Science.gov

Sample records for climate action issues

  1. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  2. Current issues and actions

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  3. Creating Space: Engaging Deliberation about Climate Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phear, Nicolette

    In the United States public discourse, climate change is often framed as a polarized and intractable issue. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore deliberation about climate action, and to evaluate whether effective responses to climate change can be facilitated through new structures and processes that enable and encourage dialogue on the subject of how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Working with sustainability leaders at the University of Montana and in the community of Missoula, Montana, the author convened three public deliberations, in which a variety of solutions to climate change were discussed. Three questions guided this study: 1) what motivated individuals to engage in deliberation about climate action; 2) how did individual engagement vary and affect the quality of the deliberation; and 3) how effective were the deliberations in building a sense of individual agency and generating collaborative action strategies to address climate change. Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of survey responses combined with qualitative data, this action research study offers a holistic exploration of the three deliberative events convened. The deliberative processes generated collaborative action strategies and increased participants' sense of agency to take action on climate change; the findings also revealed differences in the ways individuals engaged and affected the quality of the overall group deliberation. This dissertation contributes to the literature on collaborative responses and collective action on climate change, broadens understanding of deliberative processes, and provides new insight into opportunities for leading deliberation about climate action.

  4. Climate Literacy: Springboard to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B.; Bader, D.

    2011-12-01

    successful and effective at the goal of helping visitors understand the very real threat of sea level rise and inspiring them to take action." (REA, May 2011). REA also found that 31% of the Spanish-speaking visitors thought the Spanish captioning was important. Census data indicates that the local Hispanic population has grown 27.8% over the past decade, so translation will continue to be an important way to reach a diverse spectrum of peoples. The Six Americas survey of the Aquarium did not sample enough Spanish speaking visitors to produce meaningful results, and the Aquarium is working to resolve that issue. The Aquarium is developing another program for the SOS, marine ecosystems, connecting climate literacy messages to the live animal collection. REA will complete its evaluation of both programs in 2012, and the Aquarium will again conduct the Six Americas survey. Conveying climate literacy in an impactful way requires innovation and constant updates. The Aquarium uses informal education methodology combined with scientific discipline to bring actionable solutions to over 1.4 million visitors each year.

  5. In Brief: Action on climate change urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-06-01

    The science academies of the G8 countries-along with those in China, India, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa-on 10 June issued a joint statement urging leaders at July's G8 Summit in Japan to take action on climate change. The statement indicates, ``Responding to climate change requires both mitigation and adaptation to achieve a transition to a low carbon society and our global sustainability objectives.'' In the statement, the academies urge all nations, and particularly those participating in the summit, to take a series of actions to deal with climate change. The statement is available at http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf.

  6. Global climate change: A strategic issue facing Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Womeldorff, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses global climate change, summarizes activities related to climate change, and identifies possible outcomes of the current debate on the subject. Aspects of climate change related to economic issues are very briefly summarized; it is suggested that the end result will be a change in lifestyle in developed countries. International activities, with an emphasis on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and U.S. activities are outlined. It is recommended that the minimum action required is to work to understand the issue and prepare for possible action.

  7. Climate Change and Political Action: the Citizens' Climate Lobby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. H.; Secord, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the reality of global warming and its origin in greenhouse gas emissions, what does one do about it? Individual action is commendable, but inadequate. Collective action is necessary--Citizens' Climate Lobby proposes a "fee-and-dividend" approach in which a fee is imposed on carbon-based fuel at its sources of production. The fee increases annually in a predictable manner. The funds collected are paid out to consumers as monthly dividends. The approach is market-based, in that the cost of the fee to producers is passed on to consumers in the cost of carbon-based fuels. Downstream energy providers and consumers then make their choices regarding investments and purchases. Citizens' Climate Lobby (CCL) builds national consensus by growing local Chapters, led and populated by volunteers. The Chapters are charged with public education and presenting the fee-and-dividend proposal to their respective Representatives and Senators. CCL builds trust by its non-partisan approach, meeting with all members of Congress regardless of party affiliation and stance on climate-related issues. CCL also builds trust by a non-confrontational approach, seeking to understand rather than to oppose. CCL works both locally, through its local Chapters, and nationally, with an annual conference in Washington DC during which all Congressional offices are visited. CCL recognizes that a long-term, sustained effort is necessary to address climate change.

  8. The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

  9. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  10. Cool Campus! A How-To Guide for College and University Climate Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Walter

    2009-01-01

    While a number of excellent campus climate planning resources are available, this guide attempts to fill a gap by providing an abundance of "how-to" information. The goal of the guide is to assist climate action planning teams at schools that are well versed in campus climate issues and well along in the CAP (Climate Action Planning) process as…

  11. Overview of Climate Confluence Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisman, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Presentation will focus on an overview of the security perspectives based on the confluence considerations including energy, economics and climate change. This will include perspectives from reports generated by the Quadrennial Defense Review, Joint Forces Command, the Center for Strategic International Studies, MIT, the Inter-agency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Center for Naval Analysis, and other relevant reports. The presentation will highlight the connections between resource issues and climate change which can be interpreted into security concerns. General discussion of global issues, contextual review of AR4 WGII may be included and any other report updates as applicable. The purpose of this presentation is to give a rounded view of the general qualitative and quantitative perspectives regarding climate related security considerations.

  12. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  13. Engaging the public on climate change issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Alice

    2016-03-01

    As a Jefferson Science Fellow from August 2014-August 2015, Alice Bean worked with the Office of Religion and Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of State on climate change and environmental issues. The Office of Religion and Global Affairs works to implement the National Strategy on Religious Leader and Faith Community Engagement which includes building partnerships on environmental issues. With the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties meeting 21 in December, 2015 in Paris, there were and continue to be great opportunities for physicists to interact with policy makers and the general public. As an experimental particle physicist, much was learned about climate change science, how the public views scientists, how science can influence policy, but most especially how to communicate about science.

  14. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  15. Putting on a Green Carnival: Youth Taking Educated Action on Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Daniel; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2014-01-01

    Socioscientific issues in connection to energy production, use or influence on climate change continue to be at the forefront of local, national, and global debates. The pressing nature of these issues requires citizens not only to understand relevant disciplinary knowledge but also to have the ability to use that knowledge to take action. This…

  16. Affirmative Action Is an International Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, Randolph B.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains comments on the article by Vasquez and Jones (see record 2006-01690-003), which focuses on diversity and begins with a discussion of affirmative action. The current author discusses his own three related points: first, it is virtually impossible, in our current culture, to agree on what constitutes affirmative action and…

  17. Climate change and global agriculture: Recent findings and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper (a) reviews existing findings on the global impacts of climate change on agriculture, (b) identifies limitations of these findings, and (c) discusses three issues of interest on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The three issues are as follows: regional effects versus global efficiency: the issue of hunger; climate change, agriculture and economic development; cost and disruption of adaptation to climate change. 45 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions: Skill Development Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    Middle school and high school students need to develop many skills in order to investigate environmental issues and know the basics of citizenship action strategies. This student guide is designed to teach students how to investigate and evaluate environmental issues and actions. The guide is presented in six modules. Module 1 introduces the…

  19. Action Learning--An Experiential Tool for Solving Organizational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Action Learning can be effectively used in both large and small businesses and organizations by employees, stakeholders, or volunteers through this "learning by doing" approach to evaluate an issue or issues of importance to the organization. First developed in the 1940s, Action Learning has increasingly been used as a method to explore questions…

  20. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Melissa Hough; Ourada, Joanne

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 250 laws and resolutions concerning adolescent health and related issues passed by the 50 states and the District…

  1. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendell, Nicole

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…

  2. Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

  3. Climate change in China and China's policies and actions for addressing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, D.; Huang, J.; Luo, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Since the first assessment report (FAR) of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the 20th century and in the latest 50 years the warming become faster. In the meantime, the global sea level has a strong increasing trend, as well as the snow coverage of Northern Hemisphere showed an obvious downward trend. Moreover, the global warming plays a key role in significantly affecting the climate system and social-economy on both global and regional scales, such as sea level rise, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, desertification, deforestation, increase of weather extremes (typhoon, hurricane and rainstorm) and so on. The state of the art understanding of IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) was most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in the concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Climate change issues, as a grave challenge to the sustainable development of the human society, have received ever greater attention from the international community. Deeply cognizant of the complexity and extensive influence of these issues and fully aware of the arduousness and urgency of the task of addressing climate change, the Chinese government is determined to address climate change in the process of pursuing sustainable development. The facts of climate change in China and its impacts, and China’s policies and actions for addressing climate change are introduced in this paper.

