that an actuator comprised of 10 wires 2 inches in length is adequate for control at critical engine operating points and still exhibits acceptable failsafe operability and cycle life. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with integrator windup protection was implemented to control clearance amidst engine transients during a normal mission. Simulation results show that the control system exhibits minimal variability in clearance control performance across the operating envelope. The final actuator design is sufficiently small to fit within the limited space outside the high-pressure turbine case and is shown to consume only small amounts of bleed air to adequately regulate temperature.

  12. Elevated Levels of Total Cell-Free DNA in Maternal Serum Samples Arise from the Generation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    PubMed

    Sur Chowdhury, Chanchal; Hahn, Sinuhe; Hasler, Paul; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav; Giaglis, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of cell-free DNA from maternal blood samples has facilitated the noninvasive detection of fetal aneuploidies or hereditary Mendelian disorders. In this context, previous studies have indicated that the pool of cell-free DNA is greater in maternal serum than in plasma samples, necessitating optimized collection and storage protocols. As the source of this increased amount of cell-free DNA is not clear, we have now examined whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to this material. Serum samples were collected in all three trimesters of normal healthy pregnant women, and at term from cases with manifest preeclampsia. The presence of NET-derived material was demonstrated by the detection of cell-free DNA fragments complexed to neutrophil granular proteins (i.e. myeloperoxidase). Our data indicate that NET-derived cell-free DNA/myeloperoxidase complexes were greater in serum from normal pregnant women than in normal matching nonpregnant controls. This neutrophil chromosomal material increased incrementally throughout gestation and was most pronounced in cases with preeclampsia. By detecting increased levels of cell-free DNA/myeloperoxidase complexes in maternal serum samples, our data indicate that a significant proportion of this material is derived from the generation of NETs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Specific innervation of guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion cells by preganglionic fibres arising from different levels of the spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Njå, A; Purves, D

    1977-01-01

    1. The synaptic contribution of preganglionic nerve fibres arising from the last cervical (C8) and the first seven thoracic spinal cord segments (T1-T7) to neurones of the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion has been studied by means of intracellular recording during ventral root stimulation in vitro. 2. The majority of neurones received innervation from the middle segments (T2 and T3) of the length of spinal cord from which preganglionic fibres derive; an intermediate number of ganglion cells were innervated by fibres from the segments adjacent to these (T1, T4, and T5), and relatively few neurones by fibres from the most rostral and caudal segments supplying innervation to the ganglion (C8, T6 and T7). 3. Each neurone received preganglionic terminals from multiple thoracic segments (range 1-7, mean = 4-0). The estimated minimum number of preganglionic fibres contacting each neurone was 10, on average. 4. As a rule, the spinal segments innervating a neurone were contiguous. Thus we rarely encountered neurones innervated by segments located both rostrally and caudally to a segment which failed to provide innervation. 5. Neurones tended to be innervated predominantly by axons arising from a single spinal segment, with adjacent segments contributing a synaptic influence that diminished as a function of their distance from the dominant segment. All segments provided dominant innervation to at least some neurones. 6. Stimulating the ventral roots of C8-T7 in vivo showed that the axons arising from each segment produced a characteristic pattern of peripheral effects. Thus different populations of neurones in the superior cervical ganglion of the guinea-pig are innervated by preganglionic axons from different levels of the spinal cord, as originally suggested by Langley (1892) for the cat, dog, and rabbit. 7. On the basis of our in vitro studies we conclude that underlying the specificity of innervation of neurones of the superior cervical ganglion that can be inferred

  14. Rollover, drowning, and discontinuous retreat: Distinct modes of barrier response to sea-level rise arising from a simple morphodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a simple morphodynamic model to investigate the long-term dynamic evolution of a coastal barrier system experiencing sea-level rise. Using a simplified barrier geometry, the model includes a dynamic shoreface profile that can be out of equilibrium and explicitly treats barrier sediment overwash as a flux. With barrier behavior primarily controlled by the maximum potential overwash flux and the rate of shoreface response, the modeled barrier system demonstrates four primary behaviors: height drowning, width drowning, constant landward retreat, and a periodic retreat. Height drowning occurs when overwash fluxes are insufficient to maintain the landward migration rate required to keep pace with sea-level rise. On the other hand, width drowning occurs when the shoreface response rate is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during overwash-driven landward migration. During periodic barrier retreat, the barrier experiences oscillating periods of rapid overwash followed by periods of relative stability as the shoreface resteepens. This periodic retreat, which occurs even with a constant sea-level rise rate, arises when overwash rates and shoreface response rates are large and of similar magnitude. We explore the occurrence of these behaviors across a wide range of parameter values and find that in addition to the maximum overwash flux and the shoreface response rate, barrier response can be particularly sensitive to the sea-level rise rate and back-barrier lagoon slope. Overall, our findings contrast with previous research which has primarily associated complex barrier behavior with changes in external forcing such as sea-level rise rate, sediment supply, or back-barrier geometry.

  15. Complex colony-level organization of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) is directionally asymmetric and arises by the subdivision of pro-buds.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Casey W

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are free-swimming colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) composed of asexually produced multicellular zooids. These zooids, which are homologous to solitary animals, are functionally specialized and arranged in complex species-specific patterns. The coloniality of siphonophores provides an opportunity to study the major transitions in evolution that give rise to new levels of biological organization, but siphonophores are poorly known because they are fragile and live in the open ocean. The organization and development of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata is described here using specimens collected with a remotely operated underwater vehicle. Each bud gives rise to a precise, directionally asymmetric sequence of zooids through a stereotypical series of subdivisions, rather than to a single zooid as in most other hydrozoans. This initial description of development in a deep-sea siphonophore provides an example of how precise colony-level organization can arise, and illustrates that the morphological complexity of cnidarians is greater than is often assumed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Xpert MTB/RIF Assay Shows Faster Clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA with Higher Levels of Rifapentine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A.; Savic, R. M.; Everett, C. K.; Benator, D.; Alland, D.; Heilig, C. M.; Weiner, M.; Friedrich, S. O.; Martinson, N. A.; Kerrigan, A.; Zamudio, C.; Goldberg, S. V.; Whitworth, W. C.; Davis, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses of up to 20 mg/kg of body weight. Xpert was performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Longitudinal CT data were modeled using a nonlinear mixed effects model in relation to rifapentine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]). The rate of change of CT was higher in subjects receiving rifapentine than in subjects receiving standard-dose rifampin. Moreover, rifapentine exposure, but not assigned dose, was significantly associated with rate of change in CT (P = 0.02). The estimated increase in CT slope for every additional 100 μg · h/ml of rifapentine drug exposure (as measured by AUC) was 0.11 CT/week (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.17). Increasing rifapentine exposure is associated with a higher rate of change of Xpert CT, indicating faster clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. These data suggest that the quantitative outputs of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be useful as a dynamic measure of TB treatment response. PMID:27733634

  17. Xpert MTB/RIF Assay Shows Faster Clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA with Higher Levels of Rifapentine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, A; Savic, R M; Everett, C K; Benator, D; Alland, D; Heilig, C M; Weiner, M; Friedrich, S O; Martinson, N A; Kerrigan, A; Zamudio, C; Goldberg, S V; Whitworth, W C; Davis, J L; Nahid, P

    2016-12-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses of up to 20 mg/kg of body weight. Xpert was performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Longitudinal CT data were modeled using a nonlinear mixed effects model in relation to rifapentine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]). The rate of change of CT was higher in subjects receiving rifapentine than in subjects receiving standard-dose rifampin. Moreover, rifapentine exposure, but not assigned dose, was significantly associated with rate of change in CT (P = 0.02). The estimated increase in CT slope for every additional 100 μg · h/ml of rifapentine drug exposure (as measured by AUC) was 0.11 CT/week (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.17). Increasing rifapentine exposure is associated with a higher rate of change of Xpert CT, indicating faster clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. These data suggest that the quantitative outputs of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be useful as a dynamic measure of TB treatment response.

  18. Site clearance working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  19. Predictive role of minimal residual disease and log clearance in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilm's tumor 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanni; Minervini, Maria Marta; Melillo, Lorella; di Nardo, Francesco; de Waure, Chiara; Scalzulli, Potito Rosario; Perla, Gianni; Valente, Daniela; Sinisi, Nicola; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as the degree of log clearance similarly identifies patients with poor prognosis. No comparison was provided between the two approaches in order to identify the best one to monitor follow-up patients. In this study, MRD and clearance were assessed by both multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression at different time points on 45 AML patients achieving complete remission. Our results by WT1 expression showed that log clearance lower than 1.96 after induction predicted the recurrence better than MRD higher than 77.0 copies WT1/10(4) ABL. Conversely, on MFC, MRD higher than 0.2 % after consolidation was more predictive than log clearance below 2.64. At univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRD values and log clearance below the optimal cutoffs were associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS). At the univariate analysis, positive MRD values were also associated with overall survival (OS). Therefore, post-induction log clearance by WT1 and post-consolidation MRD by MFC represented the most informative approaches to identify the relapse. At the optimal timing of assessment, positive MRD and log-clearance values lower than calculated thresholds similarly predicted an adverse prognosis in AML.

  20. Mucociliary clearance and its relation with the level of physical activity in daily life in healthy smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Proença, M; Pitta, F; Kovelis, D; Mantoani, L C; Furlanetto, K C; Zabatiero, J; Ramos, D; Ramos, E M C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between mucociliary transport and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in smokers and nonsmokers. Fifty-two current smokers were submitted to assessment of mucociliary transport (Sacharin Transit Time, STT), carbon monoxide levels in the exhaled air, lung function and smoking history. In addition, subjects kept a pedometer worn at the waist for six days in order to determine their level of PADL (steps/day). The tests were also performed on 30 matched healthy nonsmokers who served as control group. Light smokers (≤15 cigarettes/day) had a STT of 9 (7-11) min (median [confidence interval]), which was similar to nonsmokers (8 [8-11]min; p=0.8). Both moderate (16-25 cigarettes/day) and heavy (>25 cigarettes/day) smokers had significantly higher STT (13 [11-17] min and 13 [10-21] min, respectively) than nonsmokers and light smokers (p<0.05 for all). There was no difference in the number of steps/day between any of the groups (p>0.05 for all). In the general group of smokers, STT was not significantly correlated with PADL, pack/years index, years of smoking or age (r<-0.23; p>0.09 for all). There was significant negative correlation between STT and PADL only in light smokers (r=-0.55; p=0.02) and nonsmokers (r=-0.42; p=0.02), but not in moderate and heavy smokers. In light smokers and non-smokers, better mucociliary function is associated to higher daily physical activity level, as opposed to the decreased mucociliary function observed in smokers, i.e., those with moderate and heavy cigarette consumption. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Clearance of Apoptotic Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Tsutsumi, Chikako; Qiao, Hong; Enaida, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Kubota, Toshiaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kura, Shinobu; Susin, Santos A.; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment. Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages. This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. The local injection of an antibody blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) or a peptide (GRGDSP)-blocking integrin αvβ3 revealed that phagocytotic clearance involves the PSR as well as integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment (but not the recognition) of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space. PMID:12759244

  2. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or taxiing... the corresponding landing gear strut bottomed. (b) Water clearance. There must be a clearance of...

  3. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following: (a) Ground clearance. There must be a clearance of at least seven inches (for each airplane with nose wheel landing gear) or nine inches (for each airplane with tail wheel landing gear) between each propeller and the ground with the landing gear statically deflected and in the level takeoff, or...

  4. Tactics for Route Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    Tadics for Jtoute Clearance By William C. Schneck, Jr., and Brian M. Green I n Somalia, military police used mine detectors to sweep for command...useful lessons re- garding command-detonated mines and route clearance . It is not possible to completely eliminate losses from mines, but commanders...success, route clearance must be treated as a combined arms combat operation. Infantry, armor, engineer, artillery, aviation, intelligence, and

  5. Cotrimoxazole plasma levels, dialyzer clearance and total removal by extended dialysis in a patient with acute kidney injury: risk of under-dosing using current dosing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients is challenging. It becomes even more difficult if renal or hepatic impairment ensue. Modern means of renal replacement therapy are capable of removing antibiotics to a higher rate than decades ago, leaving clinicians with a high degree of uncertainty concerning the dose of antibiotics in this patient population. Cotrimoxazole, a combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is frequently used in the treatment of several infections including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). Case presentation Here we describe a patient with acute kidney injury in which we investigated the TMP and SMX levels during the course of an ICU stay. Cotrimoxazole was administered every six hours i.v. in a dose of TMP/SMX 15/75 mg/kg/day. Extended dialysis was performed with a high-flux dialyzer. Blood samples, as well as pre- and postdialyzer samples and aliquots of the collected spent dialysate were collected. Observed peak concentrations (Cmax) were 7.51 mg/l for TMP and 80.80 mg/l for SMX. Decline of blood levels during extended dialysis (TMP 64%; SMX 84%) was mainly due to removal by the dialysis procedure, illustrated by the high dialyzer clearances (median of 4 extended dialysis sessions: TMP 94.0 / SMX 51.0 ml/min), as well as by the absolute amount of both substances in the collected spent dialysate (median of 6 extended dialysis sessions: TMP 556 mg / SMX 130 mg). Within the limitation of a case report our data from 4 consecutive extended dialysis sessions suggest that this procedure substantially removes both TMP and SMX. Conclusions Dose reduction, which is usually advocated in patients with acute kidney injury under renal replacement therapy, might lead to significant under-dosing. Pharmacokinetic studies for TMP/SMX dosing in this patient population are necessary to allow adequate dosing. PMID:23551893

  6. Plasma levels, metabolic clearance rates, and rates of secretion of testosterone and estradiol-l7 beta in the silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Querat, B.; Hardy, A.; Leloup-Hatey, J.

    1985-09-01

    Testosterone (T) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) plasma levels and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured to investigate their ovarian production in immature silver eel. The dynamics of T and E2 metabolism were studied in catheterized eels using single injections of 0.2 to 0.5 microCi /sup 3/H-labeled steroid. The distribution volumes, biological half-life and MCR of nonconjugated tracers were calculated on the basis of a two-compartment model. At the end of the experiments, radioactivity was measured in different organs and tissues to localize the site of T and E2 catabolism. The volume of the inner compartment was 3.4% for T and E2. The outer compartment was larger for T (6.4%) than that for E2 (4.3%). The biological half-life was three to four times shorter for T (14.5 hr) than that for E2 (48.5 hr). The MCR for T (1.71 ml/kg body wt/hr) was higher than for E2 (0.51 ml/kg body wt/hr). Plasma levels were determined, using radioimmunoassay, on samples taken before injections of radiolabeled steroid. Free or protein-bound hormone levels were 0.12 and 0.31 ng/ml for T and E2, respectively. Conjugated T and E2 levels were, respectively, 0.13 and 0.23 ng/ml. Production rates were determined as the product of the MCR and the plasma concentration of the nonconjugated hormone. No significant differences were observed between the production rates of T and E2 (0.24 ng/kg body wt/hr). The liver was the principal site of metabolism for both hormones, which were excreted via the enterohepatic route. E2 injection gave rise to no metabolite in the plasma whereas after T injection a metabolite was produced, the concentration of which increased as a function of time. Its chromatographic properties were different from that of E2 or androstenedione, suggesting that no significant peripheral aromatization or 17-oxidoreduction occurs in the immature silver eel.

  7. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attitude, whichever is most critical. In addition, there must be positive clearance between the propeller and the ground when in the level takeoff attitude with the critical tire(s) completely deflated...

  8. Arise the systems physician.

    PubMed

    Scott, I; Phelps, G; Dalton, S

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare in Australia faces significant challenges. Variations in care, suboptimal safety and reliability, fragmentation of care and unsustainable cost increases are compounded by substantial overuse and underuse of clinical interventions. These problems arise not from intentional actions of individual clinicians, but from deficiencies in the design, operations and governance of systems of care. Physicians play an important role in optimising systems of care and, in doing so, must rely on enhanced skills in a range of domains. These include: how to evaluate and improve quality and safety of clinical processes; analyse and interpret clinical and administrative data in ways that can be used to enhance care delivery; build and lead cohesive multidisciplinary teams capable of solving operational defects and inefficient workarounds; and implement new and effective innovations in clinical service delivery. While clinical skills are essential in individual patient care, skills that improve systems of care targeting whole patient populations will become increasingly desirable and recognised as core skills.

  9. Is ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia a phenomenon that arises through mechanisms that have an intrinsic role in the regulation of ventilation at sea level?

    PubMed

    Robbins, P A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set out the hypothesis that arterial PO2 may play a significant role in the regulation of breathing at sea level. The following points are made: 1) Although CO2 is clearly the dominant feedback signal in the acute setting, there is evidence, particularly clinical observation, that the ventilatory response to CO2 may adapt. 2) Although the ventilatory response to an acute variation in alveolar PO2 around sea-level values is feeble, studies at altitude have shown that over longer-time periods alveolar PO2 is a more powerful regulator of ventilation. 3) Recent evidence suggests that mechanisms associated with ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia are active at sea-level values for PO2, and indeed affect the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia. 4) While most evidence suggests that the peripheral and central chemoreflexes are independent and additive in their contributions to ventilation, experiments over longer durations suggest that peripheral chemoreceptor afferents may play an important role in regulating central chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2. This is potentially an important mechanism by which oxygen can alter the acute chemoreflex responses to CO2. In conclusion, the mechanisms underlying ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia may have an important role in regulating the respiratory system at sea level.

  10. Malaria parasite clearance.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J

    2017-02-23

    Following anti-malarial drug treatment asexual malaria parasite killing and clearance appear to be first order processes. Damaged malaria parasites in circulating erythrocytes are removed from the circulation mainly by the spleen. Splenic clearance functions increase markedly in acute malaria. Either the entire infected erythrocytes are removed because of their reduced deformability or increased antibody binding or, for the artemisinins which act on young ring stage parasites, splenic pitting of drug-damaged parasites is an important mechanism of clearance. The once-infected erythrocytes returned to the circulation have shortened survival. This contributes to post-artesunate haemolysis that may follow recovery in non-immune hyperparasitaemic patients. As the parasites mature Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes become more deformable, whereas Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes become less deformable, but they escape splenic filtration by sequestering in venules and capillaries. Sequestered parasites are killed in situ by anti-malarial drugs and then disintegrate to be cleared by phagocytic leukocytes. After treatment with artemisinin derivatives some asexual parasites become temporarily dormant within their infected erythrocytes, and these may regrow after anti-malarial drug concentrations decline. Artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum reflects reduced ring stage susceptibility and manifests as slow parasite clearance. This is best assessed from the slope of the log-linear phase of parasitaemia reduction and is commonly measured as a parasite clearance half-life. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of anti-malarial drug effects on parasite clearance has proved useful in predicting therapeutic responses and in dose-optimization.

  11. Phagocytic Clearance in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Jennifer D.; Mandell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and debris have been intensely studied in invertebrate model organisms and in the mammalian immune system. This evolutionarily conserved process serves multiple purposes. Uncleared debris from dying cells or aggregated proteins can be toxic and may trigger exaggerated inflammatory responses. Even though apoptotic cell death and debris accumulation are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, relatively little attention has been paid to this important homeostatic function in the central nervous system (CNS). This review attempts to summarize our knowledge of phagocytic clearance in the CNS, with a focus on retinal degeneration, forms of which are caused by mutations in genes within known phagocytic pathways, and on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interest in phagocytic clearance mechanisms in AD was stimulated by the discovery that immunization could promote phagocytic clearance of amyloid-β; however, much less is known about clearance of neuronal and synaptic corpses in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Because the regulation of phagocytic activity is intertwined with cytokine signaling, this review also addresses the relationships among CNS inflammation, glial responses, and phagocytic clearance. PMID:21435432

  12. Robustness of self-organizing chemoattractant field arising from precise pulse induction of its breakdown enzyme: a single-cell level analysis of PDE expression in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Noritaka; Fujimoto, Koichi; Honda-Kitahara, Mai; Hada, Emi; Sawai, Satoshi

    2013-03-05

    The oscillation of chemoattractant cyclic AMP (cAMP) in Dictyostelium discoideum is a collective phenomenon that occurs when the basal level of extracellular cAMP exceeds a threshold and invokes cooperative mutual excitation of cAMP synthesis and secretion. For pulses to be relayed from cell to cell repetitively, secreted cAMP must be cleared and brought down to the subthreshold level. One of the main determinants of the oscillatory behavior is thus how much extracellular cAMP is degraded by extracellular phosphodiesterase (PDE). To date, the exact nature of PDE gene regulation remains elusive. Here, we performed live imaging analysis of mRNA transcripts for pdsA--the gene encoding extracellular PDE. Our analysis revealed that pdsA is upregulated during the rising phase of cAMP oscillations. Furthermore, by analyzing isolated cells, we show that expression of pdsA is strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular cAMP. pdsA is induced only at ∼1 nM extracellular cAMP, which is almost identical to the threshold concentration for the cAMP relay response. The observed precise regulation of PDE expression together with degradation of extracellular cAMP by PDE form a dual positive and negative feedback circuit, and model analysis shows that this sets the cAMP level near the threshold concentration for the cAMP relay response for a wide range of adenylyl cyclase activity. The overlap of the thresholds could allow oscillations of chemoattractant cAMP to self-organize at various starving conditions, making its development robust to fluctuations in its environment.

  13. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, A; Ferrari, A; Tsoulou, E; Vlachoudis, V; Wijnands, T

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements-vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryomodule beam tubes-have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions.

  14. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff

    2013-07-01

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute groundwater

  15. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Hui; Wang, Chuan-Chan; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chia-Lin; Wang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2017-03-15

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila. Here we report that changes in the ability of the PPL2ab in the central nervous system (CNS) to produce DA strongly impact male-male courtship in D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, the DA-synthesizing abilities of these neurons appear to affect both the courting activities displayed by male flies and the sex appeal of male flies for other male flies. Moreover, the observed male-male courtship is triggered primarily by target motion, yet chemical cues can replace visual input under dark conditions. This is interesting evidence that courtship responses in male individuals are controlled by PPL2ab neurons in the CNS. Our study provides insight for subsequent studies focusing on sexual circuit modulation by PPL2ab neurons.

  16. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Hui; Wang, Chuan-Chan; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chia-Lin; Wang, Pei-Yu; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of male courtship sustainment in Drosophila. Here we report that changes in the ability of the PPL2ab in the central nervous system (CNS) to produce DA strongly impact male-male courtship in D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, the DA-synthesizing abilities of these neurons appear to affect both the courting activities displayed by male flies and the sex appeal of male flies for other male flies. Moreover, the observed male-male courtship is triggered primarily by target motion, yet chemical cues can replace visual input under dark conditions. This is interesting evidence that courtship responses in male individuals are controlled by PPL2ab neurons in the CNS. Our study provides insight for subsequent studies focusing on sexual circuit modulation by PPL2ab neurons. PMID:28294190

  17. The evidence for secretion clearance techniques.

    PubMed

    Hess, D R

    2001-11-01

    Many acute and chronic respiratory diseases are associated with increased respiratory secretions in the airways. Narrative reviews and a few systematic reviews of secretion clearance techniques have been published. These reviews raise concerns regarding the lack of evidence to support the various secretion clearance techniques. I conducted a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the following subjects: chest physical therapy, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, forced expiratory technique, autogenic drainage, high-frequency chest wall compression, flutter device and secretions, positive expiratory pressure and secretions, intrapulmonary percussion, mechanical in-exsufflation and secretions. This was followed by a comprehensive search of cross-references to identify additional studies. The results of this review are reported herein. There are a number of methodological limitations of the literature reporting studies of the use of secretion clearance techniques. Most of the studies were small, most used crossover designs, and few used sham therapy. Many studies were limited to short-term outcomes such as sputum clearance with a single treatment session. Despite the clinical observation that retained secretions are detrimental to respiratory function and despite anecdotal associations between secretion clearance and improvements in respiratory function, there is a dearth of high-level evidence to support any secretion clearance technique.

  18. Clearance of minute virus of mice by flocculation and microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Han, Binbing; Carlson, Jonathan O; Powers, Scott M

    2004-06-20

    Clearance of minute virus of mice (MVM) from CHO cell suspensions by flocculation and microfiltration has been investigated. MVM is a parvovirus that is recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for validating clearance of parvoviruses. The feed streams were flocculated using a cationic polyelectrolyte. Virus clearance in excess of 10,000-fold was obtained in the bulk permeate for flocculated feeds streams. However, the level of clearance was only about 10- to 100-fold for unflocculated feed streams. The results suggest that virus clearance involves interactions between the MVM particles, the cationic polyelectrolyte, and the CHO cells present. Validating virus clearance is a major concern in the biotechnology industry. New unit operations are frequently added to the purification train simply to validate virus clearance. However, many of these unit operations are less effective at validating clearance of nonenveloped viruses. Validating clearance of parvoviruses is often particularly problematic as they are nonenveloped and the virus particles are small (18 to 24 nm), making physical removal difficult. The results obtained herein indicate that addition of the cationic polyelectrolyte not only results in significant clearance of MVM but also leads to an increase in permeate flux. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Advanced Thermal HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WojciechVoytek, Sak

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast acting HPT Active Clearance Control System to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions CHALLENGE: Reduction of HPT blade clearance throughout engine operation System complexity, reliability and cost must remain comparable or surpass today s engines Reduced clearance may increase possibility of rubs

  20. Effects of airborne pollutants on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.

    1986-04-01

    The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of data on the effect of in vivo air pollutant exposures on the clearance of test particles from airways. Data from both animals and humans are compared whenever possible, so that estimates of human health effects may be made. Mechanisms of action are also discussed, presenting the view that for low level exposures, changes in secretions are probably responsible for most observed changes in clearance. The pollutants pertinent to this review are those that are common in the environment and most likely to have impacts on large numbers of people: sulfur oxides, sulfuric acid mist, O/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/, particulates, diesel exhaust, and cigarette smoke.149 references.

  1. Effects of airborne pollutants on mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, R K

    1986-01-01

    The mucociliary clearance system is a first line of defense against inhaled agents, and so its compromise can adversely affect health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of data on the effect of in vivo air pollutant exposures on the clearance of test particles from airways. Data from both animals and humans are compared whenever possible, so that estimates of human health effects may be made. Mechanisms of action are also discussed, presenting the view that for low level exposures, changes in secretions are probably responsible for most observed changes in clearance. The pollutants pertinent to this review are those that are common in the environment and most likely to have impacts on large numbers of people: sulfur oxides, sulfuric acid mist, O3, NO2, particulates, diesel exhaust, and cigarette smoke. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 4. PMID:3519203

  2. Radial Clearance of Antifriction Bearings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The article concerns in detail the radial clearance of different antifriction bearings which belong to important parameters which influence the...longevity of the bearing to a certain extent. The effect of the influence of assembly and the wear on the radial clearance of different bearings, the...antifriction bearings operate and their respect in clearance and assembly can contribute substantially to decreasing the daily disproportionate bearing consumption for the repair and maintenance of different machines. (Author)

  3. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.

  4. Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa foreign-body biofilm infections through reduction of the cyclic Di-GMP level in the bacteria.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Louise D; van Gennip, Maria; Rybtke, Morten T; Wu, Hong; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Alhede, Morten; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas E; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2013-08-01

    Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can engage in biofilm-based infections that evade immune responses and develop into chronic conditions. Because conventional antimicrobials cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. It has recently been established that the secondary messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) functions as a positive regulator of biofilm formation in several different bacteria. In the present study we investigated whether manipulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria potentially can be used for biofilm control in vivo. We constructed a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in which a reduction in the c-di-GMP level can be achieved via induction of the Escherichia coli YhjH c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Initial experiments showed that induction of yhjH expression led to dispersal of the majority of the bacteria in in vitro-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms. Subsequently, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilms growing on silicone implants, located in the peritoneal cavity of mice, dispersed after induction of the YhjH protein. Bacteria accumulated temporarily in the spleen after induction of biofilm dispersal, but the mice tolerated the dispersed bacteria well. The present work provides proof of the concept that modulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria is a viable strategy for biofilm control.

  5. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  6. p38(MAPK)-regulated induction of p62 and NBR1 after photodynamic therapy promotes autophagic clearance of ubiquitin aggregates and reduces reactive oxygen species levels by supporting Nrf2-antioxidant signaling.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Noemí; Verrax, Julien; Dewaele, Michael; Verfaillie, Tom; Johansen, Terje; Piette, Jacques; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that oxidative stress instigates the formation of ubiquitin (Ub) aggregates, substrates of autophagy, through a process requiring the ubiquitin binding adaptors p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1. Here, we have investigated the role of p62 and NBR1 in cell survival after hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (Hyp-PDT), a procedure known to incite robust reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy pathways. We found that Hyp-PDT stimulated the formation of p62- and NBR1-associated Ub aggregates in normal and cancer cells, which were ultimately removed by autophagy, through a mechanism partially regulated by p38(MAPK). In line with this, genetic or pharmacological p38(MAPK) inhibition reduced p62 and NBR1 levels and aggregate formation and impaired Nrf2 activation, thus increasing photo-oxidative stress and cell death. p62-deficient cells, or cells lacking p62 and with reduced levels of NBR1 (through siRNA knockdown), also displayed reduced aggregate formation but exhibited attenuated ROS levels, reduced caspase activation, and improved survival after Hyp-PDT. The increased resistance to photo-oxidative stress exhibited by cells lacking p62 and/or NBR1 was overruled by the inhibition of p38(MAPK), which restored cytotoxic ROS levels, thus indicating the relevance of this signal in the control of cell viability. Taken together these findings provide evidence that in photodynamically treated cells a p38(MAPK)-regulated pathway coordinates the p62/NBR1-mediated clearance of cytosolic aggregates and mitigates PDT-induced proteotoxicity. They also reveal that a functional p38(MAPK)-Nrf2 signal is required to keep ROS levels in check and protect against PDT-induced proteotoxicity, independent of aggregate formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A laser-optical measurement system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  8. Ion exchange chromatography of proteins and clearance of aggregates.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Y; Hinckley, P; Hewig, A; Vedantham, G

    2009-06-01

    Clearance of product related aggregates in therapeutic proteins is a major focus of purification process development. A typical purification process will have one or two chromatographic steps that remove these product related aggregates to an acceptable level. Both cation exchange and anion exchange chromatography can provide robust clearance of aggregates. The primary factors that are critical for aggregate clearance are: resin chemistry, binding and elution condition, peak collection and column load factor. This review covers how these factors can be optimized to increase the effectiveness of ion exchange chromatography in removing aggregates.

