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Sample records for clematis drayton anthozoa

  1. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  2. Clematis Chlorotic Mottle Virus, a novel virus occurring in Clematis in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clematis is a genus of temperate climbing vines that are popular as ornamentals. Samples from domestic and international sources showing symptoms of yellow mottling and veining, chlorotic ring spots, line pattern mosaics, and in some cases flower distortion and discoloration were received at several...

  3. Identification of xylem occlusions occurring in cut clematis (Clematis L., fam. Ranunculaceae Juss.) stems during their vase life.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejuk, Agata; Rochala, Julia; Zakrzewski, Jacek; Rabiza-Świder, Julita

    2012-01-01

    During the vase life of cut stems obstruction of xylem vessels occurs due to microbial growth, formation of tyloses, deposition of materials in the lumen of xylem vessels and the presence of air emboli in the vascular system. Such obstructions may restrict water uptake and its transport towards upwards thus lowering their ornamental value and longevity of cut flowers. Clematis is a very attractive plant material which may be used as cut flower in floral compositions. Nothing is known about the histochemical or cytological nature of xylem blockages occurring in cut stems of this plant. This study shows that in clematis, tyloses are the main source of occlusions, although bacteria and some amorphic substances may also appear inside the vessels. A preservative composed of 200 mg dm(-3) 8-HQC (8-hydroxyquinolin citrate) and 2% sucrose arrested bacterial development and the growth of tyloses. This information can be helpful in the development of new treatments to improve keeping qualities of cut clematis stems.

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Clematis argentilucida.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Ma, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Haifeng; Liu, Xinyou

    2014-09-01

    Reinvestigation of the n-BuOH extract of the roots of Clematis argentilucida led to the isolation of a new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin 1 and a new taraxerane-type saponin 2, four known saponins 3-6 first isolated from the species, together with seven saponins 7-13 reported in the previous papers. The structures of saponins 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The ursane-type and taraxerane-type triterpenoid saponins were obtained from genus Clematis for the first time, and the aglycone of saponin 1, 3β,28-dihydroxy-18αH-ursan-20-en was first encountered. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated against human glioblastoma U251MG cell lines. The monodesmosidic saponins 1, 2 and 4-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cells with IC50 values ranging from 6.95 to 38.51 μM.

  5. A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside from the roots of Clematis uncinata.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo-Guo; Li, Man-Mei; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-01-01

    A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside, clematiunicinoside I (1), together with four known ones (2-5), was isolated from the roots of Clematis uncinata. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. The cytotoxic activities of all the compounds against caski cervical cancer (Caski) cells were evaluated. This is the first report of the presence of taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside in the genus Clematis. PMID:26651184

  6. Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-08-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na⁺ and K⁺ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins.

  7. Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Bárbara; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most venomous animals. The Anthozoa class includes sea anemones, hard corals, soft corals and sea pens. The composition of cnidarian venoms is not known in detail, but they appear to contain a variety of compounds. Currently around 250 of those compounds have been identified (peptides, proteins, enzymes and proteinase inhibitors) and non-proteinaceous substances (purines, quaternary ammonium compounds, biogenic amines and betaines), but very few genes encoding toxins were described and only a few related protein three-dimensional structures are available. Toxins are used for prey acquisition, but also to deter potential predators (with neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity effects) and even to fight territorial disputes. Cnidaria toxins have been identified on the nematocysts located on the tentacles, acrorhagi and acontia, and in the mucous coat that covers the animal body. Sea anemone toxins comprise mainly proteins and peptides that are cytolytic or neurotoxic with its potency varying with the structure and site of action and are efficient in targeting different animals, such as insects, crustaceans and vertebrates. Sea anemones toxins include voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels toxins, acid-sensing ion channel toxins, Cytolysins, toxins with Kunitz-type protease inhibitors activity and toxins with Phospholipase A2 activity. In this review we assessed the phylogentic relationships of sea anemone toxins, characterized such toxins, the genes encoding them and the toxins three-dimensional structures, further providing a state-of-the-art description of the procedures involved in the isolation and purification of bioactive toxins. PMID:23015776

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Glycosides from Clematis tashiroi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hung-Tse; Huang, Shih-Yen; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Shen, Chien-Chang; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-07-24

    From the 95% EtOH extract of dried aerial parts of Clematis tashiroi, eight new and four known phenolic (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferrulic acid) glycosides were isolated and characterized. The structures of the new isolates (clematisides A-H) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation as trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D- glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (1), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyll)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (2), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (3), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl p-coumaric acid (4), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (5), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (6), 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-{6-O-[4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-caffeoyl}-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. In a DPPH radical-scavenging test, compounds 1, 7, and 8 showed more potent antioxidant activity than that of the positive control, vitamin E. In addition, compound 7 also showed inhibitory activity in an antinitric oxide release assay. PMID:26143931

  9. Chekhovichia, a new generic replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus 1970 (Anthozoa: Heliolitoidea) non Lamarck 1801 (Protista: Foraminifera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    The genus Rotalites was established by Leleshus (1970: 97) for fossil Upper Silurian heliolitoids (Anthozoa) from Southern Tien Shan. However, the name is preoccupied by Rotalites Lamarck (1801: 401) of Foraminifera (Protista) (cf. Loeblich & Tappan, 1987). In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Chekhovichia nom. nov. is proposed here as a replacement name for Rotalites Leleshus non Lamarck. PMID:26624450

  10. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alexander M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Hughes, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage. PMID:20659935

  11. Palytoxin found in Palythoa sp. zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) sold in the home aquarium trade.

    PubMed

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Handy, Sara M; White, Kevin D; Reimer, James D

    2011-04-04

    Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) are colonial anemones that contain one of the deadliest toxins ever discovered, palytoxin (LD(50) in mice 300 ng/kg), but it is generally believed that highly toxic species are not sold in the home aquarium trade. We previously showed that an unintentionally introduced zoanthid in a home aquarium contained high concentrations of palytoxin and was likely responsible for a severe respiratory reaction when an individual attempted to eliminate the contaminant colonies using boiling water. To assess the availability and potential exposure of palytoxin to marine aquarium hobbyists, we analyzed zoanthid samples collected from local aquarium stores for palytoxin using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry and attempted to identify the specimens through genetic analysis of 16S and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) markers. We found four specimens of the same apparent species of zoanthid, that we described previously to be responsible for a severe respiratory reaction in a home aquarium, to be available in three aquarium stores in the Washington D.C. area. We found all of these specimens (n = 4) to be highly toxic with palytoxin or palytoxin-like compounds (range 0.5-3.5 mg crude toxin/g zoanthid). One of the most potent non-protein compounds ever discovered is present in dangerous quantities in a select species of zoanthid commonly sold in the home aquarium trade.

  12. Die Cnidogenese der Octocorallia (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): II. Reifung, Wanderung und Zerfall von Cnidoblast und Nesselkapsel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Moraw, B.

    1982-03-01

    Migration of cnidoblasts has never been observed in Anthozoa. In contrast to hydrozoans, anthozoans are repeatedly reported to develop nematocysts locally without migration in the entoderm as well as in the ectoderm. The majority of the nematocysts studied in different Octocorallia species (Alcyonaria: Alcyonarium digitatum, Parerythropodium coralloides; Gorgonaria: Pseudopterogorgia aerosa; Pennatularia: Veretillum cynomorium) originate from the ectoderm of the scapus, where, however, no mature nematocysts occur. Cnidoblasts containing immature nematocysts accumulate in the distal scapus, from where they migrate singly like amoebae into the pinnulae of the tentacles. The nematocysts mature during migration, during which the capsular matrix becomes completely electron-translucent. Only in the oral disc, where few nematocysts occur, do they mature locally without migration. In the Octocorallia, nematocyst development and maturation takes places only in the ectoderm. Development of nematocysts has never been observed in the entoderm, nor in the pharynx; this demonstrates its entodermal origin. The entoderm contains only degenerated or phagocytized nematocysts. Contrary to hydrozoans, the mature anthozoan cnidocyte is rounded and has no processes to the mesogloea. Instead of a cnidocil it has a ciliary cone consisting of a normal flagellum, stereocilia and macrovilli. The cnidocyte is characterised by abundant electron-translucent cytoplasm and nematocyst-anchoring structures made up of cross-striated, collagen-like fibrillae and a fibrous basal ring. The position of the cross-striated fibrillae is distally similar to that of the supportive rods in hydrozoan cnidoblasts. The present study clearly demonstrates that structure and, possibly, function of an octocorallian cnidocyte is much simpler than that of a hydrozoan cnidocyte. On the other hand, cnidoblast migration, occurring in Hydrozoa as well in Octocorallia, turned out to be a much older phylogenetic character

  13. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2013-09-01

    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  14. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively).

  15. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-01-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic

  16. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-01-01

    This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc. of anemones (the common name for these groups); the reference section comprises 845 entries. As for previous anemone catalogs, this contains taxonomic as well as nomenclatural information,  the former based on subjective opinion of working biologists, the latter objectively verifiable and unchanging (except by action of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature).        Each family-group name, genus-group name, and original combination for species-group names has an entry. The entry contains the bibliographic reference to the publication in which each name was made available. This book contains for Corallimorpharia seven family names (four considered valid [57%]), 20 generic names (10 considered valid [50%] and one unavailable), and 65 species names (46 considered valid [70%]). It contains for Actiniaria 86 family names (50 considered valid [58%] and three unavailable), 447 generic names (264 considered valid [59%] and two unavailable), and 1427 species names (1101 considered valid [77%] and nine unavailable). Type specimens are inventoried from more than 50 natural history museums in Africa, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and North America, including those with the largest collections of anemones; the geographic

  17. Evolutionary origins of germline segregation in Metazoa: evidence for a germ stem cell lineage in the coral Orbicella faveolata (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Barfield, Sarah; Aglyamova, Galina V; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-01-13

    The ability to segregate a committed germ stem cell (GSC) lineage distinct from somatic cell lineages is a characteristic of bilaterian Metazoans. However, the occurrence of GSC lineage specification in basally branching Metazoan phyla, such as Cnidaria, is uncertain. Without an independently segregated GSC lineage, germ cells and their precursors must be specified throughout adulthood from continuously dividing somatic stem cells, generating the risk of propagating somatic mutations within the individual and its gametes. To address the potential for existence of a GSC lineage in Anthozoa, the sister-group to all remaining Cnidaria, we identified moderate- to high-frequency somatic mutations and their potential for gametic transfer in the long-lived coral Orbicella faveolata (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) using a 2b-RAD sequencing approach. Our results demonstrate that somatic mutations can drift to high frequencies (up to 50%) and can also generate substantial intracolonial genetic diversity. However, these somatic mutations are not transferable to gametes, signifying the potential for an independently segregated GSC lineage in O. faveolata. In conjunction with previous research on germ cell development in other basally branching Metazoan species, our results suggest that the GSC system may be a Eumetazoan characteristic that evolved in association with the emergence of greater complexity in animal body plan organization and greater specificity of stem cell functions.

  18. Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bangmin; Zhang, Bin; Qi, Wei; Zhu, Yanan; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Nan; Sun, Rong; Bao, Jinku; Wu, Chuanfang

    2014-11-01

    Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinating activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells. However, the biochemical properties of CML have not revealed and its structural information still needs to be elucidated. In this study, it was found that CML possessed quite good thermostability and alkaline resistance, and its hemagglutinating activity was bivalent metal cation dependent. In addition, hemagglutination test and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that GuHCl, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate could change the conformation of CML and further caused the loss of hemagglutination activity. Moreover, the changes of fluorescence spectrum indicated that the tryptophan (Trp) microenvironment conversion might be related to the conformation and bioactivities of CML. In addition, it was also found that Trp residues, arginine (Arg) residues, and sulfhydryl were important for the hemagglutinating activity of CML, but only Trp was proved to be crucial for the CML conformation. Furthermore, the Trp, Arg, and sulfhydryl-modified CML exhibited 97.17%, 76.99%, and 49.64% loss of its anti-proliferative activity, respectively, which was consistent with the alterations of its hemagglutinating activity. Given these findings, Trp residues on the surface of CML are essential for the active center to form substrate-accessible conformation and suitable environment for carbohydrate binding. PMID:25239139

  19. Zaphrentis and the Zaphrentidae (Devonian; anthozoa, rugosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Zaphrentis is one of the most widely used names in Paleozoic coral paleontology. Species of "Zaphrentis" have been named from every Paleozoic System except the Cambrian. Variants of the word, such as zaphrentoid, are widely used with varied meanings. Nomenclatural spinoffs are numerous: Neozaphrentis and Heterophrentis are obvious examples, but dozens of additional genera have type species that were originally described in Zaphrentis. Many paleontologists are familiar with the word but few really know what it means. Zaphrentis (as a subgenus) and five new species were named in 1820, based on corals from the Falls of the Ohio River between Louisville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Indiana. Descriptions were minimal, none was illustrated, and no specimens were preserved as types. Nominal species of "Zaphrentis" proliferated for over 100 years before a redescription based on Falls specimens was published (1938), the probable source beds recognized (1942), a neotype selected (1965) and adequately described and illustrated (1981). At this time, I recognize only four zaphrentid genera: Zaphrentis (middle Eifelian), Heliophyllum (middle Emsian through Givetian), Aemulophyllum (middle Emsian), and Cyathocylindrium (lower Emsian?; middle Emsian through Eifelian). All four genera seem to have originated in the Eastern Americas Biogeographic Realm. Heliophyllum is the most common, has the longest stratigraphic range, and is the only one known to occur outside of its area of origin. Heliophyllum modicum n. sp., once discussed as a possible Zaphrentis, is described and compared with both the type species of Zaphrentis and other Heliophyllum species. A single coral specimen from the Indian Cove Formation (upper Pragian or lower Emsian), Gaspe??, Quebec, is considered the earliest known zaphrentid and is described as Cyathocylindrium? n. sp.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-044-1761, American Crystal Sugar Company, Drayton, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

    1986-12-01

    Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar-beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill 2063) owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union and ACSCO's management. Personal and general air samples were collected and analyzed for several chemicals, total and respirable dusts, and metals and welding fumes. Methods included gravimetric analysis, chromatography, spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Exposures in excess of the most-stringent criteria were found for calcium-oxide, coal dust, crystalline silica, sugar dust, and formaldehyde. Areas of greatest exposure included lime-kiln operation, coal handling, and storage-bin housekeeping. Recommendations include use of respiratory protection, dust and fume containment, and formaldehyde replacement.

  1. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  2. A new alcyonacean octocoral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Cairns, Stephen D; Häussermann, Verena

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Swiftia comauensis, is described from Chile. It occurs in shallow waters from 18 to 59 m in the Patagonian fjord region and seems to be endemic to the northern part of the region. The species is characterized by having straggly colonies with sparse branching and long drooping branches, prominent polyp mounds, and long, thin spindles; the colonies are bright orange with pale yellow polyp mounds. A sharp decline in colony abundance was observed between 2003 and 2013, and in January 2014 a proposal was submitted to the IUCN for the addition of this taxon to the Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:25781130

  3. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  4. Morphologie und Ultrastruktur der Koralle Cornularia cornucopiae (Anthozoa, Octocorallia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benke, H.; Hündgen, M.

    1984-03-01

    Cornularia cornucopiae is a colonial coral whose polyps arise singly from stolons. In contrast with other octocrallia C. cornucopiae lacks calcareous spicules. Therefore, tissue preparation for electron microscopic investigations can be performed. The presence of a calyx such as the theca of hydroids, in which the polyps may be completely retracted, is conspicuous. The calyx consists of three layers. The structure of the basal layer suggests massive collagen. The body wall is connected with the calyx by living desmocytes. The histology of the oral disc and the actinopharynx is identical. The ventral side of the polyps bears the siphonoglyph. Below the pharynx the inner edges of the mesenteries are free and form the mesenterial filaments. The two ventral mesenteries differ from the others; the one is long and exhibits a large and heavily flagellated filament, the other is short and lacks a filament. The muscular system is represented by gastrodermal circular fibres in the body wall and by radial and longitudinal fibres in the septa; a large septal retractor muscle is missing.

  5. Cytolytic peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Anderluh, Gregor; Macek, Peter

    2002-02-01

    More than 32 species of sea anemones have been reported to produce lethal cytolytic peptides and proteins. Based on their primary structure and functional properties, cytolysins have been classified into four polypeptide groups. Group I consists of 5-8 kDa peptides, represented by those from the sea anemones Tealia felina and Radianthus macrodactylus. These peptides form pores in phosphatidylcholine containing membranes. The most numerous is group II comprising 20 kDa basic proteins, actinoporins, isolated from several genera of the fam. Actiniidae and Stichodactylidae. Equinatoxins, sticholysins, and magnificalysins from Actinia equina, Stichodactyla helianthus, and Heteractis magnifica, respectively, have been studied mostly. They associate typically with sphingomyelin containing membranes and create cation-selective pores. The crystal structure of equinatoxin II has been determined at 1.9A resolution. Lethal 30-40 kDa cytolytic phospholipases A(2) from Aiptasia pallida (fam. Aiptasiidae) and a similar cytolysin, which is devoid of enzymatic activity, from Urticina piscivora, form group III. A thiol-activated cytolysin, metridiolysin, with a mass of 80 kDa from Metridium senile (fam. Metridiidae) is a single representative of the fourth family. Its activity is inhibited by cholesterol or phosphatides. Biological, structure-function, and pharmacological characteristics of these cytolysins are reviewed.

  6. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria).

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica's fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  7. A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp-Schickel, T.; Häussermann, V.; Vader, W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new species of Stenothoe (Amphipoda, Stenothoidae), S. boloceropsis sp. nov., collected among the tentacles of the sea anemone Boloceropsis platei Mc Murrich, 1904, found on sublittoral sand of Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile.