  4. Interlocal collaboration on energy efficiency, sustainability and climate change issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ssu-Hsien

    Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.

  5. Current Issues Involving Affirmative Action and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines current issues regarding affirmative action in today's institutions of higher learning. It addresses the two recent cases decided before the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the University of Michigan's policy. Two other recent and related issues, the "Hopwood" case and California's Proposition 209 approach, are also examined.…

  6. Using Local Stories as a Call to Action on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy and the University of Minnesota's Regional Sustainability Development Partnerships (RSDP) have developed a novel approach to engaging rural Minnesotans on climate change issues. Through the use of personal, local stories about individuals' paths to action to mitigate and or adapt to climate change, Climate Generation and RSDP aim to spur others to action. Minnesota's Changing Climate project includes 12 Climate Convenings throughout rural Minnesota in a range of communities (tourism-based, agrarian, natural resources-based, university towns) to engage local populations in highly local conversations about climate change, its local impacts, and local solutions currently occurring. Climate Generation and RSDP have partnered with Molly Phipps Consulting to evaluate the efficacy of this approach in rural Minnesota. Data include pre and post convening surveys examining participants' current action around climate change, attitudes toward climate change (using questions from Maibach, Roser-Renouf, and Leiserowitz, 2009), and the strength of their social network to support their current and ongoing work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change. Although the Climate Convenings are tailored to each community, all include a resource fair of local organizations already engaging in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities which participants can participate in, a welcome from a trusted local official, a presentation on the science of climate change, sharing of local climate stories, and break-out groups where participants can learn how to get involved in a particular mitigation or adaptation strategy. Preliminary results have been positive: participants feel motivated to work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change, and more local stories have emerged that can be shared in follow-up webinars and on a project website to continue to inspire others to act.

  7. Ad hoc committee on global climate issues: Annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhard, L.C.; Hanson, B.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The AAPG Ad Hoc Committee on Global Climate Issues has studied the supposition of human-induced climate change since the committee's inception in January 1998. This paper details the progress and findings of the committee through June 1999. At that time there had been essentially no geologic input into the global climate change debate. The following statements reflect the current state of climate knowledge from the geologic perspective as interpreted by the majority of the committee membership. The committee recognizes that new data could change its conclusions. The earth's climate is constantly changing owing to natural variability in earth processes. Natural climate variability over recent geological time is greater than reasonable estimates of potential human-induced greenhouse gas changes. Because no tool is available to test the supposition of human-induced climate change and the range of natural variability is so great, there is no discernible human influence on global climate at this time.

  8. Water Planning and Climate Change: Actionable Intelligence Yet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P.

    2008-05-01

    Within a rational planning framework, water planners design major water projects by evaluating tradeoffs of costs, benefits, and risks to life and property. The evaluation is based on anticipated future runoff and streamflow. Generally, planners have invoked the stationarity approximation: they have assumed that hydrologic conditions during the planned lifetime of a project will be similar to those observed in the past. Contemporary anthropogenic climate change arguably makes stationarity untenable. In principle, stationarity-based planning under non- stationarity potentially leads to incorrect assessment of tradeoffs, sub-optimal decisions, and excessive financial and environmental costs (e.g., a reservoir that is too big to ever be filled) and/or insufficient benefits (e.g., levees that are too small to hold back the flood waters). As the reigning default assumption for planning, stationarity is an easy target for criticism; provision of a practical alternative is not so easy. The leading alternative, use of quantitative climate-change projections from global climate models in conjunction with water planners' river-basin models, has serious shortcomings of its own. Climate models (1) neglect some terrestrial processes known to influence runoff and streamflow; (2) do not represent precipitation well at the finer resolved time and space scales; (3) do not resolve any processes at the even finer spatial scale of relevance to much of water planning; and (4) disagree among themselves about some changes. Even setting aside the issue of scale mismatch, for which various "downscaling" methods have been proposed, outputs from climate models generally are not directly transferable to river-basin models, and river-basin models commonly use empiricisms whose historical validity might not extrapolate well under climate change. So climate science is informing water management that stationarity is a flawed assumption, but it has not presented a universally and reliably superior

  9. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  10. Examining Role Issues in Inclusive Classrooms through Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Wanda E.

    2012-01-01

    This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…

  11. White House Climate Action Plan Hotly Debated in Senate Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Emotions ran high among senators at a 16 January U.S. Senate hearing on the White House's Climate Action Plan; the hearing included administration officials and other supporters of the plan as well as opponents. The plan, which President Barack Obama presented in June 2013 (see Eos, 94(27), 239, doi:10.1002/2013EO270003), calls for cutting carbon pollution, preparing the nation for the impacts of climate change, and leading international efforts to address climate change.

  12. GAIA - A New Approach To Decision Making on Climate Disruption Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Weiss, M.; Schaefer, R. K.; Swartz, W. H.; Nix, M.; Strong, S. B.; Fountain, G. H.; Babin, S. M.; Pikas, C. K.; Parker, C. L.; Global Assimilation of InformationAction

    2011-12-01

    GAIA - the Global Assimilation of Information for Action program - provides a broadly extensible framework for enabling the development of a deeper understanding of the issues associated with climate disruption. The key notion of GAIA is that the global climate problem is so complex that a "system engineering" approach is needed in order to make it understandable. The key tenet of system engineering is to focus on requirements and to develop a cost-effective process for satisfying those requirements. To demonstrate this approach we focused first on the impact of climate disruption on public health. GAIA is described in some detail on our website (http://gaia.jhuapl.edu). Climate disruption is not just a scientific problem; one of the key issues that our community has is that of translating scientific results into knowledge that can be used to make informed decisions. In order to support decision makers we have to understand their issues and how to communicate with them. In this talk, we describe how we have built a community of interest that combines subject matter experts from diverse communities (public health, climate change, government, public policy, industry, etc) with policy makers and representatives from industry to develop, on a "level playing field", an understanding of each other's points of view and issues. The first application of this technology was the development of a workshop on Climate, Climate Change and Public Health held April 12-14, 2011. This paper describes our approach to going beyond the workshop environment to continue to engage the decision maker's community in a variety of ways that translate abstract scientific data into actionable information. Key ideas we will discuss include the development of social media, simulations of global/national/local environments affected by climate disruption, and visualizations of the monetary and health impacts of choosing not to address mitigation or adaptation to climate disruption.

  13. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  14. Climate Action Planning at the University of New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaves, Sara M.; Pasinella, Brett; Andrews, Jennifer; Wake, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recent history of climate action planning at the University of New Hampshire (UNH), a public university with a long history of sustainability action and commitment. Items discussed include a partnership with Clean Air-Cool Planet (CA-CP) to produce a greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory tool that…

  15. A Survey of Registered Dietitians' Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Irana W; Balsam, Alan L; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data were gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p = 0.002) and vegan dietitians (p = 0.007) were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change among dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  16. A Survey of Registered Dietitians’ Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Irana W.; Balsam, Alan L.; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data were gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p = 0.002) and vegan dietitians (p = 0.007) were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change among dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice. PMID:26217666

  17. A Survey of Registered Dietitians' Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Irana W; Balsam, Alan L; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data were gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p = 0.002) and vegan dietitians (p = 0.007) were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change among dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice. PMID:26217666

  18. Responding to the New Affirmative Action Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Donald D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Although the term "affirmative action" may stir debate throughout the nation, almost everyone in higher education would agree that a socially, economically, ethically, spiritually, culturally, and otherwise diverse student body can have a significant impact on the free marketplace of ideas that is higher education. The problem faced is how to…

  19. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  20. Climate Action and Activism: Scientists as Citizens and Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. B.; Peacock, K.