  9. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11010 Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair... to indicate an impaired clearance....

  10. 30 CFR 57.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 57.11008 Section 57.11008... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11008 Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance shall be conspicuously marked....

  11. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010... Stairstep clearance. Vertical clearance above stair steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  12. 30 CFR 56.11008 - Restricted clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted clearance. 56.11008 Section 56.11008 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Restricted clearance. Where restricted clearance creates a hazard to persons, the restricted clearance...

  13. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller... clearance between the blade tips and the airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary... blades or cuffs and stationary parts of the airplane; and (3) Positive clearance between other...

  14. 14 CFR 25.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.925 Propeller clearance. Unless smaller... clearance between the blade tips and the airplane structure, plus any additional radial clearance necessary... blades or cuffs and stationary parts of the airplane; and (3) Positive clearance between other...

  15. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The need for blade tip clearance instrumentation has been intensified recently by advances in technology of gas turbine engines. A new laser-optical measurement system has been developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  16. Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for Screening-Level Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Rats and Its Integration within PBPK Models to Predict Inhalation Pharmacokinetics in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peyret, Thomas; Krishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a screening-level Quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) for intrinsic clearance (CLint) obtained from in vivo animal studies and (ii) to incorporate it with human physiology in a PBPK model for predicting the inhalation pharmacokinetics of VOCs. CLint, calculated as the ratio of the in vivo Vmax (μmol/h/kg bw rat) to the Km (μM), was obtained for 26 VOCs from the literature. The QPPR model resulting from stepwise linear regression analysis passed the validation step (R2 = 0.8; leave-one-out cross-validation Q2 = 0.75) for CLint normalized to the phospholipid (PL) affinity of the VOCs. The QPPR facilitated the calculation of CLint (L PL/h/kg bw rat) from the input data on log Pow, log blood: water PC and ionization potential. The predictions of the QPPR as lower and upper bounds of the 95% mean confidence intervals (LMCI and UMCI, resp.) were then integrated within a human PBPK model. The ratio of the maximum (using LMCI for CLint) to minimum (using UMCI for CLint) AUC predicted by the QPPR-PBPK model was 1.36 ± 0.4 and ranged from 1.06 (1,1-dichloroethylene) to 2.8 (isoprene). Overall, the integrated QPPR-PBPK modeling method developed in this study is a pragmatic way of characterizing the impact of the lack of knowledge of CLint in predicting human pharmacokinetics of VOCs, as well as the impact of prediction uncertainty of CLint on human pharmacokinetics of VOCs. PMID:22685458

  17. Th1 and Th17 Cells Regulate Innate Immune Responses and Bacterial Clearance during Central Nervous System Infection†

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Monica M.; Kielian, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscesses arise following parenchymal infection with pyogenic bacteria and are typified by inflammation and edema, which frequently results in a multitude of long-term health problems. The impact of adaptive immunity in shaping continued innate responses during late stage brain abscess formation is not known but is important, since robust innate immunity is required for effective bacterial clearance. To address this issue, brain abscesses were induced in TCR αβ knockout (KO) mice, since CD4+ and NKT cells represented the most numerous T cell infiltrates. TCR αβ KO mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance during later stages of infection, which was associated with alterations in neutrophil and macrophage recruitment as well as perturbations in cytokine/chemokine expression. Adoptive transfer of either Th1 or Th17 cells into TCR αβ KO mice restored bacterial burdens and innate immune cell infiltrates to levels detected in WT animals. Interestingly, adoptively transferred Th17 cells demonstrated plasticity within the CNS compartment and induced distinct cytokine secretion profiles in abscess-associated microglia and macrophages compared to Th1 transfer. Collectively, these studies identify an amplification loop for Th1 and Th17 cells in shaping established innate responses during CNS infection to maximize bacterial clearance and differentially regulate microglial and macrophage secretory profiles. PMID:22190181

  18. Th1 and Th17 cells regulate innate immune responses and bacterial clearance during central nervous system infection.

    PubMed

    Holley, Monica M; Kielian, Tammy

    2012-02-01

    Brain abscesses arise following parenchymal infection with pyogenic bacteria and are typified by inflammation and edema, which frequently results in a multitude of long-term health problems. The impact of adaptive immunity in shaping continued innate responses during late-stage brain abscess formation is not known but is important, because robust innate immunity is required for effective bacterial clearance. To address this issue, brain abscesses were induced in TCR αβ knockout (KO) mice, because CD4(+) and NKT cells represented the most numerous T cell infiltrates. TCR αβ KO mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance during later stages of infection, which was associated with alterations in neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, as well as perturbations in cytokine/chemokine expression. Adoptive transfer of either Th1 or Th17 cells into TCR αβ KO mice restored bacterial burdens and innate immune cell infiltrates to levels detected in wild-type animals. Interestingly, adoptively transferred Th17 cells demonstrated plasticity within the CNS compartment and induced distinct cytokine secretion profiles in abscess-associated microglia and macrophages compared with Th1 transfer. Collectively, these studies identified an amplification loop for Th1 and Th17 cells in shaping established innate responses during CNS infection to maximize bacterial clearance and differentially regulate microglial and macrophage secretory profiles.

  19. The Treatment of Illnesses Arising in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bolz, Michael; Körber, Sabine; Reimer, Toralf; Buchmann, Johannes; Schober, Hans-Christof; Briese, Volker

    2017-09-15

    The treatment of pregnant women who have illnesses unrelated to pregnancy can cause uncertainty among physicians. We searched the PubMed database and specialty guidelines from Germany and abroad (the guidelines of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the American Congress of Obstetri cians and Gynecologists, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) over the period 2007-2016 for information on standards for the diagnosis and treatment of five illnesses that can arise in pregnancy: bronchial asthma, migraine, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and varicose veins. Any diagnostic tests that are carried out in pregnant women should be simple and goal-directed. The choice of drugs that can be used is limited. For many drugs, no embryotoxic or teratogenic effect is suspected, but the level of evidence is low. When illnesses unrelated to pregnancy arise in pregnant women, attention must be paid to potential diver gences from the typical disease course and to pos sible drug side effects on the fetus in order to prevent serious complications for both mother and child.

  20. Myeloid cell turnover and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, William J.; Bratton, Donna L.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Henson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the dual and intrinsically contradictory roles for myeloid cells in both protective and yet also damaging effects of inflammatory and immunological processes we suggest that it is important to consider the mechanisms and circumstances by which these cells are removed, either in the normal unchallenged state or during inflammation or disease. In this essay we address these subjects from a conceptual perspective, focusing as examples on four main myeloid cell types (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells) and their clearance from the circulation or from naïve and inflamed tissues. While the primary clearance process appears to involve endocytic uptake into macrophages, various tissue cell types can also recognize and remove dying cells though their overall quantitative contribution is unclear. In fact, surprisingly, given the wealth of study in this area over the last 30 years, our conclusion is that we are still challenged with substantial lack of mechanistic and regulatory understanding of when, how and by what mechanisms migratory myeloid cells come to die, are recognized as needing to be removed and indeed the precise processes of uptake of either the intact or fragmented cells. This reflects the extreme complexity and inherent redundancy of the clearance processes and argues for substantial investigative effort in this arena. In addition, it leads us to a sense that approaches to significant therapeutic modulation of selective myeloid clearance is still a long way off. PMID:27837740

  1. Clearance of von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Denis, Cécile V; Christophe, Olivier D; Oortwijn, Beatrijs D; Lenting, Peter J

    2008-02-01

    The life cycle of von Willebrand factor (VWF) comprises a number of distinct steps, ranging from the controlled expression of the VWF gene in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes to the removal of VWF from the circulation. The various aspects of VWF clearance have been the objects of intense research in the last few years, stimulated by observations that VWF clearance is a relatively common component of the pathogenesis of type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Moreover, improving the survival of VWF is now considered as a viable therapeutic strategy to prolong the half-life of factor VIII in order to optimise treatment of haemophilia A. The present review aims to provide an overview of recent findings with regard to the molecular basis of VWF clearance. A number of parameters have been identified that influence VWF clearance, including its glycosylation profile and a number of VWF missense mutations. In addition, in-vivo studies have been used to identify cells that contribute to the catabolism of VWF, providing a starting point for the identification of receptors that mediate the cellular uptake of VWF. Finally, we discuss recent data describing chemically modification of VWF as an approach to prolong the half-life of the VWF/FVIII complex.

  2. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  3. Effects of nonaxisymmetric tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, M.B.; Wong, T.S.; Greitzer, E.M.; Marble, F.E.; Tan, C.S.; Shin, H.W.; Wisler, D.C.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of circumferentially nonuniform tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability have been investigated experimentally and analytically. A theoretical model for compressor behavior with nonaxisymmetric tip clearance has been developed and used to design a series of first-of-a-kind experiments on a four-stage, low-speed compressor. The experiments and computational results together show clearly the central physical features and controlling parameters of compressor response to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance. It was found that the loss in stall margin was more severe than that estimated based on average clearance. The stall point was, in fact, closer to that obtained with uniform clearance at the maximum clearance level. The circumferential length scale of the tip clearance (and accompanying flow asymmetry) was an important factor in determining the stall margin reduction. For the same average clearance, the loss in peak pressure rise was 50 percent higher for an asymmetry with fundamental wavelength equal to the compressor circumference than with wavelength equal to one-half the circumference. The clearance asymmetry had much less of an effect on peak efficiency; the measured maximum efficiency decrease obtained was less than 0.4 percent compared to the 8 percent decrease in peak pressure rise due to the asymmetric clearance. The efficiency penalty due to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance was thus close to that obtained with a uniform clearance at the circumferentially averaged level. The theoretical model accurately captured the decreases in both steady-state pressure rise and stable operating range which are associated with clearance asymmetry.

  4. Microwave Blade Tip Clearance System: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisheimer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Newer engines use compressor bleed air and a model to close clearances open loop. Measuring clearances and closing the control loop can add additional efficiencies. Tip clearance control has been identified as a key technology for future engines Additional benefits in prognostics, NSMS, and condition-based maintenance. In the HPT for every 1 mil improvement in clearance: a) SFC decreases 0.1%; and b) EGT margin increases 1 C.

  5. Security Clearances: Consideration of Sexual Orientation in the Clearance Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    Until about 1991, when agencies began to change their security policies and practices regarding sexual orientation, there were a number of documented...cases where defense civilian or contractor employees’ security clearances were denied or revoked because of their sexual orientation. However our...forward and discuss their cases. Notwithstanding these limitations, our work disclosed no evidence that sexual orientation has been used as a criterion

  6. Early phase tumor accumulation of macromolecules: a great difference in clearance rate between tumor and normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Y; Wu, J; Duncan, R; Strohalm, J; Ulbrich, K; Akaike, T; Maeda, H

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular weight (MW) and time-dependence of the phenomenon termed "the enhanced permeability and retention" (EPR) effect in solid tumor, in particular to determine and define the early phase accumulation of macromolecules in tumor and normal tissues and the relationship between blood concentration and tissue clearance. As a model, radioiodinated N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers of MW ranging from 4.5 K to 800 K were administered i.v. to mice bearing sarcoma 180 tumor. Within 10 min all HPMA copolymers accumulated effectively in the tumor regardless of MW (1.0-1.5% of injected dose per g of tumor). However, higher MW copolymers (> 50 K) showed significantly increased tumor accumulation after 6 h, while the lower MW copolymers (< 40 K) were cleared rapidly from tumor tissue due to rapid diffusion back into the bloodstream. Blood clearance was also MW-dependent; the lower MW copolymers displayed rapid clearance, with kidney radioactivity of the copolymers of MW < 20 K representing 24% of injected dose per g kidney at 1 min after i.v. administration. Within 10 min these copolymers passed through the kidney and were excreted in the urine. Higher MW copolymers consistently showed kidney levels of 3-5% dose per g kidney in the early phase with no time-dependent accumulation in kidney. There was also no progressive accumulation in muscle or liver, regardless of polymer MW. These results suggest the "EPR effect" in solid tumor primarily arises from in the difference in clearance rate between the solid tumor and the normal tissues after initial penetration of the polymers into these tissues.

  7. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and

  8. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor...

  9. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section 18.24... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.113 - Clearance heights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance heights. 1917.113 Section 1917.113 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.113 Clearance heights. Clearance heights shall be prominently posted where the height is insufficient for vehicles and equipment. ...

  12. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a fair...

  13. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  14. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  15. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  16. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  18. 30 CFR 18.24 - Electrical clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.24 Electrical clearances. Minimum clearances between uninsulated electrical conductor... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical clearances. 18.24 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., an airplane with an aft mounted propeller must be designed such that the propeller will not contact...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  20. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., an airplane with an aft mounted propeller must be designed such that the propeller will not contact...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  1. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  2. 14 CFR 23.925 - Propeller clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.925 Propeller...) Structural clearance. There must be— (1) At least one inch radial clearance between the blade tips and the... least one-half inch longitudinal clearance between the propeller blades or cuffs and stationary parts...

  3. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  4. Alcohol consumption decreases lactate clearance in acutely injured patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Dezman, Zachary D.W.; Comer, Angela C.; Narayan, Mayur; Scalea, Thomas M.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Smith, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol, a common risk factor for injury, has direct toxic effects on the liver. The use of lactate clearance has been well described as an indicator of the adequacy of resuscitation in injured patients. We investigated whether acutely injured patients with positive blood alcohol content (+BAC) had less lactate clearance than sober patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of acutely injured patients treated at an urban Level 1 trauma centre between January 2010 and December 2012. Blood alcohol and venous lactate levels were measured on all patients at the time of arrival. Study subjects were patients transported directly from the scene of injury, who had an elevated lactate concentration on arrival (≥3.0 mmol/L) and at least one subsequent lactate measurement within 24 h after admission. Lactate clearance ([Lactate1 − Lactate2]/Lactate1) was calculated for all patients. Chi-squared tests were used to compare values from sober and intoxicated subjects. Lactate clearance was plotted against alcohol levels and stratified by age and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results Serial lactate concentration measurements were obtained in 3910 patients; 1674 of them had +BAC. Patients with +BAC were younger (mean age: 36.6 [SD 14.7] vs 41.0 [SD 19.9] years [p = 0.0001]), were more often male (83.4% vs 75.9% [p = 0.0001]), had more minor injuries (ISS < 9) (33.8% vs 27.1% [p = 0.0001]), had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (1.4% vs 3.9% [p = 0.0001]), but also had lower average lactate clearance (37.8% vs 47.6% [p = 0.0001]). The lactate clearance of the sober patients (47.6 [SD 33.5]) was twice that of those with +BAC >400 (23.5 [SD 6.5]). Lactate clearance decreased with increasing BAC irrespective of age and ISS. Conclusions In a large group of acutely injured patients, a dose-dependent decrease in lactate clearance was seen in those with elevated BAC. This relationship will cause a falsely elevated lactate reading or prolong lactate

  5. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  6. Clearance and binding of native and defucosylated lactoferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Imber, M J; Pizzo, S V

    1983-01-01

    These studies explore the role of carbohydrate recognition systems and the direct involvement of terminal alpha 1-3-linked fucose in the clearance of lactoferrin from the murine circulation and in the specific binding of lactoferrin to receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. As previously reported, radiolabelled lactoferrin cleared very rapidly (t1/2 less than 1 min) after intravenous injection into mice. However, competing levels of ligands specific for the hepatic galactose receptor (asialo-orosomucoid), the hepatic fucose receptor (fucosyl-bovine serum albumin), and the mononuclear-phagocyte system pathway recognizing mannose, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose (mannosyl-, N-acetylglucosaminyl- and fucosyl-bovine serum albumin) did not block radiolabelled lactoferrin clearance in vivo or binding to mouse peritoneal macrophage monolayers in vitro. Almond emulsin alpha 1-3-fucosidase was used to prepare defucosylated lactoferrin in which 88% of the alpha 1-3-linked fucose was hydrolysed. No difference in clearance or receptor binding was observed between radiolabelled native and defucosylated lactoferrin. Fucoidin, a fucose-rich algal polysaccharide, completely inhibits the clearance in vivo and macrophage binding in vitro of lactoferrin. This effect, however, is probably not the result of competition for binding to the fucose receptor, since gel-filtration studies demonstrated formation of a stable complex between lactoferrin and fucoidin. The present results indicate that the lactoferrin-clearance pathway is distinct from several pathways mediating glycoprotein clearance through recognition of terminal galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine or mannose. Furthermore, alpha 1-3-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not essential for lactoferrin clearance in vivo or specific binding to macrophage receptors in vitro. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6882370

  7. Delusional Disorder Arising From a CNS Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Stupinski, John; Kim, Jihye; Francois, Dimitry

    2017-01-01

    Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.

  8. Simulation of bronchial mucociliary clearance of insoluble particles by computational fluid and particle dynamics methods.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Arpád; Szöke, István

    2013-08-01

    For a correct assessment of health consequences of inhaled aerosols as a function of dose, whether for environmental, occupational or therapeutic agents, knowledge of their deposition distribution in the respiratory tract and subsequent clearance is important. The objective of this study is to model particle clearance at bronchial airway bifurcation level and to analyze the combined effect of deposition and clearance. For this purpose, a numerical model has been implemented. Air and mucus flow fields were computed in a model bronchial airway bifurcation. Inhaled particles with 1 and 10 µm aerodynamic diameters were tracked to determine deposition and clearance patterns. Simulation results revealed the existence of a slow clearance zone around the peak of the airway bifurcation causing delayed clearance of the particles depositing or entering here. Particles clearing up from the deeper airways and crossing the studied bifurcation do not accumulate in this zone, because of their tendency to avoid it. The average residence time of these particles was around 20 min independently of particle size (whether it is 1 or 10 µm). However, as a result of the superposition of deposition and clearance mechanisms, the final spatial distribution of particles deposited primarily in the target bifurcation is size dependent, because deposition is size specific. Although deposition density of particles deposited in the slow clearance area is one-two orders of magnitude higher than the average deposition density, these values are reduced by clearance by the factors of 4-7, depending on the particle size and the surface area of the selected slow clearance zone. In conclusion, although particle deposition is inhomogeneous, clearance can significantly decrease the degree of spatial non-uniformity of the particles. Therefore, for a correct assessment of doses at local levels, it is important to consider both deposition and clearance. Although future research may overwrite some of

  9. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kavya; Cusack, Corey L; Nnah, Israel C; Khayati, Khoosheh; Saqcena, Chaitali; Huynh, Tuong B; Noggle, Scott A; Ballabio, Andrea; Dobrowolski, Radek

    2016-03-08

    Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  10. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for... distance between “low steel” of the bridge channel span and the level of the water, measured to the bottom... by the District Commander if particular conditions or circumstances warrant. (c) Construction. Each...

  11. Prediction of drug clearance in children.

    PubMed

    Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naïm; Valade, Elodie; De Sousa Mendes, Mailys; Fauchet, Floris; Benaboud, Sihem; Hirt, Déborah; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2015-07-01

    The pediatric population is often exposed to drugs without sufficient knowledge about pharmacokinetics. The prediction of accurate clearance values in children, especially in neonates and infants, will improve the rational in dosing decisions. Drug clearances from birth to adulthood were compiled after a systematic review of pharmacokinetic reports. The analysis was performed using NONMEM. Clearance predictions were then evaluated by external validation. Prediction errors were also compared with those obtained from weight-based allometric scaling and physiologically based clearance (PBCL) models. For the analysis, 17 and 15 drugs were used for model building and external validation, respectively. A model based on the adult drug clearance value and taking into account both weight and age was retained. Age-related maturation of clearance reached 90% of the adult value within 1.5 years of life. For children less than 2 years old, allometric scaling alone systematically overestimated clearances. Accounting for age improved the clearance prediction in the 6 months-2 years age group (prediction error < 25%). Predictions obtained from the PBCL approach were close to our results. This analysis established a single equation using the adult clearance value as well as individual age and weight to predict drug clearance in children older than 6 months.

  12. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus.

    PubMed

    Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches de; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition.

  13. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus*

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition. PMID:28225967

  14. Techniques and Procedures for Route Clearance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    In response to the mme threal. in Bosnia, we haue included two articles with information on route- clearance techniques. The first article expands...Techniques and Procedures for Route Clearance By William C. Schneck, Jr. and Brian M. Green L and mines are the major threat to U.S. forces...learned many lessons about route clearance during the Vietnam War and had to relearn them a few years ago in Mogadishu, Somalia. While the U.S

  15. Elastic clearance change in axisymmetric shearing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori

    2016-10-01

    An axisymmetric shearing experiment is conducted for a sheet of low carbon steel and stainless steel. Elastic change in the clearance between punch and die is measured. The increase of the clearance in shearing is confirmed and the influence of sheared material's flow stress on the clearance change is shown. Finite element analysis (FEA) of shearing with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlman model (GTN model) is conducted for shearing of the carbon steels with rigid tools as a numerical experiment. Burr height is predicted in the FEA and the result is compared with the experimental result. In addition, the influence of the clearance on stress state in the material is investigated.

  16. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-02-27

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale.

  17. How Robust Are Malaria Parasite Clearance Rates as Indicators of Drug Effectiveness and Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the most deadly of the human malarias. Malaria parasite clearance rates estimated from patients' blood following ACT treatment have been widely adopted as a measure of drug effectiveness and as surveillance tools for detecting the presence of potential artemisinin resistance. This metric has not been investigated in detail, nor have its properties or potential shortcomings been identified. Herein, the pharmacology of drug treatment, parasite biology, and human immunity are combined to investigate the dynamics of parasite clearance following ACT. This approach parsimoniously recovers the principal clinical features and dynamics of clearance. Human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates, unless or until artemisinin killing has fallen to near-ineffective levels. Clearance rates are therefore highly insensitive metrics for surveillance that may lead to overconfidence, as even quite substantial reductions in drug sensitivity may not be detected as lower clearance rates. Equally serious is the use of clearance rates to quantify the impact of ACT regimen changes, as this strategy will plausibly miss even very substantial increases in drug effectiveness. In particular, the malaria community may be missing the opportunity to dramatically increase ACT effectiveness through regimen changes, particularly through a switch to twice-daily regimens and/or increases in artemisinin dosing levels. The malaria community therefore appears overreliant on a single metric of drug effectiveness, the parasite clearance rate, that has significant and serious shortcomings. PMID:26239987

  18. Development of a modular virus clearance package for anion exchange chromatography operated in weak partitioning mode.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Timothy; Sacramo, Ashley; Gallo, Chris; Godavarti, Ranga; Chen, Shuang; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange chromatography (AEX) operated under weak partitioning mode has been proven to be a powerful polishing step as well as a robust viral clearance step in Pfizer's monoclonal antibody (mAb) platform purification process. A multivariate design of experiment (DoE) study was conducted to understand the impact of operating parameters and feedstream impurity levels on viral clearance by weak partitioning mode AEX. Bacteriophage was used initially as a surrogate for neutral and acidic isoelectric point mammalian viruses (e.g., retrovirus and parvovirus). Five different mAbs were used in the evaluation of process parameters such as load challenge (both product and impurities), load pH, load conductivity, and contact time (bed height and flow-rate). The operating ranges obtained from phage clearance studies and Pfizer's historical data were used to define an appropriate operating range for a subsequent clearance study with model retrovirus and parvovirus. Both phage and virus clearance evaluations included feedstreams containing different levels of impurities such as high molecular mass species (HMMS), host cell proteins (HCPs), and host cell DNA. For all the conditions tested, over 5 log10 of clearance for both retrovirus and parvovirus was achieved. The results demonstrated that weak partitioning mode AEX chromatography is a robust step for viral clearance and has the potential to be included as part of the modular viral clearance approach.

  19. Ambient flow velocity and resulting clearance rates of the terebellid polychaete Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, L.; Desroy, N.; Ropert, M.

    2007-10-01

    A laboratory flume study was conducted to determine the effect of flow velocity on clearance rates of the Polychaeta Terebellidea Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1966). Using sets of 75 individuals collected along the east coast of the English Channel, we measured clearance rates at five flow velocities of ≈4, 9, 15, 22 and 27 cm s - 1 with a culture of the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans as food source. During each control (without polychaetes) or clearance (with Lanice conchilega) experiment, in vivo fluorescence was continuously monitored. Further HPLC analysis confirmed the sediment resuspension for the highest flow velocities tested, indicating the need for 'corrections' from control experiments. The global pattern resulted in a dome-shaped curve, with a corrected clearance rate per individual increasing with flow velocity from an average value of 0.091 ± 0.041 L h - 1 gDW - 1 at 4 cm s - 1 up to a maximal value of 0.171 ± 0.046 L h - 1 ind - 1 at 15 cm s - 1 and decreasing for higher flow velocity (0.063 ± 0.029 L h - 1 ind - 1 at 27 cm s - 1 ). When normalised to average Dry Weight (DW), the clearance rates varied in a wider range, with maximal clearance rates of up to 0.749 L h - 1 gDW - 1 and a marked dome-shaped structure for small individuals (11.9 ± 5.4 mg Ash Free Dry Weight), whereas larger individuals (up to 30 mg AFDW) showed maximal clearance rates of around 0.400 L h - 1 gDW - 1 . Our results indicate the need to take flow velocity into account in estimating the ecological impact of filter-feeding polychaetes on available food, as large budget underestimates may arise from clearance rates measured in non-controlled flow velocity.

  20. Metabolic clearance rate and urinary clearance of purified beta-core

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmann, R.E.; Blithe, D.L.; Flack, M.R.; Nisula, B.C. )

    1989-09-01

    We injected a highly purified preparation of the beta-core molecule, a fragment of hCG beta excreted in pregnancy urine, into five men and three women to determine its kinetic parameters, MCR, and urinary clearance. The beta-core molecule was distributed in an initial volume (1950 +/- 156 (mean +/- SEM) mL/m2 body surface area) approximately equal to the estimated plasma volume. Its disappearance was multiexponential on a semilogarithmic plot, with a rapid phase t1/2 of 3.5 +/- 0.7 min and a slow phase t1/2 of 22.4 +/- 4.2 min. The transit time (the mean time spent by a molecule of beta-core in transit) was 20.6 +/- 2.1 min. The MCR was 192.0 +/- 8.0 mL/min.m2 body surface area. About 5% of the injected dose of beta-core was excreted into the urine in the first 30 min after injection, and low levels of excretion persisted for up to 7 days. The urinary clearance rate of beta-core was 13.7 +/- 1.4 mL/min.m2, accounting for about 8% of the elimination of beta-core from the plasma. The beta-core immunoreactivity in serum and urine was characterized by gel filtration and three independent RIA systems to show that its properties were indistinguishable from those of the injected beta-core. Serum levels of beta-core in pregnant women were less than 0.2 ng/mL, while the amounts excreted in their urine were as much as 5 mg/day. Based on these clearance parameters of beta-core in normal subjects, less than 0.2% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived by urinary clearance of plasma beta-core. Therefore, more than 99% of the beta-core excreted in pregnancy urine is derived from beta-core in a compartment separate from plasma. In particular, these data indicate that there is relatively little placental secretion of beta-core into plasma and that placental secretion does not account for the vast majority of beta-core in pregnancy urine.

  1. 31 CFR 205.20 - What is a clearance pattern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a clearance pattern? 205.20... Agreement § 205.20 What is a clearance pattern? States use clearance patterns to project when funds are paid... patterns meet the following standards: (a) A clearance pattern must be auditable. (b) A clearance pattern...

  2. Vest Chest Physiotherapy Airway Clearance is Associated with Nitric Oxide Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Joseph H; Wyatt, Todd A; Pavlik, Jacqueline A; Sarna, Pawanjit S; Murphy, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Background. Vest chest physiotherapy (VCPT) enhances airway clearance in cystic fibrosis (CF) by an unknown mechanism. Because cilia are sensitive to nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that VCPT enhances clearance by changing NO metabolism. Methods. Both normal subjects and stable CF subjects had pre- and post-VCPT airway clearance assessed using nasal saccharin transit time (NSTT) followed by a collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analyzed for NO metabolites (NO x ). Results. VCPT shorted NSTT by 35% in normal and stable CF subjects with no difference observed between the groups. EBC NO x concentrations decreased 68% in control subjects after VCPT (before = 115 ± 32  μ M versus after = 37 ± 17  μ M; P < 0.002). CF subjects had a trend toward lower EBC NO x . Conclusion. We found an association between VCPT-stimulated clearance and exhaled NO x levels in human subjects. We speculate that VCPT stimulates clearance via increased NO metabolism.

  3. Stress analysis method for a clearance fit bolt under bearing loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Naik, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present, simple analysis method for bolt hole clearance stresses in mechanically fastened joints, an inverse formulation is used with a finite element analysis. Conditions along the bolt hole contact arc are specified by displacement constraint equations. The method was applied to a single fastener clearance-fit joint with typical clearance values, for the cases of a rigid, frictionless bolt and a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate. Results indicate that the contact arc, as well as the peak stresses around the hole (and their locations), were strongly influenced by the clearance. After a minor initial nonlinearity, peak stresses varied linearly with applied load. Clearance levels are found to have only a minor influence on overall joint stiffness.