  8. A new species of Pachycerianthus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Ceriantharia) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sérgio N; Morandini, André C; Da Silveira, Fábio Lang

    2014-07-04

    A new species of Pachycerianthus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia) is described from the Brazilian coast of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Pachycerianthus schlenzae sp. nov. is found in fine sand or mud in shallow waters of Abrolhos and Royal Charlotte Bank. The new species is only known from this area and is most notably different from other species of the genus Pachycerianthus in mesentery arrangement and cnidome. In addition to the description, we provide some biological data collected from individuals cultivated under laboratory conditions.

  9. Zoanthid diversity (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in the Galapagos Islands: a molecular examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, J. D.; Sinniger, F.; Hickman, C. P.

    2008-09-01

    Although the Galapagos are famous for their unique biodiversity, many groups of marine invertebrates from this isolated archipelago remain understudied or not investigated. One such group is the zoanthids (Order Zoantharia, =Zoanthidea, =Zoanthiniaria), anthozoans (Cnidaria) found in marine ecosystems worldwide. Zoanthid taxonomy has been in a state of disorganization and neglect due in large part to the morphological plasticity within species and questions about the accuracy of traditionally used morphological and ecological characteristics. However, recent studies utilizing molecular methodology combined with morphology have proven to be very useful in understanding zoanthid diversity. The results of a survey of zoanthids from the Galapagos and the east Pacific are reported in this study. Shallow water (<35 m) zoanthid specimens were identified using the molecular markers mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (mt 16S rDNA), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA). From the collected specimens seven putative zoanthid species-level clades from three known genera ( Zoanthus, Palythoa, Parazoanthus) were identified at the molecular level. These identifications were further supported by morphological and ecological data. While almost all specimens belonged to known zoanthid genera, based on unique molecular and ecological data one group of specimens (designated unknown zoanthid sp. “03-103”) is potentially a novel undescribed genus. Additionally, the remaining three azooxanthellate Parazoanthus clades may also be undescribed new species, but due to the overall lack of zoanthid research and descriptions from neighboring areas (East Pacific, west coast of South America) further research is needed to clearly ascertain this. Additionally, notes on the four observed nominal azooxanthellate zoanthid species and a key to all eight nominal (seven from known genera, one from a potentially new genus) shallow water zoanthid species found thus far in the Galapagos Islands are provided.

  10. Two new species of Chrysopathes (Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Antipatharia) from the western Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Loiola, L. de Laia

    2008-02-01

    Two new species of Chrysopathes are described, C. oligocrada from Yucatan and Brazil, and C. micracantha from the southeastern coast of the U.S. and Brazil. Chrysopathes oligocrada is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 7 8 mm long (to 2 cm); 18 21 primary pinnules per cm; anterior-most primary pinnules with no more than one secondary pinnule (absent on some); some posterior primaries with a single secondary pinnule; lateral primary pinnules usually simple, rarely with a single subpinnule; tertiary pinnules absent; pinnular spines to 0.07 mm. This species is similar to C. formosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific; the latter species differing in density of pinnulation (15 18 per cm) and size of the spines (to 0.16 mm). Chrysopathes micracantha is characterized by lateral pinnules mostly 5 6 mm long (to 2 cm); 24 33 primary pinnules per cm; anterior and posterior primary pinnules with as many as two subopposite secondary pinnules; lateral primary pinnules usually simple but with subpinnules on the thicker branches and stem; tertiary pinnules rarely present; pinnular spines to 0.1 mm. Chrysopathes micracantha is similar to C. speciosa Opresko 2003 from the Pacific, the latter species differing in a greater number of secondary pinnules per primary (three or more) and in size of the spines (to 0.18 mm).

  11. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes.

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Schirosi, Roberto; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Piraino, Stefano; Cammarata, Matteo

    2015-08-19

    The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones' mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  12. Growth of the tropical zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) on reefs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Janine F; Gomes, Paula B; Santana, Erika C; Silva, João M; Lima, Érica P; Santos, Andre M M; Pérez, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    In Brazilian reefs, zoanthids, especially Palythoa caribaeorum are fundamental for structuring the local benthic community. The objective of this study was to determine the growth rate of P. caribaeorum, and to assess the influence of the site (different beaches), season (dry and wet), location (intertidal or infralittoral zones), and human pressure associated with tourism. For one year we monitored the cover of P. caribaeorum in transects and focused on 20 colonies. We cut off a square (100 cm2) from the central part of the colony and monitored the bare area for four months in each season. The average growth rates varied from 0.015 and 0.021 cm.day(-1). The rate was homogeneous in all localities, and there was no influence from colony site, location, or touristic visitation, showing that the growth velocity may be an intrinsic characteristic of the species, with a strong genetic component. The growth rate of P. caribaeorum differed among months, and peaked in the first month after injury. The average cover varied from 6.2 to 22.9% and was lower on the reef visited by tourists. The present study corroborates the hypothesis that P. caribaeorum is important for coastal reef dynamics due to its fast and continuous growth.

  13. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  14. Die Cnidogenese der Octocorallia (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): I. Sekretionund Differenzierung von Kapsel und Schlauch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.

    1981-12-01

    The ultrastructural differentiation of capsule and its relation to tube development is described in several Octocorallia species (Alcyonaria: Alcyonium digitatum, Parerythropodium coralloides, Cornularia cornucopiae, Paralcyonium elegans; Pennatularia: Pteroeides spinosum, Veretillum cynomorium; Gorgonaria: Pseudopterogorgia aerosa), all of which have only one type nematocyst. In the Octocorallia, capsule and tube are secreted successively by the Golgi apparatus associated with a primary centriolar complex. During the secretion of the external tube, the outer capsular wall (sclera) is structurally differentiated; inside the capsule the material of the inner capsular wall is separated from the later capsular content (matrix). The primary wall differentiation enables the capsules to “grow” after capsular secretion has been completed. Following tube secretion, the external tube is completely transferred into the capsule, without the tube wall being transformed into capsular wall, as previously suggested (Westfall, 1966; Ivester, 1977). During early invagination of the tube wall, the coarse, granulated matrix of the external tube is transferred into the internal tube. From this material the spines are developed, which are observed before the tube is completely transferred into the capsule. By a secondary wall differentiation the previously structureless inner capsular wall changes to a complex structure, extending again the capsule, thus mixing the capsular content and enabling the tube to shift to a position, which corresponds with that of mature capsules. These observations demonstrate for the first time the differentiation of the capsule and its close relationship to the differentiation of the tube in nematocysts of Octocorallia.

  15. Release of sperm clusters in spheres by the black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Anthozoa, Antipatharia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaino, E.; Scoccia, F.

    2009-12-01

    Fecund polyps from a bottlebrush-shaped colony of black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Brook 1889) from Ambon Island (Maluku Archipelago, Indonesia) were studied at the structural and ultrastructural levels. Five fragments, each 5 cm long and containing about 60 polyps, were cut from a single parental colony. The fragments underwent different treatments: two were fixed in 70% alcohol for species identification; the remaining three were reared in aerated aquaria and then processed for anatomic studies by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some polyps from one of these reared fragments displayed spheres of various sizes protruding from the mouth. Four hours after sampling, spheres settled on the bottom of the aquarium. Comparative analysis of the fecund polyps showed: (i) the differentiation of spermatocysts inside the transverse primary mesenteries that separate the lateral tentacles from one another; (ii) spermatocysts entering the gastric cavity after breakage of the mesentery wall and (iii) location of spermatocysts close to the basal part of the pharynx. Analysis of the largest spheres, both close to the external surface of the mouth and settled on the bottom of the small aerated aquaria, showed that they were irregularly bordered with residual mesentery tissue and contained clusters of spermatocysts. Gametes presented various phases of differentiation up to the final sperm, as it occurs in the spermatocysts developing inside the mesenteries of the fecund polyps. In consideration of the particular distribution of the colonies of C. pumila, which grow very far apart, the release of buoyant spheres is a particular modality of spawning which can be viewed as a strategy for successful fertilisation over long distances.

  16. Sexual reproduction and early development of the solitary coral Fungia scutaria (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, David A.

    1983-12-01

    Fungia scutaria spawned vigorously with a lunar beriodicity during the summer months of 1981 and 1982. Spawning activity declined in the fall of both years and was absent in winter and spring (1983). There was only one short spawning event per lunar cycle. Each event occurred in the evening between 1700 and 1900 hours 1 to 4 days following the full moon. Fungia scutaria exhibits gonochorism. Females ejected eggs through their mouths into the seawater above. Many of these negatively buoyant eggs settled onto the oral discs and were moved off the edge by ciliary-mucoid activity. Spermatoza from males were similarly expelled in a jet of gastrovascular fluid. Spawned eggs were small and lacked endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Rapid development led to ciliated solid planulae by the next morning. Within 24 h a mouth had begun to develop. Planulae may have been able to feed within 39 h. Infection with zooxanthellae occurred 4 5 days following spawning. Planulae may have become competent for settlement by 7 days, but attempts to docment settlement produced ambiguous results.

  17. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna.

  18. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not show any disturbance effects, but the increasing economic development of Manzanillo, as one of the main commercial ports of Mexico, its proximity to the reef, and the burgeoning number of tourists, may have some ecosystem impacts, for which management and conservation plans for Colima coastline are highly recommended.

  19. Regulation of apoptotic pathways by Stylophora pistillata (Anthozoa, Pocilloporidae) to survive thermal stress and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Zandbank, Keren; Tchernov, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Elevated seawater temperatures are associated with coral bleaching events and related mortality. Nevertheless, some coral species are able to survive bleaching and recover. The apoptotic responses associated to this ability were studied over 3 years in the coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Eilat subjected to long term thermal stress. These include caspase activity and the expression profiles of the S. pistillata caspase and Bcl-2 genes (StyCasp and StyBcl-2-like) cloned in this study. In corals exposed to thermal stress (32 or 34°C), caspase activity and the expression levels of the StyBcl-2-like gene increased over time (6-48 h) and declined to basal levels within 72 h of thermal stress. Distinct transcript levels were obtained for the StyCasp gene, with stimulated expression from 6 to 48 h of 34°C thermal stress, coinciding with the onset of bleaching. Increased cell death was detected in situ only between 6 to 48 h of stress and was limited to the gastroderm. The bleached corals survived up to one month at 32°C, and recovered back symbionts when placed at 24°C. These results point to a two-stage response in corals that withstand thermal stress: (i) the onset of apoptosis, accompanied by rapid activation of anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic mediators that block the progression of apoptosis to other cells and (ii) acclimatization of the coral to the chronic thermal stress alongside the completion of symbiosis breakdown. Accordingly, the coral's ability to rapidly curb apoptosis appears to be the most important trait affecting the coral's thermotolerance and survival.

  20. Description of the mitochondrial genome of the tree coral Dendrophyllia arbuscula (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Luz, Bruna Louise Pereira; Capel, Kátia Cristina Cruz; Stampar, Sérgio Nascimento; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini

    2016-07-01

    Dendrophylliidae is one of the few monophyletic families within the Scleractinia that embraces zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species represented by both solitary and colonial forms. Among the exclusively azooxanthellate genera, Dendrophyllia is reported worldwide from 1 to 1200 m deep. To date, although three complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes from representatives of the family are available, only that from Turbinaria peltata has been formally published. Here we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of the mt genome from Dendrophyllia arbuscula that is 19 069 bp in length and comprises two rDNAs, two tRNAs, and 13 protein-coding genes arranged in the canonical scleractinian mt gene order. No genes overlap, resulting in the presence of 18 intergenic spacers and one of the longest scleractinian mt genome sequenced to date.

  1. Two new species of gorgonian octocorals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific Biogeographic Region (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Gorgoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breedy, Odalisca; Williams, Gary C; Guzman, Hector M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The gorgoniid Eugorgia is exclusively an eastern Pacific genus. It has a wide geographic and bathymetric range of distribution, found from California to Perú and extends down to 65 m deep. Two new species are herein described. The morphological characters were analyzed and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Eugorgia beebei sp. n. can be distinguished by its white, ascending, sparse colony growth. Eugorgia mutabilis sp. n. can be distinguished by its white colony that changes color after collection, and the conspicuous sharp-crested disc sclerites. From a morphological point of view the new species are related to the daniana-group, the rubens-group and the siedenburgae-group of Eugorgia; their affiliations, and the proposal of a new group are discussed. These new species increases the number of species in the genus to 15, and contribute to the knowledge of the eastern Pacific octocoral biodiversity. PMID:24294084

  2. Two new species of gorgonian octocorals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific Biogeographic Region (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Gorgoniidae).

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Williams, Gary C; Guzman, Hector M

    2013-01-01

    The gorgoniid Eugorgia is exclusively an eastern Pacific genus. It has a wide geographic and bathymetric range of distribution, found from California to Perú and extends down to 65 m deep. Two new species are herein described. The morphological characters were analyzed and illustrated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Eugorgia beebei sp. n. can be distinguished by its white, ascending, sparse colony growth. Eugorgia mutabilis sp. n. can be distinguished by its white colony that changes color after collection, and the conspicuous sharp-crested disc sclerites. From a morphological point of view the new species are related to the daniana-group, the rubens-group and the siedenburgae-group of Eugorgia; their affiliations, and the proposal of a new group are discussed. These new species increases the number of species in the genus to 15, and contribute to the knowledge of the eastern Pacific octocoral biodiversity. PMID:24294084

  3. Multiplexed pyrosequencing of nine sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Actiniaria) mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Foox, Jonathan; Brugler, Mercer; Siddall, Mark Edward; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-07-01

    Six complete and three partial actiniarian mitochondrial genomes were amplified in two semi-circles using long-range PCR and pyrosequenced in a single run on a 454 GS Junior, doubling the number of complete mitogenomes available within the order. Typical metazoan mtDNA features included circularity, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and length ranging from 17,498 to 19,727 bp. Several typical anthozoan mitochondrial genome features were also observed including the presence of only two transfer RNA genes, elevated A + T richness ranging from 54.9 to 62.4%, large intergenic regions, and group 1 introns interrupting NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, the latter of which possesses a homing endonuclease gene. Within the sea anemone Alicia sansibarensis, we report the first mitochondrial gene order rearrangement within the Actiniaria, as well as putative novel non-canonical protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses of all 13 protein-coding and 2 ribosomal genes largely corroborated current hypotheses of sea anemone interrelatedness, with a few lower-level differences.

  4. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stabili, Loredana; Schirosi, Roberto; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Piraino, Stefano; Cammarata, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758) for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%), whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9%) and inorganic matter (67.1%). The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia) and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest. PMID:26295400

  5. High reproductive synchrony of Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Coral spawning in the northern Gulf of Aqaba has been reported to be asynchronous, making it almost unique when compared to other regions in the world. Here, we document the reproductive condition of Acropora corals in early June 2014 in Dahab, in the Gulf of Aqaba, 125 km south of previous studies conducted in Eilat, Israel. Seventy-eight percent of Acropora colonies from 14 species had mature eggs, indicating that most colonies will spawn on or around the June full moon, with a very high probability of multi-species synchronous spawning. Given the proximity to Eilat, we predict that a comparable sampling protocol would detect similar levels of reproductive synchrony throughout the Gulf of Aqaba consistent with the hypothesis that high levels of spawning synchrony are a feature of all speciose coral assemblages. PMID:25653848

  6. Fortpflanzung und entwicklung von Anemonia sulcata (Anthozoa, Actiniaria) II. Frühentwicklung, Blastula und Gastrula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, W.

    1985-09-01

    Early developmental stages of the Anemonia germ are characterized by asynchronously dividing nuclei and an extreme delay of blastomere differentiation. The nuclei migrate to the periphery, whereas nutritive substances remain in the interior. Following this stage, the appearance of cell boundaries results in the formation of the blastoderm and the simultaneous division of the yolk into many fragments. Most of them are exclusively filled with reserve material; only very few contain zooxanthellae or nuclei. On the embryo's surface, conically shaped bundles of long microvilli are obvious. They appear to be less regularly arranged than the spines of oocytes before insemination. Pigment granules that have originated from fusing Golgi vesicles are crowded peripherally in the blastoderm cells. In the nucleoplasm single annulate lamellae that seem to be cut off from the nuclear envelope can frequently be found. There is no further cellular differentiation until gastrulation is completed. Though yolk-containing cellular fragments occupy nearly the whole blastocoel, entoderm formation occurs by invagination. Ultrastructural observations provide evidence of the existence of interstices between entoderm cells that allow all nutritive substances to pass gradually into the gastric cavity. In the region of the blastoporus there are cellular processes enveloping reserve material. Presumably, these observations indicate a so-called “filtration of nutritive yolk” (Korschelt & Heider, 1909) that might represent an additional mode for the transfer of yolk-containing cellular fragments from blastocoel into gastrocoel.