    2015-12-01

    Humans are not particularly good at being rational, either individually or socially; in the case of climate change, our concerns are chiefly social. The denial of climate change and its costs (ranging from denial of basic principles to using high discount rates to reduce the current value of future losses, and supported by fossil fuel companies and their many political allies) has delayed an effective response to a problem that gets worse and more costly the longer action is delayed. The central role of fossil fuels in our economies and of fossil fuel interests in our politics leads many to worry about the costs of change while denying or ignoring the costs of business as usual. Rational decision makers would not be so selective, either about the evidence or about the costs and benefits that hang in the balance. Effective communication can help call attention to the evidence and to the costs and benefits that have been neglected. Our society has no formal rules requiring scientists to become activists, even when the results of their work provide sound reasons for taking action. But ideals of citizenship and humanitarianism provide strong justification for those who choose to engage with the issues. A reticent scientist might feel that her job is done once the results of her research are published. The rest is arguably the responsibility of others—of politicians, journalists and citizens in general, to learn the relevant facts (now available as part of the published literature) and to bring those facts to bear in decisions ranging from the personal to the political and economic. But I urge scientists who feel this way to reconsider—not because their view of where the real responsibility lies is wrong, but because they are in a position to make a difference. In situations like these, where powerful interests are threatened by inconvenient facts, scientists can be very effective communicators: they have high credibility with the public (as deniers' repeated claims

  1. World agriculture and climate change: Current modeling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies suggest that although global increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns during the next century will affect world agriculture, farmer adaptations are likely to prevent climate change from jeopardizing world food production. The costs and benefits of global climate change, however, are not equally distributed around the world. Agricultural production may increase in high latitude and alpine areas, but decrease in tropical and some other areas. Also, land use changes that accompany climate-induced shifts in cropland and permanent pasture are likely to raise additional social and environmental issues. Despite these advances, some important aspects of climate change have not been adequately simulated in global models. These include the effects that climate-induced changes in water resources are likely to have on agricultural production, the well-documented beneficial effects of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plant growth and water use, and the cooling effects of tropospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide. In addition, past research generally relied on equilibrium climates based on a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Now, however, results from transient climate change experiments are available.

  2. 78 FR 59412 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... Climate Action Report (CAR) on U.S. climate change actions. This draft CAR consists of two documents, the... Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The document contains the sixth National...

  3. Moving past framing climate change as an environmental issue (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    Continuing to frame climate change as an environmental issue can limit understanding by decision-makers and the public of the magnitude of the challenges faced by human and natural systems as the climate continues to change. Environmental issues are typically researched and managed using methods and tools that have been effective in dealing with other environmental concerns, from tropospheric ozone to lead exposure. Risk assessment is a commonly used approach to understanding the risk(s) posed by an agent, with four basic steps: (1) hazard identification; (2) dose-response assessment; (3) exposure assessment; and (4) risk characterization. This framing does not fully capture the complex interrelationships and feedbacks that often characterize the risks of climate change; understanding these can lead to better-informed decisions. Challenges with using traditional risk assessment to understand the health risks of climate change, for example, include the 'exposure' can range from increases in the mean and/or variance of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables, to ocean acidification. Each is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, with many associations indirect and/or nonlinear. Further, uncertainty about the magnitude, timing, and nature of changes in the climate system results in a need to estimate the potential impacts under a range of possible scenarios. In addition, most climate-sensitive health outcomes have multiple, contributing causes that may be interrelated, making it difficult to single out the influence of climate change against a backdrop of other risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, that also will change over time. In short, the primary assumption underlying traditional risk assessment -- that a defined exposure to a specific agent causes an adverse health outcome to identifiable exposed populations -- does not apply to climate change. Climate literacy can be improved by moving the framing from a relatively linear

  4. Overview of Issues in Health, Air Pollution, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; McKinley, G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution contributes to mortality and respiratory disease worldwide, with developing countries at highest risk. The World Health Organization estimates that between 1.4 and 6 million people die each year from air pollution, and in some populations up to 30 % of all respiratory disease may be linked to air pollution. As the climate changes, increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns are expected to yield new health challenges and may worsen existing risks. This talk provides an overview of issues linking health impacts of air pollution and climate change, as an introduction for the session. Increasingly, health-driven projects are employing state-of-the-art modeling and measurement methodologies. We discuss how quantitative assessment methodologies have been used to understand the connections between health, air pollution and climate.

  5. Integrated assessment of climate change: Characterizing key policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    A multidisciplinary, multiagency workshop was convened by the US Department of Energy in Washington, DC, June 29-30,1994. The goal of the workshop was to define key policy issues related to global climate change and the types of information pertaining to these issues that decision makers would find most useful. The workshop was organized by the Center for Global Environmental Studies and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in cooperation with a steering committee composed of seven national laboratories.

  6. Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; D'Odorico, P.; Evans, J. P.; Eldridge, D.; McCabe, M. F.; Caylor, K. K.; King, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    Drylands cover about 40% of the terrestrial land surface and account for approximately 40% of global net primary productivity. Water is fundamental to the biophysical processes that sustain ecosystem function and food production, particularly in drylands, where a tight coupling exists between water resource availability and ecosystem productivity, surface energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles. Currently, drylands support at least 2 billion people and comprise both natural and managed ecosystems. In this synthesis, we identify some current critical issues in the understanding of dryland systems and discuss how arid and semiarid environments are responding to the changes in climate and land use. Specifically, we focus on dryland agriculture and food security, dryland population growth, desertification, shrub encroachment and dryland development issues as factors of change requiring increased understanding and management. We also review recent technical advances in the quantitative assessment of human versus climate change related drivers of desertification, evapotranspiration partitioning using field deployable stable water isotope systems and the remote sensing of key ecohydrological processes. These technological advances provide new tools that assist in addressing major critical issues in dryland ecohydrology under climate change

  7. California Action to Increase Resiliency to Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunello, A.

    2008-12-01

    With the passage and implementation of California's Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32), California is providing international leadership in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. In concert with these efforts, California is also developing a comprehensive state climate adaptation strategy to increase the state's resiliency to existing and projected sea level rise, rising temperatures, and precipitation changes. I will describe the process being used to develop the strategy, which focuses on identifying areas most vulnerable to climate impacts, developing strategies to reduce risks to vulnerable areas, and implementing an action plan. An emphasis on strategies related to mountain environments such as the Sierra Nevada Mountain range will be presented.

  8. Urban health inequities and the added pressure of climate change: an action-oriented research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hancock, Trevor; Kjellstrom, Tord; McGranahan, Gordon; Monge, Patricia; Roy, Joyashree

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will likely exacerbate already existing urban social inequities and health risks, thereby exacerbating existing urban health inequities. Cities in low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Urbanization is both a cause of and potential solution to global climate change. Most population growth in the foreseeable future will occur in urban areas primarily in developing countries. How this growth is managed has enormous implications for climate change given the increasing concentration and magnitude of economic production in urban localities, as well as the higher consumption practices of urbanites, especially the middle classes, compared to rural populations. There is still much to learn about the extent to which climate change affects urban health equity and what can be done effectively in different socio-political and socio-economic contexts to improve the health of urban dwelling humans and the environment. But it is clear that equity-oriented climate change adaptation means attention to the social conditions in which urban populations live-this is not just a climate change policy issue, it requires inter-sectoral action. Policies and programs in urban planning and design, workplace health and safety, and urban agriculture can help mitigate further climate change and adapt to existing climate change. If done well, these will also be good for urban health equity.

  9. Workshop on the preparation of climate change action plans. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-24

    Over 130 participants from more than 27 countries shared experiences of developing and transition countries in preparation and development of their climate change national action plans. International experts guided countries in preparation of their climate change national action plans.