  4. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic...

  5. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  6. Cardiopulmonary fitness and respirator clearance: an update.

    PubMed

    Belafsky, Sheri; Vlach, Justin; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses five key questions regarding respirator clearance: What is the efficacy of different methods of respirator clearance? Which diagnostic test is most predictive of cardiac event during respirator use? Is spirometry accurate in predicting respiratory distress/insufficiency during respirator use? Is exercise tolerance testing accurate in predicting cardiac injury during respirator use? Which periodicity of clearance evaluations is most protective against cardiac event during respirator use? The medical literature was searched using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Relevant articles were reviewed to assess current recommendations and practices in respirator clearance. Between the years 1970 and 2011, 144 articles were identified, and 21 were included in this review. Current recommendations for respirator clearance are based on consensus rather than outcome studies, and opinions differed between expert sources. Many authors observed the need for cost-effective respirator clearance, but none proposed evidence-based strategies. Prospective studies on respirator clearance that evaluate cardiac and pulmonary outcomes are necessary to establish an evidence base for improving the validity, efficiency, and consistency of respirator clearance testing.

  7. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  8. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  9. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  10. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export...

  11. AHERA CLEARANCE AT TWENTY ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted during the summer of 1988 to document Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) clearance air-sampling practices and clearance concentrations of airborne asbestos at 20 asbestos-abatement sites in New Jersey. Each abatement took place in a school buildi...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7028 Section 57.7028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck or...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand clearance. 57.7018 Section 57.7018 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. Drilling—Underground Only ...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand clearance. 56.7018 Section 56.7018 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or centralizer while drilling. ...

  4. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  5. 30 CFR 56.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 56.11010 Section 56.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... warning signs or similar devices shall be provided to indicate an impaired clearance....

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  7. Anthrax edema toxin impairs clearance in mice.

    PubMed

    Sastalla, Inka; Tang, Shixing; Crown, Devorah; Liu, Shihui; Eckhaus, Michael A; Hewlett, Indira K; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2012-02-01

    The anthrax edema toxin (ET) of Bacillus anthracis is composed of the receptor-binding component protective antigen (PA) and of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic moiety, edema factor (EF). Uptake of ET into cells raises intracellular concentrations of the secondary messenger cyclic AMP, thereby impairing or activating host cell functions. We report here on a new consequence of ET action in vivo. We show that in mouse models of toxemia and infection, serum PA concentrations were significantly higher in the presence of enzymatically active EF. These higher concentrations were not caused by ET-induced inhibition of PA endocytosis; on the contrary, ET induced increased PA binding and uptake of the PA oligomer in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the PA receptors TEM8 and CMG2 in both myeloid and nonmyeloid cells. ET effects on protein clearance from circulation appeared to be global and were not limited to PA. ET also impaired the clearance of ovalbumin, green fluorescent protein, and EF itself, as well as the small molecule biotin when these molecules were coinjected with the toxin. Effects on injected protein levels were not a result of general increase in protein concentrations due to fluid loss. Functional markers for liver and kidney were altered in response to ET. Concomitantly, ET caused phosphorylation and activation of the aquaporin-2 water channel present in the principal cells of the collecting ducts of the kidneys that are responsible for fluid homeostasis. Our data suggest that in vivo, ET alters circulatory protein and small molecule pharmacokinetics by an as-yet-undefined mechanism, thereby potentially allowing a prolonged circulation of anthrax virulence factors such as EF during infection.

  8. Effect of prior immobilization on muscular glucose clearance in resting and running rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vissing, J.; Ohkuwa, Tetsuo; Ploug, T.; Galbo, H. Nagoya Institute of Technology )

    1988-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown that prior disuse impairs the glucose clearance of red skeletal muscle because of a developed insensitivity to insulin. We studied whether an impaired glucose clearance is present in vivo in 42-h immobilized muscles of resting rats and, furthermore, whether the exercise-induced increase in glucose clearance of red muscles is affected by prior immobilization. The 2-({sup 3}H)deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) bolus injection method was used to determine glucose clearance of individual muscles. At rest, glucose clearance was markedly impaired in rats with previously immobilized red muscles compared with nonimmobilized control rats. During running, glucose clearance did not differ between muscles in previously immobilized and control rats. Insulin levels were always similar in the two groups and decreased during exercise. Intracellular nonphosphorylated 2DG was present in tissues with high glucose clearances. In conclusion, 42 h of immobilization markedly impairs glucose clearance of resting red muscle fibers in vivo. Apparently, physical inactivity in particular affects steps involved in insulin-mediated action that are not part of contraction-induced glucose uptake and metabolism. Presence of intracellular 2DG shows that separate determination of phosphorylated 2DG is necessary for accurate estimates of glucose metabolism and that accumulation of phosphorylated 2DG does not accurately reflect glucose transport.

  9. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni, Sayed H.; Davis, Scott L.; Ford, Ryan; Liu, James C.; Marshall, Elaine; Schwahn, Scott O.; Welch, Keith

    2017-09-01

    A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property) from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1) clearance criteria, 2) process knowledge, and 3) measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  10. Nasal mucociliary clearance after radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stringer, S P; Stiles, W; Slattery, W H; Krumerman, J; Parsons, J T; Mendenhall, W M; Cassisi, N J

    1995-04-01

    Irradiation has been demonstrated to cause decreased mucociliary clearance in animal models. We sought to verify this effect clinically by using the saccharin transport test to evaluate nasal mucociliary clearance in 9 patients previously treated with radiation therapy to the nasal cavity. The patients also completed a questionnaire examining the prevalence of nasal symptoms before and after radiation therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy had no clearance of saccharin from the nasal cavity at a minimum of 20 minutes. The controls had a median clearance time of 5 minutes. The patients noted a higher prevalence of nasal congestion, drainage, and facial pain after radiation therapy. This study demonstrates that radiation therapy to the nasal cavity causes a decrease in nasal mucociliary clearance. This alteration should be considered when selecting therapy for malignancies in the nasal area.

  11. Lung-clearance mechanisms following inhalation of acid sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Silbaugh, S.A.; Carpenter, R.L.; Rowatt, J.D.; Hill, J.O.

    1982-08-01

    These studies have indicated that acute exposures (1-6 hrs) to sulfuric acid at levels of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/ can produce impairments in mucous clearance. The impairments can last for up to a week following a 1 hr exposure. These effects and studies by others suggest that high sulfate levels in polluted conditions may be one factor in observed increases of hospital visits for respiratory problems. Long term exposures to elevated levels of sulfates resulting in decreases of clearance could also be an initiating factor in producing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These studies have also shown that it is the larger size fraction (0.6 to 1.0 ..mu..m) of sulfuric acid mist in the urban aerosol which is predominantly responsible for at least the acute effects.

  12. DOD Personnel Clearances. DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-13

    Services, House of Representatives DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry...Personnel Clearances . DOD Faces Multiple Challenges in Its Efforts to Improve Clearance Processes for Industry Personnel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Accountability Office Why GAO Did This Study Highlights Accountability Integrity Reliability February 13, 2008 DOD PERSONNEL CLEARANCES DOD Faces Multiple

  13. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

  15. The measurement of dog gastric mucosal blood flow by radioactive aniline clearance compared with amidopyrine clearance

    PubMed Central

    Curwain, B. P.; Holton, Pamela

    1973-01-01

    1. Methods for the estimation of radioactive aniline in body fluids are described. The recovery of aniline added to blood, plasma and gastric juice was over 90% of the recovery from saline. 2. In the doses used aniline caused methaemoglobinaemia of 5-11% of total haemoglobin. No other effect was detected. Gastric secretion was also unaffected. 3. Aniline clearance increased in parallel with acid secretion from Heidenhain pouches in conscious dogs and in anaesthetized dogs. In conscious dogs the ratio of aniline clearance to acid secretion was significantly higher for histamine stimulation than for pentagastrin stimulation. 4. Aniline and amidopyrine clearances were compared simultaneously in the same dogs. Aniline clearance was about 80% of amidopyrine clearance. 5. The proportion of aniline bound to plasma proteins was measured by two methods and found to be 25%. When aniline clearance was corrected for plasma binding, aniline and amidopyrine clearances were equal. PMID:4689959

  16. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  17. Effect of posture on creatinine clearance in late pregnancy and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Supatra; Imrittha, Nathi

    2008-06-01

    To assess creatinine clearance that indicates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and to demonstrate the effect of posture on creatinine clearance in late pregnancy compared to the non-pregnant state. Twenty-six healthy pregnant women aged 19-30 years were studied for two sessions, first in their third trimester of pregnancy and then in a non-pregnant state at 6-12 weeks after delivery. In both sessions, creatinine clearance was assessed at three periods: the 24-h baseline, and at the end of 2-h sitting and 2-h lying (in left lateral decubitus position) periods. Urine and blood samples were collected for creatinine clearance measurement. The results showed that the 24-h creatinine clearance in late pregnancy was 28.3% higher than that in the non-pregnant state (122.6 +/- 26.2 vs 95.3 +/- 15.1 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001). In late pregnancy, after 2-h sitting, creatinine clearance decreased significantly (10%) compared to the 24-h baseline (122.6 +/- 26.2 vs 110.4 +/- 28.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001). Creatinine clearance rose back to the high baseline level after the pregnant woman laid in left lateral decubitus for 2 h. The decrease in creatinine clearance during prolonged sitting was not seen in the non-pregnant state. At any posture, the creatinine clearance was always higher in the pregnant state than in the non-pregnant. This study showed that creatinine clearance in late pregnancy was much higher than in the non-pregnant state, and was affected by sitting for up to 2 h. It might be wise for women to lay down in the left lateral decubitus position for a while after many hours of sitting when pregnancy is approaching its term.

  18. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise /sup 201/TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD.

  19. Central role for PICALM in amyloid–β blood–brain barrier transcytosis and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Sagare, Abhay P.; Ma, Qingyi; Halliday, Matthew R.; Kong, Pan; Kisler, Kassandra; Winkler, Ethan A.; Ramanathan, Anita; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun; Owens, Nelly Chuqui; Rege, Sanket V.; Si, Gabriel; Ahuja, Ashim; Zhu, Donghui; Miller, Carol A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Maeda, Manami; Maeda, Takahiro; Sugawara, Tohru; Ichida, Justin K.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2015-01-01

    PICALM is highly validated genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we report that PICALM reductions in AD and murine brain endothelium correlate with amyloid–β (Aβ) pathology and cognitive impairment. Moreover, Picalm deficiency diminishes Aβ clearance across the murine blood–brain barrier (BBB) and accelerates Aβ pathology that is reversible by endothelial PICALM re–expression. Using human brain endothelial monolayer, we show that PICALM regulates PICALM/clathrin–dependent internalization of Aβ bound to the low density lipoprotein receptor related protein–1, a key Aβ clearance receptor, and guides Aβ trafficking to Rab5 and Rab11 leading to Aβ endothelial transcytosis and clearance. PICALM levels and Aβ clearance were reduced in AD–derived endothelial monolayers, which was reversible by adenoviral–mediated PICALM transfer. iPSC–derived human endothelial cells carrying the rs3851179 protective allele exhibited higher PICALM levels and enhanced Aβ clearance. Thus, PICALM regulates Aβ BBB transcytosis and clearance that has implications for Aβ brain homeostasis and clearance therapy. PMID:26005850

  20. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  1. Airway clearance therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pisi, Giovanna; Chetta, Alfredo

    2009-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening inherited disease affecting Caucasian people. In CF, the major feature of lung disease is the retention of mucus due to impaired clearance of abnormally viscous airway secretions. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) may significantly improve mucociliary clearance and gas exchange, thereby being of clinical benefit in reducing pulmonary complications in CF patients. ACTs include conventional chest physiotherapy, active cycle of breathing techniques, autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure and high-frequency chest compression. In order to suit the needs of patients, families and care-givers, ACTs need to be individually and continuously adapted.

  2. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rachael R; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS.

  3. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  4. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  5. Shear-Joint Capability Versus Bolt Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Technical Memorandum presents theoretical study of relationships between load-bearing capabilities of shear joints that comprise plates clamped together by multiple bolts and clearances between bolts and boltholes in those joints.

  6. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  7. Voltage-clearance recommendations for printed boards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C W; Cave, G; Evans, A; Harrington, D J; Kirchenbaum, J; Martz, R E; Mierendorf, R C; Smith, G A

    1980-01-01

    Present and future trends in printed board designs point to higher circuit densities with narrower lines and closer spacings. Some designers are now laying out boards with 0.13 mm lines and spacings. The reduction of nominal spacing between conductive elements has raised questions concerning the adequacy of present voltage-clearance recommendations. The present recommendations are considered too conservative in that they are weighted with large safety factors, especially for small clearances, and are frequently disregarded by many designers. Published voltage breakdown measurements made on printed boards with comb patterns with their enhanced conductor test lengths show breakdowns occurring at much higher voltages than those specified for the clearances in existing documents. A Task Group was set up to review published breakdown measurements and to make any additional measurements necessary to provide voltage-clearance recommendations. These recommendations are reported.

  8. Shear joint capability versus bolt clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a conservative analysis approach into the determination of shear joint strength capability for typical space-flight hardware as a function of the bolt-hole clearance specified in the design are presented. These joints are comprised of high-strength steel fasteners and abutments constructed of aluminum alloys familiar to the aerospace industry. A general analytical expression was first arrived at which relates bolt-hole clearance to the bolt shear load required to place all joint fasteners into a shear transferring position. Extension of this work allowed the analytical development of joint load capability as a function of the number of fasteners, shear strength of the bolt, bolt-hole clearance, and the desired factor of safety. Analysis results clearly indicate that a typical space-flight hardware joint can withstand significant loading when less than ideal bolt hole clearances are used in the design.

  9. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H. )

    1989-12-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of {sup 201}Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) {sup 201}Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial {sup 201}Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested.

  10. Reduced glucose clearance as the major determinant of postabsorptive hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wi, J K; Kim, J K; Youn, J H

    1998-02-01

    The relationships between postabsorptive glucose concentration and hepatic glucose output (HGO) and glucose clearance were studied in rats one day after treatment with various doses of streptozotocin (STZ; 0, 15, 30, 40, 50, or 75 mg/kg; n = 6 per dose; study 1). Glucose fluxes were estimated using a prolonged (6-h) infusion of [3-3H]glucose to ensure complete tracer equilibration at hyperglycemia. Postabsorptive glucose was significantly increased at the high doses of STZ (50 and 75 mg/kg; P < 0.01) and was strongly correlated with glucose clearance across all doses (r = -0.85, P < 0.001) but less strongly with HGO (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). In the group treated with 50 mg/kg STZ, postabsorptive glucose was increased twofold compared with the control (i.e., zero dose) group, with no change in HGO and a 45% decrease in glucose clearance, indicating that the hyperglycemia was due to a decrease in glucose clearance. To understand the cellular mechanisms of decreased glucose clearance in STZ diabetic rats, skeletal muscle glucose clearance and intracellular glucose and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentrations were determined in normal and STZ (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats at their postabsorptive glucose levels as well as at matched hyperglycemia (12 mM; study 2). Glucose clearance was significantly decreased in soleus (P < 0.05) muscles of the diabetic rats, and this was associated with significantly decreased intracellular glucose and G-6-P levels at matched hyperglycemia (P < 0.05), suggestive of decreased glucose transport. In conclusion, postabsorptive hyperglycemia in STZ diabetic rats was largely due to decreased glucose clearance, although increased HGO may also have been a contributing factor at the highest STZ dose. The decrease in postabsorptive glucose clearance in STZ diabetic rats appeared to be associated with an impairment of glucose transport in soleus (type I) muscles.

  11. Airway-clearance therapy guidelines and implementation.

    PubMed

    Lester, Mary K; Flume, Patrick A

    2009-06-01

    The clearance of secretions from the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is an important component in the fight to preserve their lung function. There is excessive inflammation in the airways of these patients, which is thought to be exaggerated by ineffective mucociliary clearance and bacterial infection. In 2005 the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation formed the Pulmonary Therapies Committee to review all of the medical literature on the various airway-clearance therapies used in treating CF lung disease. The recommendations were: an airway-clearance therapy should be performed by all patients with CF, no form of airway-clearance therapy stood out as being superior to another, and that patients may express a preference of one therapy over another. They also concluded that aerobic exercise is beneficial to patients with CF, as it is to everyone, and that exercise should be a component to the overall health routine of patients with CF. The challenge for respiratory and physical therapists together with the patient/family is to develop a plan of attack through the use of various airway-clearance therapies. The respiratory and physical therapists are integral in helping patients and families develop airway-clearance routines that aid in the removal of the secretions that cause airway obstruction. There is a wide range of airway-clearance therapies that therapists can choose from when they are teaching the patients and family members the strategies of secretion removal. The questions are: What therapy is best for what age or stage of lung disease? What therapies will the patient do? And which therapies will be covered by medical insurance? These are all fundamental questions that must be answered when guiding families in finding therapies that are effective and appropriate for each CF patient's unique situation.

  12. [A renal function analysis using computed tomography. CT clearance versus 131I-hippuran clearance].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, H; Klose, K

    1992-06-01

    The CT clearance in a number of urological patients (39 patients, 25 with normal renal function) was studied by means of an "area under curve" (AUC) method, using a region of interest. 31 patients were given meglumine ioxithalamate and 8 patients Iopamidol as a contrast medium. Both for total and partial function there was highly significant correlation with isotope clearance with good reproducibility. The difference in the pharmacokinetics of the contrast media affected the absolute clearance values.

  13. ADAPTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TURBINE ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Keith M.

    2004-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center primarily deals in developing controls, dynamic models, and health management technologies for air and space propulsion systems. During the summer of 2004 I was granted the privilege of working alongside professionals who were developing an active clearance control system for commercial jet engines. Clearance, the gap between the turbine blade tip and the encompassing shroud, increases as a result of wear mechanisms and rubbing of the turbine blades on shroud. Increases in clearance cause larger specific fuel consumption (SFC) and loss of efficient air flow. This occurs because, as clearances increase, the engine must run hotter and bum more fuel to achieve the same thrust. In order to maintain efficiency, reduce fuel bum, and reduce exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the clearance must be accurately controlled to gap sizes no greater than a few hundredths of an inch. To address this problem, NASA Glenn researchers have developed a basic control system with actuators and sensors on each section of the shroud. Instead of having a large uniform metal casing, there would be sections of the shroud with individual sensors attached internally that would move slightly to reform and maintain clearance. The proposed method would ultimately save the airline industry millions of dollars.

  14. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  15. Effect of clearance on cartilage tribology in hip hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lizhang, Jia; Taylor, Simon D; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip (an artificial femoral head articulating against the natural acetabulum) is used to treat fractured necks of femur; however, there is evidence that articulation causes erosion of the cartilage, resulting in pain for the patient. Parameters that may influence this cartilage erosion include head material and roughness, clearance between the head and acetabulum and activity levels of the patient. This study has assessed the effect of clearance of hemi-arthroplasty articulations on the contact stress, friction and cartilage deformation in an in vitro tribological simulation of the hemi-arthroplasty joint that applied dynamic loads and motion. It has been demonstrated that peak contact stress increased from 5.6 to 10.6 MPa as radial clearance increased from small (<0.6 mm) to extra-large (>1.8 mm). In all samples, friction factor increased with time and was significantly less with extra-large clearances compared to small (<0.6 mm), medium (0.6-1.2 mm) and large (1.2-1.8 mm) clearances. The cartilage deformation observed was significantly greater in acetabulum samples paired to give small or extra-large clearances compared to those with medium or large clearances.

  16. Predictive value of the efficacy of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients using free water clearance.

    PubMed

    Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Nakamura, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Shibata, Hidetaka; Honda, Takuya; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Tolvaptan, an arginine vasopressin V2 antagonist, is available for patients with refractory ascites. Free water clearance was evaluated as a predictor of tolvaptan efficacy. Twenty-one patients with refractory ascites were enrolled in the present study. Liver function test, renal function test, urine volume, free water clearance and osmotic pressure were measured at baseline (day 0) and for each dose of tolvaptan (1.875, 3.75 and 7.5 mg), and compared for efficacy. Tolvaptan increased urine volume and free water clearance decreased osmotic pressure at each dose of tolvaptan, compared to pretreatment levels. Compared to baseline, an increased volume of free water clearance at 1.875 mg of tolvaptan showed a significant correlation with body weight reduction (r=0.480 and P=0.028). Any factors (age, liver function test and renal function test) at pretreatment showed no significant correlation with body weight reduction. An increased volume of urine and osmotic pressure at each dose was not significantly correlated with the tolvaptan effect. Compared to baseline, an increased volume of free water clearance at 1.875 mg of tolvaptan in responders was significantly increased, compared to non-responders (270±241 ml/day: 27±257 ml/day; P=0.042). In conclusion, an increased volume of free water clearance on day 1 was significantly associated with body weight reduction. Free water clearance could be a simple and useful marker for the prediction of tolvaptan efficacy.

  17. Predictive value of the efficacy of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients using free water clearance

    PubMed Central

    MIYAAKI, HISAMITSU; NAKAMURA, YUTAKA; ICHIKAWA, TATSUKI; TAURA, NAOTA; MIUMA, SATOSHI; SHIBATA, HIDETAKA; HONDA, TAKUYA; NAKAO, KAZUHIKO

    2015-01-01

    Tolvaptan, an arginine vasopressin V2 antagonist, is available for patients with refractory ascites. Free water clearance was evaluated as a predictor of tolvaptan efficacy. Twenty-one patients with refractory ascites were enrolled in the present study. Liver function test, renal function test, urine volume, free water clearance and osmotic pressure were measured at baseline (day 0) and for each dose of tolvaptan (1.875, 3.75 and 7.5 mg), and compared for efficacy. Tolvaptan increased urine volume and free water clearance decreased osmotic pressure at each dose of tolvaptan, compared to pretreatment levels. Compared to baseline, an increased volume of free water clearance at 1.875 mg of tolvaptan showed a significant correlation with body weight reduction (r=0.480 and P=0.028). Any factors (age, liver function test and renal function test) at pretreatment showed no significant correlation with body weight reduction. An increased volume of urine and osmotic pressure at each dose was not significantly correlated with the tolvaptan effect. Compared to baseline, an increased volume of free water clearance at 1.875 mg of tolvaptan in responders was significantly increased, compared to non-responders (270±241 ml/day: 27±257 ml/day; P=0.042). In conclusion, an increased volume of free water clearance on day 1 was significantly associated with body weight reduction. Free water clearance could be a simple and useful marker for the prediction of tolvaptan efficacy. PMID:26623035

  18. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  19. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  20. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  1. Glomangiosarcoma Arising from a Prior Biopsy Site

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Amy M.; Jambhekar, Amani V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Glomangiosarcoma represents a rare malignant variant of the benign glomus tumor that typically presents as a tender, slowly growing nodule with a predilection for the lower extremities. Unlike their benign counterparts, glomangiosarcomas may display aggressive characteristics such as large size, local invasion, and a tendency to recur after excision. Although wide local excision remains the treatment of choice, rare cases of systemic metastasis have been previously reported. We present a case of glomangiosarcoma arising at a prior biopsy site after excision of an unknown soft tissue lesion. PMID:28203514

  2. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

  3. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  4. Influence of lipopolymer concentration on liposome degradation and blood clearance.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, C; Jørgensen, K; Frokjaer, S

    1999-06-10

    It is well known, that a prolonged liposome circulation time can be achieved by incorporation of lipopolymers into the lipid membrane thereby reducing interactions with destabilizing factors in the blood stream, e.g. phagocytic cells and lipoproteins. However, very little is known about the enzymatic degradation of steric hindered liposomes introduced into body fluids. In this study, the blood clearance and the PLA2 catalyzed degradation of unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes incorporated with increasing amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethyleneglycol (DPPE-PEG), was investigated. The results demonstrated an increase in PLA2 activity for increasing amounts of lipopolymer in the lipid membrane, while the liposome blood clearance was prolonged by incorporation of DPPE-PEG into the liposomes. Hence, these results suggest that it may be possible for long circulating liposomes to obtain a site specific liposome degradation and release of drug substance in tissue with high levels of PLA2.

  5. Augmented renal clearance and therapeutic monitoring of β-lactams.

    PubMed

    Udy, Andrew A; De Waele, Jan J; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Successful application of antibacterial therapy in the critically ill requires an appreciation of the complex interaction between the host, the causative pathogen and the chosen pharmaceutical. A pathophysiological change in the intensive care unit (ICU) patient challenging the 'one dose fits all' concept includes augmented renal clearance (ARC), defined as a creatinine clearance (CL(Cr)) of ≥130 mL/min. Ideally, CL(Cr) values should be obtained by a timed measured collection of urine, with plasma and urine creatinine levels. Increased renal clearance of antibiotics also occurs in the ICU patient and therefore β-lactam antibiotic exposure in the critically ill could easily lead to trough drug concentrations below therapeutic ranges. One way to document and alter drug levels is via therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The interactions of ARC and β-lactam TDM are further explored in this article in specific reference to a concomitant article in this issue of the journal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  7. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  8. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  9. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  10. 32 CFR 644.517 - Clearance of Army lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Army lands. 644.517 Section 644.517... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.517 Clearance of Army lands. The responsibility for performing clearance...

  11. 48 CFR 245.7203 - Assigning plant clearance case numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assigning plant clearance....7203 Assigning plant clearance case numbers. (a) Use a three-part, 11-character number constructed as... clearance number on DD Form 1635, Plant Clearance Case Register, or mechanized equivalent....

  12. 48 CFR 245.7202 - Establishing a plant clearance case.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance case. 245.7202 Section 245.7202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....7202 Establishing a plant clearance case. (a) Upon receipt of an acceptable inventory schedule or a DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record, the plant clearance officer shall establish a plant clearance case...

  13. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance...

  14. 48 CFR 945.603-70 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance function... Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency, the contracting officer shall assume all responsibilities of the plant clearance officer...

  15. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  16. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  17. 48 CFR 801.602-76 - Business clearance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Business clearance review... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-76 Business clearance review. (a) A business clearance review is a... obtain a business clearance review prior to award of any contract, task or delivery order, or blanket...

  18. Nonlinear kinetics of the thiamine cation in humans: saturation of nonrenal clearance and tubular reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Weber, W; Nitz, M; Looby, M

    1990-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of thiamine in plasma and urine was investigated in 13 healthy and 3 renal-insufficient volunteers. Doses ranging from 5 to 200 mg thiamine hydrochloride were administered either as an iv bolus or a 50-min infusion. A sum of 3 exponentials was used as the unit impulse response function to characterize plasma kinetics. Drug input was mathematically described as a rectangular pulse of length 2 or 50 min. Total clearance, defined as the reciprocal of the area under the unit impulse response function, was found to depend on dose and creatinine clearance, as shown by a multiple nonlinear regression analysis. The nonrenal component of the total clearance was demonstrated to be dose-dependent, whereas its mean renal component was only dependent on creatinine clearance. At high plasma concentrations renal clearance approached renal plasma flow, and remained constant during the decline to near physiological plasma levels. With further decline under a characteristic threshold concentration, renal clearance decreased far below the glomerular filtration rate, indicating tubular reabsorption. Binding to plasma proteins was excluded by ultrafiltration experiments. The process of renal excretion can be described by a combination of glomerular filtration, flow-dependent tubular secretion, and saturable tubular reabsorption. The concentration dependency of renal clearance was reflected in its mean value, which was only 76% of its maximum value measured in the higher concentration range. In the dose range studied, most of the given dose had already been linearly excreted before tubular reabsorption became evident, and consequently the measured mean renal clearances did not differ enough from one another to exhibit the expected dose dependency. With increasing dose a shift of the cleared dose fraction from the nonrenal to the renal side was observed. Saturated nonrenal clearance alone could explain this effect.

  19. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  20. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  1. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  2. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  3. Correlation of cystatin-C with glomerular filtration rate by inulin clearance in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A R; Ananth Karumanchi, S; Fan, S-L; Horowitz, G L; Hollenberg, N K; Graves, S W; Seely, E W

    2012-01-01

    To test utility of cystatin-C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy, we performed serial correlations with inulin clearance during pregnancy and postpartum. Twelve subjects received inulin infusions and serum cystatin-C at three time points. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Cystatin-C levels ranged 0.66-1.48 mg/L during pregnancy, and 0.72-1.26 mg/L postpartum. Inulin clearance ranged 130-188 mL/min during pregnancy, and 110-167 mL/min postpartum. Cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance at any time point. Serum cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance during pregnancy or postpartum.

  4. Correlation of Cystatin-C with Glomerular Filtration Rate by Inulin Clearance in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Fan, Shu-Ling; Horowitz, Gary L.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test utility of cystatin-C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy, we performed serial correlations with inulin clearance during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods Twelve subjects received inulin infusions and serum cystatin-C at three time points. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Results Cystatin-C levels ranged 0.66 to 1.48 mg/L during pregnancy, and 0.72 to 1.26 mg/L postpartum. Inulin clearance ranged 130 to 188 ml/min during pregnancy, and 110 to 167 ml/min postpartum. Cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance at any time point. Conclusion Serum cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance during pregnancy or postpartum. PMID:22008011

  5. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: airway clearance therapies.