  7. A revision of the octocoral genus Ovabunda Alderslade, 2001 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Xeniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Anna; McFadden, Catherine S.; Aharonovich, Dafna; Toonen, Robert; Benayahu, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The family Xeniidae (Octocorallia) constitutes an abundant benthic component on many Indo-West Pacific coral reefs and is ecologically important in the Red Sea. The genus Ovabunda Alderslade, 2001 was recently established to accommodate previous Xenia species with sclerites comprised of a mass of minute corpuscle-shaped microscleres. The aim of the present study was to examine type material of Xenia species in order to verify their generic affiliation. We present here a comprehensive account of the genus Ovabunda, using scanning electron microscopy to depict sclerite microstructure. We assign three Xenia species to the genus: O. ainex comb. n., O. gohari comb. n., and O. crenata comb. n.; and synonymize several other species of Ovabunda. We provide a key to Ovabunda species and conclude that they are mainly confined to the Red Sea, with some occurrence in the West Indian Ocean. PMID:24493958

  8. Morphological and genetic diversity of Briareum (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2014-10-01

    The primary problem hindering the study of octocorals is the disordered situation regarding their taxonomy, chiefly caused by insufficient knowledge of valid morphological taxonomic characters. Briareum is an octocoral genus found in the Atlantic and Pacific in shallow tropical and subtropical waters, and occurs in both encrusting and branching colony forms. Their simple morphology and morphological plasticity have hindered taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this study three morphologically distinct types (= type-1, -2, and -3) of Briareum from the Ryukyu Archipelago and their genetic diversity were examined. Colony, anthostele morphology, and sclerite length were examined for each type. Four molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, mitochondrial mismatch repair gene, nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) were used to evaluate molecular phylogenetic status of these variations. Although one morphological type ("deep" small colonies, = type-3) showed small differences in nuclear ITS2 sequences compared to the other two types, the remaining types had identical sequences for all molecular markers examined. The results suggest extremely low genetic diversity despite highly variable morphology of Briareum species in Okinawa. Nevertheless, considering the distribution patterns and discontinuous morphology of type-3 compared to the other two morphotypes, genetic isolation of type-3 is plausible. In Briareum, small variances in nuclear ITS2 sequences of type-3 may have much more importance than in molecular phylogenies of other octocorals. Further phylogenetic investigations and comparison with Briareum specimens from other regions are necessary to conclusively taxonomically identify the three types. PMID:25284389

  9. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep-water, their divergence predating that of the robust and complex corals. Deep-sea corals are likely to be critical to understanding anthozoan evolution and the origins of the Scleractinia. PMID:20628613

  10. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  11. A novel fluorescent protein from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Shimada, Eriko; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tsuruwaka, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescent protein was identified and cloned from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica. Bioluminescence and fluorescence expression were examined by direct observations of live specimens and RNA-Seq analysis. Both approaches revealed a novel green fluorescent protein in the tentacles of the anemone, but bioluminescence was not observed. Behavioural observations revealed that a blue light excited the fluorescence in the tentacles, and initiated a behavioural response whereby the fluorescent tentacles became fully exposed to the blue light. The excitation and emission peaks of C. japonica’s fluorescent protein were at 500 and 510 nm, respectively, which were greener than those reported in homologs. Furthermore, this protein was highly tolerant of increased temperatures and repeated freeze–thaw treatments. The current study presents an example of fluorescence in a deep-sea cnidarian, demonstrating that fluorescent proteins could have important roles, regardless of the presence or absence of strong sunlight. It also demonstrates that this deep-sea fluorescent protein has unique characteristics, including high stability, perhaps as an adaptation to the extreme environment. PMID:27002644

  12. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  13. Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Endemic Mussismilia Corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Carla; Peluso, Lívia; Marques, Jessica A; Cunha, Haydée

    2014-04-28

    In the Southwest Atlantic, coral reefs are unique due to their growth form, low species richness, and a high level of endemic coral species, which include the most important reef builders. Although these reefs are the only true biogenic reefs in the South Atlantic Ocean, population genetic studies are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a suite of microsatellite loci to help gain insights into the population diversity and connectivity of the endemic scleractinian coral with the largest distributional range along the Southwest Atlantic coast, Mussismilia hispida. Fourteen microsatellite loci were characterized, and their degree of polymorphism was analyzed in 33 individuals. The number of alleles varied between 4 and 17 per loci, and H o varied between 0.156 and 0.928, with 2 loci showing significant heterozygote deficiency. Cross-amplification tests on the other 2 species of the genus (Mussismilia braziliensis and Mussismilia harttii) demonstrated that these markers are suitable for studies of population diversity and structure of all 3 species of Mussismilia. Because they are the most important reef builders in the Southwest Atlantic, the developed microsatellite loci may be important tools for connectivity and conservation studies of these endemic corals.

  14. Fortpflanzung und Sexualität von Cereus pedunculatus und Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, W.

    1981-12-01

    Sexuality and reproductive behaviour of Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant) and several forms (subspecies) of Actinia equina (L.) from populations collected along the French Atlantic Sea coast and in different habitats along the European Mediterranean coast were studied. At the stage of 96 septae C. pedunculatus and A. e. atlantica II exhibited mature oocytes which developed parthenogenetically into larvae. The latter appeared simultaneously in the gastrocoele. Adolescent A. e. atlantica II developed very few mature oocytes and larvae. Following a sterile period, oocytes and young individuals of different age groups were present almost throughout the whole year in adult anemones. A. e. mediterranea I was dioecious and oviparous in any habitat observed. Samples of the larviparous A. e. mediterranea II (collected near Banyuls, France) exhibited male gonads exclusively and contained larvae. Spontaneous longitudinal fission was occasionally observed in adult A. e. mediterranea I and adolescent A. e. atlantica II.

  15. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group. PMID:27199581

  16. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in combination and cause irreversible damage. The implementation of a management plan for the coralline reefs of the Mexican Pacific coast is required.

  17. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group. PMID:27199581

  18. Genotyping the clonal structure of a gorgonian coral, Junceella juncea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), using microsatellite loci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Fan, Tung-Yung; Dai, Chang-Feng

    2005-11-01

    The identification of different clones is fundamental to the study of population structure among organisms with mixed reproductive modes such as cnidarians. However, due to the low genetic variation of coral mtDNA and contamination by zooxanthellate DNA, very few molecular markers are available for studying the clonal structure of cnidarians. Herein we used four polymorphic loci of microsatellite DNA isolated from a zooxanthellae-free octocoral, Junceella juncea, to study its clonal structure in seven populations collected from three localities in Taiwan. In total, 40 multilocus genotypes were found among 152 colonies, and the number of genotypes (clones) identified in the seven populations ranged from 2 to 16. Each of the 40 multilocus genotypes was restricted to a single population, even where adjacent populations were only 100 m distant. The ratio of observed to expected genotypic diversity (Go:Ge) ranged from 0.217 to 0.650, and Go showed a significant departure from Ge ( p<0.05) at each site indicating that asexual fragmentation may play a major role in the maintenance of established populations. Mean relatedness ( R) values showed that genotypes within reefs were more closely related than those between regions. The results indicate that microsatellites are useful for discerning the clonal structures among and within populations at different spatial scales.

  19. A new genus and species of pennatulacean octocoral from equatorial West Africa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Virgulariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of sea pen or virgulariid pennatulacean from the Gulf of Guinea in the tropical eastern Atlantic is described, and a key to the genera of the Virgulariidae is included. The new genus and species described here adds to the previously described five other genera of the family. It is distinguished by unique sclerite and polyp leaf characters from the superficially-similar genus Virgularia, which lacks conspicuous sclerites in the polyp leaves and coenenchyme (other than minute oval bodies that are generally <0.01 mm in length). PMID:26798304

  20. 77 FR 61783 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Drayton Mill, 1802 Drayton Rd., Spartanburg, 12000882 UTAH Davis County Lagoon Carousel, (Lagoon Amusement Park, Farmington, Utah MPS) 375 Lagoon Dr., Farmington, 12000883 Lagoon Flying Scooter, (Lagoon Amusement Park, Farmington, Utah MPS) 375 N. Lagoon Dr., Farmington, 12000884 Lagoon Roller Coaster,...

  1. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  2. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  3. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification. PMID:25739995

  4. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ13C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ15N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification. PMID:25739995

  5. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis complex, only 25 of 16,134 base pair positions were variable. Sixteen of these occurred in one colony of M. franksi, which (together with additional data) indicates the existence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages in this species. Overall, rates of evolution for these mitochondrial genomes were extremely slow (0.03 0.04% per million years based on the fossil record of the M. annularis complex). At higher taxonomic levels, patterns of genetic divergence and synonymous/nonsynonymous substitutions suggest non-neutral and unequal rates of evolution between the two lineages to which Montastraea and Acropora belong.

  6. Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages.

  7. Using hydrofluoric acid for morphological investigations of Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): a critical assessment of methodology and necessity.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Nakachi, Shu; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi; Hashiguchi, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Zoanthids comprise an order of benthic, generally colonial cnidarians, which can usually be distinguished from other hexacorallians by embedded sand and detritus in their mesoglea to help strengthen their structure. These animals are becoming increasingly important research subjects in biochemistry and other research fields. Their inclusion of both calcium and silica results in the need for both decalcification and desilification for internal morphological examinations. Since the methodology of hydrofluoric acid (HF) desilification has rarely been documented in zoanthids, histological surveys for zoanthid taxonomy have often been abandoned and their taxonomy is often problematic. Recent investigations utilizing molecular methods have brought a clearer understanding of zoanthid diversity, but standardization of HF treatments are still needed to provide a link between molecular and more traditional techniques, and to properly examine specimens for which molecular methods may not be an option (e.g., formalin-preserved specimens, etc.). Here, we use both "straight" HF and, for the first time with zoanthids, buffered HF (BHF) treatments at different treatment lengths (1-48 h) on polyps from three different species of zoanthids for histological examination. Section conditions were judged based on the presence/absence of embedded detritus, drag marks, and tissue condition. Results show that the BHF treatment resulted in slightly better tissue conditions for all specimens, and suggest that desilification works well regardless of treatment time for species with smaller (polyp diameter <0.5 cm), less heavily encrusted polyps. Desilification of heavily encrusted Palythoa mutuki polyps were still problematic, with at least 24 h treatment needed. To aid future research, we provide guidelines for HF treatments of zoanthid specimens.

  8. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate.

  9. Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae), a new abyssal sea anemone from the Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, Nadya; Sanamyan, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes new deep-water edwardsiid sea anemone Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. which is very common on soft muddy bottoms at lower bathyal and upper abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan. It was recorded in high quantity in depths between 2545 and 3550 m and is the second abyssal species of the genus Edwardsia.

  10. Alcanivorax dieselolei, an alkane-degrading bacterium associated with the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Campos, F F; Garcia, J E; Luna-Finkler, C L; Davolos, C C; Lemos, M V F; Pérez, C D

    2015-05-01

    Analyses of 16S rDNA genes were used to identify the microbiota isolated from the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum at Porto de Galinhas on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This study is important as the first report of this association, because of the potential biotechnological applications of the bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei, and as evidence for the presence of a hydrocarbon degrading bacterium in a reef ecosystem such as Porto de Galinhas.

  11. Environmental versus genetic influences on growth rates of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Wirshing, H.H.; Baker, A.C.; Birkeland, C.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal transplant experiments of the corals Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards & Haime and Porites lobata Dana were carried out for an 18-month period from September 2004 to March 2006 between two back reef pools on Ofu Island, American Samoa, to test environmental versus genetic effects on skeletal growth rates. Skeletal growth of P. eydouxi showed environmental but not genetic effects, resulting in doubling of growth in Pool 300 compared with Pool 400. There were no environmental or genetic effects on skeletal growth of P. lobata. Pool 300 had more frequent and longer durations of elevated seawater temperatures than Pool 400, characteristics likely to decrease rather than increase skeletal growth. Pool 300 also had higher nutrient levels and flow velocities than Pool 400, characteristics that may increase skeletal growth. However, higher nutrient levels would be expected to increase skeletal growth in both species, but there was no difference between the pools in P. lobata growth. P. eydouxi is much more common in high-energy environments than P. lobata; thus the higher flow velocities in Pool 300 than in Pool 400 may have positively affected skeletal growth of P. eydouxi while not having a detectable effect on P. lobata. The greater skeletal growth of P. eydouxi in Pool 300 occurred despite the presence of clade D zooxanthellae in several source colonies in Pool 300, a genotype known to result in greater heat resistance but slower skeletal growth. Increased skeletal growth rates in higher water motion may provide P. eydouxi a competitive advantage in shallow, high-energy enviromnents where competition for space is intense. ?? 2008 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kise, Hiroki; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Epizoanthus species are generally found in association with other marine invertebrates such as hermit crabs and gastropods. Although Epizoanthus spp. are relatively common, there is limited information about their diversity and ecology due to their habitats or hosts, often being below the depths of SCUBA diving (>~50 m). In particular, the Epizoanthus fauna of the Indo-Pacific Ocean remains poorly understood. In this study, the diversity of Epizoanthus species associated with eunicid worm tubes from shallow waters in the Pacific Ocean we investigated using molecular analyses (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA = mt 16S-rDNA, nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA = ITS-rDNA) combined with morphological and ecological data. The combined data set leads us to describe two new species; Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. and Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. Both new species are found in low-light environments: Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. on mesophotic coral reef slopes and reef floors, or on the sides of overhangs; Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. has only been found in caves. Morphological characteristics of these two new species are very similar to Epizoanthus illoricatus Tischbierek, 1930 but the two new species are genetically distinct. Mesentery numbers and coloration of polyps may be useful diagnostic characteristics among eunicid-associated Epizoanthus species. These results demonstrate that there is high potential for other potentially undescribed zoantharian species, particularly in underwater cave habitats. PMID:27006621

  13. Differences in the protein profiles of cultured and endosymbiotic symbiodinium sp. (pyrrophyta) from the anemone aiptasia pallida (anthozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, W.R.; Grossman, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunological analyses were used to visualize differences in polypeptides synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. from the anemone Aiptasia pallida when grown in the cultured and endosymbiotic states (freshly isolated zooxanthellae). Surprisingly, a comparison of proteins in cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium sp. revealed only four major polypeptides with similar isoelectric and molecular mass characteristics. Using monospecific antibodies, we demonstrated differences in specific proteins synthesized by the dinoflagellate in the two different growth states. The dimeric, 14 kDa form of the peripheral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a binding protein predominates under endosymbiotic conditions, whereas the monomeric, 35 kDa form predominates under the culture conditions used in this study. Antibodies to form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase revealed 62 and 60 kDa forms of this protein in the alga grown as an endosymbiont and in culture, respectively. Differences in the integral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a-c-binding proteins were also observed. These results demonstrate that there are major changes in the populations of proteins synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. in response to the conditions in hospite. Such changes may reflect a developmental switch that tailors the physiology of the alga to the conditions encountered in the endosymbiotic state. 77 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Yolk formation in a stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): insight into the evolution of vitellogenesis in nonbilaterian animals.

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chen, Chieh-Jhen; Chung, Yi-Jou; Shao, Zi-Fan; Liou, Jhe-Yu; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a major yolk protein precursor in numerous oviparous animals. Numerous studies in bilateral oviparous animals have shown that Vg sequences are conserved across taxa and that Vgs are synthesized by somatic-cell lineages, transported to and accumulated in oocytes, and eventually used for supporting embryogenesis. In nonbilateral animals (Polifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora), which are regarded as evolutionarily primitive, although Vg cDNA has been identified in 2 coral species from Cnidaria, relatively little is known about the characteristics of yolk formation in their bodies. To address this issue, we identified and characterized 2 cDNA encoding yolk proteins, Vg and egg protein (Ep), in the stony coral Euphyllia ancora. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of both Vg and Ep increased in the female colonies as coral approached the spawning season. In addition, high levels of both Vg and Ep transcripts were detected in the putative ovarian tissue, as determined by tissue distribution analysis. Further analyses using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry determined that, within the putative ovarian tissue, these yolk proteins are synthesized in the mesenterial somatic cells but not in oocytes themselves. Furthermore, Vg proteins that accumulated in eggs were most likely consumed during the coral embryonic development, as assessed by immunoblotting. The characteristics of Vg that we identified in corals were somewhat similar to those of Vg in bilaterian oviparous animals, raising the hypothesis that such characteristics were likely present in the oogenesis of some common ancestor prior to divergence of the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages. PMID:23766130

  15. Yellow band disease compromises the reproductive output of the Caribbean reef-building coral Montastraea faveolata (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Weil, Ernesto; Cróquer, Aldo; Urreiztieta, Isabel

    2009-11-16

    Sexual reproduction is critical to coral population dynamics and the long-term regeneration of coral reefs. Bleaching, disease, and/or anthropogenic-induced tissue/colony loss reduce reproductive output. This is the first attempt to explore the effect of a biotic disease on the reproduction of scleractinian corals. The study aimed to assess the effect of yellow band disease (YBD) on the reproduction of the important Caribbean reef-builder Montastraea faveolata. Tissue samples were collected from diseased, transition, and healthy-looking areas in each of 5 infected colonies and from 5 healthy controls in southwest Puerto Rico. The effect of disease-induced mortality was assessed by collecting samples from the edge and center of surviving small and large, healthy-looking tissue patches from large, previously infected tagged colonies. Fecundity was significantly lower in disease lesions compared to transition and healthy-looking tissues and the controls (99% fewer eggs). Fecundity in transition areas was significantly lower (50%) than in healthy-looking tissues in diseased colonies, which had 23% lower fecundity than control tissues. Although this fecundity drop was not statistically significant, it could indicate a systemic effect of YBD across the colony. Large and small patches had 64 and 84% fewer eggs than controls, respectively, and edge polyps had 97% fewer eggs than those in central control areas. Field observations of the spawning behavior of each tissue area corroborated the histological results. Our results indicate that YBD significantly compromises the reproductive output of M. faveolata, potentially reducing the fitness and consequently, the recovery of this important reef-building species on Caribbean coral reefs.

  16. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  17. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part I: Eumuricea Verrill, 1869 revisited.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    Muricea is an amphi-American genus. Verrill proposed dividing the species from the Pacific Ocean into three genera and established the genus Eumuricea for five eastern Pacific species with tubular calyces. Eumuricea is basically characterized by colonies with elongate, cylindrical calyces with truncate margins and star-like opercula, and the occurrence of unilateral spinous spindles. According to these characteristics, Eumuricea does not show enough difference from Muricea to be treated as a separate genus. Original type material of Eumuricea was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that the eastern Pacific species should be placed in the genus Muricea and form a group characterised by tubular calyces that comprises four species at present, Muricea acervata, Muricea hispida, Muricea squarrosa, and Muricea tubigera and a dubious species Muricea horrida. Lectotypes were designated for Muricea squarrosa and Muricea hispida to establish their taxonomic status. The genus Eumuricea has also been misunderstood by former authors who erroneously assigned species to it. For these species we propose new combinations: Swiftia pusilla, Astrogorgia splendens and Astrogorgia ramosa. PMID:26798234

  18. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years. PMID:23166463

  19. Sexual reproduction in three hermaphroditic deep-sea Caryophyllia species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the NE Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Tyler, Paul A.; Gage, John D.