  10. The year 2000 issue: International action and national responsibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, O

    1999-07-21

    This presentation will examine international aspects of the Year 2000 (Y2K) issue, in terms of how various countries are managing the problem and how international organizations are involved in that process. The paper notes that while international cooperation is essential in dealing with part of the problem, it is at the national level that preventive measures are undertaken and emergency services provided. Most NATO and OECD states have recognized that by now it will not be possible to find and fix all problems in software and embedded chips. Their focus, therefore, is shifting to the planning of contingency measures, that is, what to do when disruptions occur so that the physical safety of persons is protected, damage to physical assets is minimized (e.g., extensive networks of energy supplies and telecommunications), and resources for the common good are protected (e.g., water supplies). Not only is this conference timely, but the experience of various sectors can be shared to enable cross-sector comparisons to be made, for example, there might be lessons from within air transportation that might be applicable to the energy industry. In addition, while most countries have tended to focus on their national situation, this conference brings together persons from more than 25 countries, thus enabling further comparisons to be made on how other countries are pursing contingency plans. It is within this cross-sector and multinational context that international action and national responsibilities of aspects of the Y2K issue will be discussed. This presentation is in four sections. The first examines what is at risk and categorizes the kinds of disruptions likely to occur. The second presents an approach from which to understand how different countries are trying to manage the Year 2000 issue. This approach is based on a three-step process adopted by the US and other OECD countries, the most dependent on computer and electronic processing systems and large

  11. Empowering America's Communities to Prepare for the Effects of Climate Change: Developing Actionable Climate Science Under the President's Climate Action Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, P. B.; Colohan, P.; Driggers, R.; Herring, D.; Laurier, F.; Petes, L.; Ruffo, S.; Tilmes, C.; Venkataraman, B.; Weaver, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Effective adaptation to impacts of climate change requires best-available information. To be most useful, this information should be easily found, well-documented, and translated into tools that decision-makers use and trust. To meet these needs, the President's Climate Action Plan includes efforts to develop "actionable climate science". The Climate Data Initiative (CDI) leverages the Federal Government's extensive, open data resources to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship in support of actions to prepare for climate change. The Initiative forges commitments and partnerships from the private, NGO, academic, and public sectors to create data-driven tools. Open data from Federal agencies to support this innovation is available on Climate.Data.gov, initially focusing on coastal flooding but soon to expand to topics including food, energy, water, energy, transportation, and health. The Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) will facilitate access to data-driven resilience tools, services, and best practices, including those accessible through the CDI. The CRT will also include access to training and tutorials, case studies, engagement forums, and other information sources. The Climate Action Plan also calls for a public-private partnership on extreme weather risk, with the goal of generating improved assessments of risk from different types of extreme weather events, using methods and data that are transparent and accessible. Finally, the U.S. Global Change Research Program and associated agencies work to advance the science necessary to inform decisions and sustain assessments. Collectively, these efforts represent increased emphasis across the Federal Government on the importance of information to support climate resilience.

  12. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction - Key Issues and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. M.; Geiker, M. R.

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor for the sector ahead. However, the considerable lack of knowledge both on the eco-opportunities and risks of nanoconstruction and the industrial dynamics involved forms a serious barrier for pursuing nanoconstruction as a serious strategic target for business and policy.

  13. Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Three Approaches to the Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melvina

    Affirmative action remains one of the most controversial of social policies in complex democracies. Altman and Promise (1995), in their article entitled "Affirmative Action: The Law of Unintended Consequences," focuses on the phenomenon that almost every action of government, no matter how well intentioned, has unexpected results. They suggest…

  14. Nantucket, Ma. Climate Protection Action Plan: A Public Outreach Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, C.; Stephenson, A.; Petsch, S.

    2009-12-01

    As communities and municipalities gain a better understanding of climate change, they are exploring the ways in which to work towards adaptation and mitigation. One strategy that the Island of Nantucket, Massachusetts turned toward is the drafting of a Climate Protection Action Plan (CPAP). The CPAP was developed during the summer of 2009 to meet three goals: (1) assist the Town of Nantucket in creating a framework to help them reduce CO2 emissions; (2) educate the municipality and community in techniques that promote energy efficiency and sustainability on the island; and (3) document past, present and future approaches adopted by the Town towards emissions reduction and energy sustainability. In particular, this project focused on using local strengths and natural resources identified by island stakeholders that may help the island to mitigate carbon emissions and adapt to climate change.. Drafting the CPAP provided community members and politicians with an opportunity to become better educated in the science of climate change and to learn how climate change will affect their community. On the island of Nantucket, leaders in the religious, civic, and political communities were brought into a conversation about how each group could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A geosciences graduate student was brought into the CPAP team as a climate fellow to facilitate this conversation. This provided the foundation for stakeholder recommendations incorporated into the CPAP. This capacity-building model served as an effective way to create an informal learning environment about climate change that allowed members of the island community to directly participate in developing their locally appropriate climate protection strategy. The draft CPAP developed through this study and presented to the Town of Nantucket comprises assessments and recommendations in public research and education; building and energy efficiency; transportation; renewable energy; and carbon

  15. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerhayes, Colin

    2011-02-01

    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site//GSL//lang/en/climatechange) about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/page8578.html) reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  16. Sensitivity of collective action to uncertainty about climate tipping points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Scott; Dannenberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than two decades of diplomatic effort, concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to trend upwards, creating the risk that we may someday cross a threshold for `dangerous' climate change. Although climate thresholds are very uncertain, new research is trying to devise `early warning signals' of an approaching tipping point. This research offers a tantalizing promise: whereas collective action fails when threshold uncertainty is large, reductions in this uncertainty may bring about the behavioural change needed to avert a climate `catastrophe'. Here we present the results of an experiment, rooted in a game-theoretic model, showing that behaviour differs markedly either side of a dividing line for threshold uncertainty. On one side of the dividing line, where threshold uncertainty is relatively large, free riding proves irresistible and trust illusive, making it virtually inevitable that the tipping point will be crossed. On the other side, where threshold uncertainty is small, the incentive to coordinate is strong and trust more robust, often leading the players to avoid crossing the tipping point. Our results show that uncertainty must be reduced to this `good' side of the dividing line to stimulate the behavioural shift needed to avoid `dangerous' climate change.

  17. Applying "Climate" system to teaching basic climatology and raising public awareness of climate change issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    theory and practice. Along with its usage in graduate and postgraduate education, "Climate" is used as a framework for a developed basic information course on climate change for common public. In this course basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are described for non-specialists. The course will also include links to relevant information resources on topical issues of Earth Sciences and a number of case studies, which are carried out for a selected region to consolidate the received knowledge.

  18. Climate change: do we know enough for policy action?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H

    2006-10-01

    The climate change problem must be thought of in terms of risk, not certainty. There are many well-established elements of the problem that carry considerable confidence whereas some aspects are speculative. Therefore, the climate problem emerges not simply as a normal science research issue, but as a risk management policy debate as well. Descriptive science entails using empirical and theoretical methods to quantify the two factors that go into risk assessment: "What can happen?" and "What are the odds?" (Probability x Consequences). Policymakers should, in turn, take that information and use it to make value judgments about what is safe, what is dangerous, what is fair. To make these judgments, policymakers need to know the probabilities that experts assign to various possible outcomes in order to make risk management decisions to hedge against unsafe, dangerous and unfair outcomes. The climate debate needs to be reframed away from absolute costs--or benefits--into relative delay times to achieve specific caps or to avoid crossing specific agreed 'dangerous' climate change thresholds. Even in most optimistic scenarios, CO2 will stabilize at a much higher concentration than it has reached today, and temperature will rise accordingly. It will take even longer for sea level rise from thermal expansion and the melting of polar ice to occur, but what is most problematic is that how we handle our emissions now and in the next five decades preconditions the sustainability of the next millennium.

  19. 75 FR 17989 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... fifth National Communication on U.S. climate change actions for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In June 1992, the United States signed, and later ratified, the...