    PubMed

    Flume, Patrick A; Robinson, Karen A; O'Sullivan, Brian P; Finder, Jonathan D; Vender, Robert L; Willey-Courand, Donna-Beth; White, Terry B; Marshall, Bruce C

    2009-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized by dehydration of airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, there is difficulty clearing pathogens from the lung, and patients experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. Clearance of airway secretions has been a primary therapy for those with CF, and a variety of airway clearance therapies (ACTs) have been developed. Because ACTs are intrusive and require considerable time and effort, it is important that appropriate techniques are recommended on the basis of available evidence of efficacy and safety. Therefore, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for each therapy and provide guidance for their use. A systematic review was commissioned, which identified 7 unique reviews and 13 additional controlled trials that addressed one or more of the comparisons of interest and were deemed eligible for inclusion. Recommendations for use of the ACTs were made, balancing the quality of evidence and the potential harms and benefits. The committee determined that, although there is a paucity of controlled trials that assess the long-term effects of ACTs, the evidence quality overall for their use in CF is fair and the benefit is moderate. The committee recommends airway clearance be performed on a regular basis in all patients. There are no ACTs demonstrated to be superior to others, so the prescription of ACTs should be individualized. Aerobic exercise is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for airway clearance and for its additional benefits to overall health.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Samay; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Tanaka, Takeshi; Doe, Jenna M.; Boe, Darren M.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Janssen, William J.; Lee, Chun G.; Elias, Jack A.; Bratton, Donna; Tuder, Rubin M.; Henson, Peter M.; Vandivier, R. William

    2012-01-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells from the lung by alveolar macrophages is important for the maintenance of tissue structure and function. Lung tissue from humans with emphysema contains increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mice treated with VEGF receptor inhibitors have increased numbers of apoptotic cells and develop emphysema. We hypothesized that VEGF regulates apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages (AM) via its interaction with VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF R1). Our data show that the uptake of apoptotic cells by murine AMs and human monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by depletion of VEGF and that VEGF activates Rac1. Antibody blockade or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF R1 activity also decreased apoptotic cell uptake ex vivo. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF significantly enhanced apoptotic cell uptake by AMs in vivo. These results indicate that VEGF serves a positive regulatory role via its interaction with VEGF R1 to activate Rac1 and enhance AM apoptotic cell clearance. PMID:22307908

  7. Active Piezoelectric Structures for Tip Clearance Management Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Managing blade tip clearance in turbomachinery stages is critical to developing advanced subsonic propulsion systems. Active casing structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators appear to be a promising solution. They can control static and dynamic tip clearance, compensate for uneven deflections, and accomplish electromechanical coupling at the material level. In addition, they have a compact design. To assess the feasibility of this concept and assist the development of these novel structures, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed in-house computational capabilities for composite structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors, and subsequently used them to simulate candidate active casing structures. The simulations indicated the potential of active casings to modify the blade tip clearance enough to improve stage efficiency. They also provided valuable design information, such as preliminary actuator configurations (number and location) and the corresponding voltage patterns required to compensate for uneven casing deformations. An active ovalization of a casing with four discrete piezoceramic actuators attached on the outer surface is shown. The center figure shows the predicted radial displacements along the hoop direction that are induced when electrostatic voltage is applied at the piezoceramic actuators. This work, which has demonstrated the capabilities of in-house computational models to analyze and design active casing structures, is expected to contribute toward the development of advanced subsonic engines.

  8. Enhancing the effectiveness of clearance for physical activity participation: background and overall process.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Warburton, Darren E R; Makarski, Julie; McKenzie, Donald C; Shephard, Roy J; Stone, James A; Charlesworth, S; Gledhill, Norman

    2011-07-01

    Recent feedback from physical activity (PA) participants, fitness professionals, and physicians has indicated that there are limitations to the utility and effectiveness of the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening tools for PA participation. The aim of this study was to have authorities in exercise and chronic disease management to work with an expert panel to increase the effectiveness of clearance for PA participation using an evidence-based consensus approach and the well-established Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument. Systematic reviews were conducted to develop a new PA clearance protocol involving risk stratification and a decision-tree process. Evidence-based support was sought for enabling qualified exercise professionals to have a direct role in the PA participation clearance process. The PAR-Q+ was developed to use formalized probes to clarify problematic responses and to explore issues arising from currently diagnosed chronic disease or condition. The original PARmed-X tool is replaced with an interactive computer program (ePARmed-X+) to clear prospective PA participants for either unrestricted or supervised PA or to direct them to obtain medical clearance. Evidence-based validation was also provided for the direct role of highly qualified university-educated exercise professionals in the PA clearance process. The risks associated with exercise during pregnancy were also evaluated. The systematic review and consensus process, conforming to the AGREE Instrument, has provided a sound evidence base for enhanced effectiveness of the clearance process for PA participation of both asymptomatic populations and persons with chronic diseases or conditions.

  9. How Robust Are Malaria Parasite Clearance Rates as Indicators of Drug Effectiveness and Resistance?

    PubMed

    Hastings, Ian M; Kay, Katherine; Hodel, Eva Maria

    2015-10-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently the first-line drugs for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the most deadly of the human malarias. Malaria parasite clearance rates estimated from patients' blood following ACT treatment have been widely adopted as a measure of drug effectiveness and as surveillance tools for detecting the presence of potential artemisinin resistance. This metric has not been investigated in detail, nor have its properties or potential shortcomings been identified. Herein, the pharmacology of drug treatment, parasite biology, and human immunity are combined to investigate the dynamics of parasite clearance following ACT. This approach parsimoniously recovers the principal clinical features and dynamics of clearance. Human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates, unless or until artemisinin killing has fallen to near-ineffective levels. Clearance rates are therefore highly insensitive metrics for surveillance that may lead to overconfidence, as even quite substantial reductions in drug sensitivity may not be detected as lower clearance rates. Equally serious is the use of clearance rates to quantify the impact of ACT regimen changes, as this strategy will plausibly miss even very substantial increases in drug effectiveness. In particular, the malaria community may be missing the opportunity to dramatically increase ACT effectiveness through regimen changes, particularly through a switch to twice-daily regimens and/or increases in artemisinin dosing levels. The malaria community therefore appears overreliant on a single metric of drug effectiveness, the parasite clearance rate, that has significant and serious shortcomings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. 32 CFR 536.112 - Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.112 Section 536.112 National... arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States)....

  11. Predicting Clearance Mechanism in Drug Discovery: Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS).

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; Steyn, Stefanus J; Allerton, Charlotte; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2015-12-01

    Early prediction of clearance mechanisms allows for the rapid progression of drug discovery and development programs, and facilitates risk assessment of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with drug interactions and pharmacogenomics. Here we propose a scientific framework--Extended Clearance Classification System (ECCS)--which can be used to predict the predominant clearance mechanism (rate-determining process) based on physicochemical properties and passive membrane permeability. Compounds are classified as: Class 1A--metabolism as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with molecular weight (MW) ≤400 Da), Class 1B--transporter-mediated hepatic uptake as primary systemic clearance mechanism (high permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), Class 2--metabolism as primary clearance mechanism (high permeability bases/neutrals), Class 3A--renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW ≤400 Da), Class 3B--transporter mediated hepatic uptake or renal clearance (low permeability acids/zwitterions with MW >400 Da), and Class 4--renal clearance (low permeability bases/neutrals). The performance of the ECCS framework was validated using 307 compounds with single clearance mechanism contributing to ≥70% of systemic clearance. The apparent permeability across clonal cell line of Madin - Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, with a cut-off of 5 × 10(-6) cm/s was used for permeability classification, and the ionization (at pH7) was assigned based on calculated pKa. The proposed scheme correctly predicted the rate-determining clearance mechanism to be either metabolism, hepatic uptake or renal for ~92% of total compounds. We discuss the general characteristics of each ECCS class, as well as compare and contrast the framework with the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS

  12. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela; Holland, Anne E

    2013-05-31

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production and these features may be associated with progressive decline in clinical status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine the effects of ACTs on the rate of acute exacerbations, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis.Secondary: to determine whether a) ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis and b) ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to October 2012, PEDro in October 2012 and handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT to no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies involving 51 participants met the inclusion criteria of the review, all of which were cross-over design. Four studies were on adults with stable bronchiectasis, and the other study was on clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies were single treatment sessions, two were longer-term studies. The interventions varied and some control groups received a sham intervention while others were inactive. The methodological quality of the studies was variable and the studies were not able to blind participants and personal. Heterogeneity between studies precluded these data from meta-analysis and the review was therefore narrative.One study on 20 adults comparing an airway oscillatory device with no treatment found no significant

  13. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Holland, Anne E

    2015-11-23

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production, features that may be associated with progressive decline in clinical and functional status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine effects of ACTs on rates of acute exacerbation, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. Secondary: to determine whether:• ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis; and• ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to November 2015 and PEDro in March 2015, and we handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT versus no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Seven studies involving 105 participants met the inclusion criteria of this review, six of which were cross-over in design. Six studies included adults with stable bronchiectasis; the other study examined clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies provided single treatment sessions, two lasted 15 to 21 days and two were longer-term studies. Interventions varied; some control groups received a sham intervention and others were inactive. The methodological quality of these studies was variable, with most studies failing to use concealed allocation for group assignment and with absence of blinding of participants and personnel for outcome measure assessment. Heterogeneity between studies precluded inclusion of

  14. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mucociliary clearance from the calf lung.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C D

    1983-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance rate constants for ten calves were obtained using Technetium 99m-sulphur colloid complex. The mean rate constant measured at the lung for all calves was 0.012 (+/- 0.009) min-1 (half-life 58 minutes). The clearance rate constants obtained from measurements made at the larynx were higher (0.02 +/- 0.007 min-1), although not significantly higher, than those determined from measurements taken at the lung. The constants can be used to predict the particle burden on the lungs of calves kept under husbandry systems of varying air hygiene. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6640409

  16. [Dose and time dependency of "CT clearance"].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, H A; Klose, K J; Dexheimer, C; von Steinijans

    1989-06-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of "CT clearance" on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be preferred in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes.

  17. Intradialytic clearance of opioids: methadone versus hydromorphone.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Ryan; Giladi, Hili; Brecht, Krista; Ware, Mark A; Hebert, Terence E; Joseph, Lawrence; Shir, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic pain associated with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. The stability of opioid analgesia during dialysis may vary among different opioids. No studies to date have corroborated this clinical observation by directly comparing plasma concentrations of different opioids during dialysis. We compared changes in peridialysis plasma concentrations of 2 pharmacokinetically distinct opioids, methadone and hydromorphone (HM). Fourteen dialysis patients with chronic pain received either methadone or HM for at least 2 weeks before beginning the study. Blood samples were obtained immediately before, during, and after hemodialysis in 2 separate dialysis sessions, 1 week apart, and were analyzed for opioid concentrations. Methadone plasma concentrations were more stable during hemodialysis compared to HM: the mean percent change of methadone plasma levels was 14.9% ± 8.2% (± SD) compared with 55.1% ± 8.1% in the HM treatment group, a difference of 40.2% (95% confidence interval 17.14 to 63.14). The mean plasma clearance of methadone was 19.9 ± 8.5 mL/min (± SD) compared with 105.7 ± 8.3 mL/min for HM, a difference of 85.7 mL/min (95% confidence interval 61.9 to 109.1). There were no differences between the 2 opioid groups in pain scores, side effect profile, and quality of life. Methadone therapy was not associated with an increased rate of adverse events. If confirmed by larger clinical studies, methadone could be considered as one of the opioids of choice in dialysis patients.

  18. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  19. Fibrous dysplasia arising from the calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Isefuku, S; Hatori, M; Ehara, S; Hosaka, M; Ito, K; Kokubun, S

    1999-11-01

    A case of an 18-year-old woman with fibrous dysplasia arising in the calcaneus, which is extremely rare, is reported, with the emphasis placed on differential diagnosis from low-grade central osteosarcoma. She had a severe pain in her left ankle after sprain. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent lesion measuring 6.3 x 2.5 cm with a sclerotic margin in the left calcaneus. CT scans showed a well-defined lytic lesion with disruption of the lateral cortex and an ossification or calcification in its center. On MR imaging, the lesion had isointensities and high intensities on T1 and T2 weighted images, respectively, but its central portions showed lower intensities both on T1 and T2 weighted images. The lesion was enhanced with gadolinium except for the central portions. The specimen obtained by open biopsy consisted of fibrous tissue and foci of irregular woven bone. None of the nuclear atypia, mitoses, longitudinal stream of bone or invasive nature of growth was detected. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was histologically made. The lesion was curetted and packed with autogenous bone chips. No evidence of recurrence was noted postoperatively.

  20. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    PubMed

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  1. Quantum discord of states arising from graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Supriyo; Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2017-08-01

    Quantum discord refers to an important aspect of quantum correlations for bipartite quantum systems. In our earlier works, we have shown that corresponding to every graph (combinatorial) there are quantum states whose properties are reflected in the structure of the corresponding graph. Here, we attempt to develop a graph theoretic study of quantum discord that corresponds to a necessary and sufficient condition of zero quantum discord states which says that the blocks of density matrix corresponding to a zero quantum discord state are normal and commute with each other. These blocks have a one-to-one correspondence with some specific subgraphs of the graph which represents the quantum state. We obtain a number of graph theoretic properties representing normality and commutativity of a set of matrices which are indeed arising from the given graph. Utilizing these properties, we define graph theoretic measures for normality and commutativity that results in a formulation of graph theoretic quantum discord. We identify classes of quantum states with zero discord using the developed formulation.

  2. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  3. When a Cleared Rape Is Not Cleared: A Multilevel Study of Arrest and Exceptional Clearance.

    PubMed

    Walfield, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    As rape remains one of the most underreported and least likely to be cleared of the violent crimes, it is of paramount importance to understand the factors associated with the likelihood of a case being cleared by law enforcement. This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), and a multilevel modeling approach to examine the relationship between victim, offender, incident, and police department characteristics contrasting the two types of clearance: arrest and exceptional clearance. The latter occurs due to reasons outside of law enforcement's control and despite being considered cleared, the offender is not arrested, charged, nor turned over for prosecution. Of the 16,231 cleared rapes in 238 departments, nearly half (47%) results in exceptional clearance when the victim refuses to cooperate or when prosecution is declined. Incident-level variables have a greater effect on the likelihood of exceptional clearance than victim and offender variables. The department explained a nontrivial amount of variation in the dependent variable, as 37% of the variance in type of clearance was between-department variation. Implications for future research on exceptional clearance and NIBRS are discussed.

  4. AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Airway Clearance Therapies in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Shawna L; Rubin, Bruce K; Haas, Carl F; Volsko, Teresa A; Drescher, Gail S; O'Malley, Catherine A

    2015-07-01

    Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis. The routine use of bronchodilators to aid in secretion clearance is not recommended. The routine use of aerosolized N-acetylcysteine to improve airway clearance is not recommended. Aerosolized agents to change mucus biophysical properties or promote airway clearance are not recommended for adult or pediatric patients with neuromuscular disease, respiratory muscle weakness, or impaired cough. Mucolytics are not recommended to treat atelectasis in postoperative adult or pediatric patients, and the routine administration of bronchodilators to postoperative patients is not recommended. There is no high-level evidence related to the use of bronchodilators, mucolytics, mucokinetics, and novel therapy to promote airway clearance in these populations.

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    Element of the Intelligence Community .................... 7 i. The time in days to process the shortest and longest security clearance determination...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Intelligence Authorization Act (IAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 20101 requires the President to submit an annual Report on Security

  7. 29 CFR 1918.41 - Coaming clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hatch beams and hatch covers are not protected by a coaming at least 24-inch (.61 m) high, a taut... athwartship hatch beams, and at both ends of those hatches with fore and aft hatch beams, before intermediate deck hatch covers and hatch beams are removed or replaced. Exception: The three-foot (.91 m) clearance...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7018 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7018 Hand clearance. Persons shall not hold the drill steel while...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  11. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Personnel Security Investigative Requirements § 154.16...

  12. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security clearance. 154.16 Section 154.16 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Personnel Security Investigative Requirements § 154.16...

  13. Effects of Bearing Clearance on Turbopump Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Effects of bearing clearances, or "dead bands," on bearing loads and rotor stability in turbopumps examined in a 194-page report. Relatively simple mathematical force model for analyzing effects highlighted. Report shows nonlinear characteristics resulting from bearing dead bands have significant effect on dynamics of turbomachinery and not ignored as in the past.

  14. Clearance of seborrhoeic keratoses with topical dobesilate

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Salgüero, Irene; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    A patient with two seborrhoeic keratoses in the face received a single daily application of dobesilate cream during 6 months. Dobesilate achieved complete clearance of the seborrhoeic keratosis lesions with good cosmoses, suggesting that this compound is a safe and efficient candidate in the treatment of seborrhoeic keratoses. PMID:22729328

  15. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.11010 - Stairstep clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stairstep clearance. 57.11010 Section 57.11010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... steps shall be a minimum of seven feet, or suitable warning signs or similar devices shall be...

  17. Carbamazepine clearance and seizure stability during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Emily L; Stowe, Zachary N; Ritchie, James C; Newport, D Jeffrey; Newman, Melanee L; Knight, Bettina; Pennell, Page B

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the alterations in total and free carbamazepine (CBZ) and in total and free carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EPO) clearances during pregnancy, to calculate the change in free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-EPO during pregnancy, and to determine whether seizure worsening is associated with a low ratio to nonpregnant baseline concentration of total or free CBZ or CBZ-EPO. Women on CBZ were enrolled before conception or during pregnancy in this prospective, observational study. Concomitant medications and seizure frequency were recorded. Serum total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO were collected at each visit. Changes in the clearance of all four compounds and free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-EPO were compared with nonpregnant baseline. During pregnancy, the ratios to baseline concentrations of total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO were compared for months with and without increased seizure frequency. Total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO clearances were calculated in 15 pregnancies in 12 women. Clearances did not change for any of these compounds during pregnancy. The free fraction of CBZ increased from 0.23 at baseline to a maximum of 0.32 in the third trimester (p=0.008). In the six women on CBZ monotherapy with adequate seizure diaries and blood sampling, seizure worsening did not correspond to a ratio to baseline concentration of less than 0.65 for total or free CBZ or CBZ-EPO. In conclusion, total and free CBZ and CBZ-EPO clearances did not change substantially during pregnancy, and seizure frequency worsening was not associated with decreased concentrations of total or free CBZ; therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring may not be necessary for all women on CBZ during pregnancy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed before definitive recommendations can be made. Carbamazepine monotherapy may be a relatively safe and cost effective treatment option for women with focal epilepsy syndromes during pregnancy.

  18. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone. ...

  19. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program...

  20. The assessment of glomerular function: creatinine clearance or plasma creatinine?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D. B.; Dillon, S.; Payne, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Plasma creatinine concentration is superior to creatinine clearance for the detection of abnormal glomerular function, of changes of glomerular function in patients with chronic renal disease. Creatinine clearance should be abandoned as the routine assessment of glomerular function. PMID:673986

  1. Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection.

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, B; Nunnari, G; Nigro, L

    2009-05-01

    A transient reduction of hepatitis C virus replication during the course of acute hepatitis A virus infection has already been reported in the literature. The present study reports the case study of a subject with chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus who went on to develop an acute hepatitis A. From the early onset of acute disease, hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid became undetectable. Following recovery from acute hepatitis, alanine amino-transferase levels became persistently normal and liver biopsy revealed a reduction in the Knodell histological activity index score. Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance was maintained up to 4 years after the onset of acute hepatitis A. During the course of the acute disease, a sharp increase in interferon gamma levels was detected in serum and in the supernatant of both unstimulated and phytoemagglutinin/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an immunological mechanism related to interferon gamma production.

  2. WWW-based data entry for document clearance requests

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiak, D.M.

    1997-10-08

    All documents created at Argonne must be cleared before being published. The clearance process is coordinated by the Publications and Record Services. The Electronic Document Review and Clearance System (EDRC) consists of a Web-based system for submission of clearance requests, an electronic staging area for document awaiting review, and Web-based review and clearance of documents. This report covers the document clearing process, the EDRC system, expected benefits/costs, and a demonstration.

  3. Adjustable Bearing System with Selectively Optimized Installational Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-30

    ÄÖQ¥ÄL1HE mssx^. Navy Case No. 78,325 PATENTS ADJUSTABLE BEARING SYSTEM WITH SELECTIVELY OPTIMIZED INSTALLATIONAL CLEARANCES BACKGROUND OF THE... clearance 7 conditions. 8 9 10 .. small range of clearances within which to accommodate various operational conditions. Thus, a 12 very tight... clearance is extremely difficult to achieve for certain installations or conditions such as 13 quiet submarine control surface operation and

  4. Inflammation and Organ Failure Severely Affect Midazolam Clearance in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Vet, Nienke J; Brussee, Janneke M; de Hoog, Matthijs; Mooij, Miriam G; Verlaat, Carin W M; Jerchel, Isabel S; van Schaik, Ron H N; Koch, Birgit C P; Tibboel, Dick; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2016-07-01

    Various in vitro, animal, and limited human adult studies suggest a profound inhibitory effect of inflammation and disease on cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated drug metabolism. Studies showing this relationship in critically ill patients are lacking, whereas clearance of many CYP3A drug substrates may be decreased, potentially leading to toxicity. To prospectively study the relationship between inflammation, organ failure, and midazolam clearance as a validated marker of CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism in critically ill children. From 83 critically ill children (median age, 5.1 mo [range, 0.02-202 mo]), midazolam plasma (n = 532), cytokine (e.g., IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; organ dysfunction scores (Pediatric Risk of Mortality II, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction); and number of failing organs were prospectively collected. A population pharmacokinetic model to study the impact of inflammation and organ failure on midazolam pharmacokinetics was developed using NONMEM 7.3. In a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model, body weight was the most significant covariate for clearance and volume of distribution. CRP and organ failure were significantly associated with clearance (P < 0.01), explaining both interindividual and interoccasional variability. In simulations, a CRP of 300 mg/L was associated with a 65% lower clearance compared with 10 mg/L, and three failing organs were associated with a 35% lower clearance compared with one failing organ. Inflammation and organ failure strongly reduce midazolam clearance, a surrogate marker of CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism, in critically ill children. Hence, critically ill patients receiving CYP3A substrate drugs may be at risk of increased drug levels and associated toxicity.

  5. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  6. Trichoepithelioma Arising in an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Satoru; Muto, Haruka; Shimizu, Shinichi; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Adachi, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report an extremely rare case of trichoepithelioma (TE)—a benign epithelial tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle—arising in an ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT) with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital for her annual follow-up of adenomyosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left ovarian tumor with irregular-shaped septum, which was suspicious of malignancy. However, tumor marker levels were within normal range. On FDG-PET, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the tumor was 2.9. Laparotomy with left salpingooophorectomy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed the probability of TE, rather than basal cell carcinoma (BCC), arising in an ovarian MCT. After five years of follow-up, the patient had no sign of recurrence. The FDG-PET SUVmax was low in TE, as with other benign tumor. However, future investigation is needed to evaluate the findings of FDG-PET imaging in TE cases. PMID:28127486

  7. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  8. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  9. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case....

  10. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency,...

  11. 48 CFR 945.670-1 - Plant clearance function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plant clearance function... MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 945.670-1 Plant clearance function. If the plant clearance function has not been formally delegated to another Federal agency,...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas...

  13. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  14. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 57.9330 Section 57.9330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches...

  17. 10 CFR 706.31 - Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. 706.31 Section... RELATIONS Contract Negotiation and Administration § 706.31 Clearance of conciliators and arbitrators. Conciliators and arbitrators who are regularly assigned to DOE cases may be processed for “Q” clearance at...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  19. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL... Entry and clearance. All U.S. entry and clearance requirements for aircraft, passengers, crews,...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft stations shall...

  2. 75 FR 70341 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of... Desk Officer and SSA Reports Clearance Officer to the following addresses or fax numbers. (OMB),...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  4. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  5. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.13 Clearance of counsel. It is recognized that clearance of counsel for the parties is sometimes desirable for proper preparation of a...

  6. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  7. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  8. 10 CFR 95.23 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.23 Section 95.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.23 Termination of facility clearance....

  9. 75 FR 37518 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of... Desk Officer and SSA Reports Clearance Officer to the following addresses or fax numbers. (OMB),...

  10. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  12. 48 CFR 245.602-70 - Plant clearance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plant clearance procedures... Disposal 245.602-70 Plant clearance procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 245.602-70 for establishing and processing a plant clearance case. ...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9330 - Clearance for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance for surface equipment. 56.9330... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading... Dumping Sites § 56.9330 Clearance for surface equipment. Continuous clearance of at least 30 inches from...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.305 - Clearance under homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clearance under homes. 3285.305... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.305 Clearance under homes. A minimum clearance of 12 inches must be maintained between the lowest member of the main frame...

  18. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  19. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  20. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  1. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  2. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  3. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  4. 14 CFR 27.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 27.661 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  5. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  6. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  7. 14 CFR 29.661 - Rotor blade clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor blade clearance. 29.661 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.661 Rotor blade clearance. There must be enough clearance between the rotor blades and other parts of the structure...

  8. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  9. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance (0.001 in. error).

  10. 10 CFR 706.13 - Clearance of counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clearance of counsel. 706.13 Section 706.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SECURITY POLICIES AND PRACTICES RELATING TO LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS Security Policies... responsible for requesting clearance of its counsel well in advance so that clearance requirements will...

  11. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  12. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  13. 46 CFR 56.75-10 - Joint clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint clearance. 56.75-10 Section 56.75-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Brazing § 56.75-10 Joint clearance. (a) The clearance between surfaces to be joined shall be no...

  14. Racial (black-white) differences in insulin secretion and clearance in adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Srinivasan, S R; Radhakrishnamurthy, B; Dalferes, E R; Berenson, G S

    1996-03-01

    Earlier we found black-white contrast in insulin levels in adolescents. The purpose of this study is to assess whether this difference is attributable to alterations in insulin secretion and/or clearance. Fasting circulating insulin and C-peptide concentrations were examined in 1157 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years from a biracial community. Fasting plasma C-peptide, C-peptide to insulin ratio, and glucose to insulin ratio were used as indices of insulin secretion, hepatic insulin clearance, and insulin sensitivity, respectively. After adjusting several covariates (age, sexual maturation, and obesity), black adolescents had higher insulin levels (14.99 vs 12.66 microU/mL in girls). However, they had lower C-peptide levels than their white counterparts, indicating lower insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells in black adolescents. Moreover, black adolescents had lower levels of C-peptide to insulin ratio than white adolescents (0.14 vs 0.17), suggesting reduced hepatic insulin clearance in black adolescents. In addition, significantly lower levels of glucose to insulin ratio in black girls suggest a reduced insulin sensitivity in this group. Further, differences in insulin levels between white and black girls disappeared after adjusting for differences in C-peptide to insulin ratio. These data suggest that elevated insulin levels observed in black adolescents, especially in black girls, may be attributed to their decreased hepatic insulin clearance, not hypersecretion of insulin.

  15. A semi-mechanistic model to predict the effects of liver cirrhosis on drug clearance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Trevor N; Boussery, Koen; Rowland-Yeo, Karen; Tucker, Geoffrey T; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2010-03-01

    Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a decrease in functional hepatocytes, lowered circulating levels of plasma proteins and alterations in blood flow due to the development of portacaval shunts. Depending on the interplay between these parameters and the characteristics of an administered drug, varying degrees of impaired systemic clearance and first-pass metabolism are anticipated. The Simcyp Population-based ADME Simulator has already been used successfully to incorporate genetic, physiological and demographic attributes of certain subgroups within healthy populations into in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of xenobiotic clearance. The objective of this study was to extend population models to predict systemic and oral drug clearance in relation to the severity of liver cirrhosis. Information on demographics, changes in hepatic blood flow, cytochrome P450 enzymes, liver size, plasma protein binding and renal function was incorporated into three separate population libraries. The latter corresponded to Child-Pugh scores A (mild), B (moderate) and C (severe) liver cirrhosis. These libraries, together with mechanistic IVIVE within the Simcyp Simulator, were used to predict the clearance of intravenous and oral midazolam, oral caffeine, intravenous and oral theophylline, intravenous and oral metoprolol, oral nifedipine, oral quinidine, oral diclofenac, oral sildenafil, and intravenous and oral omeprazole. The simulated patients matched the clinical studies as closely as possible with regard to demographics and Child-Pugh scores. Predicted clearance values in both healthy control and liver cirrhosis populations were compared with observed values, as were the fold increases in clearance values between these populations. There was good agreement (lack of statistically significant difference, two-tailed paired t-test) between observed and predicted clearance ratios, with the exception of those for two studies of intravenous omeprazole. Predicted clearance ratios were

  16. 32 CFR 536.110 - Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the United States). 536.110 Section 536.110 National Defense... Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.110 Notification of incidents arising...

  17. Pancreatic and salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, J E; O'Donnell, M D; McGeeney, K F; Fitzgerald, O

    1978-01-01

    The clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine was measured in 26 control subjects and 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Control values for pancreatic amylase clearance (+/- SD) were 2.64 +/- 0.86% compared with 1.54 +/- 0.95% for salivary amylase. In chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic amylase clearance ratios were significantly higher than controls (P less than 0.0005, mean 4.09 +/- 1.63 SD). The difference in clearance rate of salivary amylase did not reach a level of significance when compared with the control group. Twelve of the 22 patients showed pancreatic amylase clearance values above the normal limit of 4.4, while only five were abnormal when the clearance of total amylase was measured. The patients also showed statistically higher (P less than 0.0005) levels of serum salivary amylase when compared with 69 control sera. No such difference was found for the pancreatic component of serum amylase. Comparison of beta2-microglobulin clearance values showed no statistical difference between patients and controls. PMID:350726

  18. Alterations in lung clearance mechanisms due to single and repeated nitrogen dioxide exposures in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmuth, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance was assessed following single, two-hour exposures to either 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 ppm NO/sub 2/, or 14 daily two hour exposures to 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 ppm NO/sub 2/. No significant changes in the mean residence time of tracer particles in the tracheobronchial region were produced under any exposure condition, indicating no effect upon mucociliary clearance. Macrophage functional properties were examined in vitro at select times following single, two hour in vivo exposures to 1.0 and 10.0 ppm NO/sub 2/. Macrophage number and viability were not affected; however, significant dose-related differences in phagocytosis and mobility were observed. These changes were associated with altered in vivo alveolar clearance patterns. Additional studies examined the effects of in vitro exposure to nitrite and hydrogen ion, two known NO/sub 2/ reaction products in the lung, on macrophage phagocytosis. While hydrogen ion had no effect at the levels used, nitrate was shown to enhance phagocytosis. These results demonstrate that alveolar clearance and macrophage function are altered by short-term NO/sub 2/ exposure at realistic, environmental levels. These data also provide insight into the mechanisms of NO/sub 2/-induced alteration in lung clearance pathways.