    2005-12-01

    The reproductive biology and gametogenesis of three species of Caryophyllia were examined using histological techniques. Caryophyllia ambrosia, Alcock 1898, C. cornuformis, Pourtales 1868, and C. sequenzae, Duncan 1873, were collected from the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough in the NE Atlantic Ocean. These three ahermatypic solitary corals inhabit different depth ranges: C. cornuformis - 435-2000 m, C. sequenzae - 960-1900 m, and C. ambrosia - 1100-3000 m. All three species are hermaphroditic. Hermaphroditism in these species was found to be cyclical, with only one sex of gametes viable in any individual at any point in time, although gametes of both sexes were found together within a single mesentery. Once the viable gametes are spawned, the next sex of gametes continues to grow until mature, and so gametogenesis is a continuous cycle. Oocytes and spermacysts in all species increased in density towards the actinopharynx. Maximum fecundity for C. sequenzae was 940 oocytes per polyp, and for C. ambrosia 2900 oocytes per polyp. Fecundity could not be established for C. cornuformis. In all three species, individuals were asynchronous within populations, and production of gametes was quasi-continuous throughout the year. All species are hypothesised to have lecithotrophic larvae owing to their large oocyte sizes ( C. cornuformis max - 350 μm; C. sequenzae max - 430 μm; C. ambrosia max - 700 μm). Both the average oocyte size and fecundity increased in species going down the depth gradient of the NE Atlantic.

  20. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  1. Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kise, Hiroki; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epizoanthus species are generally found in association with other marine invertebrates such as hermit crabs and gastropods. Although Epizoanthus spp. are relatively common, there is limited information about their diversity and ecology due to their habitats or hosts, often being below the depths of SCUBA diving (>~50 m). In particular, the Epizoanthus fauna of the Indo-Pacific Ocean remains poorly understood. In this study, the diversity of Epizoanthus species associated with eunicid worm tubes from shallow waters in the Pacific Ocean we investigated using molecular analyses (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA = mt 16S-rDNA, nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA = ITS-rDNA) combined with morphological and ecological data. The combined data set leads us to describe two new species; Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. and Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. Both new species are found in low-light environments: Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. on mesophotic coral reef slopes and reef floors, or on the sides of overhangs; Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. has only been found in caves. Morphological characteristics of these two new species are very similar to Epizoanthus illoricatus Tischbierek, 1930 but the two new species are genetically distinct. Mesentery numbers and coloration of polyps may be useful diagnostic characteristics among eunicid-associated Epizoanthus species. These results demonstrate that there is high potential for other potentially undescribed zoantharian species, particularly in underwater cave habitats. PMID:27006621

  2. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part I: Eumuricea Verrill, 1869 revisited

    PubMed Central

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Muricea is an amphi-American genus. Verrill proposed dividing the species from the Pacific Ocean into three genera and established the genus Eumuricea for five eastern Pacific species with tubular calyces. Eumuricea is basically characterized by colonies with elongate, cylindrical calyces with truncate margins and star-like opercula, and the occurrence of unilateral spinous spindles. According to these characteristics, Eumuricea does not show enough difference from Muricea to be treated as a separate genus. Original type material of Eumuricea was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that the eastern Pacific species should be placed in the genus Muricea and form a group characterised by tubular calyces that comprises four species at present, Muricea acervata, Muricea hispida, Muricea squarrosa, and Muricea tubigera and a dubious species Muricea horrida. Lectotypes were designated for Muricea squarrosa and Muricea hispida to establish their taxonomic status. The genus Eumuricea has also been misunderstood by former authors who erroneously assigned species to it. For these species we propose new combinations: Swiftia pusilla, Astrogorgia splendens and Astrogorgia ramosa. PMID:26798234

  3. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  4. Cyphastrea kausti sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia), a new species of reef coral from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Benzoni, Francesca; Baird, Andrew H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. n., is described from 13 specimens from the Red Sea. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa. The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa (on average eight instead of ten), and smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea. PMID:25931952

  5. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): a new reef coral species from the Red Sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Terraneo, Tullia I.; Berumen, Michael L.; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. PMID:25152672

  6. Reproductive biology of the deep-water coral Acanella arbuscula (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa: Order Alcyonacea), northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, Lindsay I.; Kenchington, Ellen L.

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive life-history of deep-water corals is important for assessing their vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, the reproductive biology of many deep-water corals, especially members of the subclass Octocorallia, has not been examined. We used histological techniques to describe the reproductive biology of the deep-water gorgonian coral Acanella arbuscula from the northwest Atlantic. All colonies examined were gonochoric, and no embryos or planula larvae were observed in the polyps. Mean polyp-level fecundity (females: 21.0±17.5 oocytes polyp-1, and males: 13.9±13.5 sperm sacs polyp-1) is high compared to other deep-water gorgonians, and polyps closer to the branch tips had the highest fecundities in both females and males. The presence of large oocytes (maximum diameter 717.8 μm) suggests that A. arbuscula produces lecithotrophic larvae. Despite the potentially high fecundity and small size at first reproduction, the paucity of information on dispersal and recruitment, combined with its longevity, vulnerability to bottom fishing gear, and ecological role as a structure-forming species, still warrants the classification of A. arbuscula as a vulnerable marine ecosystem indicator.

  7. Unexpected diversity and a new species of Epizoanthus (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) attached to eunicid worm tubes from the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kise, Hiroki; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Epizoanthus species are generally found in association with other marine invertebrates such as hermit crabs and gastropods. Although Epizoanthus spp. are relatively common, there is limited information about their diversity and ecology due to their habitats or hosts, often being below the depths of SCUBA diving (>~50 m). In particular, the Epizoanthus fauna of the Indo-Pacific Ocean remains poorly understood. In this study, the diversity of Epizoanthus species associated with eunicid worm tubes from shallow waters in the Pacific Ocean we investigated using molecular analyses (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 = COI, mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA = mt 16S-rDNA, nuclear internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA = ITS-rDNA) combined with morphological and ecological data. The combined data set leads us to describe two new species; Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. and Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. Both new species are found in low-light environments: Epizoanthus inazuma sp. n. on mesophotic coral reef slopes and reef floors, or on the sides of overhangs; Epizoanthus beriber sp. n. has only been found in caves. Morphological characteristics of these two new species are very similar to Epizoanthus illoricatus Tischbierek, 1930 but the two new species are genetically distinct. Mesentery numbers and coloration of polyps may be useful diagnostic characteristics among eunicid-associated Epizoanthus species. These results demonstrate that there is high potential for other potentially undescribed zoantharian species, particularly in underwater cave habitats.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism. PMID:26477737

  9. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of a deep-sea bamboo coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Isididae): genome structure and putative origins of replication are not conserved among octocorals.

    PubMed

    Brugler, Mercer R; France, Scott C

    2008-08-01

    Octocoral mitochondrial (mt) DNA is subject to an exceptionally low rate of substitution, and it has been suggested that mt genome content and structure are conserved across the subclass, an observation that has been supported for most octocorallian families by phylogenetic analyses using PCR products spanning gene boundaries. However, failure to recover amplification products spanning the nad4L-msh1 gene junction in species from the family Isididae (bamboo corals) prompted us to sequence the complete mt genome of a deep-sea bamboo coral (undescribed species). Compared to the "typical" octocoral mt genome, which has 12 genes transcribed on one strand and 5 genes on the opposite (cox2, atp8, atp6, cox3, trnM), in the bamboo coral genome a contiguous string of 5 genes (msh1, rnl, nad2, nad5, nad4) has undergone an inversion, likely in a single event. Analyses of strand-specific compositional asymmetry suggest that (i) the light-strand origin of replication was also inverted and is adjacent to nad4, and (ii) the orientation of the heavy-strand origin of replication (OriH) has reversed relative to that of previously known octocoral mt genomes. Comparative analyses suggest that intramitochondrial recombination and errors in replication at OriH may be responsible for changes in gene order in octocorals and hexacorals, respectively. Using primers flanking the regions at either end of the inverted set of five genes, we examined closely related taxa and determined that the novel gene order is restricted to the deep-sea subfamily Keratoisidinae; however, we found no evidence for strand-specific mutational biases that may influence phylogenetic analyses that include this subfamily of bamboo corals.

  11. Comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Atlantic ocean using mtMutS and nad2 genes tree reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K. J.; Herrera, S.; Gubili, C.; Tyler, P. A.; Rogers, A.; Hauton, C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being an abundant group of significant ecological importance the phylogenetic relationships of the Octocorallia remain poorly understood and very much understudied. We used 1132 bp of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, nad2 and mtMutS (previously referred to as msh1), to construct a phylogeny for 161 octocoral specimens from the Atlantic, including both Isididae and non-Isididae species. We found that four clades were supported using a concatenated alignment. Two of these (A and B) were in general agreement with the of Holaxonia-Alcyoniina and Anthomastus-Corallium clades identified by previous work. The third and fourth clades represent a split of the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade resulting in a clade containing the Pennatulacea and a small number of Isididae specimens and a second clade containing the remaining Calcaxonia. When individual genes were considered nad2 largely agreed with previous work with MtMutS also producing a fourth clade corresponding to a split of Isididae species from the Calcaxonia-Pennatulacea clade. It is expected these difference are a consequence of the inclusion of Isisdae species that have undergone a gene inversion in the mtMutS gene causing their separation in the MtMutS only tree. The fourth clade in the concatenated tree is also suspected to be a result of this gene inversion, as there were very few Isidiae species included in previous work tree and thus this separation would not be clearly resolved. A~larger phylogeny including both Isididae and non Isididae species is required to further resolve these clades.

  12. A new genus and species of isanthid sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia, Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussermann, Verena; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2014-09-01

    We describe a new genus and species of sea anemone from Chilean Patagonia. Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp. adds another acontiate genus and species to the family Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Anthoparactis n. gen. differs from the other isanthid genera in having the same number of mesenteries distally and proximally, acontia with basitrichs only, and a column with verrucae distally. Anthoparactis fossii n. sp. differs from the most similar species, Isoparactis fionae Lauretta et al., 2013, in the number of cycles of mesenteries and tentacles, structures of the column, colour pattern of the oral disc, cnidae, and geographical distribution. Isanthidae now includes seven genera and 11 species.

  13. A second, cryptic species of the soft coral genus Incrustatus (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Clavulariidae) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, revealed by DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Catherine S.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2013-03-01

    The encrusting soft coral Incrustatus comauensis is a common denizen of hard substrates in the shallow sub-tidal zone from the central Chilean fjords to the Cape Horn region of southern South America. DNA barcoding of specimens collected from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, revealed the presence of a second, cryptic species of Incrustatus that is syntopic with I. comauensis. We describe Incrustatus niarchosi, a new species that can be distinguished morphologically from I. comauensis by differences in the microscopic ornamentation of the coenenchymal sclerites. To date, I. niarchosi n. sp. is known only from the Beagle Channel. A population of I. comauensis discovered in the intertidal zone in eastern Tierra del Fuego represents a new record of the species for that habitat and geographic region. Although the intertidal population is also distinct genetically, it is morphologically indistinguishable from sub-tidal Chilean populations of I. comauensis, and at present, there is insufficient evidence to support its status as a separate species.

  14. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ωG at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals.

  15. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S; Brugler, Mercer R; Crowley, Louise M; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders. Although some relationships among these newly-defined groups are still ambiguous, morphological and molecular results are consistent enough to proceed with a new higher-level classification and to discuss the putative functional and evolutionary significance of several morphological attributes within Actiniaria.

  16. Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System (Bay of Biscay, Spain, northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, Álvaro; Ríos, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-eight species of scleractinian corals were collected between 55 and 2,291 m depth during INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System and the near continental shelf (Bay of Biscay). Most interesting species are described and all depicted. All species were already known from the northeast Atlantic, although some are seldom reported. Deltocyathus eccentricus and Flabellum chunii are northernmost records in the eastern Atlantic, and species first collected from the Bay of Biscay. From a literature review and new records given herein, 31 species of Scleractinia are known from the Avilés Canyon System. Live specimens of six species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the Bay of Biscay and nearby areas, either at shallower depths ( Caryophyllia sarsiae, Monomyces pygmaea, Stephanocyathus nobilis), or deeper depths ( C. atlantica, C. sarsiae, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis). Desmophyllum cristagalli has the widest bathymetric range (551-2,291 m), and Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed species (24 stations). Tabulating the number of live species occurring in each 100-m depth interval of the canyon system, highest species richness occurs in the 700-800-, 800-900-, and 1,400-1,500-m depth intervals (11 species). The habitat-forming species L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata were abundant in some stations building well-developed coral banks. Live colonies of the big-sized species S. variabilis and E. rostrata co-occurred at the deepest station sampled that yielded scleractinia (2,291 m).

  17. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism.

  18. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  19. The influence of UV radiation on number and ultrastructure of the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannack, K.; Kestler, P.; Sicken, O.; Westheide, W.

    1998-02-01

    The sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus was artificially UV-irradiated to test the effect of UV-light on the number of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in its gastrodermis and on their ultrastructure. Anemones were kept in the laboratory in a light: dark cycle (LD 12∶12; 13 W m-2) at 18 °C and briefly (2, 5 and 9 d) exposed to UV radiation at quasisolar intensities, 0.5 or 1 W m-2. Their tentacles were then examined in the electron microscope for qualitative and quantitative changes in the zooxanthellae. There was an intensity-dependent decrease in the number of symbionts, which in some cases were lost altogether (bleaching). Irradiated anemones contained a larger proportion of symbionts with ultrastructural abnormalities, namely diminished starch, some mitochondria with altered matrix and, in particular, characteristic changes in the chloroplasts; instead of being densely stacked, the thylakoids were spread apart and swollen at the ends of their membranes to form vesicle-like structures. Relatively large vesicles also appeared in the cytoplasm. The resulting enlargement of the whole dinoflagellate cell was documented morphometrically. Another intensity-dependent effect was a significant decrease in mitosis rate, established by counting dividing symbiont cells in TEM micrographs. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6037 00006

  20. The genetic structure of the rare lagoonal sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom based on RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C V M; Rogers, A D; Sheader, M

    2002-11-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis occurs in lagoons in the United States and along the southern and eastern coasts of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom it is considered rare and is threatened, principally through the destruction of lagoonal habitat. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data from populations across most of the rane of N. vectensis in the United Kingdom revealed that 61% of individuals had an identical genotype, the frequency of which varied from 0.01 to 1.00. These data provide strong evidence for predominantly clonal reproduction and for the existence of a 'general-purpose genotype' in the UK populations. Alternatively, the low levels of genetic variation observed in some N. vectensis populations may have resulted if they were founded from very few successful individuals from the United States. Analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed significant genetic differentiation between lagoons with no large-scale pattern of geographical variation. This result is consistent with occasional passive or anthropogenic dispersal of low numbers of individuals between lagoons followed by asexual proliferation of immigrants. Transplantation of individuals of the predominant (general-purpose) genotype, for conservation purposes, will probably stand a good chance of survival given its prevalence throughout the United Kingdom.

  1. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  2. Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from deep waters off Atlantic Canada and the first molecular phylogeny of the deep-sea family Schizopathidae.

    PubMed

    Macisaac, K G; Best, M; Brugler, M R; Kenchington, E L R; Anstey, L J; Jordan, T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of deep-sea antipatharian, Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov., is described from the western North Atlantic off the coast of Canada. Five additional paratypes, consisting ofjuvenile to adult forms, are reported from the New England and Corner Rise Seamounts (NW Atlantic). Preliminary sequencing of a subsection of the nuclear ribosomal cistron confirmed the phylogenetic affinity of T. magna to the order Antipatharia, and in particular the family Schizopathidae. Subsequent sequencing of three mitochondrial DNA segments from nine of the 11 currently-recognized genera within the Schizopathidae revealed a well-supported phylogenetic relationship between T. magna and Stauropathes. This is the first study to use molecular techniques to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the Schizopathidae, a family of black corals almost exclusively found in the deep sea (depths > 200 m). Telopathes is distinguished from other genera within the family Schizopathidae by its largely pinnulated stalk, sparse branching pattern to the second degree that is not restricted to a single plane, two anterolateral rows of long, simple primary pinnules, arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and colony with an adhesive base. This record of T. magna brings the total number of nominal species of Antipatharia reported to occur off eastern Canada to 12 and represents the third new genus added to the Schizopathidae since a critical review of the family by Dennis Opresko in 2002. PMID:26106725

  3. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ωG at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals. PMID:21820066

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a steroidogenic enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14, from the stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jie; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroids play a fundamental role not only in reproduction but also in various other biological processes in vertebrates. Although the presence of sex steroids has been confirmed in cnidarians (e.g., coral, sea anemone, jellyfish, and hydra), which are basal metazoans, only a few studies to date have characterized steroidogenesis-related genes in cnidarians. Based on a transcriptomic analysis of the stony coral Euphyllia ancora, we identified the steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14 (17beta-hsd 14), an oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent inactivation of estrogen/androgen (estradiol to estrone and testosterone to androstenedione) in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. ancora 17beta-Hsd 14 (Ea17beta-Hsd 14) clusters with other animal 17beta-HSD 14s but not with other members of the 17beta-HSD family. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a lack of correlation of Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript levels with the coral's reproductive cycle. In addition, Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript and protein were detected in all tissues examined, such as the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and gonads, at similar levels in both sexes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting with an anti-Ea17beta-Hsd 14 antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is mainly distributed in the endodermal regions of the polyps, but the protein was also observed in all tissues examined. These results suggest that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is involved in important functions that commonly occur in endodermal cells or has multiple functions in different tissues. Our data provide information for comparison with advanced animals as well as insight into the evolution of steroidogenesis-related genes in metazoans. PMID:26868454

  5. Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from deep waters off Atlantic Canada and the first molecular phylogeny of the deep-sea family Schizopathidae.