  20. ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARL, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of 6 issues (1 year) of a newsletter devoted to information and reports on issues and actions of interest to research libraries. Each issue contains articles on current issues, federal relations, and ARL activities as well as columns by the Coalition for Networked Information, the Office of Scientific and Academic…

  1. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  2. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  3. Seventh Graders' Ways of Reasoning in Evaluating and Generating Arguments about Climate Change Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored how seventh graders develop their understanding of climate change issues. Particularly, I focused on identifying students' ways of reasoning in evaluating and generating arguments. I also investigated whether students reason differently about climate change issues depending on the relevance of the issues to their daily…

  4. 40 CFR 57.204 - EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA action on second period NSOs which... Process § 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued. (a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the...

  5. 40 CFR 57.204 - EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA action on second period NSOs which... Process § 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued. (a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the...

  6. 40 CFR 57.204 - EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA action on second period NSOs which... Process § 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued. (a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the...

  7. 40 CFR 57.204 - EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA action on second period NSOs which... Process § 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued. (a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the...

  8. 40 CFR 57.204 - EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA action on second period NSOs which... Process § 57.204 EPA action on second period NSOs which have already been issued. (a) EPA may approve a second period NSO issued by a State before the date of publication of these regulations in the...

  9. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  10. ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARL, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of 12 issues (2 years) of a newsletter devoted to information and reports on issues and actions of interest to research libraries. Each of the 12 newsletters in the collection is divided into six topic areas: (1) current issues, which offers articles on topics such as library catalogs in the 21st century, libraries and…

  11. Climatic Action Plan Project for the state of Veracruz (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejeda, A.; Ochoa, C.

    2007-05-01

    With financing of the British Government and support of the National Institute of Ecology, from April of 2006 to March of 2008 an action plan which intends variability effects and climatic change for the state of Veracruz will be made. This plan will be taken to the state government and will be spread out to manufacturers, industrialists and population. Throughout the Gulf of Mexico, the state of Veracruz is a 745 km coast in length with a width that goes from 156 km in the center to 47 km in the north. The state has large mountains, forests, plains, rivers, cascades, lagoons and coasts. Veracruz is the 10th largest state in Mexico with a 72,420 km2 surface, it is located between 17°00' and 22°28' north latitude and between 93°95' and 98°38' west longitude. Because of the orographic effect, the Sierra Madre Oriental causes the existence of many types of climate, from dry to tropical forest, going through snow on the top of the Pico de Orizaba (5747m of altitude). The wind affects the coasts by not allowing to fish during a hundred days a year (particularly in winter), and on summer tropical waves and occasionally hurricanes affect rivers causing overflow and urban floods in fields. These phenomena do not have a regular affectation; they are subject to climate variability effects. Veracruz is the third state with most population in the country (7.1 million people in 2005), only surpassed by the state of Mexico and Mexico City. Although it occupies 3.7% of the national territory, Veracruz has 6.9% of human population in the country, and is the 6th state of PIB national contribution (240 thousands of millions pesos approximately). Of the possible effects of the climatic change the following can be expected: , , : Most of the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico, low and sandy, less of a meter on the sea level, represent the most vulnerable territory of Veracruz. Towns will be affected, the saline water will infiltrate until the phreatic mantles and the coast electrical

  12. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  13. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  14. Assessing Campus Climates for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: Methodological and Political Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…

  15. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to…

  16. Teaching Climate Change Science in Senior Secondary School: Issues, Barriers and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunten, Rod; Dawson, Vaille

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite its difficulties, climate change can (and perhaps needs to) be taught rigorously to students by enquiry rather than through transmission and that such a method will enable students to make judgments on other issues of scientific controversy. It examines the issues and barriers to the teaching of climate change,…

  17. Climate Change Is "a Defining Issue of Our Time," Joint Report States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-03-01

    Noting that "climate change is one of the defining issues of our time," a 26 February report jointly issued by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Royal Society in the United Kingdom aims to provide a clearly written reference document for policy makers, educators, and others about the current state of climate change science.

  18. Classroom Climate and Controversial Issues Discussions: A Five Nation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Tocci, Cynthia M.

    1990-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to 1,459 secondary social studies students in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands to examine age, gender, and country differences in adolescents' perceptions of classroom climate. Studied relationships between political attitudes and perceived classroom climate and between the use of…

  19. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  20. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  1. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  2. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  3. Environmental Education and the Health Professions: Framing Climate Change as a Health Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlong, William; Dietsch, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of adverse health impacts from climate change is high. Actions to reduce emissions, however, not only mitigate climate change but often have more immediate health co-benefits. One substantial co-benefit is gained through reductions of the high health costs of pollution from fossil fuel power stations, particularly coal. Evidence…

  4. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michał; Doron, Guy; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; González, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, José L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdóttir, Gró; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-02-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries. Here we investigate a different approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.

  5. Climate-smart agriculture global research agenda: science for action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fiber, or fuel, caused by population growth, changes in diet related to increases in per capita income, and the need for alternative energy sources, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities fo...

  6. Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and communicates the results of EPA’s Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project. The goal of this project is to examine and communicate the benefits of avoiding or reducing climate change in the U.S. The CIRA Report summarizes peer reviewed ana...

  7. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an ‘evidence-based climatic health’ transfrontier training program

    PubMed Central

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to ‘global environment’ change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives – a chair that emphasizes ‘innoversity’ (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and ‘transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions’. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for ‘transdisciplinary research’ on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health ‘training’. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the ‘general’ and

  8. Forecast-based financing: an approach for catalyzing humanitarian action based on extreme weather and climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, E.; van den Hurk, B.; van Aalst, M.; Jongman, B.; Klose, T.; Suarez, P.

    2014-05-01

    Disaster risk reduction efforts traditionally focus on long-term preventative measures or post-disaster response. Outside of these, there are many short-term actions, such as evacuation, that can be implemented in the period of time between a warning and a potential disaster to reduce the risk of impacts. However, this precious window of opportunity is regularly overlooked in the case of climate and weather forecasts, which can indicate heightened risk of disaster but are rarely used to initiate preventative action. Barriers range from the protracted debate over the best strategy for intervention to the inherent uncomfortableness on the part of donors to invest in a situation that will "likely" arrive but is not certain. In general, it is unclear what levels of forecast probability and magnitude are "worth" reacting to. Here, we propose a novel forecast-based financing system to automatically trigger action based on climate forecasts or observations. The system matches threshold forecast probabilities with appropriate actions, disburses required funding when threshold forecasts are issued, and develops Standard Operating Procedures that contain the mandate to act when these threshold forecasts are issued. We detail the methods that can be used to establish such a system, and provide illustrations from several pilot cases. Ultimately, such as system can be scaled up in disaster-prone areas worldwide to improve effectiveness at reducing the risk of disaster.

  9. Forecast-based financing: an approach for catalyzing humanitarian action based on extreme weather and climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, E.; van den Hurk, B.; van Aalst, M. K.; Jongman, B.; Klose, T.; Suarez, P.

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction efforts traditionally focus on long-term preventative measures or post-disaster response. Outside of these, there are many short-term actions, such as evacuation, that can be implemented in the period of time between a warning and a potential disaster to reduce the risk of impacts. However, this precious window of opportunity is regularly overlooked in the case of climate and weather forecasts, which can indicate heightened risk of disaster but are rarely used to initiate preventative action. Barriers range from the protracted debate over the best strategy for intervention to the inherent uncomfortableness on the part of donors to invest in a situation that will likely arise but is not certain. In general, it is unclear what levels of forecast probability and magnitude are "worth" reacting to. Here, we propose a novel forecast-based financing system to automatically trigger action based on climate forecasts or observations. The system matches threshold forecast probabilities with appropriate actions, disburses required funding when threshold forecasts are issued, and develops standard operating procedures that contain the mandate to act when these threshold forecasts are issued. We detail the methods that can be used to establish such a system, and provide illustrations from several pilot cases. Ultimately, such a system can be scaled up in disaster-prone areas worldwide to improve effectiveness at reducing the risk of disaster.