  19. Alternative Mechanisms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clearance in Perforin Knockout Mice Lead to Enhanced Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Sandra; Rutigliano, John A.; Graham, Barney S.

    2001-01-01

    Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are key effectors for the clearance of virus-infected cells and are required for the normal clearance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in mice. Although perforin/granzyme-mediated lysis of infected cells is thought to be the major molecular mechanism used by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes for elimination of virus, its role in RSV has not been reported. Here, we show that viral clearance in perforin knockout (PKO) mice is slightly delayed but that both PKO and wild-type mice clear virus by day 10, suggesting an alternative mechanism of RSV clearance. Effector T cells from the lungs of both groups of mice were shown to lyse Fas (CD95)-overexpressing target cells in greater numbers than target cells expressing low levels of Fas, suggesting that Fas ligand (CD95L)-mediated target cell lysis was occurring in vivo. This cell lysis was associated with a delay in RSV-induced disease in PKO mice compared to the time of disease onset for wild-type controls, which correlated with increased and prolonged production of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in PKO mice. We conclude that while perforin is not necessary for the clearance of primary RSV infection, the use of alternative CTL target cell killing mechanisms is less efficient and can lead to enhanced disease. PMID:11559824

  20. Market Mechanism for Line Congestion Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes a mechanism for clearance of line congestion and power flow control in a deregulated market environment. The mechanism applies penalties to the bilateral transactions that cause line congestion by increasing the prices of such transactions. The market regulates itself by redefining the transactions and checking again for violations, applying penalties if necessary and repeating the process until all the demand is satisfied without causing line congestion to the system. A bilateral transaction matrix (BTM) creation algorithm developed by the authors and a DC power flow program are integrated as parts of the market mechanism proposed in this paper. The congestion is cleared by the market participants when they reschedule their transactions. This mechanism is useful to study the effects of bilateral transactions on a power system and helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to create rules and market mechanisms for line congestion clearance and power flow control.

  1. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  2. Major contribution of tubular secretion to creatinine clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Christoph; Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Wang, Yaohui; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Mizel, Diane; Star, Robert A.; Briggs, Josephine P.; Levine, Mark; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the fraction of excreted creatinine not attributable to creatinine filtration for accurately determining the glomerular filtration rate in mice. To measure this we compared creatinine filtration with the simultaneous measurement of inulin clearance using both single-bolus fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin elimination kinetics and standard FITC-inulin infusion. During anesthesia, creatinine filtration was found to be systematically higher than inulin clearance in both male and female C57BL/6J mice. The secretion fraction was significantly less in female mice. Administration of either cimetidine or para-aminohippuric acid, competitors of organic cation and anion transport respectively, significantly reduced the secretion fraction in male and female mice and both significantly increased the plasma creatinine level. Creatinine secretion in both genders was not mediated by the organic cation transporters OCT1 or OCT 2 since secretion fraction levels were identical in FVB wild-type and OCT1/2 knockout mice. Thus, secretion accounts for about 50 and 35% of excreted creatinine in male and female mice, respectively. Increasing plasma creatinine threefold by infusion further increased the secretion fraction. Renal organic anion transporter 1 mRNA expression was higher in male than in female mice, reflecting the gender difference in creatinine secretion. Hence we show that there is a major secretory contribution to creatinine excretion mediated through the organic anion transport system. This feature adds to problems associated with measuring endogenous creatinine filtration in mice. PMID:20032962

  3. Augmented Renal Clearance in Pediatric Patients With Febrile Neutropenia Associated With Vancomycin Clearance.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keita; Ihara, Setsuko; Kinae, Ayumi; Ikegaya, Kenichi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Hirano, Keiko; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin (VCM) dosage optimization in the early stages of therapy is required to achieve target trough serum concentrations, particularly in critically ill patients. Augmented renal clearance (ARC), commonly characterized by an enhanced renal clearance, has been associated with subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors including febrile neutropenia for both ARC and VCM clearance in Japanese pediatric patients. A total of 109 pediatric patients with normal renal function were included in this observational study. From VCM serum concentrations, individual VCM clearance was estimated by the Bayesian method using a 1-compartment model. Patients were classified on the basis of the presence of febrile neutropenia, cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation. Risk factors for ARC, as defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above median value (≥160 mL·min·1.73 m), were evaluated. Febrile neutropenia was only an independent risk factor for ARC (odds ratio, 5.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-21.66, P = 0.0030), which was the result of a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of febrile neutropenia with VCM clearance, the significant independent factors of VCM clearance were age and eGFR but not febrile neutropenia, as estimated by the stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. This observational study concluded that febrile neutropenia, a significant risk factor for ARC, indirectly influenced VCM clearance towing to an elevated eGFR. Cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation were not significantly associated with ARC; however, more studies are needed to validate this observation. Adjustment of the initial dosage of VCM is required for achieving optimal therapeutic concentrations in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia.

  4. Clearance Kinetics and Clearance Routes of Molecules From the Suprachoroidal Space After Microneedle Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bryce; Wang, Ke; Ethier, C. Ross; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine clearance kinetics and routes of clearance of molecules from the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of live New Zealand White rabbits. Methods Suprachoroidal space collapse rate and pressure changes after microneedle injection into SCS were determined. Fluorescent fundus images were acquired to determine clearance rates of molecules ranging in size from 332 Da to 2 MDa. Microneedle injections of fluorescein were performed, and samples were taken from various sites over time to determine amount of fluorescein exiting the eye. Clearance transport was modeled theoretically and compared with experimental data. Results After injection, pressures in SCS and vitreous humor spiked and returned to baseline within 20 minutes; there was no difference between these two pressures. Suprachoroidal space collapse occurred within 40 minutes. One hour after fluorescein injection, 46% of fluorescein was still present in the eye, 15% had transported across sclera, 6% had been cleared by choroidal vasculature, and 4% had exited via leakage pathways. Characteristic clearance time increased in proportion with molecular radius, but total clearance of 2 MDa FITC-dextran was significantly slower (21 days) than smaller molecules. These data generally agreed with predictions from a theoretical model of molecular transport. Conclusions Guided by experimental data in the context of model predictions, molecular clearance from SCS occurred in three regimes: (1) on a time scale of approximately 10 minutes, fluid and molecules exited SCS by diffusion into sclera and choroid, and by pressure-driven reflux via transscleral leakage sites; (2) in approximately 1 hour, molecules cleared from choroid by blood flow; and (3) in 1 to 10 hours, molecules cleared from sclera by diffusion and convection. PMID:28125841

  5. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another.

  6. Comparison of sulfobromophthalein and indocyanine green clearances in the cat.

    PubMed

    Center, S A; Bunch, S E; Baldwin, B H; Hornbuckle, W E; Tennant, B C

    1983-04-01

    Plasma disappearances of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and indocyanine green (ICG) given in single-dose IV injections to cats were measured. The BSP was given at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight; ICG was given at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg of body weight. The half-life, disappearance rate (percent per minute) and clearance (ml/min/kg) were determined during the initial phase of plasma dye elimination. The half-life for BSP was 2.2 +/- 0.7 minutes, and for ICG, 3.8 +/- 0.9 minutes. The disappearance rate for BSP was 34.7 +/- 10.1, and for ICG, 19.2 +/- 4.5. The clearance for BSP was 26.3 +/- 23.1 and for ICG, 8.6 +/- 4.1. The 30-minute percentage retention for BSP was 0.6 +/- 0.8% and for ICG, 7.3 +/- 2.9%. In the cat, ICG was cleared from the plasma less rapidly than BSP. There were no significant differences between males and females for these values. For both BSP and ICG, a significantly shorter half-life, faster disappearance rate, and lower 30-minute percentage retention were observed in the cat, compared with values observed in the dog given similar dye dosages. Clearance curves for BSP and ICG in the cat were similar to those in the dog, indicating that the 2 species may have similar volumes of dye distribution and excretory mechanisms. The results of the present study indicate that the 30-minute plasma level following a 5 mg/kg dose of BSP in normal cats is often too low for measurement, whereas the 30-minute plasma concentration of ICG following a 1.5 mg/kg dose is adequate. For the 30-minute dye retention test in the cat, ICG may be a preferred diagnostic agent.

  7. Army Delivers Route Clearance Vehicle Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Husky Vehicle-Mount- ed Mine-Detection (VMMD) System, the Buffalo® Mine- Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV), the Panther Medium Mine-Protected...cord (POR) RCVs—the Husky, the Buf- falo, and the Panther . POR-configured Huskys, Buffalos, and Panthers have already been fielded in-theater—albeit...IED vehicle equipped with a distinctive hydraulic arm that inter- rogates suspected explosive hazards and clears them when necessary. The Panther

  8. Activating the 42d Clearance Company

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    System– Enhanced. ■ Establishing supply and maintenance accounts. ■ Procuring the unit guidon . Other documents created to expedite and track the...SUBTITLE Activating the 42d Clearance Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Engineer School,Engineer Professional Bulletin,464 MANSCEN

  9. Reduced methadone clearance during aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Thong, Nancy; Flockhart, David A

    2012-08-01

    Methadone is increasingly used in pain management and is a cornerstone in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. It is subject to highly variable clearance among patients. The complete metabolic disposition of methadone is likely to involve a number of enzymes, including specifically CYP2B6. Previous studies in vitro suggest that metabolism by aromatase may also contribute. Single-dose methadone pharmacokinetics (2 mg, intravenous) were studied in 15 healthy postmenopausal women in the presence and absence of a potent aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. A sequential design was used, involving a control period followed by treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/d, 11 days), in which each subject served as her own control. On average, letrozole treatment reduced methadone systemic clearance by 22% (P = 0.001), increased methadone AUC by 23% (P = 0.007), and increased elimination half-life by 21% (P = 0.042). The plasma parent-to-metabolite ratio also increased (P = 0.009), and there was a linear relationship (R2 = 0.74) between change in this plasma ratio and change in methadone AUC0-∞. In contrast, there was no such association with change in apparent urinary methadone clearance. Letrozole did not change methadone distribution half-life or its volume of distribution. Overall, these data demonstrate a significant decrease in methadone clearance during coadministration of letrozole, consistent with decreased metabolism brought about by aromatase inhibition. An involvement of aromatase in the disposition of methadone may help explain the difficulty in methadone dosing and suggests a broader role for this catalyst of endogenous steroid metabolism in xenobiotic drug disposition.

  10. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as determined principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of convenient approximations of the respiratory tract to predict tractional deposition according to fundamental physical processes of impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These theoretical models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with experimental studies of inhaled dusts in humans or experimental animals that have been performed in many laboratories over several decades. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior of very fine (less than 0.01 mum) particles requires further refinement.Properties of particle shape, charge, and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns and further experimental work is urgently needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of such techniques with selected inhaled particle size holds promise in possible diagnostic aid in diagnosis of normal versus disease conditions. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic clearance are discussed. The roles of the pulmonary macrophage in airway and alveolar clearance are described, and the applicability of recent solubility models for translocation or deposited materials to liver, skeleton, or other systemic organs is discussed. PMID:797567

  11. Evaluation of lung clearance of inhaled pertechnegas.

    PubMed

    Fanti, S; Compagnone, G; Pancaldi, D; Franchi, R; Corbelli, C; Marengo, M; Onofri, C; Galassi, R; Levorato, M; Monetti, N

    1996-02-01

    Pertechnegas is a new ventilation agent produced by modifying the atmosphere of combustion of Technegas. Due to its rapid disappearance from the lungs, Pertechnegas has been suggested as useful in measuring pulmonary epithelial permeability. This study aimed to assess the reliability of ventilation scans with Pertechnegas to evaluate alveolar-capillary permeability. Six non-smokers with no evidence of pulmonary disease were investigated. Scintigraphic data were used to evaluate the site of Pertechnegas deposition (by assessing the Penetration Index [PI] of the gas), its clearance rate (by calculating the time to half-clearance [T1/2]) and its lung distribution (by means of a pixel-by-pixel analysis. PI measurements produced a mean value of 88.8 +/- 13.3% (range 69-117%). Time activity curves showed a fast clearance in all cases (mean T1/2 = 10.7 +/- 2.1 min, range 8.1-14.3 min). Comparison of statistical indices of uniform deposition (skewness and kurtosis) indicated satisfactory homogeneity of Pertechnegas distribution throughout the lungs. These data show that after inhalation Pertechnegas has a peripheral deposition and a homogeneous distribution in the lungs and is rapidly cleared through the alveolar-capillary barrier. In conclusion Pertechnegas can be recommended as a potential radiopharmaceutical for studying the pulmonary epithelial barrier.

  12. Antipyrine clearance during occupational exposure to styrene.

    PubMed Central

    Døssing, M

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have indicated that styrene, which is a widely used organic solvent, may induce the microsomal enzyme function of the liver. Thirteen workers with long-term exposure to styrene in a polyester plant were investigated. They worked at air concentrations about the maximal allowed time-weighted average concentration of styrene in most Western countries (50 ppm). The clearance of antipyrine was determined from saliva concentrations before and after three weeks free of exposure and then again three weeks after returning to work. Thirteen matched controls were investigated with similar intervals and methods. No significant differences were found between the half life, apparent volume of distribution, or clearance of antipyrine either within the groups or between the groups. The data exclude (95% confidence limit) the possibility that occupational exposure to styrene at concentrations about 50 ppm stimulates the microsomal enzyme function of the liver to a degree compatible with an increase in antipyrine clearance of more than 2 ml x min-1 (3%). While the first antipyrine estimation was carried out under medical supervision, the workers themselves managed to perform the antipyrine test correctly after verbal and written instructions. This has broadened the application of the antipyrine test. PMID:6131688

  13. Airway clearance strategies for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Kathryn L

    2002-07-01

    Clinicians who care for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have many techniques to choose from to facilitate mucus clearance. Little has been published about when to introduce the various techniques and in what order to teach them. Debates have occurred over these issues in the CF community, and there is now consensus on some topics. It is very important to teach adherence to therapy at an early age. Adherence to an airway clearing regimen assists in maintaining good pulmonary function in CF patients. Knowing when and how to introduce airway clearance techniques beyond chest physiotherapy (CPT) is clinically relevant and useful. A 5-position modified CPT routine can be used with infants and children, and it takes less time and may improve adherence. Infants and toddlers can be taught breathing games that eventually lead them to perform diaphragmatic breathing and huffing. Once they have mastered diaphragmatic breathing and huffing, children can be taught the active cycle of breathing technique. Modified CPT can be phased out at that point. Positive expiratory pressure therapy can usually be introduced around 6-7 years of age. High-frequency chest wall oscillation, oscillating positive expiratory pressure, and autogenic drainage all follow. CF patients should be given every opportunity to learn and master various techniques to promote mucus clearance.

  14. Effect of ultrafiltration on peritoneal dialysis drug clearances.

    PubMed

    Lau, A H; Chow-Tung, E; Assadi, F K; Fornell, L; John, E

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of dialysate osmolarity on peritoneal dialysis drug transfer, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital, and tobramycin were determined in 10 rabbits using dialysate containing 1.5 and 4.25% glucose. Urea and creatinine clearances were also obtained for comparison. Under similar dialysis conditions, the peritoneal clearances of the three drugs remained unchanged for the two types of dialysate. In contrast, the peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine were significantly higher with the use of 4.25% glucose dialysate (p less than 0.001). Thus, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital and tobramycin are not significantly affected by hypertonicity-induced ultrafiltration during acute peritoneal dialysis.

  15. Influence of clearance between piston and cylinder on piston friction

    SciTech Connect

    Takiguchi, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Furuhama, S

    1988-01-01

    It is desired to minimize clearance between the piston and the cylinder to reduce noise and suppress vibration. Although significant effort has been made for this purpose, increased piston friction force and the occurrence of seizure still prevent the ideal clearance from being realized. In order to determine the lower limit of the piston clearance, it is crucial to clarify the following unknowns; which part of piston contributes to friction increase as the piston clearance is decreased, during which phase of the piston motion the friction increase occurs, and how the piston clearance affects lubrication phenomena.

  16. Caffeine clearance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter oily chemoembolization treatment.

    PubMed

    Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Thumvijit, Lakhana; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Janchai, Akkawat; Mahachai, Varocha; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha

    2002-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common neoplasm worldwide, particularly in Asia, with a grave prognosis. Transcatheter Oily Chemoembolization (TOCE) is now universally accepted as the method of choice for the treatment of inoperable HCC. The purpose ofthis study was to evaluate caffeine clearance, a quantitative liver function assessment, in HCC patients before and after treatment with TOCE. Both conventional liver function test (LFT) and caffeine clearance were evaluated in twelve patients. Each patient took a 3.5 mg/kg single oral dose of caffeine solution before TOCE, 1 day and 5 weeks after treatment. Blood samples were subsequently collected at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, 10 and 24 hours after each dose of caffeine administration and assayed for serum caffeine level by the HPLC technique. Clearance (Cl) was calculated using the equation of Cl = Kel x Vd (Kel = elimination rate constant, Vd = volume of distribution) and half-life was determined using pharmacokinetic analysis. The mean caffeine clearance 1 day after TOCE (0.51 +/- 0.096) and 5 weeks after TOCE treatment (0.43 +/- 0.07) was significantly reduced compared with the mean caffeine clearance before treatment (0.79 . 0.2 ml/min x kg) with the p = 0.06 and p = 0.03, respectively. No significant changes (p > 0.05) in most conventional LFT were observed 5 weeks after treatment. In the present study, the authors found that caffeine clearance was reduced after TOCE in patients with HCC inspite of no changes in conventional LFT. Thus, the determination of caffeine clearance can serve as a useful parameter for the assessment of hepatic functional reserve in HCC patients post TOCE treatment.

  17. Dietary restriction reduces the rate of estradiol clearance in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Renquist, B J; Adams, T E; Adams, B M; Calvert, C C

    2008-05-01

    Three experiments were designed to test the effect of dietary restriction on clearance of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in sheep. A preliminary experiment examined the effect of a 4-d fast on the rate of E(2) clearance in wethers. The second experiment tested the hypothesis that either long-term restriction (7 wk) or a 5-d fast would increase steroid-binding capacity of serum by increasing the concentration of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the blood of ovariectomized ewes. In Exp. 3, we hypothesized that nutrition-dependent regulation of E(2) clearance by the liver would result in divergence in biliary extraction of E(2) in fed and fasted wethers receiving comparable levels of exogenous E(2). A marked difference in E(2) clearance between fed and fasted wethers was noted in the preliminary study. Relative to ad libitumfed wethers, a 4-d fast decreased E(2) clearance by 52%. Serum concentrations of SHBG were increased in long-term energy-restricted and fasted ewes, relative to the concentration in maintenancefed ewes (P = 0.015). Furthermore, a 5-d fast nearly doubled serum steroid-binding capacity in wethers. The E(2) concentration in bile was 2 times greater in fasted than in fed wethers. This fasting-dependent increase in biliary E(2) may be reflective of the increased serum E(2) in fasted animals, because each 1 pg/mL increase in serum E(2) increased bile E(2) by 0.86 +/- 0.12 pg/mL, independent of nutrition (P = 0.002). Our results demonstrate that the rate of clearance of E(2) is decreased during nutritional restriction. Additionally, these data indicate that altered SHBG expression, enterohepatic recirculation, or both are involved in the decreased E(2) clearance during dietary restriction.

  18. Axial compressor blade design for desensitization of aerodynamic performance and stability to tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Engin

    region, this approach would entail a nominal performance penalty. Therefore, the chosen rotor design philosophy aims to keep the spanwise loading constant to avoid trading performance for desensitization. The rotor designs that resulted from this exercise are simulated in ANSYS CFX at different tip clearance sizes. The change in their performance with respect to tip clearance size (sensitivity) is compared both on an integral level in terms of pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, as well as on a detailed level in terms of aerodynamic losses and blockage associated with tip clearance flow. The sensitivity of aerodynamic stability is evaluated either directly through the simulations of the rotor characteristics up to the stall point (expensive in time and resources) for a few designs or indirectly through the position of the interface between the incoming and tip clearance flow with respect to the rotor leading edge plane. The latter approach is based on a generally observed stall criteria in modern axial compressors. The rotor designs are then assessed according to their sensitivity in comparison to that of the reference rotor design to detect features that can explain the trend in sensitivity to tip clearance size. These features can then be validated and the associated flow mechanisms explained through numerical simulations and modelling. Analysis of the database from the rotor parametric study shows that the observed trend in sensitivity cannot be explained by the shifting of the aerodynamic loading along the blade chord, as initially hypothesized based on the literature review. Instead, two flow features are found to reduce sensitivity of performance and stability to tip clearance, namely an increase in incoming meridional momentum in the tip region and a reduction/elimination of double leakage flow. Double leakage flow is the flow that exits the tip clearance of one blade and proceeds into the clearance of the adjacent blade rather than convecting downstream out

  19. Prescreening Military Officer Candidates for High Level Security Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    eo6S Cr.9s o, ’arcot Cs, Wve yo,. eve., teen :eatod or undergone rehioil,tat on, $or cr.c or alcohoi at"#’C SECTION III STATEMENTS OF UNDERSTANDING INM...INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT AUTHORITY/COURT ANO SENTENCE WERE YOU DETAINED. CONrINED. WASYTHEUSE OPDRUSSOR ACTION BY PAS OR" PLACED ON PROBATION PORn ALCOHOL

  20. Similarity analysis of compressor tip clearance flow structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, G. T.; Greitzer, E. M.; Tan, C. S.; Marble, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach is presented for analyzing compressor tip clearance flow. The basic idea is that the clearance velocity field can be (approximately) decomposed into independent throughflow and crossflow, since chordwise pressure gradients are much smaller than normal pressure gradients in the clearance region. As in the slender body approximation in external aerodynamics, this description implies that the three-dimensional steady clearance flow can be viewed as a two-dimensional, unsteady flow. Using this approach, a similarity scaling for the crossflow in the clearance region is developed and a generalized description of the clearance vortex is derived. Calculations based on the similarity scaling agree well with a wide range of experimental data in regard to flow features such as crossflow velocity field, static pressure field, and tip clearance vortex trajectory.

  1. Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Yeates, D B; Albert, R E

    1980-01-01

    The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from

  2. The tribological behaviour of different clearance MOM hip joints with lubricants of physiological viscosities.

    PubMed

    Hu, X Q; Wood, R J K; Taylor, A; Tuke, M A

    2011-11-01

    Clearance is one of the most influential parameters on the tribological performance of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints and its selection is a subject of considerable debate. The objective of this paper is to study the lubrication behaviour of different clearances for MOM hip joints within the range of human physiological and pathological fluid viscosities. The frictional torques developed by MOM hip joints with a 50 mm diameter were measured for both virgin surfaces and during a wear simulator test. Joints were manufactured with three different diametral clearances: 20, 100, and 200 microm. The fluid used for the friction measurements which contained different ratios of 25 percent newborn calf serum and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with the obtained viscosities values ranging from 0.001 to 0.71 Pa s. The obtained results indicate that the frictional torque for the 20 microm clearance joint remains high over the whole range of the viscosity values. The frictional torque of the 100 microm clearance joint was low for the very low viscosity (0.001 Pa s) lubricant, but increased with increasing viscosity value. The frictional torque of the 200 microm clearance joint was high at very low viscosity levels, however, it reduced with increasing viscosity. It is concluded that a smaller clearance level can enhance the formation of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film, but this is at the cost of preventing fluid recovery between the bearing surfaces during the unloaded phase of walking. Larger clearance bearings allow a better recovery of lubricant during the unloaded phase, which is necessary for higher viscosity lubricants. The selection of the clearance value should therefore consider both the formation of the EHL film and the fluid recovery as a function of the physiological viscosity in order to get an optimal tribological performance for MOM hip joints. The application of either 25 per cent bovine serum or water in existing in vitro tribological study should

  3. Potential impact of mangrove clearance on biomass and biomass size spectra of nematode along the Sudanese Red Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Sabeel, Rasha Adam Osman; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The potential effect of mangrove clearance on nematode assemblage biomass, biomass size spectra (NBSS) and abundance/biomass curves (ABC) was investigated in three sites representing a varying degree of mangrove clearance as well as in three stations established at each sites representing high-, mid- and low-water levels. Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed.

  4. Comparison of myocardial /sup 201/Tl clearance after maximal and submaximal exercise: implications for diagnosis of coronary disease: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, B.M.; Wisneski, J.; Kramer, B.; Hollenberg, M.; Gertz, E.; Stern, D.

    1982-05-01

    Recently the quantitation of regional /sup 201/Tl clearance has been shown to increase the sensitivity of the scintigraphic detection of coronary disease. Although /sup 201/Tl clearance rates might be expected to vary with the degree of exercise, this relationship has not been explored. We therefore evaluated the rate of decrease in myocardial /sup 201/Tl activity following maximal and submaximal stress in seven normal subjects and 21 patients with chest pain, using the seven-pinhole tomographic reconstruction technique. In normals, the mean /sup 201/Tl clearance rate declined from 41% +/- 7 over a 3-hr period with maximal exercise to 25% +/- 5 after 3 hr at a submaximal level (p less than 0.001). Similar differences in clearance rates were found in the normally perfused regions of the left ventricle in patients with chest pain, depending on whether or not a maximal end point (defined as either the appearance of ischemia or reaching 85% of age-predicted heart rate) was achieved. In five patients who did not reach these end points, 3-hr clearance rates in uninvolved regions averaged 25% +/- 2, in contrast to a mean of 38% +/- 5 for such regions in 15 patients who exercised to ischemia or an adequate heart rate. These findings indicate that clearance criteria derived from normals can be applied to patients who are stressed maximally, even if the duration of exercise is limited, but that caution must be used in interpreting clearance rates in those who do not exercise to an accepted end point.

  5. Analytical and experiment study of clearance and bearing-bypass load effects in composite bolted joints

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, R.V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is conducted to determine the effects of clearance and bearing-bypass loading for mechanically fastened joints in composites. A simple method of analysis is developed to account for the nonlinear effects of bolt-hole clearance. The nonlinear load-contact variations for clearance-fit fasteners are also measured using specially instrumented fastener. For a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate, results show that the contact arc as well as the peak stresses around the hole and their locations are strongly influenced by the clearance. After a slight initial nonlinearity, the peak stresses vary linearly with applied load. The typical clearance levels are shown to have only a minor influence on the overall joint stiffness. Quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates (T300/5208) were tested under combined bearing and bypass loading to study failure modes and strengths. Radiographs were made after damage onset and after ultimate load to examine the failure criteria to analyze the test data. The near the bolt-hole are calculated for each test condition, and then used with appropriate failure criteria to analyze the test data. The tension data show a linear interaction for combined bearing and bypass loading with damage developing the net-tension mode and growing to failure in the same mode. Failure modes are more complex in compression.

  6. Genetic variants in interferon-λ 4 influences HCV clearance in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Yao, Yinan; Yue, Ming; Tian, Ting; Chen, Hongbo; Chen, Mingzhu; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Rongbin

    2017-01-01

    Recent many studies indicated a novel dinucleotide variant in ss469415590 (TT vs. ΔG) of interferon-λ 4 (IFNL4) gene strongly associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. To evaluate the impact and clinical usefulness of IFNL4 ss469415590 genotype on predicting both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy in Chinese population, we genotyped 795 chronic HCV carriers, 460 subjects with HCV natural clearance and 362 patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant genotypes significantly decreased host HCV clearance, both spontaneous (dominant model: OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.36–0.71) and IFN-α induced (dominant model: OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.18–0.56). Multivariate stepwise analysis indicated that ss469415590, rs12979860, the level of baseline HCV RNA and platelet were as independent predictors for sustained virological response (SVR). But the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was only 0.58 for ss469415590, and it was elevated to 0.71 by adding rs12979860, baseline HCV RNA and platelet in the prediction model of SVR. Therefore, these findings underscore that although genetic factors of host and pathogen were commonly important during HCV clearance, ss469415590 may be also a strongly predictive marker in the Chinese population. PMID:28186161

  7. Mechanisms of Aβ Clearance and Degradation by Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Miriam; Sastre, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells have a variety of functions in the brain, ranging from immune defense against external and endogenous hazardous stimuli, regulation of synaptic formation, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic support for neurons. Their dysregulation can contribute to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of the most important functions of glial cells in AD is the regulation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the brain. Microglia and astrocytes have been reported to play a central role as moderators of Aβ clearance and degradation. The mechanisms of Aβ degradation by glial cells include the production of proteases, including neprilysin, the insulin degrading enzyme, and the endothelin-converting enzymes, able to hydrolyse Aβ at different cleavage sites. Besides these enzymes, other proteases have been described to have some role in Aβ elimination, such as plasminogen activators, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and matrix metalloproteinases. Other relevant mediators that are released by glial cells are extracellular chaperones, involved in the clearance of Aβ alone or in association with receptors/transporters that facilitate their exit to the blood circulation. These include apolipoproteins, α2macroglobulin, and α1-antichymotrypsin. Finally, astrocytes and microglia have an essential role in phagocytosing Aβ, in many cases via a number of receptors that are expressed on their surface. In this review, we examine all of these mechanisms, providing an update on the latest research in this field. PMID:27458370

  8. Influence of ingested ethanol on Photofrin clearance in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Donna; Fink, Louis; Stone, Angie; Flock, Stephen T.