    PubMed

    Macisaac, K G; Best, M; Brugler, M R; Kenchington, E L R; Anstey, L J; Jordan, T

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of deep-sea antipatharian, Telopathes magna gen. nov., spec. nov., is described from the western North Atlantic off the coast of Canada. Five additional paratypes, consisting ofjuvenile to adult forms, are reported from the New England and Corner Rise Seamounts (NW Atlantic). Preliminary sequencing of a subsection of the nuclear ribosomal cistron confirmed the phylogenetic affinity of T. magna to the order Antipatharia, and in particular the family Schizopathidae. Subsequent sequencing of three mitochondrial DNA segments from nine of the 11 currently-recognized genera within the Schizopathidae revealed a well-supported phylogenetic relationship between T. magna and Stauropathes. This is the first study to use molecular techniques to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the Schizopathidae, a family of black corals almost exclusively found in the deep sea (depths > 200 m). Telopathes is distinguished from other genera within the family Schizopathidae by its largely pinnulated stalk, sparse branching pattern to the second degree that is not restricted to a single plane, two anterolateral rows of long, simple primary pinnules, arranged alternately to sub-opposite, and colony with an adhesive base. This record of T. magna brings the total number of nominal species of Antipatharia reported to occur off eastern Canada to 12 and represents the third new genus added to the Schizopathidae since a critical review of the family by Dennis Opresko in 2002.

  6. The Mitochondrial Genome of Paraminabea aldersladei (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) Supports Intramolecular Recombination as the Primary Mechanism of Gene Rearrangement in Octocoral Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Stephanie A.; McFadden, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of the soft coral Paraminabea aldersladei (Alcyoniidae) revealed a unique gene order, the fifth mt gene arrangement now known within the cnidarian subclass Octocorallia. At 19,886 bp, the mt genome of P. aldersladei is the second largest known for octocorals; its gene content and nucleotide composition are, however, identical to most other octocorals, and the additional length is due to the presence of two large, noncoding intergenic regions. Relative to the presumed ancestral octocoral gene order, in P. aldersladei a block of three protein-coding genes (nad6–nad3–nad4l) has been translocated and inverted. Mapping the distribution of mt gene arrangements onto a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny of Octocorallia suggests that all of the known octocoral gene orders have evolved by successive inversions of one or more evolutionarily conserved blocks of protein-coding genes. This mode of genome evolution is unique among Metazoa, and contrasts strongly with that observed in Hexacorallia, in which extreme gene shuffling has occurred among taxonomic orders. Two of the four conserved gene blocks found in Octocorallia are, however, also conserved in the linear mt genomes of Medusozoa and in one group of Demospongiae. We speculate that the rate and mechanism of gene rearrangement in octocorals may be influenced by the presence in their mt genomes of mtMutS, a putatively active DNA mismatch repair protein that may also play a role in mediating intramolecular recombination. PMID:22975720

  7. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., two new deep-sea species of Hormathiidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of hormathiid actiniarians, Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. and Phelliactis yapensis n. sp., are described from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical Western Pacific. Paraphelliactis tangi n. sp. has a thick cuticle, a tuberculated column divisible into scapus and scapulus, a complete fifth cycle of mesenteries, an equal number of mesenteries at the margin and at the limbus, and up to 192 tentacles without aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are hexamerously arranged in six cycles. This species differs distinctly from the three known species of Paraphelliactis by the above mentioned features (vs. an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, usually more mesenteries at the margin than at the limbus, and the tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings). So far, it is the only member of the genus Paraphelliactis found in the Western Pacific. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. has an asymmetric bilobed oral disc and column, tuberculated scapus and scapulus, an incomplete fifth cycle of mesenteries, and up to 162 tentacles with aboral mesogloeal thickenings that are alternately arranged in two cycles. In comparison with other Phelliactis species, the basitrichs of mesenterial filaments of Ph. yapensis are distinctly larger. Phelliactis yapensis n. sp. is the fourth species of Phelliactis found in the Western Pacific. PMID:27395930

  8. LOW THERMAL LIMIT OF GROWTH RATE OF SYMBIODINIUM CALIFORNIUM (DINOPHYTA) IN CULTURE MAY RESTRICT THE SYMBIONT TO SOUTHERN POPULATIONS OF ITS HOST ANEMONES (ANTHOPLEURA SPP.; ANTHOZOA, CNIDARIA)(1).

    PubMed

    McBride, Brooke Baldauf; Muller-Parker, Gisèle; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2009-08-01

    Symbiodinium californium (#383, Banaszak et al. 1993) is one of two known dinoflagellate symbionts of the intertidal sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima, A. xanthogrammica, and A. sola and occurs only in hosts at southern latitudes of the North Pacific. To investigate if temperature restricts the latitudinal distribution of S. californium, growth and photosynthesis at a range of temperatures (5°C-30°C) were determined for cultured symbionts. Mean specific growth rates were the highest between 15°C and 28°C (μ 0.21-0.26 · d(-1) ) and extremely low at 5, 10, and 30°C (0.02-0.03 · d(-1) ). Average doubling times ranged from 2.7 d (20°C) to 33 d (5, 10, and 30°C). Cells cultured at 10°C had the greatest cell volume (821 μm(3) ) and the highest percentage of motile cells (64.5%). Growth and photosynthesis were uncoupled; light-saturated maximum photosynthesis (Pmax ) increased from 2.9 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 20°C to 13.2 pg C · cell(-1 ) · h(-1) at 30°C, a 4.5-fold increase. Less than 11% of daily photosynthetically fixed carbon was utilized for growth at 5, 10, and 30°C, indicating the potential for high carbon translocation at these temperatures. Low temperature effects on growth rate, and not on photosynthesis and cell morphology, may restrict the distribution of S. californium to southern populations of its host anemones.

  9. Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855), two poorly known species of Metridioidea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chinese waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Rui-Yu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-01-01

    Two acontiate sea anemones, Phytocoetes sinensis n. sp. within the family Halcampactinidae and Telmatactis clavata (Stimpson, 1855) within the family Andvakiidae, are described from the coastal region of Chinese waters. Phytocoetes sinensis is an elongated sea anemone discovered from the intertidal mudflat in the East China Sea. The new species is very similar to its only congener P. gangeticus, but differs distinctly by the larger body size (length usually 61-130 mm vs. no more than 30 mm) and a higher number of mesenteries (48 pairs vs. 12 or probably 24 pairs) and tentacles (usually 72-118 vs. 50-65). This is the first record of Halcampactinidae in China. Telmatactis clavata has been reported only from the warm waters of Japan. We redescribed the species in more details based on specimens collected from the South China Sea. So far the species is known only from warm waters in the western Pacific.

  10. 77 FR 11617 - Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Jetronic Industries, Inc. (n/k/a New Bastion Development, Inc.), JMAR Technologies, Inc., Kolorfusion International, Inc. Legalopinion.com (n/k/a Drayton Richdale Corp.), Lifestream Technologies, Inc., Lions Petroleum, Inc., (n/k/a China Hongxing Agritech, Inc.), Luna Technologies International,...

  11. A key to the genera and species of the transversely-dividing Flabellidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Flabellidae), with a guide to the literature, and the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    The transversely-dividing flabellids consist of five genera (Truncatoflabellum, Placotrochides, Blastotrochus, Placotrochus, and Falcatoflabellum) and 45 species. A dichotomous key is provided for these five genera as well as the species of the genus Truncatoflabellum and Placotrochides, the other three genera being monotypic. A tabular key is also provided for the 38 species of Truncatoflabellum. Two new combinations are suggested (Truncatoflabellum gambierense and Truncatoflabellum sphenodeum) and two new species are described (Truncatoflabellum duncani and Truncatoflabellum mozambiquensis). All but one species are illustrated and accompanied by their known distribution and a guide to the pertinent literature for the species. New records of 19 of the 45 species are listed. The transversely-dividing flabellids range from the Middle Eocene to the Recent at depths of 2-3010 m, and constitute 60% of the 65 known extant species of transversely-dividing Scleractinia. PMID:27006620

  12. Strabismus-mediated primary archenteron invagination is uncoupled from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): Implications for the evolution of gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. The developmental mechanisms that induced archenteron formation and led to the segregation of germ layers during metazoan evolution are unknown. But an increased understanding of development in early diverging taxa at the base of the metazoan tree may provide insights into the origins of these developmental mechanisms. Results In the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, initial archenteron formation begins with bottle cell-induced buckling of the blastula epithelium at the animal pole. Here, we show that bottle cell formation and initial gut invagination in Nematostella requires NvStrabismus (NvStbm), a maternally-expressed core component of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway. The NvStbm protein is localized to the animal pole of the zygote, remains asymmetrically expressed through the cleavage stages, and becomes restricted to the apical side of invaginating bottle cells at the blastopore. Antisense morpholino-mediated NvStbm-knockdown blocks bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination, but it has no effect on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-mediated endoderm cell fate specification. Conversely, selectively blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibits endoderm cell fate specification but does not affect bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Wnt/PCP-mediated initial archenteron invagination can be uncoupled from Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella, and provides evidence that these two processes could have evolved independently during metazoan evolution. We propose a two-step model for the evolution of an archenteron and the evolution of endodermal germ layer segregation. Asymmetric accumulation and activation of Wnt/PCP components at the animal pole of the last common ancestor to the eumetazoa may have induced the cell shape changes that led to the initial formation of an archenteron. Activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling at the animal pole may have led to the activation of a gene regulatory network that specified an endodermal cell fate in the archenteron. PMID:21255391

  13. A key to the genera and species of the transversely-dividing Flabellidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Flabellidae), with a guide to the literature, and the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transversely-dividing flabellids consist of five genera (Truncatoflabellum, Placotrochides, Blastotrochus, Placotrochus, and Falcatoflabellum) and 45 species. A dichotomous key is provided for these five genera as well as the species of the genus Truncatoflabellum and Placotrochides, the other three genera being monotypic. A tabular key is also provided for the 38 species of Truncatoflabellum. Two new combinations are suggested (Truncatoflabellum gambierense and Truncatoflabellum sphenodeum) and two new species are described (Truncatoflabellum duncani and Truncatoflabellum mozambiquensis). All but one species are illustrated and accompanied by their known distribution and a guide to the pertinent literature for the species. New records of 19 of the 45 species are listed. The transversely-dividing flabellids range from the Middle Eocene to the Recent at depths of 2–3010 m, and constitute 60% of the 65 known extant species of transversely-dividing Scleractinia. PMID:27006620

  14. Fast-Evolving Mitochondrial DNA in Ceriantharia: A Reflection of Hexacorallia Paraphyly?

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sérgio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Reimer, James D.; Morandini, André C.

    2014-01-01

    The low evolutionary rate of mitochondrial genes in Anthozoa has challenged their utility for phylogenetic and systematic purposes, especially for DNA barcoding. However, the evolutionary rate of Ceriantharia, one of the most enigmatic “orders” within Anthozoa, has never been specifically examined. In this study, the divergence of mitochondrial DNA of Ceriantharia was compared to members of other Anthozoa and Medusozoa groups. In addition, nuclear markers were used to check the relative phylogenetic position of Ceriantharia in relation to other Cnidaria members. The results demonstrated a pattern of divergence of mitochondrial DNA completely different from those estimated for other anthozoans, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ceriantharia is not included within hexacorallians in most performed analyses. Thus, we propose that the Ceriantharia should be addressed as a separate clade. PMID:24475157

  15. Evolutionary Diversification of Banded Tube-Dwelling Anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Stampar, Sergio N.; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Silveira, Fabio L. d.; Morandini, André C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  16. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sergio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Silveira, Fabio L d; Morandini, André C

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed.

  17. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  18. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  19. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  20. Class-level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria: evidence from mitochondrial genome structure.

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, D; Cunningham, C W; Schierwater, B; DeSalle, R; Buss, L W

    1992-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the Recent cnidarian classes remain one of the classic problems in invertebrate zoology. We survey the structure of the mitochondrial genome in representatives of the four extant cnidarian classes and in the phylum Ctenophora. We find that all anthozoan species tested possess mtDNA in the form of circular molecules, whereas all scyphozoan, cubozoan, and hydrozoan species tested display mtDNA in the form of linear molecules. Because ctenophore and all other known metazoan mtDNA is circular, the shared occurrence of linear mtDNA in three of the four cnidarian classes suggests a basal position for the Anthozoa within the phylum. Images PMID:1356268

  1. Features of trace metal distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City hydrothermal vent field (North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, L. L.; Lein, A. Yu.; Galkin, S. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical features of the microelement distribution in the components of the ecosystem of the Lost City low-temperature field of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are determined by the processes of serpentinization in ultrabasic rocks. In the Lost City biotope water, the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As) is from n × 10 to 104 times higher than in the ocean water. The microelement content demonstrates a similar character of distribution in both types of calcite biominerals forming the carbonate matrix of the bivalve mussels Bathymodiolus and the scleractinian corals Anthozoa.

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination and water stress in trembling aspen following variable retention harvesting.

    PubMed

    Bladon, Kevin D; Silins, Uldis; Landhäusser, Simon M; Messier, Christian; Lieffers, Victor J

    2007-07-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH) has been proposed as a silvicultural practice to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. No previous study has examined tree carbon isotope discrimination to provide insights into water stress that could lead to dieback and mortality of trees following VRH. We measured and compared the carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) in stem wood of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) before and after VRH. Eight trees were sampled from isolated residual, edge and control (interior of unharvested stand) positions from each of seven plots in three regions (Calling Lake and Drayton Valley, Alberta and Lac Duparquet, Québec). After VRH, the general trend in mean delta(13)C was residual > edge > control trees. Although this trend is indicative of water stress in residual trees, it also suggests that edge trees received some sheltering effect, reducing their stress compared with that of residuals. A strong inverse relationship was found between the delta(13)C values and the mean annual precipitation in each region. The trend in mean delta(13)C signature was Calling Lake > Drayton Valley > Lac Duparquet trees. These results suggest that residual or edge trees in drier regions are more likely to suffer water stress following VRH. We also observed a trend of greater delta(13)C in stout trees compared with slender trees, both before and after VRH. The evidence of greater water stress in stout trees likely occurred because of a positive relationship between stem diameter and crown volume per basal area. Our results provide evidence that water stress could be the driving mechanism leading to dieback and mortality of residual trees shortly after VRH. Additionally, the results from edge trees indicate that leaving hardwood residuals in larger patches or more sheltered landscape positions could reduce the water stress to which these trees are subjected, thereby reducing dieback and mortality. PMID:17403660

  3. Insights into the toxicological properties of a low molecular weight fraction from Zoanthus sociatus (Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Dany; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; García-Delgado, Neivys; Sierra-Gómez, Yusvel; Castañeda, Olga; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-08-13

    The phylum Cnidaria is an ancient group of venomous animals, specialized in the production and delivery of toxins. Many species belonging to the class Anthozoa have been studied and their venoms often contain a group of peptides, less than 10 kDa, that act upon ion channels. These peptides and their targets interact with high affinity producing neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects, and even death, depending on the dose and the administration pathway. Zoanthiniaria is an order of the Subclass Hexacorallia, class Anthozoa, and unlike sea anemone (order Actiniaria), neither its diversity of toxins nor the in vivo effects of the venoms has been exhaustively explored. In this study we assessed some toxicological tests on mice with a low molecular weight fraction obtained by gel filtration in Sephadex G-50 from Zoanthus sociatus crude extract. The gel filtration chromatogram at 280 nm revealed two major peaks, the highest absorbance corresponding to the low molecular weight fraction. The toxicological effects seem to be mostly autonomic and cardiotoxic, causing death in a dose dependent manner with a LD50 of 792 μg/kg. Moreover, at a dose of 600 μg/kg the active fraction accelerated the KCl-induced lethality in mice.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  5. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  6. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  7. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  8. Engineering fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Atsushi; Nagai, Takeharu; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victora (GFP) and GFP-like proteins from Anthozoa species encode light-absorbing chromophores intrinsically within their respective protein sequences. Recent studies have made progress in obtaining bright variants of these proteins which develop chromophores quickly and efficiently, as well as novel fluorescent proteins that photoactivate or photoconvert, i.e., become fluorescent or change colors upon illumination at specific wavelengths. Also, monomeric versions of these proteins have been engineered for fusion protein applications. Simple GFP variants and circularly permuted GFP variants have been used to develop fluorescent probes that sense physiological signals such as membrane potential and concentrations of free calcium. Further molecular characterization of the structure and maturation of these proteins is in progress, aimed at providing information for rational design of variants with desired fluorescence properties.

  9. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  10. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E; Smith, Stephen A; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H; Sanders, Steven M; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S; France, Scott C; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G; Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations.

  11. Live-cell imaging with EosFP and other photoactivatable marker proteins of the GFP family.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmann, Jörg; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    Fluorescent proteins from the green fluorescent protein family have become indispensable imaging tools for cell biology. A wide variety of these proteins were discovered in nonbioluminescent anthozoa in recent years. Some of them feature exciting new properties, with the possibility to alter their intensity and/or fluorescence color by irradiation with light of specific wavelengths. Fluorescent highlighter proteins enable many interesting applications based on regional optical marking in live cells and tissues. This review provides an overview of photoactivatable marker proteins, with a focus on EosFP, a protein that can be switched from green to red fluorescence by approximately 400-nm light. A variety of applications are presented to illustrate the versatility of EosFP in live-cell imaging.