  10. Communicating climate change: alerting versus stimulating action, a few "philosophical" interrogations from a marine biogeochemist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragueneau, O.

    2009-04-01

    can come to calculate their own emissions and then, replace them in a more global context. During the debates then, very rapidly, politics and ethics come into play. Beyond the question raised above concerning outreach versus engagement, I find it VERY DIFFICULT to find the right balance between alerting and stimulating action. On one hand, we need to alert on the reality of the numbers given (and it is hard to reduce our personal emissions by a factor of 4 in France or 10 in the US), the ethical problems they raise (we, in developed countries, are responsible for the majority of past CO2 emissions and we should do the major effort, Ragueneau et al., 2008). And on the other hand, we need to remain optimistic and show that solutions do exist, if we do not want to discourage people to act. There is debate between the ethics of fear (H. Jonas) and the ethics of hope (E. Morin) as best ways to stimulate action and I feel we need to share our experiences on how best navigate between these two lines. So I would be very happy to participate in such a session to discuss the role of scientists in essential issues such as societal debates related to climate change, the frontier between outreach and political engagement, and the attitude needed to convince that there is a problem, that this problem is big and we need to stress it, but that it can be addressed with very positive implications for each of us.

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries.

  12. Health and equity impacts of climate change in Aotearoa-New Zealand, and health gains from climate action.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hayley; Jones, Rhys; Keating, Gay; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Metcalfe, Scott

    2014-11-28

    Human-caused climate change poses an increasingly serious and urgent threat to health and health equity. Under all the climate projections reported in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment, New Zealand will experience direct impacts, biologically mediated impacts, and socially mediated impacts on health. These will disproportionately affect populations that already experience disadvantage and poorer health. Without rapid global action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (particularly from fossil fuels), the world will breach its carbon budget and may experience high levels of warming (land temperatures on average 4-7 degrees Celsius higher by 2100). This level of climate change would threaten the habitability of some parts of the world because of extreme weather, limits on working outdoors, and severely reduced food production. However, well-planned action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions could bring about substantial benefits to health, and help New Zealand tackle its costly burden of health inequity and chronic disease. PMID:25447246

  13. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  14. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  15. Promoting Attitude Change and Expressed Willingness to Take Action toward Climate Change in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Lombardi, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among cognitive and motivational variables impacting college students' willingness to take mitigative action to reduce the impacts of human-induced climate change. One hundred and forty college students were asked to read a persuasive text about human-induced climate change and were pre- and post-tested on…

  16. How Action-Learning Coaches Foster a Climate Conducive to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sara Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Today's businesses rely on the effective functioning of self-directed work teams to learn how to solve complex problems and take action. A key factor in a team's ability to perform in this manner is a group climate characterized by psychological safety. Psychological safety must often compete with a climate of evaluative pressure frequently found…

  17. "Actionable" Climate Scenarios for Natural Resource Managers in Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Rondeau, R.; Wyborn, C.

    2014-12-01

    Locally relevant projections of climate change provide critical insights for natural resource managers seeking to adapt their management activities to climate change. To provide such information, we developed narrative scenarios of future climate change and its impacts on different ecosystems in southwestern Colorado. This multi-institution and trans-disciplinary project seeks to provide useful and useable knowledge to facilitate climate change adaptation in the context of uncertainty. The narratives are intended to provide detailed insights into the range of changes that natural resource managers may face in the future. These scenarios were developed in an iterative process through interactions between ecologists, social and climate scientists. In our scenario development process, climate uncertainty is acknowledged by having multiple scenarios, where each scenario is regarded as a storyline with equal probability as another scenario. Rather than a qualitative narration of the general direction of change and range in responses, we quantified changes in several decision relevant climate and ecological responses based on our best available understanding and provided a tight storyline for each scenario to facilitate (a) a more augmented use of scientific information in a decision-making process, (b) differential responses from stakeholders across the different scenarios, and (c) identification of strategies that could work across these multiple scenarios. This presentation will discuss the process of selecting the scenarios, quantifying climate and ecological responses, and the criteria for building the narrative for each scenario. We will also cover the process by which these scenarios get used, and how the user feedbacks are integrated in further developing the tools and processes.

  18. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  19. Voluntary Climate Change Mitigation Actions of Young Adults: A Classification of Mitigators through Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korkala, Essi A. E.; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns. PMID:25054549

  20. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  1. Focus on Cultural Issues in Research: Developing and Implementing Native American Postcolonial Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Joseph B.

    Indian country presents even the most seasoned and careful researcher with numerous methodological issues. Two of the most salient of these are appropriate understanding of postcolonial stress in tribal communities, and the use of participatory action research methods and models in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper explains postcolonial…

  2. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  3. 75 FR 53883 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... results when the mass emissions of each of these gases is multiplied by the Global Warming Potential (GWP... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 RIN-2060-AQ45 Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of... under the Clean Air Act's (CAA or Act) New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

  4. The Effects of Issue Investigation and Action Training on Environmental Behavior in Seventh Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John M.; Hungerford, Harold

    1989-01-01

    This study reports the instructional effects of issue investigation and action training on the environmental behavior of middle school students. Discussed are the methodology including training and modules, the design of the study, instruments used, scoring protocols, and analysis of results. (Author/CW)

  5. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  6. A Study of the Qualities Teachers Recommend in STS Issues Investigation and Action Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A.; Wiesenmayer, Randall L.

    This study was part of a project to develop science and technology (STS) issue investigation and action materials with the potential for use across science and social studies classes at the secondary level. Special emphasis was given to learning teachers' perspectives on the development of a unit on the impact of pesticides on society. Seven areas…

  7. Informing Parents about Child Care Subsidies. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    On December 11, 1997, the Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference to explore the issue of how parents seeking to get off welfare can learn about subsidies available for child care in the transition from welfare to work. Presenters were Doug Baird, president of Associated Day Care Services in Boston, who discussed lessons of a…

  8. Public Understanding to Political Voice: Action Research and Generative Curricular Practices in Issues and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello, Mary Frances

    2007-01-01

    The author and preservice teachers in a postbaccalaureate Issues and Reform in Secondary Education course engaged Ernest Stringer's (2004) model of action research to develop generative curricula. They adhered to Walter C. Parker's (1991, 2006) vision of public formation and essential social studies teaching and used student-centered teaching…

  9. 77 FR 68790 - Program Comment Issued for Streamlining Section 106 Review for Actions Affecting Post-1945...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    .../archive/NotesDocs/25-25%2815%29_FR.pdf ). (A) Reinforced concrete slab bridges (i) Reinforced concrete... Concrete and Steel Bridges AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Program Comment issued for streamlining Section 106 review for undertakings affecting post-1945 concrete and...

  10. Reflections on "Creative" Action Learning in Business Education: Some Issues in Its Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Milner, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider some issues in the uses of what we have termed "creative" action learning in a business education context, and to review some aspects of its practice. A review of the literature, including its use in higher education, is followed by a case illustration of its use in a UK business school with…

  11. Aquariums Inspiring Hope and Action Against Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium is to “inspire conservation of the oceans.” We do this by connecting people emotionally with the animals, plants, and habitats of Monterey Bay and beyond, and by giving them tools and encouragement to act on behalf of ocean health. Because of our mission, it would seem natural to talk with visitors about the greatest threat to our ocean: global climate change. But does interpreting climate change conflict with the expectations of most visitors to spend a fun, social time with their friends and family? How do informal science education venues, which are seen as trusted sources of information about natural history and conservation, most effectively convey information that is at best distressing and at worst, downright depressing? This presentation will highlight ways that the Monterey Bay Aquarium is meeting the challenge of engaging and educating visitors about climate change and the ocean through exhibits, auditorium programs, humorous video, musical theater, and conversations.