    1993-06-01

    A series of experiments have been undertaken to ascertain the influence of dietary additives on the clearance of Photofrin. Post-treatment cutaneous photosensitivity continues to be a significant side effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in humans. Cutaneous photosensitivity in humans is evidenced by erythema and edema in exposed areas. Murine models were chosen to investigate the differences in cutaneous photosensitivity as measured by footpad thickness in the presence or absence of dietary additives. Additionally, radiation induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) cells were implanted into the subcutaneous space on the dorsal aspect of the foot. In this case, the effect of PDT on tumor growth kinetics was assumed to be proportional to Photofrin concentration. Photofrin concentrations in tumors were measured by HPLC. Serum levels for dietary additives were obtained where analytical methods were available. Ingested ethanol increased the clearance rate of Photofrin as demonstrated by measurements of Photofrin tumor concentration and by failure of RIF tumor to respond to PDT in groups treated with ethanol compared to controls.

  9. The analysis of typical profile clearances formation in meshing rotors of the screw compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafin, T. N.; Yakupov, R. R.; Khamidullin, M. S.; Khisameev, I. G.; Alyaev, V. A.; Paranina, O. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The improvement of screw compressor energetic characteristics is related to their working process enhancement. In many ways, it depends on the gas leakage between working chambers through the gaps. One of the main gaps in the screw compressor is the rotor profile clearances. They also generally determine the smoothness of meshing, partially influencing vibration levels. The rotor profile clearances occur due to the reduction of the real rotor profile in relation to the theoretical profile. It is done to compensate negative factors such as a rotor thermal deformation, manufacturing errors, etc. Their deep analysis may help to improve the real rotor profiling method and increase the screw compressor energetic characteristics.

  10. Effects of feeding on the systemic clearance of indocyanine green and propranolol blood concentrations and plasma binding.

    PubMed Central

    Feely, J; Nadeau, J; Wood, A J

    1983-01-01

    In six healthy subjects a 250 g steak significantly increased the systemic clearance of indocyanine green. During a steady-state infusion of propranolol there was a rapid decrease (mean 35%) in blood propranolol concentrations within 5 min of feeding and levels were reduced for 30 min before gradually returning towards the pre-feeding. These results suggest that the systemic clearance of high extraction drugs may be increased immediately following food. PMID:6849770

  11. HPV Clearance and the Neglected Role of Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, Marc D.; Myers, Evan R.; Durrett, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Clearance of anogenital and oropharyngeal HPV infections is attributed primarily to a successful adaptive immune response. To date, little attention has been paid to the potential role of stochastic cell dynamics in the time it takes to clear an HPV infection. In this study, we combine mechanistic mathematical models at the cellular level with epidemiological data at the population level to disentangle the respective roles of immune capacity and cell dynamics in the clearing mechanism. Our results suggest that chance—in form of the stochastic dynamics of basal stem cells—plays a critical role in the elimination of HPV-infected cell clones. In particular, we find that in immunocompetent adolescents with cervical HPV infections, the immune response may contribute less than 20% to virus clearance—the rest is taken care of by the stochastic proliferation dynamics in the basal layer. In HIV-negative individuals, the contribution of the immune response may be negligible. PMID:25769112

  12. Atorvastatin delays the glucose clearance rate in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daxin; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Wentao; Bai, Liang; Cheng, Gong; Chu, Yonglie; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-05-01

    The administration of statin might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypercholesterolemic patients based on the recent clinical evidence. However, the causal relationship must be clarified and confirmed in animal experiments. Therefore, we mimicked hypercholesterolemia by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and performed 16 weeks of atorvastatin administration to investigate the effect of statin on glucose metabolism. The intravenous glucose tolerance test showed that plasma glucose levels in the statin-treated rabbits were consistently higher and that there was a slower rate of glucose clearance from the blood than in HCD rabbits. The incremental area under the curve for glucose in the statin-treated rabbits was also significantly larger than in the HCD rabbits. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the intravenous insulin tolerance test. The glucose-lowering ability of exogenous insulin was not impaired by statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The administration of a single dose of statin did not affect glucose metabolism in normal rabbits. The statin also significantly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits, whereas it did not affect plasma levels of glucose and insulin. The current results showed that atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant delay of glucose clearance in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and this rabbit model could be suitable for studying the effects of statin on glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Osmotic diuresis-induced hypernatremia: better explained by solute-free water clearance or electrolyte-free water clearance?

    PubMed

    Popli, Subhash; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia may result from inadequate water intake, excessive water loss or a combination of the two. Osmotic diuresis leads to losses of both solute and water. The relationship between solute and water losses determines the resulting changes in serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Total solute loss is routinely higher than loss of water in osmotic diuresis. Theoretically, then, decreases in serum osmolality (and serum sodium concentration) should follow. In clinical situations of osmotic diuresis, however, reduction in osmolality can take place, but not reduction in serum sodium concentration. It is of note that serum sodium concentration changes are related to urinary losses of sodium and potassium but not to the loss of total solute. In osmotic diuresis, the combined loss of sodium and potassium per liter of urine is lower than the concurrent serum sodium level. Consequently, hypernatremia can ensue. A patient who presented with osmotic diuresis and hypernatremia is described here. In this patient, we have shown that electrolyte-free water clearance is a better index of the effect of osmotic diuresis on serum sodium concentration than the classic solute-free water clearance.

  14. Age-Related Decline in Brain and Hepatic Clearance of Amyloid-Beta is Rectified by the Cholinesterase Inhibitors Donepezil and Rivastigmine in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Loqman A; Qosa, Hisham; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-05-20

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), accumulation of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) depends on imbalance between production and clearance of Aβ. Several pathways for Aβ clearance have been reported including transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and hepatic clearance. The incidence of AD increases with age and failure of Aβ clearance correlates with AD. The cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil and rivastigmine are used to ease the symptoms of dementia associated with AD. Besides, both drugs have been reported to provide neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects. Here, we investigated the effect of ChEIs on age-related reduced Aβ clearance. Findings from in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated donepezil and rivastigmine to enhance (125)I-Aβ40 clearance. Also, the increase in brain and hepatic clearance of (125)I-Aβ40 was more pronounced in aged compared to young rats, and was associated with significant reduction in brain Aβ endogenous levels determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the enhanced clearance was concomitant with up-regulation in the expression of Aβ major transport proteins P-glycoprotein and LRP1. Collectively, our findings that donepezil and rivastigmine enhance Aβ clearance across the BBB and liver are novel and introduce an additional mechanism by which both drugs could affect AD pathology. Thus, optimizing their clinical use could help future drug development by providing new drug targets and possible mechanisms involved in AD pathology.

  15. Lithium clearance in mineralocorticoid escape in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, W.H.; Koomans, H.A.; Mees, E.J.D.

    1987-03-01

    Lithium clearance (C/sub Li/) has been advanced as an indicator of Na delivery from the proximal tubules. The authors studied C/sub Li/ in eight healthy males before and after mineralocorticoid escape, a maneuver that may induce suppression of fractional proximal Na reabsorption (FPR/sub Na/). FPR/sub Na/ was also estimated from changes in maximal free water clearance (C/sub H/sub 2/O/). Plasma volume was measured as the /sup 131/I-labeled albumin distribution space. Extracellular fluid volume was estimated as the /sup 82/Br vector distribution volume. According to the latter method, FPR/sub Na/ dropped whereas inulin clearance rose. The changes in C/sub Li/ were surprisingly large. If lithium is a valid marker of Na handling in the proximal tubule in humans, this change would imply a fall in FPR/sub Na/, suggesting a much larger shift in tubular Na reabsorption in escape than hitherto suspected. In addition, it would suggest that the inevitable back diffusion of a part of the solute-free water in the distal nephron, and thus overestimation of FPR/sub Na/ by the C/sub H/sub 2/O/ method, increases importantly during escape. Alternately, lithium may not be a good marker of proximal tubular Na handling. For instance, both lithium reabsorption and escape may take place beyond the proximal tubule, or lithium may be excreted in the distal nephron in certain conditions. Present methods do not permit further analysis of these options in the human model.

  16. Assessing Hurricane Vulnerability Changes Arising from Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; Done, J.; Bruyere, C.; NESL Regional Climate Research Group

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of a community to hurricane impacts depends on a diverse array of factors. At the community level these include: the quality of their infrastructure and its ability to withstand a hurricane impact, their level of preparedness and ability to respond appropriately to a threat, and their capacity to recover after an impact. Developing and maintaining these at an appropriate level requires a dedicated and sustained effort that results in considerable cost to the community. This cost must be balanced against the likely damage from an impact and its frequency of occurrence. And therein lies the rub; traditional assessment techniques use past cyclone data that: are subject to various levels of data deficiencies, cannot account for changes that might arise from climate change, may cover too short a time period to adequately account for long-term climate variability or to enable assessment of the very rare extreme events. This talk will address current approaches to assessing these deficiencies. We will first discuss the cyclone parameters that are important to assessing impact and show that intensity alone is only one part. For wind it is duration, extent and gustiness that are crucial, and often the rainfall is the dominant impact. These also depend on hurricane size, translation speed and local terrain; and the level of storm surge is also dependent on bathymetry and coastline details. Second, We will address how numerical models are becoming a valuable tool in assessing these features for future climate. The talk will conclude with a summary of the current state of agreement, and disagreement, on likely future changes.

  17. Carbamazepine clearance in hemodialysis and hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Oles, K S; Gal, P; Love, J M

    1989-02-01

    A 47-year-old woman with endstage renal disease and dialysis-induced encephalopathy was being treated with carbamazepine for myoclonus. Her carbamazepine serum concentration appeared to be therapeutic at 5.1 micrograms/ml. She experienced a seizure while on hemodialysis/hemoperfusion that was possibly related to the removal of carbamazepine during dialysis. The elimination of carbamazepine on a dialysis day was compared with elimination on a nondialysis day. The half-life and apparent clearance were the same for each day, indicating that hemodialysis/hemoperfusion had little effect on the overall removal of carbamazepine from the body. The possible reasons for this lack of effect are discussed.

  18. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  19. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  20. Tip Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Clearance Control Using Plasma Actuators 4 posed by Denton (1993). A number of investigators have used partial shrouds, or " winglet " designs to...main molded blade with a span of 3.42 in., a removable molded blade segment with a span of 0.1875 in., and removable blade tip winglets made of glass...segment and the main blade to vary the distance between the blade end and the front wall of the cascade section. The winglets were machined using a

  1. Estimating creatinine clearance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sheila M; Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini B

    2011-07-01

    To determine which body weight descriptor most accurately predicts measured creatinine clearance (Cl(cr)) and whether rounding serum creatinine concentration (S(cr)) to 1 mg/dl when it is less than 1 mg/dl accurately predicts measured Cl(cr). Meta-analysis of 13 English-language trials comparing 24-hour measured Cl(cr) with Cockcroft-Gault estimated Cl(cr) by using various body weights or rounded S(cr) values. A total of 1197 patients (mean age 53.3 yrs, 48.7% male) were included in the meta-analysis. A thorough literature search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases was performed (1976-June 2010) to identify relevant clinical trials. Patient population, number of subjects, age, and 24-hour measured and estimated Cl(cr) were extracted independently by two investigators by using standardized data collection forms. Mean difference (MD) between estimated and measured Cl(cr) was assessed. Thirteen studies met all selection criteria. A random-effects model was applied secondary to a high level of heterogeneity among the studies (I(2)>50%). Total body weight in the Cockcroft-Gault equation overestimated measured Cl(cr) (MD 15.91 ml/min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.17-24.65 ml/min). Ideal body weight underestimated Cl(cr) (MD-5.15 ml/min, 95% CI -9.92 to -0.38 ml/min). No body weight (i.e., assumes body weight is 72 kg, thus removing the factor of 72 from the denominator of the equation) closely estimated Cl(cr) (MD 0.43 ml/min, 95% CI -5.42-6.27 ml/min). Adjusted body weight with correction factors of 0.3 or 0.4 also closely estimated Cl(cr) (MD 4.55 ml/min, 95% CI -11.41-20.50 ml/min, and MD 19.94 ml/min, 95% CI -9.6-49.49 ml/min, respectively). Total body weight with a rounded S(cr) value closely estimated measured Cl(cr) (MD 3.51 ml/min, 95% CI -17.18-24.20 ml/min). Ideal body weight with a rounded S(cr) value underestimated Cl(cr) (MD -29.45 ml/min, 95% CI -48.46 to -10.43). Using the Cockcroft-Gault equation with no body weight and actual S

  2. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It...

  3. Spitz nevus arising upon a congenital glomuvenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Arica, Deniz A; Arica, Ibrahim E; Yayli, Savas; Cobanoglu, Umit; Akay, Bengu N; Anadolu, Rana; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    There are several reports of the collision of vascular and pigmentary anomalies (e.g., phakomatosis pigmentovascularis) and the association between congenital melanocytic nevi and infantile hemangiomas. We report a case of Spitz nevus arising in skin overlying a congenital plaque-like glomuvenous malformation (GVM). This is the first report of a Spitz nevus arising in direct contiguity to a GVM.

  4. Serum albumin and creatinine clearance rate among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M R; Chakraborty, P K; Paul, U K; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Shahidullah, S M; Gautam, B; Sultana, S; Ferdous, N; Samsunnahar, M

    2014-07-01

    This case control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in cooperation with the Outpatient Department and Medicine Units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Fulbaria Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh and some DOTS centers of BRAC, a non-government organization during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum albumin & creatinine clearance levels in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients as these levels decrease significantly. Serum albumin level was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the nutritional status of TB patients and also for the adjustment of serum calcium level. Creatinine clearance rate was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the impairment of renal function and nutritional depletion in tuberculosis patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups- Group I (Control; n=60) - apparently healthy people selected matching by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case; n=60) - people with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum albumin was estimated by colorimetric principle. Serum creatinine was also estimated by colorimetric principle & creatinine clearance rate was estimated from serum creatinine by Cockcroft- Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD of serum albumin in Group II (3.74±0.44gm/dl) was significantly lower (p<0.001) than that in Group I (4.85±0.31gm/dl). Mean±SD of creatinine clearance rate in Group II (35.36±8.29ml/min) was also significantly lower than that in Group I (84.16±20.20ml/min). It is evident from the study that serum albumin & creatinine clearance rate levels significantly decrease in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  5. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  6. Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

  7. Dynamics analysis of space robot manipulator with joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Bai, Zheng Feng

    2011-04-01

    A computational methodology for analysis of space robot manipulator systems, considering the effects of the clearances in the joint, is presented. The contact dynamics model in joint clearance is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered using the Coulomb friction model. The space robot system dynamic equation of manipulator with clearance is established. Then the dynamics simulation is presented and the dynamics characteristics of robot manipulator with clearance are analyzed. This work provides a practical method to analyze the dynamics characteristics of space robot manipulator with joint clearance and improves the engineering application. The computational methodology can predict the effects of clearance on space robot manipulator preferably, which is the basis of space robot manipulator design, precision analysis and ground test.

  8. CF6 High Pressure Compressor and Turbine Clearance Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radomski, M. A.; Cline, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    In the CF6 Jet Engine Diagnostics Program the causes of performance degradation were determined for each component of revenue service engines. It was found that a significant contribution to performance degradation was caused by increased airfoil tip radial clearances in the high pressure compressor and turbine areas. Since the influence of these clearances on engine performance and fuel consumption is significant, it is important to accurately establish these relatonships. It is equally important to understand the causes of clearance deterioration so that they can be reduced or eliminated. The results of factory engine tests run to enhance the understanding of the high pressure compressor and turbine clearance effects on performance are described. The causes of clearance deterioration are indicated and potential improvements in clearance control are discussed.

  9. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  10. Impact of convective transport on dialyzer clearance.

    PubMed

    Galach, Magda; Ciechanowska, Anna; Sabalińska, Stanislawa; Waniewski, Jacek; Wójcicki, Jan; Weryńskis, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The results of predictions of three mathematical models used to describe the impact of convective flow on dialyzer clearance are presented. These models are based on the ordinary differential equations, which describe changes of solute concentration and solute and fluid flows along the module length. One of the models takes into consideration the existence of the boundary layers on both sides of the membrane wall, by including in the equations two parameters kB and kD, which describe mass transport coefficients in blood and dialysate, respectively. In the second model, the boundary layers are included in one lumped membrane permeability parameter. The diffusive membrane permeability was calculated from pure diffusive clearance, which was taken from experimental results. In the third model, a linear dependence of transmittance coefficient and ultrafiltration flow was proposed. The theoretical results were compared with data obtained in experiments carried out in vitro with four types of high-flux hollow-fiber dialyzers. The comparisons demonstrate that the first two models are of similar accuracy and the third model is not suitable for small solutes.

  11. Physiotherapy for airway clearance in adults.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J A

    1999-12-01

    Techniques for augmenting, when necessary, the normal mucociliary and cough clearance mechanisms of the lungs are not new, but, in more recent years, techniques have been developed which are effective, comfortable and can be used independent of an assistant in the majority of adolescents and adults. Postural drainage with chest clapping and chest shaking has, in most parts of the world, been replaced by the more effective techniques of the active cycle of breathing, autogenic drainage, R-C Cornet, Flutter, positive expiratory pressure mask, high-frequency chest wall oscillation and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation. Glossopharyngeal breathing is being considered again and is often a useful technique for increasing the effectiveness of cough in patients with tetraplegia or neuromuscular disorders. The evidence in support of these techniques is variable, and the literature is confusing and conflicting. There may or may not be significant differences among the techniques in the short or long term. Many of the regimens now include the forced expiratory manoeuvre of a "huff" and this has probably increased the effectiveness of airway clearance. If objective differences are small, individual preferences and cultural influences may be significant in increasing adherence to treatment and in the selection of an appropriate regimen or regimens for an individual patient.

  12. Deposition and clearance of inhaled particles.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, B O

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles are compared to experimental studies of deposition patterns in humans and animals, as governed principally by particle size, density, respiratory rate and flow parameters. Various models of inhaled particle deposition make use of approximations of the respiratory tract to predict fractional deposition caused by fundamental physical processes of particle impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion. These models for both total deposition and regional (nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and pulmonary) deposition are compared with early and recent experimental studies. Reasonable correlation has been obtained between theoretical and experimental studies, but the behavior in the respiratory tract of very fine (less than 0.1 micron) particles requires further investigation. Properties of particle shape, charge and hygroscopicity as well as the degree of respiratory tract pathology also influence deposition patterns; definitive experimental work is needed in these areas. The influence upon deposition patterns of dynamic alterations in inspiratory flow profiles caused by a variety of breathing patterns also requires further study, and the use of differing ventilation techniques with selected inhaled particle sizes holds promise in diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases. Mechanisms of conducting airway and alveolar clearance processes involving the pulmonary macrophage, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, transport to systemic circulation, and translocation via regional lymphatic vessels are discussed. PMID:6376108

  13. Relating minimum toe clearance to prospective, self-reported, trip-related stumbles in the community.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Bauer, Angela; Grabiner, Mark D

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with transtibial amputation are at increase risk of falling. The absence of an ankle joint and the associated musculature in these individuals can reduce clearance between the prosthetic foot and ground during the swing phase of gait, which may increase the risk of stumbling and in turn falling. To associate minimum toe clearance during gait in the laboratory with community-based, trip-related stumbles by individuals with transtibial amputation using conventional feet. Prospective cohort design; following quantitative gait analysis, participants completed electronic surveys to prospectively report stumbles and falls for 1 year thereafter. General community with gait analysis conducted within a motion analysis laboratory and prospective tracking of stumbles occurring in the community. A volunteer sample of eight unilateral, transtibial amputees that were K3 or K4 level ambulators and current patients at a local prosthetic clinic. All participants completed the entire 1-year follow-up study. Prosthetic-side minimum toe clearance while walking on a level treadmill at self-selected speed and self-reported trip-related stumbles in the community. Minimum toe clearance was defined as a local minimum of the vertical displacement of the toe from toe-off to heelstrike relative to its position during midstance. Prosthetic-side minimum toe clearance was more than 50% lower for participants who reported one or more trip-related stumbles on that side compared with participants who reported zero trip-related stumbles on the prosthetic side (minimum toe clearance = 12.3 ± 0.8 mm vs 25.6 ± 5.4 mm, respectively; p = 0.036). This is the first study relating laboratory-based measures to prospective stumbles by prosthesis users. The results suggest that prosthesis users with low minimum toe clearance may be at increased risk of experiencing a trip-related stumble in the community. Given that frequent stumbling increases the risk of falling, future work

  14. Measuring foot placement and clearance during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Muhaidat, Jennifer; Kerr, Andrew; Rafferty, Danny; Skelton, Dawn A; Evans, Jonathan J

    2011-03-01

    Falls during stair descent are a serious problem and can lead to accidental death. Inappropriate foot placement on, and clearance over, steps have been identified as causes for falls on stairs. This study investigated a new method for measuring placement and clearance during stair descent in 10 healthy young subjects. The effect of foot length was accounted for during the measurement of foot placement by calculating the percentage length of the foot overhanging the step. Foot clearance was measured as the resultant of the minimum vertical and horizontal distances from the heel of the foot to the edge of the step. Clearance was divided into landing and passing clearance depending on the planned placement of the foot in relation to the step edge being cleared. Each subject performed seven trials of stairs descent. Mean (SD) and CV (SD) were 16% (6), 0.28 (0.15) for placement; 45.88 (10.05), 0.21 (0.07) for landing clearance; 107.25 (5.59), 0.25 (0.08) for passing clearance. There was no statistically significant effect of trial on placement and clearance (p>0.05). There was a significant effect of step number on landing and passing clearance (p=0.01, p<0.001 respectively). Landing and passing clearances were greater for the third step compared to the second step. Passing clearance was also significantly greater than landing clearance (p<0.001). The repeatable methods and findings from this study might be useful in providing a technical background and normal values for the design of future gait studies on stairs.

  15. Airway clearance techniques in the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    McIlwaine, M P; Davidson, A G

    1996-11-01

    Airway clearance is a major component of the management of cystic fibrosis. In North America, the airway clearance technique of choice has been physiotherapy using postural drainage combined with chest percussion, deep breathing and vibration. The disadvantages of this technique, the introduction of newer airway clearance techniques, and a greater emphasis on exercise has sparked a growing trend to prescribing individualized programs combining exercise with strategies adapted to the needs of each patient.

  16. Modeling of Inhalation Administration of Vapors with Capacity Limited Clearance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-12

    airways and vapors. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reverse side It neceeer mod identify by block’ mber) :o-*actors, affecting dependence of metabolic clearance ...Administration of Vapors Interim Scientific Report with Capacity Limited Clearance 6-30-81 until 6-30-82 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 8...capacity limited metabolism, computer, gases, interaction of vapors in the body, intrinsic clearance , multi-compartmental simulation model, respiratory

  17. Application of clearance automatic laser inspection system to clearance measurement of concrete waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed for the clearance measurement of metal scraps. It utilizes three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, y-ray measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, and has outstanding detection ability. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of background (BG) gamma rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be compensated for to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for y-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To apply CLALIS to the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the original activity evaluation method was improved by adding a new compensation procedure. In this procedure, BG count rate due to natural radionuclides is estimated by a Monte Carlo calculation with pre-analyzed data of a representative sample of the measurement target. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in concrete differs markedly depending on the production location of its components, such as cement and aggregates. In this study, using six mock concrete waste samples, which were composed of cement and fine aggregate from various production locations, the accuracy of BG compensation was experimentally estimated. In addition, the accuracy of calibration for concrete waste was also estimated using a number of mock concrete segments of small and large triangular prisms. By considering the uncertainties of BG compensation and calibration, the detection limit of CLALIS for concrete waste was estimated. As a result, it was revealed that CLALIS could be applied to the clearance measurement of concrete segments when the mass of the measurement target is greater than approximately 1.1 kg and the key radionuclide is Co-60

  18. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  19. ESR measurement of radical clearance in lung of whole mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Utsumi, H.; Hamada, A. )

    1991-06-14

    Clearance of the nitroxide radicals, hydroxy-TEMPO and carboxy-PROxYL, in whole-mouse lung was directly measured by in vivo ESR. After injecting a nitroxide radical, distribution of the nitroxide radical all over the lung was confirmed by ESR imaging. The ESR signal of hydroxy-TEMPO was reduced in the lung and the clearance obeyed first-order kinetics, whereas the signal of carboxy-PROxYL remained constant. Comparison of the clearance rates of live and dead mice indicated the presence of 2 different clearance systems in the lung: loss of its paramagnetism in the lung, and transfer from alveolar to the blood circulation system.

  20. Fuel conservation through active control of rotor clearances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beitler, R. S.; Saunders, A. A.; Wanger, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project, technology is being developed which will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of turbofan engines for subsonic transport aircraft. One technology concept being pursued is active control of rotor tip clearances. Attention is given to rotor tip clearance considerations and an overview of preliminary study results as well as the General Electric EEE clearance control approach is presented. Finally, potential fuel savings with active control of rotor clearances for a typical EEE mission are predicted.

  1. Error Correction for Foot Clearance in Real-Time Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Y.; Bakar, N. A.; Mazalan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Mobility performance level, fall related injuries, unrevealed disease and aging stage can be detected through examination of gait pattern. The gait pattern is normally directly related to the lower limb performance condition in addition to other significant factors. For that reason, the foot is the most important part for gait analysis in-situ measurement system and thus directly affects the gait pattern. This paper reviews the development of ultrasonic system with error correction using inertial measurement unit for gait analysis in real life measurement of foot clearance. This paper begins with the related literature where the necessity of measurement is introduced. Follow by the methodology section, problem and solution. Next, this paper explains the experimental setup for the error correction using the proposed instrumentation, results and discussion. Finally, this paper shares the planned future works.

  2. Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems (5−250 nm) have the potential to improve current disease therapies because of their ability to overcome multiple biological barriers and releasing a therapeutic load in the optimal dosage range. Rapid clearance of circulating nanoparticles during systemic delivery is a critical issue for these systems and has made it necessary to understand the factors affecting particle biodistribution and blood circulation half-life. In this review, we discuss the factors which can influence nanoparticle blood residence time and organ specific accumulation. These factors include interactions with biological barriers and tunable nanoparticle parameters, such as composition, size, core properties, surface modifications (pegylation and surface charge), and finally, targeting ligand functionalization. All these factors have been shown to substantially affect the biodistribution and blood circulation half-life of circulating nanoparticles by reducing the level of nonspecific uptake, delaying opsonization, and increasing the extent of tissue specific accumulation. PMID:18672949

  3. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.111 Section 536.111 National... UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.111 Investigation of claims...

  4. DJ-1/PARK7 Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Amatullah, Hajera; Shan, Yuexin; Beauchamp, Brittany L; Gali, Patricia L; Gupta, Sahil; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Speck, Edwin R; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Tsang, Jennifer L Y; Mei, Shirley H J; Mak, Tak W; Rocco, Patricia R M; Semple, John W; Zhang, Haibo; Hu, Pingzhao; Marshall, John C; Stewart, Duncan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Liaw, Patricia C; Liles, W Conrad; Dos Santos, Claudia C

    2017-04-01

    Effective and rapid bacterial clearance is a fundamental determinant of outcomes in sepsis. DJ-1 is a well-established reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Because cellular ROS status is pivotal to inflammation and bacterial killing, we determined the role of DJ-1 in bacterial sepsis. We used cell and murine models with gain- and loss-of-function experiments, plasma, and cells from patients with sepsis. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with endotoxin resulted in increased DJ-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS was increased in DJ-1-deficient ((-/-)) BMMs compared with wild-type. In a clinically relevant model of polymicrobial sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture), DJ-1(-/-) mice had improved survival and bacterial clearance. DJ-1(-/-) macrophages exhibited enhanced phagocytosis and bactericidal activity in vitro, and adoptive transfer of DJ-1(-/-) bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells rescued wild-type mice from cecal ligation and puncture-induced mortality. In stimulated BMMs, DJ-1 inhibited ROS production by binding to p47(phox), a critical component of the NADPH oxidase complex, disrupting the complex and facilitating Nox2 (gp91(phox)) ubiquitination and degradation. Knocking down DJ-1 (siRNA) in THP-1 (human monocytic cell line) and polymorphonuclear cells from patients with sepsis enhanced bacterial killing and respiratory burst. DJ-1 protein levels were elevated in plasma from patients with sepsis. Higher levels of circulating DJ-1 were associated with increased organ failure and death. These novel findings reveal DJ-1 impairs optimal ROS production for bacterial killing with important implications for host survival in sepsis.

  5. Clearance Measurements prior to the Shut-Down of ERAM

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, V.; Ibach, T.M.