  12. Far-red fluorescent tag for protein labelling.

    PubMed

    Fradkov, Arkady F; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Staroverov, Dmitry B; Bulina, Maria E; Yanushevich, Yurii G; Martynov, Vladimir I; Lukyanov, Sergey; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2002-11-15

    Practical applications of green fluorescent protein ('GFP')-like fluorescent proteins (FPs) from species of the class Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals and sea pens) are strongly restricted owing to their oligomeric nature. Here we suggest a strategy to overcome this problem by the use of two covalently linked identical red FPs as non-oligomerizing fusion tags. We have applied this approach to the dimeric far-red fluorescent protein HcRed1 and have demonstrated superiority of the tandem tag in the in vivo labelling of fine cytoskeletal structures and tiny nucleoli. In addition, a possibility of effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer ('FRET') between enhanced yellow FP mutant ('EYFP') and tandem HcRed1 was demonstrated in a protease assay.

  13. Cnidarians as a Source of New Marine Bioactive Compounds—An Overview of the Last Decade and Future Steps for Bioprospecting

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana; Peixe, Luisa; Gomes, Newton C.M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are rich sources of bioactive compounds and their biotechnological potential attracts scientific and economic interest worldwide. Although sponges are the foremost providers of marine bioactive compounds, cnidarians are also being studied with promising results. This diverse group of marine invertebrates includes over 11,000 species, 7500 of them belonging to the class Anthozoa. We present an overview of some of the most promising marine bioactive compounds from a therapeutic point of view isolated from cnidarians in the first decade of the 21st century. Anthozoan orders Alcyonacea and Gorgonacea exhibit by far the highest number of species yielding promising compounds. Antitumor activity has been the major area of interest in the screening of cnidarian compounds, the most promising ones being terpenoids (monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids). We also discuss the future of bioprospecting for new marine bioactive compounds produced by cnidarians. PMID:22073000

  14. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  15. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Naila O; Konzen, Karen A; Field, Steven F; Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Hunt, Marguerite E; Beltran-Ramirez, Victor; Miller, David J; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Salih, Anya; Matz, Mikhail V

    2008-07-16

    GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs) are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia) and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red) and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae) and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae), both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria). The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of structural

  16. Diversity and Evolution of Coral Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Alieva, Naila O.; Konzen, Karen A.; Field, Steven F.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Hunt, Marguerite E.; Beltran-Ramirez, Victor; Miller, David J.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Salih, Anya; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2008-01-01

    GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs) are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia) and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red) and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a “chromo-red” color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae) and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae), both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria). The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of structural

  17. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-08-15

    The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. PMID:24956579

  18. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  19. Potential hazards from structural and gravitational anomalies within sedimentary basins of northwest Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. P.; Wolf, L. W.; Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents preliminary models based on new and existing gravity and magnetic data for two regions in the Puget Sound, Washington, area: the Bellingham basin and the Muckleshoot basin. The principle goals of the project are to determine whether and how faults mapped outside of these basins continue beneath their thick sedimentary cover. In the Bellingham basin, cross-sectional models focus on the Drayton-Harbor magnetic lineament and the Birch Bay fault. Late Holocene displacements have been observed along these structures along the western Washington coast, and analyses of magnetic data and Lidar data suggest that these faults extend eastward into the basin. Preliminary models are consistent with the inland continuation of the Birch Bay fault towards Bellingham. The new gravity data also suggest that the Bellingham basin may consist of smaller subbasins, rather than one large basin, as previously mapped. In the Muckleshoot basin, cross-sectional models focus on the possible connection of the east-trending Tacoma fault (west of the basin) and the northwest-trending White River fault, mapped to the east of the Muckleshoot basin. A connection between these two fault systems would have significant implications for hazard estimates in terms of the length and size of these seismogenic structures.

  20. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  1. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  2. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  3. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica. PMID:8583798

  4. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  5. Charles Wesley Hargitt (1852-1927): American educator and cnidarian biologist.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2009-10-01

    Charles Wesley Hargitt was born near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, USA, and died at Syracuse, New York. After a brief career as a Methodist Episcopal Minister, he carried out graduate studies in biology at Illinois Wesleyan University and Ohio University. He served briefly on the faculty at Moores Hill College and later at Miami University of Ohio before receiving an appointment at Syracuse University. Hargitt spent 36 years at Syracuse, and for 21 years was a trustee of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. His research encompassed animal behaviour, cell biology, development, ecology, natural history, and taxonomy, as well as education, eugenics, and theology, and he wrote or contributed to more than 100 publications in science. Approximately half of these were on Cnidaria, with 41 of them on Hydrozoa. His most important works in hydrozoan taxonomy were on species of the Woods Hole region, the Philippines, and south China. Hargitt was author of three genera and 48 species and subspecies ascribed to Hydrozoa, seven species of Anthozoa, and one species of Cubozoa. Four species of hydroids are named in his honour. PMID:20014507

  6. Characterization of a novel EF-hand homologue, CnidEF, in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Laura L; Phillips, Wendy S; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-04-01

    The superfamily of EF-hand proteins is comprised of a large and diverse group of proteins that contain one or more characteristic EF-hand calcium-binding domains. This study describes and characterizes a novel EF-hand cDNA, CnidEF, from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). CnidEF was found to contain two EF-hand motifs near the C-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence and two regions near the N-terminus that could represent degenerate EF-hand motifs. CnidEF homologues were also identified from two other sea anemone species. A combination of bioinformatic and molecular phylogenetic analyses was used to compare CnidEF to EF-hand proteins in other organisms. The closest homologues identified from these analyses were a luciferin binding protein (LBP) involved in the bioluminescence of the anthozoan Renilla reniformis, and a sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) involved in fluorescence of the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor. Predicted structure and folding analysis revealed a close association with bioluminescent aequorin (AEQ) proteins from the hydrozoan cnidarian Aequorea aequorea. Neighbor-joining analyses grouped CnidEF within the SARC lineage along with AEQ and other cnidarian bioluminescent proteins rather than in the lineage containing calmodulin (CAM) and troponin-C (TNC). PMID:17280859

  7. SeaBase: a multispecies transcriptomic resource and platform for gene network inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Antje H L; Mozzherin, Dmitry; Eren, A Murat; Lans, Kristen D; Wilson, Nathan; Cosentino, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Marine and aquatic animals are extraordinarily useful as models for identifying mechanisms of development and evolution, regeneration, resistance to cancer, longevity and symbiosis, among many other areas of research. This is due to the great diversity of these organisms and their wide-ranging capabilities. Genomics tools are essential for taking advantage of these "free lessons" of nature. However, genomics and transcriptomics are challenging in emerging model systems. Here, we present SeaBase, a tool for helping to meet these needs. Specifically, SeaBase provides a platform for sharing and searching transcriptome data. More importantly, SeaBase will support a growing number of tools for inferring gene network mechanisms. The first dataset available on SeaBase is a developmental transcriptomic profile of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria). Additional datasets are currently being prepared and we are aiming to expand SeaBase to include user-supplied data for any number of marine and aquatic organisms, thereby supporting many potentially new models for gene network studies. SeaBase can be accessed online at: http://seabase.core.cli.mbl.edu. PMID:24907201

  8. Interactions of cnidarian toxins with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Suput, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Cnidarians comprise four classes of toxic marine animals: Anthozoa, Cubozoa, Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa. They are the largest and probably the oldest phylum of toxic marine animals. Any contact with a cnidarian, especially the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), can be fatal, but most cnidarians do not possess sufficiently strong venomous apparatus to penetrate the human skin, whereas others rarely come into contact with human beings. Only a small, almost negligible percentage of the vast wealth of cnidarian toxins has been studied in detail. Many polypeptide cnidarian toxins are immunogenic, and cross-reactivity between several jellyfish venoms has been reported. Cnidarians also possess components of innate immunity, and some of those components have been preserved in evolution. On the other hand, cnidarian toxins have already been used for the design of immunotoxins to treat cancer, whereas other cnidarian toxins can modulate the immune system in mammals, including man. This review will focus on a short overview of cnidarian toxins, on the innate immunity of cnidarians, and on the mode of action of cnidarian toxins which can modulate the immune system in mammals. Emphasis is palced on those toxins which block voltage activated potassium channels in the cells of the immune system. PMID:21824078

  9. Insight into the molecular and functional diversity of cnidarian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  10. Short Toxin-like Proteins Abound in Cnidaria Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:23202321

  11. Phylogenomic Analyses Support Traditional Relationships within Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Goetz, Freya E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Howison, Mark; Siebert, Stefan; Church, Samuel H.; Sanders, Steven M.; Ames, Cheryl Lewis; McFadden, Catherine S.; France, Scott C.; Daly, Marymegan; Collins, Allen G.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses using different partition schemes and models of molecular evolution, as well as topology tests for alternative phylogenetic relationships, support the monophyly of Medusozoa, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Hydrozoa, and a clade consisting of Staurozoa, Cubozoa, and Scyphozoa. Support for the monophyly of Hexacorallia is weak due to the equivocal position of Ceriantharia. Taken together, these results further resolve deep cnidarian relationships, largely support traditional phylogenetic views on relationships, and provide a historical framework for studying the evolutionary processes involved in one of the most ancient animal radiations. PMID:26465609

  12. Short toxin-like proteins abound in Cnidaria genomes.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Yitshak; Linial, Itai; Askenazi, Manor; Linial, Michal

    2012-11-16

    Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis (Sea anemone) and Hydra magnipapillata genomes. We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals. Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83,000 proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found 170 candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional 394 short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence. Remarkably, only 11% of the predicted toxin-like proteins were previously classified as toxins. Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over 400 of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins. Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem.

  13. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  14. Biochemical and Electrophysiological Characterization of Two Sea Anemone Type 1 Potassium Toxins from a Geographically Distant Population of Bunodosoma caissarum

    PubMed Central

    Orts, Diego J. B.; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Cassoli, Juliana S.; Montandon, Gabriela G.; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Bicudo, José E. P. W.; Freitas, José C.; Zaharenko, André J.; Tytgat, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) venom is an important source of bioactive compounds used as tools to study the pharmacology and structure-function of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV). These neurotoxins can be divided into four different types, according to their structure and mode of action. In this work, for the first time, two toxins were purified from the venom of Bunodosoma caissarum population from Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveals that BcsTx1 and BcsTx2 are the newest members of the sea anemone type 1 potassium channel toxins. Their functional characterization was performed by means of a wide electrophysiological screening on 12 different subtypes of KV channels (KV1.1–KV1.6; KV2.1; KV3.1; KV4.2; KV4.3; hERG and Shaker IR). BcsTx1 shows a high affinity for rKv1.2 over rKv1.6, hKv1.3, Shaker IR and rKv1.1, while Bcstx2 potently blocked rKv1.6 over hKv1.3, rKv1.1, Shaker IR and rKv1.2. Furthermore, we also report for the first time a venom composition and biological activity comparison between two geographically distant populations of sea anemones. PMID:23466933

  15. Insight into the molecular and functional diversity of cnidarian neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-23

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes.

  16. The fine structure of mitochondria and the mitochondrial cloud during oogenesis on the sea anemone Actinia.

    PubMed

    Larkman, A U

    1984-01-01

    The appearance and arrangement of the mitochondria during all stages of oocyte growth in the sea anemone Actinia fragacea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) have been examined by electron microscopy. In small oocytes, the mitochondria are generally squat, with a dense matrix and numerous cristae, although a proportion may show an unusual arrangement of prismatic cristae. During early oogenesis, the mitochondria tend to be arranged in aggregates rather than randomly scattered, and may be associated with nuage material. With the onset of vitellogenesis, a large mitochondrial aggregate forms next to the nucleus. During early vitellogenesis this aggregate enlarges and comes to resemble the mitochondrial clouds found in some amphibian oocytes. Within the cloud, many mitochondria appear to be highly elongate and irregular in shape. The cloud begins to fragment and disperse midway through vitellogenesis at about the time when cortical granules appear. In fully grown oocytes, some mitochondria may have a much less dense matrix and fewer cristae than the remainder, which may be related to their state of activity.

  17. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  18. Modern Tasman Sea surface reservoir ages from deep-sea black corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugabe, Aimée F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine reservoir ages are a key element in calculating and constraining uncertainty in radiocarbon age estimates and are also essential to better understand regional ocean circulation. In this study, we present a new method to reconstruct long-term, high-resolution sea surface reservoir ages based on analysis of the organic skeleton of deep-sea (560 m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia). Our results confirm that antipatharians are extremely slow growing (typical radial growth rate for a South Pacific specimen around 0.03 mm/yr). Coupled uranium series and radiocarbon measurements were made on black coral collected live from the Norfolk Ridge (north Tasman Sea) to provide the first modern reservoir ages for this region. At the Norfolk Ridge, the average reservoir age between 1790 AD and 1900 AD was ∼330 years. This was followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational studies for the early twentieth century, which suggest significant changes in regional circulation of the southwest pacific.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Cnidaria): introns, a paucity of tRNA genes, and a near-standard genetic code.

    PubMed Central

    Beagley, C T; Okimoto, R; Wolstenholme, D R

    1998-01-01

    The circular, 17,443 nucleotide-pair mitochondrial (mt) DNA molecule of the sea anemone, Metridium senile (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria) is presented. This molecule contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins and two ribosomal (r) RNAs but, relative to other metazoan mtDNAs, has two unique features: only two transfer RNAs (tRNA(f-Met) and tRNA(Trp)) are encoded, and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) genes each include a group I intron. The COI intron encodes a putative homing endonuclease, and the ND5 intron contains the molecule's ND1 and ND3 genes. Most of the unusual characteristics of other metazoan mtDNAs are not found in M. senile mtDNA: unorthodox translation initiation codons and partial translation termination codons are absent, the use of TGA to specify tryptophan is the only genetic code modification, and both encoded tRNAs have primary and secondary structures closely resembling those of standard tRNAs. Also, with regard to size and secondary structure potential, the mt-s-rRNA and mt-1-rRNA have the least deviation from Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNAs of all known metazoan mt-rRNAs. These observations indicate that most of the genetic variations previously reported in metazoan mtDNAs developed after Cnidaria diverged from the common ancestral line of all other Metazoa. PMID:9539427

  20. The Radial Growth Rate of Japanese Precious Corals Using Pb-210 Dating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Iwasaki, N.; Suzuki, A.; Aono, T.

    2014-12-01

    Precious corals belong to the subclass Octocorallia of the class Anthozoa. Its major component is calcium carbonate and the crystal structure is high-Mg calcite. Their skeletal axes are used for jewellery, rosary, amulet, etc. They are found mainly in the Japanese coast, the Mediterranean and off the Midway Islands and they are distributed at a depth of 100 m to 1500m. The growing skeletons of precious corals have potential for recording environmental change. Pb-210 is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a half-life of 22.3 years. Pb-210 is a natural sediment marker suitable for dating events that have occurred over the past 100 years and has been used to measure the sedimentation rates of lake and coastal marine sediments. The objectives of this study were to measure the Pb-210 concentration in the skeletons of Japanese red coral, pink coral and white coral and to estimate the radial growth rate using Pb-210 dating method. The radial growth rate of the skeleton can be estimated by the gradual decrease in Pb-210 concentrations measured from the surface inwards. The radial growth rate of the pink coral skeleton (Corallium elatius), collected at depths of 200 to 300 m off the coast of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, was 0.15 mm/year, so slow that it would take as long as 50 years for a colony to grow to 15 mm in diameter.

  1. Biosurfactant production by hydrocarbon-degrading Brevibacterium and Vibrio isolates from the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764).

    PubMed

    Graziano, Marco; Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Porporato, Erika Maria Diletta; De Domenico, Emilio; Spanò, Nunziacarla; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2016-09-01

    Among filter-feeders, pennatulids are the most complex and polymorphic members of the cnidarian class Anthozoa. They display a wide distribution throughout all the oceans, constituting a significant component of the sessile megafauna from intertidal to abyssal depths. In this study, a total of 118 bacterial isolates from enrichment cultures, carried out with homogenates of the sea pen Pteroeides spinosum (Ellis, 1764), were screened for hydrocarbon utilization by using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. Among them, 83 hydrocarbon-oxidizing isolates were analyzed for biosurfactant production by standard screening tests (i.e., emulsifying activity, E24 detection, surface tension measurement, microplate assay). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the affiliation of the most promising isolates to the genera Brevibacterium and Vibrio. Biosurfactant production resulted strongly affected by salinity and temperature conditions, and occurred in the presence of diesel oil and/or crude oil, whereas no production was observed when isolates were grown on tetradecane. The strains resulted able to create stable emulsions, thus suggesting the production of biosurfactants. Further analyses revealed a glycolipidic nature of the biosurfactant extracted from Vibrio sp. PBN295, a genus that has been only recently reported as biosurfactant producer. Results suggest that pennatulids could represent a novel source for the isolation of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria with potential in biosurfactant production. PMID:27119461

  2. DNA barcoding as a tool for coral reef conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigel, J.; Domingo, A.; Stake, J.

    2007-09-01

    DNA Barcoding (DBC) is a method for taxonomic identification of animals that is based entirely on the 5' portion of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit I ( COI-5). It can be especially useful for identification of larval forms or incomplete specimens lacking diagnostic morphological characters. DBC can also facilitate the discovery of species and in defining “molecular taxonomic units” in problematic groups. However, DBC is not a panacea for coral reef taxonomy. In two of the most ecologically important groups on coral reefs, the Anthozoa and Porifera, COI-5 sequences have diverged too little to be diagnostic for all species. Other problems for DBC include paraphyly in mitochondrial gene trees and lack of differentiation between hybrids and their maternal ancestors. DBC also depends on the availability of databases of COI-5 sequences, which are still in early stages of development. A global effort to barcode all fish species has demonstrated the importance of large-scale coordination and is yielding promising results. Whether or not COI-5 by itself is sufficient for species assignments has become a contentious question; it is generally advantageous to use sequences from multiple loci.