  12. PNNL applies pressure to solving global climate change issues

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, Lisa K.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-06-13

    Scientists have been under pressure to help solve global climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions through methods such as carbon sequestration, the capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide in deep geological formations. Now scientists at DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with colleagues from Wright State University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have taken a step closer with the development of a high-pressure atomic force microscope. Located at DOE’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, this new AFM provides researchers the means to observe in real-time the mineral transformation processes arising from carbon dioxide and mineral interactions at the atomic-scale under pressures similar to those needed for carbon sequestration in geological formations.

  13. In-School Sustainability Action: Climate Clever Energy Savers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, John; Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools' electricity consumption and costs. As part of…

  14. Investigating Climate Change Issues With Web-Based Geospatial Inquiry Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bodzin, A. M.; Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Peffer, T.; Cirucci, L.

    2011-12-01

    In the Environmental Literacy and Inquiry middle school Climate Change curriculum we focus on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/). It incorporates a related set of a framework and design principles to provide guidance for the development of the geospatial technology-integrated Earth and environmental science curriculum materials. Students use virtual globes, Web-based tools including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline, and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate climate change topics. The curriculum includes educative curriculum materials that are designed to promote and support teachers' learning of important climate change content and issues, geospatial pedagogical content knowledge, and geographic spatial thinking. The curriculum includes baseline instructional guidance for teachers and provides implementation and adaptation guidance for teaching with diverse learners including low-level readers, English language learners and students with disabilities. In the curriculum, students use geospatial technology tools including Google Earth with embedded spatial data to investigate global temperature changes, areas affected by climate change, evidence of climate change, and the effects of sea level rise on the existing landscape. We conducted a designed-based research implementation study with urban middle school students. Findings showed that the use of the Climate Change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts.

  15. Climate Justice: High-Status Ingroup Social Models Increase Pro-Environmental Action Through Making Actions Seem More Moral.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Joseph; Whitmarsh, Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that our cognitive biases and moral psychology may pose significant barriers to tackling climate change. Here, we report evidence that through status and group-based social influence processes, and our moral sense of justice, it may be possible to employ such characteristics of the human mind in efforts to engender pro-environmental action. We draw on applied work demonstrating the efficacy of social modeling techniques in order to examine the indirect effects of social model status and group membership (through perceptions of efficacy, pro-environmental social identity and moral judgments of how fair it is for individuals to perform particular pro-environmental actions) on pro-environmental action tendencies. We find evidence that high- (vs. low-) status models increase pro-environmental action, in part, through making such actions seem morally fairer to undertake. This effect of high-status models only occurs when they share a meaningful ingroup membership with the target of influence. Further, we find evidence that this conditional effect of high-status models may also have a direct impact on action tendencies. While the exact behaviors that are influenced may vary across student and non-student samples, we argue that a focus on the "justice pathway" to action and the social-cognitive features of models may offer a good opportunity for cognitive and behavioral scientists to integrate insights from basic research with those stemming from more applied research efforts.

  16. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  17. Promoting Action on Climate Change through Scientific Storytelling and the Green Ninja Film Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Metzger, E. P.; Smith, G.

    2013-12-01

    Encouraging student interest on the challenges and opportunities associated with our changing climate can both promote science literacy and enable future reductions in carbon emissions. The goal of the Green Ninja Project is to affect youth culture in ways that promote informed action on climate change. The character and story of the Green Ninja are communicated in a series of quirky short films on YouTube, which focus on actions to reduce human impact. To complement the related underlying science, the films are designed in parallel with a set of engagement experiences that encourage young people to take action on climate change. One such experience is the Green Ninja Film Academy, a classroom experience where students use scientific storytelling to make their own Green Ninja films. Student filmmakers are asked to tell a story related to climate science for a particular audience using the Green Ninja as a storyline. In July 2013, a group of 24 teachers attended a workshop to develop experience using filmmaking to engage their students in climate science topics. The filmmaking experience is designed to promote integrated learning in the sciences, language arts, and technology fields. Students will have the opportunity to submit their films to the Green Ninja Film Festival for possible public screening and awards. Student films will also receive coaching from a panel of scientists and filmmakers. An initial analysis of the effectiveness of this project in engaging student action on climate change will be discussed.

  18. Health, fairness and New Zealand's contribution to global post-2020 climate change action.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hayley; Macmillan, Alex; Jones, Rhys

    2015-05-29

    Health and wellbeing have been largely ignored in discussions around climate change targets and action to date. The current public consultation around New Zealand's post-2020 climate target is an opportunity for health professionals to highlight the health implications of climate change. Without urgent global efforts to bring down global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, the world is heading towards high levels of global warming, which will have devastating impacts on human health and wellbeing. New Zealand's action to bring down GHG emissions (as part of the global effort) has potential to improve health and reduce costs on the health sector, if health and fairness are put at the centre of policies to address climate change. New Zealand should commit to at least 40 % reductions in GHG emissions by 2030, and zero carbon emissions before 2050, with healthy and fair policies across sectors to enable reaching these targets.

  19. Health, fairness and New Zealand's contribution to global post-2020 climate change action.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hayley; Macmillan, Alex; Jones, Rhys

    2015-05-29

    Health and wellbeing have been largely ignored in discussions around climate change targets and action to date. The current public consultation around New Zealand's post-2020 climate target is an opportunity for health professionals to highlight the health implications of climate change. Without urgent global efforts to bring down global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, the world is heading towards high levels of global warming, which will have devastating impacts on human health and wellbeing. New Zealand's action to bring down GHG emissions (as part of the global effort) has potential to improve health and reduce costs on the health sector, if health and fairness are put at the centre of policies to address climate change. New Zealand should commit to at least 40 % reductions in GHG emissions by 2030, and zero carbon emissions before 2050, with healthy and fair policies across sectors to enable reaching these targets. PMID:26117506

  20. Adapting Scotland’s forests to climate change using an action expiration chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, M.; Boerboom, L. G. J.; Ray, D.; van der Veen, A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent uncertainty of climate change impacts is one of the main challenges for adaptation in environmental management. The lack of knowledge about climate impacts on ecosystem services at high spatial and temporal resolution limits when and what adaptation measures should be taken. We addressed these limits by assessing four ecosystem services—forest production, tree growth, sequestered carbon, and tourism potential—under drought or climate change. To support adaptation, we adapted the existing concept of ‘dynamic adaptive policy pathways’ for forest management by developing an action expiration chart, which helps to define expiry dates for forestry actions using ecosystem services delivery thresholds. We assessed services for Sitka spruce, Scots pine, and pedunculate oak on the National Forest Estate in Scotland for the next 80 years using probabilistic climate change data from the UKCP09 weather generator. Findings showed that drought would have an overall long-term negative impact on the provision of three services with a decrease up to 41%, whereas climate change has a positive impact on tourism potential with up to five times higher frequency of good climate conditions during summer months. Furthermore, the results highlighted when forestry actions, mainly in the lowlands, will reach their environmental limits during the next 80 years. Our findings reduce knowledge uncertainty and highlight when and where adaptation should be implemented to ensure the provision of future forest ecosystem services in Scotland.

  1. What’s Needed from Climate Modeling to Advance Actionable Science for Water Utilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsugli, J. J.; Anderson, C. J.; Smith, J. B.; Vogel, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    “…perfect information on climate change is neither available today nor likely to be available in the future, but … over time, as the threats climate change poses to our systems grow more real, predicting those effects with greater certainty is non-discretionary. We’re not yet at a level at which climate change projections can drive climate change adaptation.” (Testimony of WUCA Staff Chair David Behar to the House Committee on Science and Technology, May 5, 2009) To respond to this challenge, the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) has sponsored a white paper titled “Options for Improving Climate Modeling to Assist Water Utility Planning for Climate Change. ” This report concerns how investments in the science of climate change, and in particular climate modeling and downscaling, can best be directed to help make climate projections more actionable. The meaning of “model improvement” can be very different depending on whether one is talking to a climate model developer or to a water manager trying to incorporate climate projections in to planning. We first surveyed the WUCA members on present and potential uses of climate model projections and on climate inputs to their various system models. Based on those surveys and on subsequent discussions, we identified four dimensions along which improvement in modeling would make the science more “actionable”: improved model agreement on change in key parameters; narrowing the range of model projections; providing projections at spatial and temporal scales that match water utilities system models; providing projections that water utility planning horizons. With these goals in mind we developed four options for improving global-scale climate modeling and three options for improving downscaling that will be discussed. However, there does not seem to be a single investment - the proverbial “magic bullet” -- which will substantially reduce the range of model projections at the scales at which utility

  2. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires Children Use to Negotiate a Socio-Scientific Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to…

  3. Story telling and social action: engaging young people to act on climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.