    2008-07-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste was emplaced in the Morsleben Repository (ERAM), a former salt mine, until 1998. Now the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has applied for the decommissioning of the plant. The ERAM's own radioactive waste requires clearance as far as it may not remain in the repository. The German Mining Law also demands all non-mining typical waste to be removed from the mine when being decommissioned and the Waste Avoidance, Recovery and Disposal Act demands waste to remain within the economy cycle if this is economically justifiable. Therefore new clearance measuring devices have to be applied using gamma and beta radiation to determine the contamination of objects and substances regarding the special nuclide spectra in the ERAM. Even if a very multifaceted radionuclide spectrum is to be expected due to the fact that the emplaced waste results from various applications such as nuclear engineering, medicine, research, and military, numerous investigations have confirmed that only a few radionuclides have to be considered. To facilitate this procedure the controlled area of the ERAM is to be classified according to different contamination categories. Assumptions about the radionuclide mixture are permanently controlled by routine measurements and the evaluation of possible contamination events. The considerations about the radionuclide mixture and the structure of the controlled area will be described in this presentation. Furthermore a new methodology to measure Sr-90 is discussed which uses the Cerenkov effect and the low level of background gamma radiation in the salt mine. (authors)

  6. A case of delayed methotrexate clearance following administration of a complementary medication containing chlorophyll.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sally L; Sanders, Julie; Seymour, John F; Mellor, James D

    2014-06-01

    A 54-year-old male with relapsed primary cerebral lymphoma and normal renal function was treated with methotrexate (MTX) 3 g/m(2) monthly by intravenous infusion. Throughout treatment the patient self-administered a complementary medicine (Jason Winter's chlorophyll®), which he was advised to cease during methotrexate treatment due to the potential for unknown interactions. For the first four cycles, chlorophyll was ceased two days prior to commencement of methotrexate and withheld until clearance. These cycles were administered without complication, and the methotrexate level reduced to <0.05 µmol/L within three days of each dose. Prior to cycle 5, chlorophyll was not ceased and there were no changes to concomitant medications. A literature search found no documented interactions between methotrexate and chlorophyll and the chemotherapy was administered without a delay in treatment. The methotrexate level three days post-administration was 0.36 µmol/L and did not reduce to <0.05 µmol/L until day 10. Consequently, from cycles 6 to 12, the methotrexate dose was halved, and the patient ceased chlorophyll 48 h prior to methotrexate administration until clearance. There were no further episodes of delayed methotrexate clearance. No impurities were detected in a sample of Jason Winter's chlorophyll®. It is therefore likely that the patient's delayed methotrexate clearance was due to an interaction with chlorophyll. It is recommended that such chlorophyll containing preparations be avoided in patients treated with methotrexate.

  7. Clearance and binding of radiolabeled glycoproteins by cells of the murine mononuclear phagocyte system

    SciTech Connect

    Imber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The clearance and binding of radiolabeled lactoferrin and fast ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin were studied. Both glycoproteins cleared rapidly following intravenous injection in mice, and both bound specifically to discrete receptors on murine peritoneal macrophages. The simultaneous presence of excess, unlabeled ligands specific for receptors recognizing terminal fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine or galactose residues did not inhibit the clearance or binding of either lactoferrin or fast-..cap alpha../sub 2/M. The clearance and binding of enzymatically defucosylated lactoferrin was indistinguishable from native lactoferrin, indicating that terminal ..cap alpha..(1-3)-linked fucose on lactoferrin is not necessary for receptor recognition. The clearance and binding of two fast -..cap alpha../sub 2/M forms, ..cap alpha../sub 2/M-trypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/M-MeNH/sub 2/ cross compete with each other. Saturation binding studies indicated that the total binding of mannosyl -BSA, fusocyl-BSA, and N-acetylglucosaminyl-BSA to macrophages activated by BCG was approximately 15% of the levels observed with inflammatory macrophages elicited by thioglycollate broth. Cross-competition binding studies demonstrated a common surface receptor mediated binding of all three neoglycoprotein ligands and was identical to the receptor on mononuclear phagocytes that binds mannosyl- and N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated glycoproteins. These results suggest that difference between discrete states of macrophage function may be correlated with selective changes in levels of the surface receptor for mannose-containing glycoproteins.

  8. Evaluation of a liver microfluidic biochip to predict in vivo clearances of seven drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Regis; Legendre, Audrey; Jacques, Sebastien; Cotton, Jerome; Bois, Frederic; Leclerc, Eric

    2014-02-01

    We investigated metabolic clearances of phenacetin, midazolam, propranolol, paracetamol, tolbutamide, caffeine, and dextromethorphan by primary rat hepatocytes cultivated in microfluidic biochips. The levels of mRNA of the HNF4α, PXR, AHR, CYP3A1, and CYP1A2 genes were enhanced in the biochip cultures when compared with postextraction levels. We measured a high and rapid adsorption on the biochip walls and inside the circuit for dextromethorphan and midazolam, a moderate adsorption for phenacetin and propranolol, and a low adsorption for caffeine, tolbutamide, and paracetamol. Drug biotransformations were demonstrated by the formations of specific metabolites such as paraxanthyne (caffeine), paracetamol (phenacetin), 1-OH midazolam (midazolam), paracetamol sulfate (paracetamol and phenacetin), and dextrorphan (dextromethorphan). We used a pharmacokinetic model to estimate the adsorption and in vitro intrinsic drug clearance values. We calculated in vitro intrinsic clearance values of 0.5, 3, 12.5, 83, 100, 160, and 900 μL/min per 10(6) cells for the tolbutamide, caffeine, paracetamol, dextromethorphan, phenacetin, midazolam, and propranolol, respectively. A second model describing the liver as a well-stirred compartment predicted in vivo hepatic clearances of 0.1, 13.8, 30, 44.1, 61, 72, 85, and 61 mL/min per kg of body mass for the tolbutamide, caffeine, paracetamol, midazolam, dextromethorphan, phenacetin, and propranolol, respectively. These values appeared consistent with previously reported data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

  10. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from two hundred years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. Despite their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are poorly understood in terms of their true physiological potential for harm, and the mechanisms by which they impact cellular and organ level function are only recently becoming clear. Emerging awareness that chronic exposures to toxins may have generational and subtle effects on the outcomes of diseases such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long term effects of exposure are problems requiring that researchers leverage the power of genomics and epigenetics. However, the continuation of longitudinal epidemiological studies and development of a firmer basis from which to extrapolate animal studies will be critical in ensuring optimal insight from these resource-intensive techniques. PMID:22610997

  11. CSF clearance in Alzheimer Disease measured with dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-03-16

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) comes from primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents where predominant extra-cranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Using dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with (18)F-THK5117 a tracer for tau pathology, the ventricular CSF time activity was used as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested three hypotheses: 1. Extra-cranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; 2. CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and 3. CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: 15 subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers were examined with (18)F-THK5117. 10 subjects additionally received (11)C-PiB PET scans and 8 were PiB positive. Ventricular time activity curves (TAC) of (18)F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated TAC from extra-cranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF positive extra-cranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinates CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings.

    PubMed

    Williams, I D; Cole, C

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  13. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa; Agnew, Jennifer

    2009-01-21

    Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation. To determine the effectiveness and acceptability of oscillating devices compared to other forms of physiotherapy to improve respiratory function, mucus clearance and other outcomes in people with CF. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: November 2008. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies of oscillating devices compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with CF. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to publications and assessed the quality of the included studies. Two hundred and sixty-five studies were identified; thirty studies (total of 708 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Single treatment interventions (therapy technique used only once in the comparison) were excluded. Studies varied in duration from up to one week to one year in duration. Nineteen of the studies were cross-over in design. Data were not published in sufficient detail in most of these studies to perform meta-analysis.Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was the most frequently measured outcome. Results did not show significant difference in effect between oscillating devices and other methods of airway clearance on FEV(1) or other lung function parameters. Where there

  14. Improved Flight Test Procedures for Flutter Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick C.; Brenner, Martin J.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    Flight flutter testing is an integral part of flight envelope clearance. This paper discusses advancements in several areas that are being investigated to improve efficiency and safety of flight test programs. Results are presented from recent flight testing of the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft. A wingtip excitation system was used to generate aeroelastic response data. This system worked well for many flight conditions but still displayed some anomalies. Wavelet processing is used to analyze the flight data. Filtered transfer functions are generated that greatly improve system identification. A flutter margin is formulated that accounts for errors between a model and flight data. Worst-case flutter margins are computed to demonstrate the flutter boundary may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated. This paper concludes with developments for a distributed flight analysis environment and on-line health monitoring.

  15. [Mucociliary clearance function and medicamentous modification].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F

    1996-09-01

    Mucociliary clearance represents a complex self-cleaning mechanism of the lung and is based on the functional unity of ciliated columnar cells and the special viscoelastic properties of the secretion produced in the tracheobronchial system. It has been known for a long time that intubation and mechanical ventilation can impair mucous transport and lead to morphological damage to the tracheobronchial mucosa. Recent studies made it clear, however, that mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia using an appropriate anaesthesiological technique has no deleterious effect on mucus transport in patients with healthy lungs. Ventilated patients in the intensive-care unit frequently have impaired mucus transport, which is associated with the development of retention of secretion and nosocomial pneumonia. In these patients a number of factors combine to form a formidable potential insult to the mucociliary transport mechanism. Numerous drugs can affect mucociliary transport. Beta-mimetics and theophylline, in particular, have a favourable effect on mucociliary transport, whereas the effect of mucolytic agents is controversial.

  16. Miscellaneous losses. [tip clearance and disk friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The boundary-layer losses associated with the flow process in the blade channel are discussed. To determine the overall design point efficiency of a turbine, other losses must also be considered; these include tip clearance loss and disk friction loss. The sum of these losses normally comprises all the losses that are considered in the design of a full admission axial flow turbine. If, however, a partial admission turbine is being considered, there are additional losses that must be included. The partial admission losses usually considered are the pumping loss in the inactive blade channels and the filling-and-emptying loss in the blade passages as they pass through the admission arc. Finally, a loss that occurs at off-design operation of any turbine is the incidence loss.

  17. Defects in the regulatory clearance mechanisms favor the breakdown of self-tolerance during spontaneous autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, R-Marc; Yoon, Suk Ran; Akpovi, Casimir D; Silvas, Emil; Vitale, María Leiza

    2009-03-01

    We identified aberrations leading to spontaneous autoimmune orchitis (AIO) in mink, a seasonal breeder and natural model for autoimmunity. This study provides evidence favoring the view that a malfunction of the clearance mechanisms for apoptotic cell debris arising from imbalances in phagocyte receptors or cytokines acting on Sertoli cells constitutes a major factor leading to breakdown of self-tolerance during spontaneous AIO. Serum anti-sperm antibody titers measured by ELISA reflected spermatogenic activity without causing immune inflammatory responses. Orchitic mink showed excess antibody production accompanied by spermatogenic arrest, testicular leukocyte infiltration, and infertility. AIO serum labeled the postacrosomal region, the mid and end piece of mink sperm, whereas normal mink serum did not. Normal serum labeled plasma membranes, whereas AIO serum reacted with germ cell nuclei. Western blot analyses revealed that AIO serum reacted specifically to a 23- and 50-kDa protein. The number of apostain-labeled apoptotic cells was significantly higher in orchitic compared with normal tubules. However, apoptosis levels measured by ELISA in seminiferous tubular fractions (STf) were not significantly different in normal and orchitic tubules. The levels of CD36, TNF-alpha, TNF-alpha RI, IL-6, and Fas but not Fas-ligand (L), and ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 were changed in AIO STf. TNF-alpha and IL-6 serum levels were increased during AIO. Fas localized to germ cells, Sertoli cells, and the lamina propria of the tubules and Fas-L, to germ cells. Fas colocalized with Fas-L in residual bodies in normal testis and in giant cells and infiltrating leukocytes in orchitic tubules.

  18. A model-based analysis of the predictive performance of different renal function markers for cefepime clearance in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Stijn; De Neve, Nikolaas; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Berth, Mario; Vermeulen, An; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Colin, Pieter

    2016-09-01

    Several population pharmacokinetic models for cefepime in critically ill patients have been described, which all indicate that variability in renal clearance is the main determinant of the observed variability in exposure. The main objective of this study was to determine which renal marker best predicts cefepime clearance. A pharmacokinetic model was developed using NONMEM based on 208 plasma and 51 urine samples from 20 ICU patients during a median follow-up of 3 days. Four serum-based kidney markers (creatinine, cystatin C, urea and uromodulin) and two urinary markers [measured creatinine clearance (CLCR) and kidney injury molecule-1] were evaluated as covariates in the model. A two-compartment model incorporating a renal and non-renal clearance component along with an additional term describing haemodialysis clearance provided an adequate description of the data. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for renal cefepime clearance. Compared with the base model without covariates, the objective function value decreased from 1971.7 to 1948.1, the median absolute prediction error from 42.4% to 29.9% and the between-subject variability in renal cefepime clearance from 135% to 50%. Other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. Monte Carlo simulations using the Sanford guide dose recommendations indicated an insufficient dose reduction in patients with a decreased kidney function, leading to potentially toxic levels. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was the best predictor for cefepime clearance in critically ill patients, although other creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae and measured CLCR performed similarly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Denopamine, a beta(1)-adrenergic agonist, increases alveolar fluid clearance in ex vivo rat and guinea pig lungs.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, T; Tuchihara, C; Ishigaki, M; Osanai, K; Nambu, Y; Toga, H; Takahashi, K; Ohya, N; Kurihara, T; Matthay, M A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of denopamine, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic agonist, on alveolar fluid clearance was determined in both ex vivo rat and guinea pig lungs. Alveolar fluid clearance was measured by the progressive increase in the concentration of Evans blue-labeled albumin over 1 h at 37 degrees C. Denopamine (10(-6) to 10(-3) M) increased alveolar fluid clearance in a dose-dependent manner in ex vivo rat lungs. Denopamine also stimulated alveolar fluid clearance in guinea pig lungs. Atenolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic antagonist, and amiloride, a sodium channel inhibitor, inhibited denopamine-stimulated alveolar fluid clearance. The potency of denopamine was similar to that of similar doses of isoproterenol or terbutaline. Short-term hypoxia (100% nitrogen for 1-2 h) did not alter the stimulatory effect of denopamine. Denopamine (10(-4), 10(-3) M) increased intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in cultured rat alveolar type II cells. In summary, denopamine, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic agonist, stimulates alveolar fluid clearance in both ex vivo rat and guinea pig lungs.

  20. Clearance systems in the brain—implications for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tarasoff-Conway, Jenna M.; Carare, Roxana O.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Glodzik, Lidia; Butler, Tracy; Fieremans, Els; Axel, Leon; Rusinek, Henry; Nicholson, Charles; Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Frangione, Blas; Blennow, Kaj; Ménard, Joël; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wisniewski, Thomas; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates—amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles—is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ accumulation has been hypothesized to result from an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance; indeed, Aβ clearance seems to be impaired in both early and late forms of AD. To develop efficient strategies to slow down or halt AD, it is critical to understand how Aβ is cleared from the brain. Extracellular Aβ deposits can be removed from the brain by various clearance systems, most importantly, transport across the blood–brain barrier. Findings from the past few years suggest that astroglial-mediated interstitial fluid (ISF) bulk flow, known as the glymphatic system, might contribute to a larger portion of extracellular Aβ (eAβ) clearance than previously thought. The meningeal lymphatic vessels, discovered in 2015, might provide another clearance route. Because these clearance systems act together to drive eAβ from the brain, any alteration to their function could contribute to AD. An understanding of Aβ clearance might provide strategies to reduce excess Aβ deposits and delay, or even prevent, disease onset. In this Review, we describe the clearance systems of the brain as they relate to proteins implicated in AD pathology, with the main focus on Aβ. PMID:26195256

  1. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  2. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  3. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  4. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed...

  5. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title...

  7. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological contaminants...

  8. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question...

  9. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in question...

  10. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  11. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  12. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  13. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological...

  14. 48 CFR 952.204-73 - Facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....204-73 Section 952.204-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... granted by the Secretary of Energy. In addition, a Facility Clearance and foreign ownership, control and... Department of Energy Facility Clearance generally need not resubmit the following foreign...

  15. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor...

  16. 5 CFR 720.307 - Interagency report clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency report clearance. 720.307 Section 720.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Interagency report clearance. The reports contained in this regulation have been cleared in accordance...

  17. 10 CFR 95.53 - Termination of facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of facility clearance. 95.53 Section 95.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.53 Termination of facility...

  18. 48 CFR 245.7310-8 - Antitrust clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust clearance. 245.7310-8 Section 245.7310-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Antitrust clearance. When property with an acquisition cost of $3 million or more is to be sold, include...

  19. 14 CFR 93.311 - Minimum terrain clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum terrain clearance. 93.311 Section 93.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.311 Minimum terrain clearance. Except in an emergency,...

  20. 33 CFR 160.115 - Withholding of clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withholding of clearance. 160.115... § 160.115 Withholding of clearance. Each District Commander or Captain of the Port may request the Secretary of the Treasury, or the authorized representative thereof, to withhold or revoke the...

  1. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entry and clearance. 122.26 Section 122.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  2. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  3. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  4. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  5. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  6. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  8. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  9. 14 CFR 29.411 - Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. 29.411 Section 29.411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... System Loads § 29.411 Ground clearance: tail rotor guard. (a) It must be impossible for the tail rotor to...

  10. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents... address the problem of overhead clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with accurate vertical air draft information, a maritime organization has...

  11. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  12. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  13. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  14. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Collet, Séverine H. Picard-Hagen, Nicole Lacroix, Marlène Z. Puel, Sylvie Viguié, Catherine Bousquet-Melou, Alain Toutain, Pierre-Louis Gayrard, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  15. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    PubMed

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance.

  16. 76 FR 17978 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Emergency Clearance Request The Social Security Administration (SSA) publishes a list of information collection packages requiring clearance by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in compliance...

  17. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND...

  18. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  19. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  20. 32 CFR 644.69 - Title Clearance-Easements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Title Clearance-Easements. 644.69 Section 644.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.69 Title Clearance—Easements. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 1927.55 - Title clearance services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Title clearance services. 1927.55 Section 1927.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND...

  2. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  3. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  4. 32 CFR 644.527 - Recording Statements of Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recording Statements of Clearance. 644.527 Section 644.527 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed...

  5. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  6. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clearance above top of rail. 229.71 Section 229.71....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail....

  7. 32 CFR 644.521 - Limitations on clearance cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitations on clearance cost. 644.521 Section 644.521 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  8. Benefits of Improved HP Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Albers, Bob; Sak, Wojciech; Seitzer, Ken; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the NASA Propulsion 21 program, GE Aircraft Engines was contracted to develop an improved high pressure turbine(HPT) active clearance control (ACC) system. The system is envisioned to minimize blade tip clearances to improve HPT efficiency throughout the engine operation range simultaneously reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

  9. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  10. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  11. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  12. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  13. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  14. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  15. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  16. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  17. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  18. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance...

  19. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking...

  20. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to...

  1. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected (125)I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of (125)I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of (125)I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in (125)I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes

  2. Differences in amyloid-β clearance across mouse and human blood-brain barrier models: Kinetic analysis and mechanistic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Qosa, Hisham; Abuasal, Bilal S.; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Oliver; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a characteristic hallmark of amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. This accumulation of Aβ has been related to its faulty cerebral clearance. Indeed, preclinical studies that used mice to investigate Aβ clearance showed that efflux across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain degradation mediate efficient Aβ clearance. However, the contribution of each process to Aβ clearance remains unclear. Moreover, it is still uncertain how species differences between mouse and human could affect Aβ clearance. Here, a modified form of the brain efflux index method was used to estimate the contribution of BBB and brain degradation to Aβ clearance from the brain of wild type mice. We estimated that 62% of intracerebrally injected 125I-Aβ40 is cleared across BBB while 38% is cleared by brain degradation. Furthermore, in vitro and in silico studies were performed to compare Aβ clearance between mouse and human BBB models. Kinetic studies for Aβ40 disposition in bEnd3 and hCMEC/D3 cells, representative in vitro mouse and human BBB models, respectively, demonstrated 30-fold higher rate of 125I-Aβ40 uptake and 15-fold higher rate of degradation by bEnd3 compared to hCMEC/D3 cells. Expression studies showed both cells to express different levels of P-glycoprotein and RAGE, while LRP1 levels were comparable. Finally, we established a mechanistic model, which could successfully predict cellular levels of 125I-Aβ40 and the rate of each process. Established mechanistic model suggested significantly higher rates of Aβ uptake and degradation in bEnd3 cells as rationale for the observed differences in 125I-Aβ40 disposition between mouse and human BBB models. In conclusion, current study demonstrates the important role of BBB in the clearance of Aβ from the brain. Moreover, it provides insight into the differences between mouse and human BBB with regards to Aβ clearance and offer, for the first time, a mathematical model that describes A

  3. Comparison of serum iohexol clearance and plasma creatinine clearance in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katherine E; Wilcke, Jeff R; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L; McKenzie, Harold C; Scarratt, W Kent

    2009-12-01

    Objective-To determine whether a limited sampling time method based on serum iohexol clearance (Cl(iohexol)) would yield estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinically normal horses similar to those for plasma creatinine clearance (Cl(creatinine)). Animals-10 clinically normal adult horses. Procedures-A bolus of iohexol (150 mg/kg) was administered IV, and serum samples were obtained 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after injection. Urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine was measured during three 20-minute periods. The GFR determined by use of serum Cl(iohexol) and plasma Cl(creatinine) was compared with limits of agreement plots. Results-Values obtained for plasma Cl(creatinine) ranged from 1.68 to 2.69 mL/min/kg (mean, 2.11 mL/min/kg). Mean serum Cl(iohexol) was 2.38 mL/min/kg (range, 1.95 to 3.33 mL/min/kg). Limits of agreement plots indicated good agreement between the methods. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Use of serum Cl(iohexol) yielded estimates of GFR in clinically normal adult horses similar to those for plasma Cl(creatinine). This study was the first step in the evaluation of the use of serum Cl(iohexol) for estimating GFR in adult horses.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide clearance, bacterial clearance, and systemic inflammatory responses are regulated by cell type-specific functions of TLR4 during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meihong; Scott, Melanie J; Loughran, Patricia; Gibson, Gregory; Sodhi, Chhinder; Watkins, Simon; Hackam, David; Billiar, Timothy R

    2013-05-15

    The morbidity associated with bacterial sepsis is the result of host immune responses to pathogens, which are dependent on pathogen recognition by pattern recognition receptors, such as TLR4. TLR4 is expressed on a range of cell types, yet the mechanisms by which cell-specific functions of TLR4 lead to an integrated sepsis response are poorly understood. To address this, we generated mice in which TLR4 was specifically deleted from myeloid cells (LysMTLR4KO) or hepatocytes (HCTLR4KO) and then determined survival, bacterial counts, host inflammatory responses, and organ injury in a model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), with or without antibiotics. LysM-TLR4 was required for phagocytosis and efficient bacterial clearance in the absence of antibiotics. Survival, the magnitude of the systemic and local inflammatory responses, and liver damage were associated with bacterial levels. HCTLR4 was required for efficient LPS clearance from the circulation, and deletion of HCTLR4 was associated with enhanced macrophage phagocytosis, lower bacterial levels, and improved survival in CLP without antibiotics. Antibiotic administration during CLP revealed an important role for hepatocyte LPS clearance in limiting sepsis-induced inflammation and organ injury. Our work defines cell type-selective roles for TLR4 in coordinating complex immune responses to bacterial sepsis and suggests that future strategies for modulating microbial molecule recognition should account for varying roles of pattern recognition receptors in multiple cell populations.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E; Waites, Ken B; Grams, Jayleen M; Stahl, Richard D; Mannon, Peter J; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C Mel; Harris, Paul R; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B; Smith, Phillip D

    2013-06-15

    Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of Helicobacter pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR(+) mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive AEC material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in AEC clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the AECs by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-α, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared with uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of AECs and higher levels of nonphagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection.

  6. Disruption of LDL but not VLDL clearance in autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher; Garuti, Rita; Michaely, Peter; Li, Wei-Ping; Maeda, Nobuyo; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Herz, Joachim; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic defects in LDL clearance result in severe hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis. Mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the most severe form of genetic hypercholesterolemia. A phenocopy of FH, autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), is due to mutations in an adaptor protein involved in LDLR internalization. Despite comparable reductions in LDL clearance rates, plasma LDL levels are substantially lower in ARH than in FH. To determine the metabolic basis for this difference, we examined the synthesis and catabolism of VLDL in murine models of FH (Ldlr–/–) and ARH (Arh–/–). The hyperlipidemic response to a high-sucrose diet was greatly attenuated in Arh–/– mice compared with Ldlr–/– mice despite similar rates of VLDL secretion. The rate of VLDL clearance was significantly higher in Arh–/– mice than in Ldlr–/– mice, suggesting that LDLR-dependent uptake of VLDL is maintained in the absence of ARH. Consistent with these findings, hepatocytes from Arh–/– mice (but not Ldlr–/– mice) internalized β-migrating VLDL (β-VLDL). These results demonstrate that ARH is not required for LDLR-dependent uptake of VLDL by the liver. The preservation of VLDL remnant clearance attenuates the phenotype of ARH and likely contributes to greater responsiveness to statins in ARH compared with FH. PMID:17200716

  7. MicroRNA-155 is required for clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Chris P; Dorrington, Michael G; Novakowski, Kyle E; Kaiser, Julie; Radford, Katherine; Nair, Parameswaran; Anipindi, Varun; Kaushic, Charu; Surette, Michael G; Bowdish, Dawn M E

    2014-11-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of death and an economic burden worldwide. S. pneumoniae is an intermittent colonizer of the human upper respiratory tract, and the ability to control asymptomatic colonization determines the likelihood of developing invasive disease. Recognition of S. pneumoniae by resident macrophages via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and the presence of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-secreting CD4(+) T cells are required for macrophage recruitment and bacterial clearance. Despite the fact that the primary cellular effectors needed for bacterial clearance have been identified, much of the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that the small, noncoding RNA microRNA-155 (mir-155) is critical for the effective clearance of S. pneumoniae. Our studies show that mir-155-deficient mice maintain the ability to prevent acute invasive pneumococcal infection but have significantly higher bacterial burdens following colonization, independently of macrophage recognition by TLR-2, MARCO expression, or bactericidal capacity. The observed defects in bacterial clearance parallel reduced IL-17A and gamma interferon CD4(+) T-cell responses in vivo, lower IL-17A mRNA levels in the nasopharynx, and a reduced capacity to induce Th17 cell polarization. Given that knockout mice are also limited in the capacity to generate high-titer S. pneumoniae-specific antibodies, we conclude that mir-155 is a critical mediator of the cellular effectors needed to clear primary and secondary S. pneumoniae colonizations.

  8. Association of HPV infection and clearance with cervicovaginal immunology and the vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, B; Yi, TJ; Perusini, S; Gajer, P; Ma, B; Humphrys, MS; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Rebbapragada, A; Kaul, R

    2016-01-01

    Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase HIV risk. Since other genital infections enhance HIV susceptibility by inducing inflammation, we assessed the impact of HPV infection and clearance on genital immunology and the cervico-vaginal microbiome. Genital samples were collected from 65 women for HPV testing, immune studies and microbiota assessment; repeat HPV testing was performed after 6 months. All participants were HIV-uninfected and free of bacterial STIs. Cytobrush-derived T cell and dendritic cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry. Undiluted cervico-vaginal secretions were used to determine cytokine levels by multiplex ELISA, and to assess bacterial community composition and structure by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Neither HPV infection nor clearance were associated with broad differences in cervical T cell subsets or cytokines, although HPV clearance was associated with increased Langerhans cells and HPV infection with elevated IP-10 and MIG. Individuals with HPV more frequently had a high diversity cervico-vaginal microbiome (community state type IV) and were less likely to have an L. gasseri predominant microbiome. In summary, HPV infection and/or subsequent clearance was not associated with inflammation or altered cervical T cell subsets, but associations with increased Langerhans cells and the composition of the vaginal microbiome warrant further exploration. PMID:28120845

  9. A Study on the Requirements for Fast Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the requirements of a control system for active turbine tip clearance control in a generic commercial turbofan engine through design and analysis. The control objective is to articulate the shroud in the high pressure turbine section in order to maintain a certain clearance set point given several possible engine transient events. The system must also exhibit reasonable robustness to modeling uncertainties and reasonable noise rejection properties. Two actuators were chosen to fulfill such a requirement, both of which possess different levels of technological readiness: electrohydraulic servovalves and piezoelectric stacks. Identification of design constraints, desired actuator parameters, and actuator limitations are addressed in depth; all of which are intimately tied with the hardware and controller design process. Analytical demonstrations of the performance and robustness characteristics of the two axisymmetric LQG clearance control systems are presented. Takeoff simulation results show that both actuators are capable of maintaining the clearance within acceptable bounds and demonstrate robustness to parameter uncertainty. The present model-based control strategy was employed to demonstrate the tradeoff between performance, control effort, and robustness and to implement optimal state estimation in a noisy engine environment with intent to eliminate ad hoc methods for designing reliable control systems.