  3. Functional Characterization of Cnidarian HCN Channels Points to an Early Evolution of Ih

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma C.; Layden, Michael J.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Kamel, Bishoy; Medina, Monica; Simpson, Eboni; Jegla, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    HCN channels play a unique role in bilaterian physiology as the only hyperpolarization-gated cation channels. Their voltage-gating is regulated by cyclic nucleotides and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of HCN channels provides the depolarizing current in response to hyperpolarization that is critical for intrinsic rhythmicity in neurons and the sinoatrial node. Additionally, HCN channels regulate dendritic excitability in a wide variety of neurons. Little is known about the early functional evolution of HCN channels, but the presence of HCN sequences in basal metazoan phyla and choanoflagellates, a protozoan sister group to the metazoans, indicate that the gene family predates metazoan emergence. We functionally characterized two HCN channel orthologs from Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) to determine which properties of HCN channels were established prior to the emergence of bilaterians. We find Nematostella HCN channels share all the major functional features of bilaterian HCNs, including reversed voltage-dependence, activation by cAMP and PIP2, and block by extracellular Cs+. Thus bilaterian-like HCN channels were already present in the common parahoxozoan ancestor of bilaterians and cnidarians, at a time when the functional diversity of voltage-gated K+ channels was rapidly expanding. NvHCN1 and NvHCN2 are expressed broadly in planulae and in both the endoderm and ectoderm of juvenile polyps. PMID:26555239

  4. Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Bacteria, Antibiotics, and Mercury in Surface Waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  5. Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2005-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

  6. Actinian dominated intertidal mudflats: A new case of an extraordinary rare phenomenon from Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schories, Dirk; Reise, Karsten; Sanamyan, Karen; Sanamyan, Nadya; Clasing, Elena; Reise, Anneken

    2011-02-01

    Generally, estuarine intertidal mudflats constitute important nurseries for fish and foraging grounds for coastal birds by providing a plenitude of mollusks, worms, and crustaceans as prey, which in turn mostly feed on suspended and benthic microalgae, bacteria, and detritus. Despite the high productivity of such habitats, pronounced variability in both salinity and temperature results typically in low diversity. The only sea anemone reported from estuarine mud is the edwardsiid Nematostella vectensisStephenson, 1935. It occurs widely in the northern hemisphere, and occasionally in extremely high density. Here we document another sea anemone from estuarine mud and muddy sand found in Southern Chile which has similar ecological attributes. Taxonomic confusion has impeded the reporting on this small but prominent member in a macrozoobenthic assemblage, the brooding Anthopleura hermaphroditica (Carlgren, 1899; Anthozoa: Actiniidae). It differs from N. vectensis by the presence of symbiotic algae. Average density under poly- to euhaline conditions in mud and muddy sand at around mid tide level was about 3 actinians per cm 2. An average abundance of 11,000 m - 2 , a biovolume of 487 cm 3 m - 2 , and a biomass of 35.5 g dry organic weight m - 2 were found in mud and muddy sand in two surveys 20 years apart. The mean fishing area of fully expanded individuals covers 42 ± 25 mm 2, corresponding to a circular area with a diameter of 7.3 ± 5.7 mm. Preliminary experiments indicate that associated benthos may be relegated to life below surface by the net of tentacles above the sediment. As no predators on A. hermaphroditica could be found on the mudflat, the success of this mixotrophic sea anemone may entail a trophic dead end.

  7. Directed evolution of a monomeric, bright and photostable version of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: structural characterization and applications in fluorescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Al, Hui-wang; Henderson, J. Nathan; Remington, S. James; Campbell, Robert E.

    2008-05-07

    The arsenal of engineered variants of the GFP [green FP (fluorescent protein)] from Aequorea jellyfish provides researchers with a powerful set of tools for use in biochemical and cell biology research. The recent discovery of diverse FPs in Anthozoa coral species has provided protein engineers with an abundance of alternative progenitor FPs from which improved variants that complement or supersede existing Aequorea GFP variants could be derived. Here, we report the engineering of the first monomeric version of the tetrameric CFP (cyan FP) cFP484 from Clavularia coral. Starting from a designed synthetic gene library with mammalian codon preferences, we identified dimeric cFP484 variants with fluorescent brightness significantly greater than the wild-type protein. Following incorporation of dimer-breaking mutations and extensive directed evolution with selection for blue-shifted emission, high fluorescent brightness and photostability, we arrived at an optimized variant that we have named mTFP1 [monomeric TFP1 (teal FP 1)]. The new mTFP1 is one of the brightest and most photostable FPs reported to date. In addition, the fluorescence is insensitive to physiologically relevant pH changes and the fluorescence lifetime decay is best fitted as a single exponential. The 1.19 {angstrom} crystal structure (1 {angstrom}=0.1 nm) of mTFP1 confirms the monomeric structure and reveals an unusually distorted chromophore conformation. As we experimentally demonstrate, the high quantum yield of mTFP1 (0.85) makes it particularly suitable as a replacement for ECFP (enhanced CFP) or Cerulean as a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) donor to either a yellow or orange FP acceptor.

  8. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  9. Chemosensitizers of the multixenobiotic resistance in amorphous aggregates (marine snow): etiology of mass killing on the benthos in the Northern Adriatic?

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Riemer, S; Kurelec, B; Smodlaka, N; Puskaric, S; Jagic, B; Müller-Niklas, G; Queric, N V

    1998-12-01

    Periodically appearing amorphous aggregates, `marine snow', are formed in the sea and if settled as mats on the sea bottom cause death of benthic metazoans. Especially those animals are killed which are sessile filter feeders, e.g. sponges, mussels, or Anthozoa. The etiology of the toxic principle(s) is not yet well understood. Gel-like marine snow aggregates occurred in the Northern Adriatic during summer 1997. Samples of these aggregates were collected during the period July to September and the outer as well as the inner zones were analyzed for (i) cell toxicity, and (ii) chemosensitizing activity of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism. Organic extracts were prepared and cell toxicity was determined using mouse lymphoma cells. The experiments revealed that the major activity is seen in the center of the mats of the gel-like aggregates; a growth inhibitory activity of up to 54% (correlated to 5 ml of snow sample) was determined. The same extracts were used to determine the inhibition of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) extrusion pump which confers the multixenobiotic resistance. The analyses were performed with cells from the sponge Suberites domuncula and with gills from the clam Corbicula fluminea in situ. Both systems have been shown to express the Pgp extrusion pump. The data show that extracts from the outer zone of the gel-like aggregate samples display pronounced inhibitory activity on the MXR extrusion pump and hence act as chemosensitizers by reversing the MXP property. These findings indicate that gel-like aggregates contain compounds in the outer zone, chemosensitizer of the Pgp extrusion pump, which lower the level of protection of metazoan animals towards dissolved compounds in their surrounding milieu, and in the center toxic compounds which are-very likely-even in the absence of chemosensitizers hazardous for the invertebrates.

  10. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals. PMID:17551245

  11. Microbiome Composition and Diversity of the Ice-Dwelling Sea Anemone, Edwardsiella andrillae.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alison E; Rack, Frank R; Zook, Robert; Williams, Michael J M; Higham, Mary L; Broe, Michael; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-10-01

    Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be examined. One feature that may be important to the physiology and ecology of E. andrillae is its microbiome, which may play a role in health and survival, as has been deduced in other metazoans, including anthozoans. Here we describe the microbiome of five specimens of E. andrillae, compare the diversity we recovered to that known for temperate anemones and another Antarctic cnidarian, and consider the phylogenetic and functional implications of microbial diversity for these animals. The E. andrillae microbiome was relatively low in diversity, with seven phyla detected, yet included substantial phylogenetic novelty. Among the five anemones investigated, the distribution of microbial taxa varied; this trait appears to be shared by many anthozoans. Most importantly, specimens either appeared to be dominated by Proteobacteria-affiliated members or by deeply branching Tenericute sequences. There were few closely related sequence types that were common to temperate and Antarctic sea anemone microbiomes, the exception being an Acinetobacter-related representative. Similar observations were made between microbes associated with E. andrillae and an Antarctic soft coral; however, there were several closely-related, low abundance Gammaproteobacteria in both Antarctic microbiomes, particularly from the soft coral, that are also commonly detected in Southern Ocean seawater. Although this preliminary study leaves open many questions concerning microbiome diversity and its role in host ecology, we identify major lineages of microbes (e.g., diverse deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and divergent

  12. Tracking surface water mass movements in the Southwest Pacific for the last 5,000 years: Perspectives from deep-sea corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugabe, A. F.; Fallon, S.; Thresher, R.; Eggins, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Current understanding of present-day natural climate variability can be improved by obtaining a good baseline through investigating past variability during the Holocene (11,500 cal yr B.P. to the present). In particular, changes in marine reservoir radiocarbon ages through the Holocene can provide information on regional ocean circulation. In the southwest Pacific, little is known about the variability of reservoir ages during this period. This limits efforts to reconstruct Southern Hemisphere Ocean and atmospheric circulation over this period. Here we present mid- to late-Holocene reservoir ages for the southwest Pacific. Reservoir ages were calculated using coupled uranium series (MC ICPMS) and radiocarbon (AMS) measurements on deep-sea (200 - 1000m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia) collected live from the Tasman Sea. Black corals have enormous potential as environmental archives to provide valuable long-term, high-resolution records. We confirm that black corals are slow growing (typical radial growth rate is 0.005 mm/yr) and extremely long-lived (maximum age 5,823 × 41 years), making them excellent candidates for proxies to extend environmental records into the Holocene. Our results also indicate comparatively lower reservoir ages for the mid-Holocene than present day for the south Tasman Sea. The lower reservoir ages in the mid-Holocene reflect a greater influx of well-equilibrated warm water of sub-tropical origin into this region, as well as increased stratification. During the late Holocene in the north Tasman, the average reservoir age between 1790 and 1900 was ˜330 years, followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational and modeling studies for the last century, which show significant changes in regional circulation and suggest these changes started as early as the 17th

  13. Directed evolution of a monomeric, bright and photostable version of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: structural characterization and applications in fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Hui-wang; Henderson, J. Nathan; Remington, S. James; Campbell, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The arsenal of engineered variants of the GFP [green FP (fluorescent protein)] from Aequorea jellyfish provides researchers with a powerful set of tools for use in biochemical and cell biology research. The recent discovery of diverse FPs in Anthozoa coral species has provided protein engineers with an abundance of alternative progenitor FPs from which improved variants that complement or supersede existing Aequorea GFP variants could be derived. Here, we report the engineering of the first monomeric version of the tetrameric CFP (cyan FP) cFP484 from Clavularia coral. Starting from a designed synthetic gene library with mammalian codon preferences, we identified dimeric cFP484 variants with fluorescent brightness significantly greater than the wild-type protein. Following incorporation of dimer-breaking mutations and extensive directed evolution with selection for blue-shifted emission, high fluorescent brightness and photostability, we arrived at an optimized variant that we have named mTFP1 [monomeric TFP1 (teal FP 1)]. The new mTFP1 is one of the brightest and most photostable FPs reported to date. In addition, the fluorescence is insensitive to physiologically relevant pH changes and the fluorescence lifetime decay is best fitted as a single exponential. The 1.19 Å crystal structure (1 Å=0.1 nm) of mTFP1 confirms the monomeric structure and reveals an unusually distorted chromophore conformation. As we experimentally demonstrate, the high quantum yield of mTFP1 (0.85) makes it particularly suitable as a replacement for ECFP (enhanced CFP) or Cerulean as a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) donor to either a yellow or orange FP acceptor. PMID:16859491

  14. The “Naked Coral” Hypothesis Revisited – Evidence for and Against Scleractinian Monophyly

    PubMed Central

    Forêt, Sylvain; Huttley, Gavin; Miller, David J.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Scleractinia and Corallimorpharia, Orders within Anthozoa distinguished by the presence of an aragonite skeleton in the former, is controversial. Although classically considered distinct groups, some phylogenetic analyses have placed the Corallimorpharia within a larger Scleractinia/Corallimorpharia clade, leading to the suggestion that the Corallimorpharia are “naked corals” that arose via skeleton loss during the Cretaceous from a Scleractinian ancestor. Scleractinian paraphyly is, however, contradicted by a number of recent phylogenetic studies based on mt nucleotide (nt) sequence data. Whereas the “naked coral” hypothesis was based on analysis of the sequences of proteins encoded by a relatively small number of mt genomes, here a much-expanded dataset was used to reinvestigate hexacorallian phylogeny. The initial observation was that, whereas analyses based on nt data support scleractinian monophyly, those based on amino acid (aa) data support the “naked coral” hypothesis, irrespective of the method and with very strong support. To better understand the bases of these contrasting results, the effects of systematic errors were examined. Compared to other hexacorallians, the mt genomes of “Robust” corals have a higher (A+T) content, codon usage is far more constrained, and the proteins that they encode have a markedly higher phenylalanine content, leading us to suggest that mt DNA repair may be impaired in this lineage. Thus the “naked coral” topology could be caused by high levels of saturation in these mitochondrial sequences, long-branch effects or model violations. The equivocal results of these extensive analyses highlight the fundamental problems of basing coral phylogeny on mitochondrial sequence data. PMID:24740380

  15. Microbiome Composition and Diversity of the Ice-Dwelling Sea Anemone, Edwardsiella andrillae.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alison E; Rack, Frank R; Zook, Robert; Williams, Michael J M; Higham, Mary L; Broe, Michael; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-10-01

    Edwardsiella andrillae is a sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) only known to live embedded in the ice at the seawater interface on the underside of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Although the anatomy and morphological characteristics of E. andrillae have been described, the adaptations of this species to the under-ice ecosystem have yet to be examined. One feature that may be important to the physiology and ecology of E. andrillae is its microbiome, which may play a role in health and survival, as has been deduced in other metazoans, including anthozoans. Here we describe the microbiome of five specimens of E. andrillae, compare the diversity we recovered to that known for temperate anemones and another Antarctic cnidarian, and consider the phylogenetic and functional implications of microbial diversity for these animals. The E. andrillae microbiome was relatively low in diversity, with seven phyla detected, yet included substantial phylogenetic novelty. Among the five anemones investigated, the distribution of microbial taxa varied; this trait appears to be shared by many anthozoans. Most importantly, specimens either appeared to be dominated by Proteobacteria-affiliated members or by deeply branching Tenericute sequences. There were few closely related sequence types that were common to temperate and Antarctic sea anemone microbiomes, the exception being an Acinetobacter-related representative. Similar observations were made between microbes associated with E. andrillae and an Antarctic soft coral; however, there were several closely-related, low abundance Gammaproteobacteria in both Antarctic microbiomes, particularly from the soft coral, that are also commonly detected in Southern Ocean seawater. Although this preliminary study leaves open many questions concerning microbiome diversity and its role in host ecology, we identify major lineages of microbes (e.g., diverse deep-branching Alphaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and divergent

  16. [Flower species identification and coverage estimation based on hyperspectral remote sensing data in Hulunbeier grassland].

    PubMed

    Gai, Ying-Ying; Fan, Wen-Jie; Xu, Xi-Ru; Yan, Bin-Yan; Wang, Huan-Jiong; Liu, Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring grassland species and area real-timely and accurately is of great significance in species diversity research, as well as in sustainable development of ecosystem. Flowers have their own unique spectral characteristics. Compared with the nutrient stage, species are more easily identified by florescence. So, florescence is a critical period for identification. In the present paper, spectral differences among such flowers as Galium verum Linn., Hemerocallis citrina Baroni, Serratula centauroides Linn., Clematis hexapetala Pall., Lilium concolor var. pulchellum, Lilium pumilum and Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl. were found, along with identification methods, by analyzing canopies spectra and parametrizing characteristics. Verification results showed that when the coverage of flowers was greater than 10%, the accuracy of identification methods would be higher than 90%. On this basis, linear unmixing model was adopted to calculate the area of flowers in quadrates. Results showed that linear unmixing model was an effective method for estimating the coverage of flowers in grassland because the accuracy was about 4%. PMID:22250555

  17. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  18. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  19. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O3 in the 2001 season.

  20. High-resolution single-channel seismic reflection surveys of Orange Lake and other selected sites of north central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The potential fluid exchange between lakes of north central Florida and the Floridan aquifer and the process by which exchange occurs is of critical concern to the St. Johns Water Management District. High-resolution seismic tools with relatively new digital technology were utilized in collecting geophysical data from Orange, Kingsley, Lowry and Magnolia Lakes, and the Drayton Island area of St. Johns River. The data collected shows the application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes, thus aiding in the management of these natural resources by identifying breaches or areas where the confining units are thin or absent between the water bodies and the Floridan aquifer. Orange Lake, the primary focus of the study, is a shallow flooded plain that was formed essentially as an erosional depression in the clayey Hawthorn formation. The primary karstic features identified in the lake were cover subsidence, cover collapse and buried sinkholes structures in various sizes and stages of development. Orange Lake was divided into three areas southeast, southwest, and north-central. Karst features within the southeast area of Orange Lake are mostly cover subsidence sinkholes and associated features. Many of the subsidence features found are grouped together to form larger composite sinkholes, some greater than 400 m in diameter. The size of these composite sinkholes and the number of buried subsidence sinkholes distinguish the southeast area from the others. The potential of lake waters leaking to the aquifer in the southeast area is probably controlled by the permeability of the cover sediments or by fractures that penetrate the lake floor. The lake bottom and subsurface of the north-central areas are relatively subsidence sinkholes that have no cover sediments overlying them, implying that the sinks have been actively subsiding with some seepage into the aquifer from the lake in this area due to the possible presence of the active subsidence

  1. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    ), and nitrated PAH compounds for comparison. Potential organic aerosol components are identified which contribute to the enhanced absorption observed in the field. The wavelength dependence of the mass specific absorption is obtained from these spectra and total carbon measurements. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n +ik) in the UV-visible spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  2. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  3. Insertion of a self-splicing intron into the mtDNA of atriploblastic animal

    SciTech Connect

    Valles, Y.; Halanych, K.; Boore, J.L.