  10. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa; Agnew, Jennifer

    2014-07-20

    Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation. To identify whether oscillatory devices, oral or chest wall, are effective for mucociliary clearance and whether they are equivalent or superior to other forms of airway clearance in the successful management of secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Latest search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 13 January 2014. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies of oscillating devices compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Single-treatment interventions (therapy technique used only once in the comparison) were excluded. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to publications and assessed the quality of the included studies. The searches identified 68 studies with a total of 288 references; 35 studies (total of 1050 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Studies varied in duration from up to one week to one year; 20 of the studies were cross-over in design. The studies also varied in type of intervention and the outcomes measured, furthermore data were not published in sufficient detail in most of these studies, so meta-analysis was limited. Few studies were considered to have a low risk of bias in any domain. It is not possible to blind participants and

  11. MYC amplification in angiosarcomas arising in the setting of chronic lymphedema of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Harker, David; Jennings, Michael; McDonough, Patrick; Mauskar, Melissa; Savory, Stephanie; Hosler, Gregory A; Vandergriff, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a malignancy of vascular endothelial cells which may arise secondarily as a complication of lymphedema, including chronic lymphedema of morbid obesity. Amplifications in MYC are frequently present in secondary angiosarcoma (arising in irradiated sites and chronic lymphedema) and less frequently in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma. To describe the presence of MYC amplifications in two cases of cutaneous angiosarcoma secondary to chronic lymphedema of morbid obesity. This study is a case series of two patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma. Clinical data was retrieved from the medical records. Histopathological analysis of the biopsy specimens was performed, including immunohistochemistry, along with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Angiosarcoma arose in the setting of massive chronic lymphedema complicating morbid obesity without other predisposing risk factors. Both cases exhibited epithelioid cell morphology and high-level MYC amplification. We report MYC amplification in two cases of angiosarcoma arising in massive chronic lymphedema of morbid obesity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. BAG3 facilitates the clearance of endogenous tau in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhinian; Brizzee, Corey; Johnson, Gail V W

    2015-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is found primarily in neurons, and in pathologic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it accumulates and contributes to the disease process. Because tau plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD and other tauopathies, and in AD mouse models reducing tau levels improves outcomes, approaches that facilitate tau clearance are being considered as therapeutic strategies. However, fundamental to the development of such interventions is a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tau clearance. Here, we report a novel mechanism of tau degradation mediated by the co-chaperone BAG3. BAG3 has been shown to be an essential component of a complex that targets substrates to the autophagy pathway for degradation. In rat primary neurons, activation of autophagy by inhibition of proteasome activity or treatment with trehalose resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels. These treatments also induced an upregulation of BAG3. Proteasome inhibition activated JNK, which was responsible for the upregulation of BAG3 and increased tau clearance. Inhibiting JNK or knocking down BAG3 blocked the proteasome inhibition-induced decreases in tau. Further, BAG3 overexpression alone resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels in neurons. These results indicate that BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the levels of tau in neurons, and interventions that increase BAG3 levels could provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD.

  13. Lactate clearance as the predictor of outcome in pediatric septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Richa; Sitaraman, Sadasivan; Choudhary, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Context: Septic shock can rapidly evolve into multiple system organ failure and death. In the recent years, hyperlactatemia has been found to be a risk factor for mortality in critically ill adults. Aims: To evaluate the predictive value of lactate clearance and to determine the optimal cut-off value for predicting outcome in children with septic shock. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study was performed on children with septic shock admitted to pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Subjects and Methods: Serial lactate levels were measured at PICU admission, 24 and 48 h later. Lactate clearance, percent decrease in lactate level in 24 h, was calculated. The primary outcome measure was survival or nonsurvival at the end of hospital stay. We performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values. Results: The mean lactate levels at admission were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors than survivors, 5.12 ± 3.51 versus 3.13 ± 1.71 mmol/L (P = 0.0001). The cut-off for lactate level at admission for the best prediction of mortality was determined as ≥4 mmol/L (odds ratio 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.45–12.09). Mean lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than nonsurvivors (17.9 ± 39.9 vs. −23.2 ± 62.7; P < 0.0001). A lactate clearance rate of <10% at 24 h had a sensitivity and specificity of 78.7% and 72.2%, respectively and a positive predictive value of 83.1% for death. Failure to achieve a lactate clearance of more than 10% was associated with greater risk of mortality (likelihood ratio + 2.83; 95% CI = 1.82–4.41). Conclusions: Serial lactate levels can be used to predict outcome in pediatric septic shock. A 24 h lactate clearance cut-off of <10% is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in such patients. PMID:28367008

  14. 76 FR 36167 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... the request for OMB's clearance of this information collection. Issued in Washington, DC on June 15, 2011. Carla Scott, FAA Information Collection Clearance Officer, IT Enterprises Business...

  15. Dracunculiasis eradication--finishing the job before surprises arise.

    PubMed

    Visser, Benjamin Jelle

    2012-07-01

    Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-Saharan African countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a 25-year old campaign to rid the world of Guinea Worm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries. During the 19th and 20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much of Southern Asia and the African continent. The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by ≥99%, from the 3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in 1986 in Africa to only 1,797 cases reported in 2010 reported in only five countries (Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia, Chad and Ghana) and Asia free of the disease. This achievement is unique in its kind--the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible--and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs. Most efforts need to be taken in two countries, South Sudan (comprising 94% or 1,698 out of 1,797 of the cases reported world-wide in 2010) and Mali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outside Mali's borders. All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy. Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  16. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  17. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W,; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  18. Foot clearance during stair descent: effects of age and illumination.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Kathryn A; Okita, Noriaki; Higginson, Jill S; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2005-02-01

    It is likely that many stair accidents result from a trip during stair negotiation, yet few studies have examined the exact nature of balance loss during falls on stairs. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential age-related differences in the minimum clearance of the foot during stair descent, and to explore whether the minimum foot clearance was affected by the available ambient lighting. Twelve young adults (24+/-3.3 years) and 10 older adults (73.7+/-1.9 years) participated in the study. The older adults had significantly greater within subject coefficients of variation compared to the young adults, and had a significantly larger number of minimum foot clearances which fell below 5 mm. While the young subjects increased their minimum clearance by 3.6 mm on average in response to a decrease in ambient lighting, the older adults maintained the same clearance over all stairs except one. These results suggest that the variability of minimum foot clearance, and lack of precautionary increases in foot clearance under reduced lighting may contribute to falls on stairs by the elderly.

  19. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  20. Inter-individual variation in midazolam clearance in children

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Mohammed I; Sammons, Helen; Choonara, Imti

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent of inter-individual variation in clearance of midazolam in children and establish which factors are responsible for this variation. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify papers describing the clearance of midazolam in children. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. From the papers, the range in plasma clearance and the coefficient of variation (CV) in plasma clearance were determined. Results 25 articles were identified. Only 13 studies gave the full range of clearance values for individual patients. The CV was greater in critically ill patients (18%–170%) than non-critically ill patients (13%–54%). Inter-individual variation was a major problem in all age groups of critically ill patients. The CV was 72%–106% in preterm neonates, 18%–73% in term neonates, 31%–130% in infants, 21%–170% in children and 47%–150% in adolescents. The mean clearance was higher in children (1.1–16.7 mL/min/kg) than in neonates (0.78–2.5 mL/min/kg). Conclusions Large inter-individual variation was seen in midazolam clearance values in critically ill neonates, infants, children and adolescents. PMID:25281734

  1. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  2. A novel relay method for determining low-clearance values.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Trapa, Patrick; Obach, R Scott; Atkinson, Karen; Bi, Yi-An; Wolford, Angela C; Tan, Beijing; McDonald, Thomas S; Lai, Yurong; Tremaine, Larry M

    2012-09-01

    A novel relay method has been developed using cryopreserved human hepatocytes to measure intrinsic clearance of low-clearance compounds. The relay method involved transferring the supernatant from hepatocyte incubations to freshly thawed hepatocytes at the end of the 4-h incubation to prolong the exposure time to active enzymes in hepatocytes. An accumulative incubation time of 20 h or longer in hepatoctyes can be achieved using the method. The relay method was validated using seven commercial drugs (diazepam, disopyramide, theophylline, timolol, tolbutamide, S-warfarin, and zolmitriptan) that were metabolized by various cytochrome P450s with low human in vivo intrinsic clearance at approximately 2 to 15 ml · min⁻¹ · kg⁻¹. The results showed that the relay method produced excellent predictions of human in vivo clearance. The difference between in vitro and in vivo intrinsic clearance was within 2-fold for most compounds, which is similar to the standard prediction accuracy for moderate to high clearance compounds using hepatocytes. The relay method is a straightforward, relatively low cost, and easy-to-use new tool to address the challenges of low clearance in drug discovery and development.

  3. Fenofibrate Decreases Insulin Clearance and Insulin Secretion to Maintain Insulin Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Russo, Lucia; Ghanem, Simona S; Patel, Payal R; Oyarce, Ana Maria; Heinrich, Garrett; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-11-11

    High fat diet reduces the expression of CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1), a transmembrane glycoprotein that promotes insulin clearance and down-regulates fatty acid synthase activity in the liver upon its phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transcriptionally suppresses CEACAM1 expression, we herein examined whether high fat down-regulates CEACAM1 expression in a PPARα-dependent mechanism. By activating PPARα, the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate reverses dyslipidemia and improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes in part by promoting fatty acid oxidation. Despite reducing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, fenofibrate treatment does not result in insulin insufficiency. To examine whether this is mediated by a parallel decrease in CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways, we fed wild-type and Pparα(-/-) null mice a high fat diet supplemented with either fenofibrate or Wy14643, a selective PPARα agonist, and examined their effect on insulin metabolism and action. We demonstrated that the decrease in insulin secretion by fenofibrate and Wy14643 is accompanied by reduction in insulin clearance in wild-type but not Pparα(-/-) mice, thereby maintaining normoinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity despite continuous high fat intake. Intact insulin secretion in L-CC1 mice with protected hepatic insulin clearance and CEACAM1 levels provides in vivo evidence that insulin secretion responds to changes in insulin clearance to maintain physiologic insulin and glucose homeostasis. These results also emphasize the relevant role of hepatic insulin extraction in regulating insulin sensitivity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Convergent evolutionary trajectories towards delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment.

    PubMed

    Wilairat, Prapon; Kümpornsin, Krittikorn; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2016-05-01

    Malaria is a major global health challenge with 300million new cases every year. The most effective regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives. The drugs are highly effective, resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum malaria patients. During the last five years, artemisinin-resistant parasites have begun to emerge first in Cambodia and now in Thailand and Myanmar. At present, the level of artemisinin resistance is relatively low with clinical presentation of delayed artemisinin clearance (a longer time to reduce parasite load) and a small decrease in artemisinin sensitivity in cultured isolates. Nevertheless, multiple genetic loci associated with delayed parasite clearance have been reported, but they cannot account for a large portion of cases. Even the most well-studied kelch 13 propeller mutations cannot always predict the outcome of artemisinin treatment in vitro and in vivo. Here we propose that delayed clearance by artemisinin could be the result of convergent evolution, driven by multiple trajectories to overcome artemisinin-induced stress, but precluded to become full blown resistance by high fitness cost. Genetic association studies by several genome-wide approaches reveal linkage disequilibrium between multiple loci and delayed parasite clearance. Genetic manipulations at some of these loci already have resulted in loss in artemisinin sensitivity. The notion presented here is by itself consistent with existing evidence on artemisinin resistance and has the potential to be explored using available genomic data. Most important of all, molecular surveillance of artemisinin resistance based on multi-genic markers could be more informative than relying on any one particular molecular marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone.

  6. Neither classical nor alternative macrophage activation is required for Pneumocystis clearance during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Qian; Wang, Jing; Hoy, Zachary; Keegan, Achsah; Bhagwat, Samir; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Pneumocystis is a respiratory fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia [PcP]) in immunocompromised patients. Alveolar macrophages are critical effectors for CD4(+) T cell-dependent clearance of Pneumocystis, and previous studies found that alternative macrophage activation accelerates fungal clearance during PcP-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, the requirement for either classically or alternatively activated macrophages for Pneumocystis clearance has not been determined. Therefore, RAG2(-/-) mice lacking either the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) receptor (IFN-γR) or interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) were infected with Pneumocystis. These mice were then immune reconstituted with wild-type lymphocytes to preserve the normal T helper response while preventing downstream effects of Th1 or Th2 effector cytokines on macrophage polarization. As expected, RAG2(-/-) mice developed severe disease but effectively cleared Pneumocystis and resolved IRIS. Neither RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) nor RAG/IL-4Rα(-/-) mice displayed impaired Pneumocystis clearance. However, RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice developed a dysregulated immune response, with exacerbated IRIS and greater pulmonary function deficits than those in RAG2 and RAG/IL-4Rα(-/-) mice. RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice had elevated numbers of lung CD4(+) T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and NK cells but severely depressed numbers of lung CD8(+) T suppressor cells. Impaired lung CD8(+) T cell responses in RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice were associated with elevated lung IFN-γ levels, and neutralization of IFN-γ restored the CD8 response. These data demonstrate that restricting the ability of macrophages to polarize in response to Th1 or Th2 cytokines does not impair Pneumocystis clearance. However, a cell type-specific IFN-γ/IFN-γR-dependent mechanism regulates CD8(+) T suppressor cell recruitment, limits immunopathogenesis, preserves lung function, and enhances the resolution of PcP-related IRIS.

  7. Pulmonary Responses to Stachybotrys chartarum and Its Toxins: Mouse Strain Affects Clearance and Macrophage Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Jamie H. Rosenblum; Molina, Ramon M.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Amuzie, Chidozie J.; Pestka, James J.; Coull, Brent A.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated differences in the pulmonary and systemic clearance of Stachybotrys chartarum spores in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6J. To evaluate clearance, mice were intratracheally instilled with a suspension of radiolabeled S. chartarum spores or with unlabeled spores. The lungs of C57BL/6J mice showed more rapid spore clearance than the lungs of BALB/c mice, which correlated with increased levels of spore-associated radioactivity in the GI tracts of C57BL/6J as compared with BALB/c mice. To identify mechanisms responsible for mouse strain differences in spore clearance and previously described lung inflammatory responses, we exposed alveolar macrophages (AMs) lavaged from BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice to S. chartarum spores, S. chartarum spore toxin (SST), and satratoxin G (SG) in vitro. The S. chartarum spores were found to be highly toxic with most cells from either mouse strain being killed within 24 h when exposed to a spore:cell ratio of 1:75. The spores were more lethal to AMs from C57BL/6J than those from BALB/c mice. In mice, the SST elicited many of the same inflammatory responses as the spores in vivo, including AM recruitment, pulmonary hemorrhage, and cytokine production. Our data suggest that differences in pulmonary spore clearance may contribute to the differences in pulmonary responses to S. chartarum between BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Enhanced AM survival and subsequent macrophage-mediated inflammation may also contribute to the higher susceptibility of BALB/c mice to S. chartarum pulmonary effects. Analogous genetic differences among humans may contribute to reported variable sensitivity to S. chartarum. PMID:20385656

  8. Pulmonary responses to Stachybotrys chartarum and its toxins: mouse strain affects clearance and macrophage cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Jamie H Rosenblum; Molina, Ramon M; Donaghey, Thomas C; Amuzie, Chidozie J; Pestka, James J; Coull, Brent A; Brain, Joseph D

    2010-07-01

    We investigated differences in the pulmonary and systemic clearance of Stachybotrys chartarum spores in two strains of mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6J. To evaluate clearance, mice were intratracheally instilled with a suspension of radiolabeled S. chartarum spores or with unlabeled spores. The lungs of C57BL/6J mice showed more rapid spore clearance than the lungs of BALB/c mice, which correlated with increased levels of spore-associated radioactivity in the GI tracts of C57BL/6J as compared with BALB/c mice. To identify mechanisms responsible for mouse strain differences in spore clearance and previously described lung inflammatory responses, we exposed alveolar macrophages (AMs) lavaged from BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice to S. chartarum spores, S. chartarum spore toxin (SST), and satratoxin G (SG) in vitro. The S. chartarum spores were found to be highly toxic with most cells from either mouse strain being killed within 24 h when exposed to a spore:cell ratio of 1:75. The spores were more lethal to AMs from C57BL/6J than those from BALB/c mice. In mice, the SST elicited many of the same inflammatory responses as the spores in vivo, including AM recruitment, pulmonary hemorrhage, and cytokine production. Our data suggest that differences in pulmonary spore clearance may contribute to the differences in pulmonary responses to S. chartarum between BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Enhanced AM survival and subsequent macrophage-mediated inflammation may also contribute to the higher susceptibility of BALB/c mice to S. chartarum pulmonary effects. Analogous genetic differences among humans may contribute to reported variable sensitivity to S. chartarum.

  9. Estimation of hurdle clearance parameters using a monocular human motion tracking method.

    PubMed

    Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Przednowek, Krzysztof; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a method of monocular human motion tracking for estimation of hurdle clearance kinematic parameters. The analysis involved 10 image sequences of five hurdlers at various training levels. Recording of the sequences was carried out under simulated starting conditions of a 110 m hurdle race. The parameters were estimated using the particle swarm optimization algorithm and they are based on analysis of the images recorded with a 100 Hz camera. The proposed method does not involve using any special clothes, markers, inertial sensors, etc. As the quality criteria, the mean absolute error and mean relative error were used. The level of computed errors justifies the use of this method to estimate hurdle clearance parameters.

  10. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  11. Thymoma type B1 arising in a giant supradiaphragmatic thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Han, Unsal; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Yanik, Serdar

    2014-11-01

    Thymolipomas are uncommon tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They may extend into, but rarely stem from, the chest cavity. Furthermore, thymoma arising in a thymolipoma is extremely rare. We report a unique case of thymoma type B1 that originated form a giant thymolipoma located in the chest cavity, which was resected by a lateral thoracotomy in a 23-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymoma type B1 arising within a giant thymolipoma. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis presenting as intramural leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Izadi-Mood, Narges; Samadi, Nasrin; Sarmadi, Soheila; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2007-04-01

    Adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis uteri is rare. Herein, we reported a patient with papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who received tamoxifen for treatment of her breast cancer over the past five years. In hysterectomy specimen taken for investigating her uncontrolled bleeding with suspicion of uterine myoma, multiple adenomyotic foci were found in the uterine wall. In one of these foci, papillary serous carcinoma was found. No evidence of tumor was seen in endometrial surface, peritoneum, and both adnexa.

  13. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  14. Toward a Fast-Response Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Kypuros, Javier A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, technologies developed for clearance control can benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first portion of the paper addresses the research from a programmatic viewpoint. Recent studies that provide motivation for the work, identification of key technologies, and NASA's plan for addressing deficiencies in the technologies are discussed. The later portion of the paper drills down into one of the key technologies by presenting equations and results for a preliminary dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena.

  15. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Modeling of Inhalation Administration of Vapors with Capacity Limited Clearance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    7 D-i 38 847 MODELING OF INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF VAPORS WITH 1/277I CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE (I) MI M UNIV FLA DEPT OFANESTHESIOLOGY V THOMAS...WITH CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE r-.4 AFOSR Grant No. 4#F03A I/ 1l.;Li C for the period June 30, 1981 to August 31, 1983 Vera Thomas, Ph.D. Professor...PERIOD COVEREDFinal : .0,,,0 MODELING OF INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF VAPORS Fia". -" WITH CAPACITY LIMITED CLEARANCE 6/30/81 thru 6/31/83 6. PERFORMING

  17. Simple sampling strategy for measuring inulin renal clearance.

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Hishida, Akira; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2009-02-01

    In the standard method of inulin clearance (Cin), three sets of serum and urine samples are collected during a 2-hour clearance period. For a practical use of this method, sampling should be the minimal number allowable while still providing enough accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of inulin renal clearance with assumed single urine collection with a period such as 30, 60 or 90 minutes. Inulin clearance data collected by the standard method from 737 individuals were used. Changes of serum inulin concentrations between 45 and 105 minutes after the start of the infusion were analyzed. We used first urine collection to calculate the inulin clearance with single urine collection (Cin-30 min). We assumed single urine collection for 60 or 90 minutes by combining the urine data of the consecutive 30-minute periods. Inulin clearances (Cin-60 min, Cin-90 min) were calculated from the assumed single urine collections, respectively. Serum inulin concentration did not reach equilibrium during the clearance period. It increased in subjects with low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreased in subjects with normal GFR. The amount of the change was small and -0.5 +/- 12.6% in subjects with GFR over 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Cin-30 min, Cin-60 min and Cin-90 min showed high correlation coefficients against Cin-ST (0.962, 0.988 and 0.998, respectively). Systemic biases in these clearances were negligible (under 1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). Root mean square error (RMSE) were 10.4, 5.3 and 2.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) for Cin-30 min, Cin-60 min and Cin-90 min, respectively. These data indicated that accuracy of inulin clearance depends on the duration of the urine collection period. Inulin clearance with a single urine collection is a convenient method. We showed that single urine collection for 30 minutes or a longer period has reasonable accuracy in calculation of inulin clearance. We propose a method of inulin clearance with single urine collection for 60

  18. Cervical Spine Clearance in Pediatric Trauma Centers: The Need for Standardization and an Evidence-based Protocol.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Gurpal S; Shah, Mitesh P; Herman, Marty J

    Cervical spine clearance in the pediatric trauma patient represents a particularly challenging task. Unfortunately, standardized clearance protocols for pediatric cervical clearance are poorly reported in the literature and imaging recommendations demonstrate considerable variability. With the use of a web-based survey, this study aims to define the methods utilized by pediatric trauma centers throughout North America. Specific attention was given to the identification of personnel responsible for cervical spine care, diagnostic imaging modalities used, and the presence or absence of a written pediatric cervical spine clearance protocol. A 10-question electronic survey was given to members of the newly formed Pediatric Cervical Spine Study Group, all of whom are active POSNA members. The survey was submitted via the online service SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7NVVQZR). The survey assessed the respondent's institution demographics, such as trauma level and services primarily responsible for consultation and operative management of cervical spine injuries. In addition, respondents were asked to identify the protocols and primary imaging modality used for cervical spine clearance. Finally, respondents were asked if their institution had a documented cervical spine clearance protocol. Of the 25 separate institutions evaluated, 21 were designated as level 1 trauma centers. Considerable variation was reported with regards to the primary service responsible for cervical spine clearance. General Surgery/Trauma (44%) is most commonly the primary service, followed by a rotating schedule (33%), Neurosugery (11%), and Orthopaedic Surgery (8%). Spine consults tend to be seen most commonly by a rotating schedule of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery. The majority of responding institutions utilize computed tomographic imaging (46%) as the primary imaging modality, whereas 42% of hospitals used x-ray primarily. The remaining institutions reported using a

  19. Tip-Clearance Vortex Characterized With Three-Dimensional Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, W. Trevor

    2002-01-01

    dynamics researchers to validate their predictions to a level of accuracy not previously attainable. In an effort to understand the effects of this flow phenomenon on the operation of the low speed axial compressor, data were acquired at two mass flow coefficients: 0.395 (design operating point) and 0.35 (operating point just above stall). In order to identify the spatial extent, location, and magnitude of the tip clearance vortex for each mass flow condition, data were acquired at five equally spaced spanwise locations, from 90- to 100-percent span. The data presented shows a cross section of the tip clearance vortex at 94-percent span and a mass flow coefficient of 0.395, where the color contours represent the radial velocity component. The blue (flow towards the hub) and red (flow towards the casing) regions illustrate the extent of the tip clearance vortex. The interface between the blue and red regions delineates the location of the vortex core.

  20. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measurement should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y should be complied with the 97.5. percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and estimation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is representative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the representative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person randomly selected from the population receiving a high dose. From the new concept of the ICRP, it is reasonable to consider that the 95. percentile of the dose distribution for the representative person is theoretically always lower than the dose constraint. Using this established relationship, it can be concluded that the minimum dose

  1. Approximate theoretical model for the five electronic states ( Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) arising from the ground 3d 9 configuration in nickel halide molecules and for rotational levels of the two Ω = 1/2 states in that manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2011-05-01

    In the first part of this paper an effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators is set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni +X -, with an electronic 3d 9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni + moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X - moiety. From a crystal-field point of view, interactions of the positive d-hole with the cylindrically symmetrical electric charge distribution of the hypothetical NiX - closed-shell core can then be parameterized by three terms in a traditional expansion in spherical harmonics: C0 + C2Y20( θ, ϕ) + C4Y40( θ, ϕ). Interaction of the hole with the magnetic field generated by its own orbital motion can be parameterized by a traditional spin-orbit interaction operator A L · S. The Hamiltonian matrix is set up in a basis set consisting of the 10 Hund's case (a) basis functions | L, Λ; S , Σ> that arise when L = 2 and S = 1/2. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the four parameters C0, C2, C4, and A which lead to good agreement, except for the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. The large equal and opposite residuals of the | Ω| = 1/2 states can be reduced to values comparable with those for the | Ω| = 3/2 and | Ω| = 5/2 states by fixing A to its value in Ni + and then introducing an empirical correction factor for one off-diagonal orbital matrix element. In the second part of this paper the usual effective Hamiltonian B( J- L- S) 2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two | Ω| = 1/2 states. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2 B, but that

  2. Overnight salivary caffeine clearance: a liver function test suitable for routine use.

    PubMed

    Jost, G; Wahlländer, A; von Mandach, U; Preisig, R

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring caffeine clearance from saliva (SCl) was assessed in ambulatory patients with liver disease and in a control group, and the results were compared with quantitative liver function tests. For this purpose, the subjects were given 280 mg caffeine p.o. in decaffeinated coffee powder between noon and 4 p.m., and caffeine concentrations were measured in saliva (using an enzyme immunoassay) before bedtime and upon arising. In the cirrhotics (n = 29), SCl was 0.58 +/- S.D. 0.45 ml per min X kg, thus being reduced to approximately one-third of drug-free, nonsmoking controls (1.53 +/- 0.46, n = 18); although patients with noncirrhotic liver disease showed intermediate values (0.95 +/- 0.47), their reduction in SCl was significant (p less than 0.001). SCl was correlated with indocyanine green fractional clearance, galactose elimination capacity and aminopyrine breath test; however, the closest relationship (Rs = 0.80) was observed with the aminopyrine breath test. It is suggested that the measurement of SCl represents a noninvasive and innocuous procedure for quantifying hepatic microsomal function, and is suitable for routine use. Since a.m. saliva concentrations of caffeine are highly correlated (Rs = -0.94) with SCl, further simplification of the test to a single-point measurement appears possible.

  3. Approximate Theoretical Model for the Five Electronic States (Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) Arising from the Ground 3d9 Configuration in Nickel Halide Molecules and for Rotational Levels of the Two Ω = 1/2 States in that Manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Allan S.-C.

    2011-06-01

    An effective Hamiltonian for a non-rotating diatomic molecule containing only crystal-field and spin-orbit operators has been set up to describe the energies of the five spin-orbit components that arise in the ground electronic configuration of the nickel monohalides. The model assumes that bonding in the nickel halides has the approximate form Ni+X-, with an electronic 3d9 configuration plus closed shells on the Ni+ moiety and a closed shell configuration on the X&- moiety. Least-squares fits of the observed five spin-orbit components of the three lowest electronic states in NiF and NiCl are then carried out in terms of the three crystal field parameters C0, C2, C4 and the spin-orbit coupling constant A. Following this, the usual effective Hamiltonian B(J-L-S)^2 for a rotating diatomic molecule is used to derive expressions for the unusually large Ω-type doubling parameter p in the two Ω = 1/2 states in the 3d9 manifold. These expressions show (for certain sign conventions) that the sum of the two p values should be -2B, but that their difference can vary between -10B and +10B. The theoretical magnitudes for p are in good agreement with the two observed p values for both NiF and NiCl, but the signs are not. The experimental signs can be brought into agreement with the theoretical signs by a fairly massive change in +/- parity assignments in the NiF and NiCl literature. The last part of the talk will focus on the theoretical and experimental implications of these parity changes.

  4. Myocardial uptake and clearance of thallium-201 in normal subjects: comparison of dipyridamole-induced hyperemia with exercise stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, T.D.; Gill, J.B.; Finkelstein, D.M.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-09-01

    Thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion may differ from that after exercise stress because the hemodynamic effects of these two interventions are different. In this study of normal volunteers, thallium kinetics after dipyridamole (n = 13) were determined from three serial image sets (early, intermediate and delayed) and from serial blood samples and compared with thallium kinetics after exercise (n = 15). Absolute myocardial thallium uptake was greater after dipyridamole compared with exercise (p less than 0.0001), although the relative myocardial distribution was similar. The myocardial clearance (%/h) of thallium was slower after dipyridamole than it was after exercise. Comparing dipyridamole and exercise, the differences in clearance were large from the early to the intermediate image (anterior, -11 +/- 17 versus 24 +/- 5, p = 0.0005; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, -7 +/- 11 versus 15 +/- 8, p = 0.004; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 3 +/- 9 versus 21 +/- 6, p = 0.001). In contrast, the differences in clearance were small from the intermediate to the delayed image (anterior, 15 +/- 4 versus 20 +/- 2, p = 0.025; 50 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 4 versus 19 +/- 3, p = 0.13; 70 degrees left anterior oblique, 15 +/- 3 versus 18 +/- 2, p = 0.047). Thallium uptake and clearance in the liver, splanchnic region and spleen were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.001). Blood thallium levels were greater after dipyridamole (p less than 0.05) and cleared more slowly (p = 0.07). Thus, myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance after dipyridamole infusion differ from thallium kinetics after exercise. This difference is, in part, related to associated differences in extracardiac and blood kinetics. Diagnostic criteria for the detection of abnormal thallium-201 clearance must be specific for the type of intervention.

  5. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maximum loan value of such margin stock shall be a fixed percentage “of its current market value.” (b) The... PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.110 Questions arising under this... by margin stock” and defines “purpose credit” as “any credit for the purpose, whether immediate...

  7. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  8. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appointment. 359.404 Section 359.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a...

  9. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  10. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  11. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  12. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  13. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  14. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  15. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

  16. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-04-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions.

  17. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  18. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP) will submit the following Information...

  19. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  20. Further Characterization of an Active Clearance Control Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Shawn C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Oswald, Jay J.

    2007-01-01

    A new test chamber and precision hydraulic actuation system were incorporated into an active clearance control (ACC) test rig at NASA Glenn Research Center. Using the improved system, a fast-acting, mechanically-actuated, ACC concept was evaluated at engine simulated temperatures and pressure differentials up to 1140 F and 120 psig, on the basis of secondary seal leakage and kinematic controllability. During testing, the ACC concept tracked a simulated flight clearance transient profile at 1140 F, 120 psig, with a maximum error of only 0.0012 in. Comparison of average dynamic leakage of the system with average static leakage did not show significant differences between the two operating conditions. Calculated effective clearance values for the rig were approximately 0.0002 in. at 120 psig, well below the industry specified effective clearance threshold of 0.001 in.