    2006-04-14

    Nephtys longosetosa is a carnivorous polychaete worm that lives in the intertidal and subtidal zones with worldwide distribution (pleijel&rouse2001). Its mitochondrial genome has the characteristics typical of most metazoans: 37 genes; circular molecule; almost no intergenic sequence; and no significant gene rearrangements when compared to other annelid mtDNAs (booremoritz19981995). Ubiquitous features as small intergenic regions and lack of introns suggested that metazoan mtDNAs are under strong selective pressures to reduce their genome size allowing for faster replication requirements (booremoritz19981995Lynch2005). Yet, in 1996 two type I introns were found in the mtDNA of the basal metazoan Metridium senile (FigureX). Breaking a long-standing rule (absence of introns in metazoan mtDNA), this finding was later supported by the further presence of group I introns in other cnidarians. Interestingly, only the class Anthozoa within cnidarians seems to harbor such introns. Although several hundreds of triploblastic metazoan mtDNAs have been sequenced, this study is the first evidence of mitochondrial introns in triploblastic metazoans. The cox1 gene of N. longosetosa has an intron of almost 2 kbs in length. This finding represents as well the first instance of a group II intron (anthozoans harbor group I introns) in all metazoan lineages. Opposite trends are observed within plants, fungi and protist mtDNAs, where introns (both group I and II) and other non-coding sequences are widespread. Plant, fungal and protist mtDNA structure and organization differ enormously from that of metazoan mtDNA. Both, plant and fungal mtDNA are dynamic molecules that undergo high rates of recombination, contain long intergenic spacer regions and harbor both group I and group II introns. However, as metazoans they have a conserved gene content. Protists, on the other hand have a striking variation of gene content and introns that account for the genome size variation. In contrast to

  4. Two new septate junctions in the phylum Coelenterata.

    PubMed

    Green, C R; Flower, N E

    1980-04-01

    Freeze-fracture of fixed and unfixed tissue, lanthanum tracer and conventional thin-section studies have revealed 2 new types of septate junction in the class Anthozoa, phylum Coelenterata. These new junctions have the 15-18-nm intercellular spacing of all other described septate junctions and are found around the apical circumference of cells lining a lumen or outside edge. However, in freeze-fracture replicas and tangential views of lanthanum-impregnated tissue, they are seen to be quite different from other known septate junction types. One of the new junctions is found in endothelial tissue such as that lining the gut or the inside of the tentacles. In tangential view it is seen to consist of relatively short, straight, double septa, again with lateral projections. In feeeze-fracture of unfixed tissue, the junction consists of double rows of particles on the P face, the particles of one row being rounded, those of the other being elongated at right angles to the line of the septum. This dichotomy in particle size is unexpected, as the 2 halves of the septa as seen in tangential view are symmetrical. In freeze-fracture of fixed material the particle arrays remain on the P face and appear similar to those of unfixed material, but never as clear. In fixed tissue, some distortion had occurred and in extreme cases septa appear as a single broad jumbled row of particles. In this double septa junction, the rows of particles seen in freeze-fracture are occasionally seen to anastomose with a septum dividing into 2 and a third row of particles aligning with the 2 new septa to form their double particle rows. In both fixed and unfixed tissues, the E face of the junction consists of wide, shallow grooves. The second of the new junctions occurs in epithelial tissue, such as around the outer edge of sea-anemone tentacles, and consists of long wavy septa with lateral projections. In views where these projections appear longest, they arise predominantly from one side of the

  5. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  6. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Javier; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-08-01

    Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n=22), Australia (n=6) and Florida, USA (n=1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other Zoantharia by a unique and

  7. Benthic Community Composition and Seabed Characteristics of a Chukchi Sea Pockmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bluhm, B.; Iken, K.; Gagaev, S.; Robinson, S.

    2005-12-01

    densities of over 50 individuals per square meter. Preliminary analysis of the box core samples: Polychaetes (e.g. Chaetozone setose, Aricidea sp., Ophelina sp., Progoniada sp., Proclea graffi, Protula globifera), Foraminifera, Nemertini, Coronata (Cnidaria tubes), Sipunculida (Golfingia), Bivalvia, Anthozoa.

  8. Unexpected diversity and new species in the sponge-Parazoanthidae association in southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Javier; Sinniger, Frederic; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-08-01

    Currently the genera Parazoanthus (family Parazoanthidae) and Epizoanthus (family Epizoanthidae) are the only sponge-associated zoantharians (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). The Parazoanthidae-sponge associations are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters from the intertidal to the deep sea in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. However, the taxonomic identification of both parties is often confused due to variable morphology and wide ecological ranges. In particular, Parazoanthidae species diversity remains poorly understood in the Indo-Pacific. In the present study, the diversity of the sponge-zoanthid association in the Indo-Pacific was investigated with 71 Parazoanthidae specimens collected from 29 different locations in Japan (n=22), Australia (n=6) and Florida, USA (n=1). For all specimens morphological analyses were performed and total DNA was extracted and amplified for four DNA markers (COI-mtDNA, mt 16S-rDNA, ITS-rDNA and ALG11-nuDNA). The combined data demonstrate that the specimens of this study are clearly different from those of all described Parazoanthus species, and lead us to erect Umimayanthus gen. n., within family Parazoanthidae, containing the three newly described species U. chanpuru sp. n., U. miyabi sp. n., U. nakama sp. n. The new genus also includes the previously described species U. parasiticus (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860; comb. nov.), previously belonging to the genus Parazoanthus. Neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability phylogenetic trees clearly demonstrate the monophyly of Umimayanthus gen. n. to the exclusion of all outgroup sequences. The phylogenetic results were also compared to morphological features, and polyp sizes, amount of sand content in tissues, types of connections between polyps, and cnidae data, in particular holotrichs-1, were useful in distinguishing the different species within this new genus. This new genus can be distinguished from all other Zoantharia by a unique and

  9. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  10. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  11. Retreating or Standing: Responses of Forest Species and Steppe Species to Climate Change in Arid Eastern Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (NST > FST, P<0.05) and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. Conclusions/Significance Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance. PMID

  12. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  13. Aurantiamide acetate suppresses the growth of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Li-hui; Yang, Bing-xian; Tian, Jin-kui; Zhang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of aurantiamide acetate isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis terniflora DC against gliomas. Human malignant glioma U87 and U251 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0–100 μM) of aurantiamide acetate. Aurantiamide acetate greatly decreased the cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It induced moderate mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. No significant difference was found in the alternation of other intracellular organelles, although F-actin structure was slightly disturbed. Apparent ultrastructure alternation with increased autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation was observed in aurantiamide acetate-treated cells. The expression of LC3-II was greatly up-regulated in cells exposed to aurantiamide acetate (P < 0.05 compared with control). The cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes induced by aurantiamide acetate treatment was confirmed by fluorescent reporter protein labelling. Administration of chloroquine (CQ), which inhibits the fusion step of autophagosomes, further increased the accumulation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of U87 cells. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine, Bafilomycin A1 or CQ had no influence on aurantiamide acetate-induced cytotoxicity, whereas autophagy stimulator rapamycin significantly suppressed aurantiamide acetate-induced cell death. The anti-tumour effects of aurantiamide acetate were further evaluated in tumour-bearing nude mice. Intratumoural injection of aurantiamide acetate obviously suppressed tumour growth, and increased number of autophagic vacuoles was observed in tumour tissues of animals receiving aurantiamide acetate. Our findings suggest that aurantiamide acetate may suppress the growth of malignant gliomas by blocking autophagic flux. PMID:25704599

  14. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  16. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of ranunculaceae medicinal compounds.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Ping; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The wide-reaching distributed angiosperm family Ranunculaceae has approximately 2200 species in around 60 genera. Chemical components of this family include several representative groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin and diterpene alkaloid, etc. Their extensive clinical utility has been validated by traditional uses of thousands of years and current evidence-based medicine studies. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies of plant-based natural products are an indispensable part of comprehensive medicinal plant exploration, which could facilitate conservation and sustainable utilization of Ranunculaceae pharmaceutical resources, as well as new chemical entity development with improved DMPK parameters. However, DMPK characteristics of Ranunculaceaederived medicinal compounds have not been summarized. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga) and goldenseal (Hydrastis) raise concerns of herbdrug interaction. DMPK studies of other Ranunculaceae genera, e.g., Nigella, Delphinium, Aconitum, Trollius, and Coptis, are also rapidly increasing and becoming more and more clinically relevant. In this contribution, we highlight the up-to-date awareness, as well as the challenges around the DMPK-related issues in optimization of drug development and clinical practice of Ranunculaceae compounds. Herb-herb interaction of Ranunculaceae herb-containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula could significantly influence the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of compounds thereof, which may partially explain the complicated therapeutic mechanism of TCM formula. Although progress has been made on revealing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T) of Ranunculaceae compounds, there is a lack of DMPK studies of traditional medicinal genera Aquilegia, Thalictrum and Clematis. Fluorescent probe compounds could be promising substrate, inhibitor and/or inducer in future DMPK studies of Ranunculaceae compounds. A better

  17. Dictyophara europaea (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae): description of immatures, biology and host plant associations.

    PubMed

    Krstić, O; Cvrković, T; Mitrović, M; Toševski, I; Jović, J

    2016-06-01

    The European lantern fly Dictyophara europaea (Linnaeus, 1767), is a polyphagous dictyopharid planthopper of Auchenorrhyncha commonly found throughout the Palaearctic. Despite abundant data on its distribution range and reports on its role in the epidemiology of plant-pathogenic phytoplasmas (Flavescence dorée, FD-C), literature regarding the biology and host plants of this species is scarce. Therefore, the aims of our study were to investigate the seasonal occurrence, host plant associations, oviposition behaviour and immature stages of this widespread planthopper of economic importance. We performed a 3-year field study to observe the spatio-temporal distribution and feeding sources of D. europaea. The insects's reproductive strategy, nymphal molting and behaviour were observed under semi-field cage conditions. Measurement of the nymphal vertex length was used to determine the number of instars, and the combination of these data with body length, number of pronotal rows of sensory pits and body colour pattern enabled the discrimination of each instar. We provide data showing that D. europaea has five instars with one generation per year and that it overwinters in the egg stage. Furthermore, our study confirmed highly polyphagous feeding nature of D. europaea, for all instars and adults, as well as adult horizontal movement during the vegetation growing season to the temporarily preferred feeding plants where they aggregate during dry season. We found D. europaea adult aggregation in late summer on Clematis vitalba L. (Ranunculaceae), a reservoir plant of FD-C phytoplasma strain; however, this appears to be a consequence of forced migration due to drying of herbaceous vegetation rather than to a high preference of C. vitalba as a feeding plant. Detailed oviposition behaviour and a summary of the key discriminatory characteristics of the five instars are provided. Emphasis is placed on the economic importance of D. europaea because of its involvement in

  18. Clematichinenoside inhibits VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated endothelial cells via NADPH oxidase-dependent IκB kinase/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Simin; Zhang, Xu; Zheng, Haili; Hu, Danhong; Zhang, Yongtian; Guan, Qinghua; Liu, Lifang; Ding, Qilong; Li, Yunman

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α-induced adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays a critical role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and redox-sensitive transcription factors are implicated in the process. Thus, compounds that mediate intracellular redox status and regulate transcription factors are of great therapeutic interest. Clematichinenoside (AR), a triterpene saponin isolated from the root of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, little is known about the exact mechanism underlying these actions. Thus we performed a detailed study on its effect on leukocytes-endothelial cells adhesion with TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cell-free systems. First, we found that AR reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and their promoter activity, inhibited translocation of p65 and phosphorylation of IκBα, suppressed IκB kinase-β (IKK-β) activity, lowered O2(∙-) and H2O2 levels, tackled p47(phox) translocation, and decreased NOX4 NADPH oxidase expression. Second, we showed that AR exhibited no direct free radical scavenging ability in cell-free systems at concentrations that were used in intact cells. Besides, AR had no direct effect on the activity of IKK-β that was extracted from TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. We also found that p47 translocation, NOX4 expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were up-regulated before IκB phosphorylation in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced IKK-β activity was also inhibited by (polyethylene glycol) PEG-catalase, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and vitamin E. In conclusion, these results suggest that AR reduces VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression through NADPH oxidase-dependent IKK/NF-κB pathways in TNF-α-induced HUVECs, which finally suppress monocyte-HUVECs adhesion. This compound is potentially beneficial for early-stage atherosclerosis. PMID:25463279

  19. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A.; Kramer, Elena M.; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect. PMID:23479615

  20. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  1. A comparison among root soil-conservation effects for nine herbs at the cold region highway in north-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High soil-conservation herbs are very important for slope vegetation restoration of a highway in serious sandstorm regions. In this study, nine common herbs in northeast China were selected and compared to study soil-conservation effects by using an undisturbed-soil trough scouring method for soil anti-scourability enhancement and hydrostatic collapse method for soil anti-erodibility. Further, principal components analysis was used to identify significant root features that affected soil erosion resistance. Results indicated that different herbs had distinct enhancement effects on soil erosion resistance. Soil anti-scourability enhancement index decreased with increases of soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall amount. Relationship between soil anti-erodibility enhancement index ( S) and immersion time ( t) is a cubic spline in each different herb type ( R 2 ≥ 0.88). Herb root features such as micro-aggregates, organic matter, net leaf weight, thick root length, fine root length and biomass contributed a leading role in soil erosion resistance enhancement effect, and all their common factor variances were more than 0.81. Descending order of soil erosion resistance enhancement effect in soil anti-scourability for nine herbs is Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Viola philippica, Rudbeckia hirta, Clematis heracleifolia, Kalimeris indica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hemerocallis fulva and Sedum elatinoides, while the sequence of soil anti-erodibility is M. sativa, S. elatinoides, P. pratensis, R. hirta, H. fulva, V. philippica, C. heracleifolia, C. bipinnata and K. indica. Therefore, we concluded that P. pratensis and M. sativa were the most suitable herbs for resisting soil erosion and recommended to be widely planted for road vegetation recovery in this region.

  2. Clematichinenoside (AR) Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Han, Rong; Chen, Xueshan; Fang, Weirong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xuemei; Wei, Qin; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Li, Yunman

    2016-05-30

    Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Clematichinenoside (AR) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.

  3. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    PubMed

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  4. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  5. 25 years of natural product R&D with New South Wales agriculture.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Following recent NSW Government restructuring, the Department of Agriculture now exists in a composite form along with Forestry, Fisheries and Minerals in the new NSW Department of Primary Industries. This paper outlines some of the highlights of secondary metabolite R&D accomplished in the 25 years since the essential oil research unit was transferred from the Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney to NSW Agriculture's Wollongbar Agricultural Institute on the NSW north coast. The essential oil survey was continued, typing the Australian flora as a suitable source of isolates such as myrtenal (Astartea), myrtenol (Agonis), methyl chavicol(Ochrosperma), alpha-phellandren-8-ol (Prostanthera), methyl myrtenate (Darwinia), methyl geranate (Darwinia), kessane (Acacia), cis-dihydroagarofuran (Prosthanthera), protoanemonin (Clematis), isoamyl isovalerate (Micromyrtus), methyl cinnamate (Eucalyptus) and bornyl acetate (Boronia). Many of these components are used, or have potential use in the fragrance, flavour, medicinal plant or insect attraction fields. Two weeds toxic to livestock in the Central West of the State are also harvested commercially as medicinal plants. Measurement of hypericin concentrations in the various plant parts of St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) over two seasons has shown that the weed can be effectively managed by grazing sheep during the winter months when toxin levels are low. Syntheses of beta-carbolines tribulusterine and perlolyrine have shown that the former alkaloid was misidentified in the literature and hence not the toxic principle responsible for Tribulus staggers in sheep. Poor quality (high 1,8-cineole - low terpinen-4-ol) oil bearing tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) plantations have been established to the detriment of many a tea tree farmer. Analytical methods developed to check leaf quality at an early age indicated precursor sabinene constituents that convert to the active terpinen-4-ol both as the leaf matures or as the

  6. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    PubMed

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  7. The past, present and future tasks of Hungarian dendrological research.

    PubMed

    Bartha, D

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian dendrological research (research of living woody plants) has more than 200 years old history; the first general work by János Keresztély Grossinger was published in 1797. Further basic works in our time yet are: Forest Botany by Lajos Fekete and Sándor Mágócsy-Dietz (1896); and the chorological work, Distribution of trees and shrubs of sylvicultural importance in the region of Hungarian State by Lajos Fekete and Tibor Blattny (1913). A few dendrologists and many botanists have helped to get better knowledge of Hungarian dendroflora. From the point of view of taxonomy, chorology and habitat - which are interested by field botanists - it can be said that knowledge is fairly heterogeneous. There are sufficient information about most of the rare (protected/endangered) woody plants (an about 50 species) and the important adventives, above all invasive trees and shrubs (an about 10 species). From these two groups beyond there are only few taxa which can be said thoroughly worked up and known (e.g. Castanea sativa, Cornus mas, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp.). List of the dendrotaxa, hardly known in the above-mentioned point of view is rich in species that are important for forestry or horticulture (e.g. Alnus glutinosa, Acer spp., Betula pendula, Corylusavellana and most of Salix spp.), supplemented with other species (e.g. Clematis vitalba, Colutea arborescens, Lonicera xylosteum, Padus avium, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, Viburnum spp.).Followings can be asked from our field botanists: i) look for a specialist in cases of critical dendrotaxa; ii) a circumspect identification is necessary - especially in the case of leaves - by right of great number of samples from the adequate part of shoot; iii) keep in view frequent hybridization (e.g. in the case of Betula, Crataegus, Pyrus, Tilia), and frequent appearance of hybrids (e.g. Betula × rhombifolia, Cerasus × eminens, Salix × rubens); iv) appearance of interim forms are usually typical in the cases of