    2014-12-01

    The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.

  4. Obama Calls for More Action on Climate Change During State of the Union Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    President Barack Obama called for "meaningful progress" on climate change during his State of the Union address on 12 February, saying that "for the sake of our children and our future, we must do more to combat climate change." Noting that "the 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15," he said that there could be meaningful progress on the issue while also driving economic growth.

  5. Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

  6. The Practical Integration of Action Research into Building Climate Literacy and Partnership with Key Influentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.

  7. Hot dry rock: A climate change action opportunity for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1994-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of heat found in rock that is hot but is not in contact with sufficient mobile fluid to transport that heat to the surface are a large, as yet virtually unexploited, source of clean energy. The technology to extract useful amounts of energy from this ubiquitous hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource has been under development for more than twenty years. During the last two years, flow testing at the Fenton Hill HDR pilot facility in New Mexico has answered many of the questions about the viability of HDR heat mining. While the most important issue of thermal longevity of the artificial geothermal reservoir that is the heart of an HDR energy system was not fully resolved, the test results provided good reasons to be optimistic that such reservoirs can have long lifetimes. No decline was observed in the temperature of the fluid produced during the relatively short test period and tracer testing indicated that the reservoir may be thermally self sustaining. In addition, water consumption during the circulation test was reduced to very low levels, the production of significant excess energy over that required simply to operate the system was verified, and routine energy production with virtually no emissions to the environment, except waste heat, was demonstrated.

  8. Summary of high burnup fuel issues and NRC`s plan of action

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    For the past two years the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has concentrated mostly on the so-called reactivity-initiated accidents -- the RIAs -- in this session of the Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting, but this year there is a more varied agenda. RIAs are, of course, not the only events of interest for reactor safety that are affected by extended burnup operation. Their has now been enough time to consider a range of technical issues that arise at high burnup, and a list of such issues being addressed in their research program is given here. (1) High burnup capability of the steady-state code (FRAPCON) used for licensing audit calculations. (2) General capability (including high burnup) of the transient code (FRAPTRAN) used for special studies. (3) Adequacy at high burnup of fuel damage criteria used in regulation for reactivity accidents. (4) Adequacy at high burnup of models and fuel related criteria used in regulation for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). (5) Effect of high burnup on fuel system damage during normal operation, including control rod insertion problems. A distinction is made between technical issues, which may or may not have direct licensing impacts, and licensing issues. The RIAs became a licensing issue when the French test in CABRI showed that cladding failures could occur at fuel enthalpies much lower than a value currently used in licensing. Fuel assembly distortion became a licensing issue when control rod insertion was affected in some operating plants. In this presentation, these technical issues will be described and the NRC`s plan of action to address them will be discussed.

  9. Global health and climate change: moving from denial and catastrophic fatalism to positive action.

    PubMed

    Costello, Anthony; Maslin, Mark; Montgomery, Hugh; Johnson, Anne M; Ekins, Paul

    2011-05-13

    The health effects of climate change have had relatively little attention from climate scientists and governments. Climate change will be a major threat to population health in the current century through its potential effects on communicable disease, heat stress, food and water security, extreme weather events, vulnerable shelter and population migration. This paper addresses three health-sector strategies to manage the health effects of climate change-promotion of mitigation, tackling the pathways that lead to ill-health and strengthening health systems. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is affordable, and low-carbon technologies are available now or will be in the near future. Pathways to ill-health can be managed through better information, poverty reduction, technological innovation, social and cultural change and greater coordination of national and international institutions. Strengthening health systems requires increased investment in order to provide effective public health responses to climate-induced threats to health, equitable treatment of illness, promotion of low-carbon lifestyles and renewable energy solutions within health facilities. Mitigation and adaptation strategies will produce substantial benefits for health, such as reductions in obesity and heart disease, diabetes, stress and depression, pneumonia and asthma, as well as potential cost savings within the health sector. The case for mitigating climate change by reducing GHGs is overwhelming. The need to build population resilience to the global health threat from already unavoidable climate change is real and urgent. Action must not be delayed by contrarians, nor by catastrophic fatalists who say it is all too late.

  10. Climate change and human health: the role of nurses in confronting the issue.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Lucia; Rhazi, Nadia; Carpenter, Holly; Hughes, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will impact human health in various ways as the ecology of our planet changes. Environmental changes such as increased heat waves, sea-level rise, and increased drought around the globe will aggravate already-existing health problems, increase the onset of new health problems, and, in some cases, cause premature death. Catastrophic events associated with these environmental changes, such as floods, and increases in hospital and routine clinic visits will have nurses on the front lines tending to those in need. Climate change needs to be reframed as a public health issue, and the importance of nurses to be educated and engaged cannot be overstated. Nurses can be instrumental in communications with patients and families, working with their hospitals and health systems to reduce emissions and influencing the adoption of strategies to better prepare our health care facilities and our communities for the health impacts of climate change.

  11. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  12. Sampling and measurement issues in establishing a climate reference upper air network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, T.; Madonna, F.; Wang, J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Dykema, J.; Fassò, A.; Thorne, P. W.; Bodeker, G.

    2013-09-01

    The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) is an international reference observing network, designed to meet climate requirements and to fill a major void in the current global observing system. Upper air observations within the GRUAN network will provide long-term high-quality climate records, will be used to constrain and validate data from space based remote sensors, and will provide accurate data for the study of atmospheric processes. The network covers measurements of a range of key climate variables including temperature. Implementation of the network has started, and as part of this process a number of scientific questions need to be addressed in order to establish a viable climate reference upper air network, in addition to meeting the other objectives for the network measurements. These include quantifying collocation issues for different measurement techniques including the impact on the overall uncertainty of combined measurements; change management requirements when switching between sensors; assessing the benefit of complementary measurements of the same variable using different measurement techniques; and establishing the appropriate sampling strategy to determine long-term trends. This paper reviews the work that is currently underway to address these issues.

  13. State Wildlife Action Plans as Tools for Adapting to a Continuously Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, D. W.; Yocum, H.; Ray, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public land management plans are potentially powerful policies for building sustainability and adaptive capacity. Land managers are recognizing the need to respond to numerous climate change impacts on natural and human systems. For the first time, in 2015, the federal government required each state to incorporate climate change into their State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAP) as a condition for funding. As important land management tools, SWAPs have the potential to guide state agencies in shaping and implementing practices for climate change adaptation. Intended to be revised every ten years, SWAPs can change as conditions and understanding of climate change evolves. This study asks what practices are states using to integrate climate change, and how does this vary between states? To answer this question, we conducted a broad analysis among seven states (CO, MT, NE, ND, SD, UT, WY) and a more in-depth analysis of four states (CO, ND, SD, WY). We use seven key factors that represent best practices for incorporating climate change identified in the literature. These best practices are species prioritization, key habitats, threats, monitoring, partnerships and participation, identification of management options, and implementation of management options. The in-depth analysis focuses on how states are using climate change information for specific habitats addressed in the plans. We find that states are integrating climate change in many different ways, showing varying degrees of sophistication and preparedness. We summarize different practices and highlight opportunities to improve the effectiveness of plans through: communication tools across state lines and stakeholders, explicit targeting of key habitats, enforcement and monitoring progress and success, and conducting vulnerability analyses that incorporate topics beyond climate and include other drivers, trajectories, and implications of historic and future land-use change.

  14. Bringing a Global Issue Closer to Home: The OSU Climate Change Webinar Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentes Banicki, J.; Dierkes, C.

    2012-12-01

    When people think about the effects of climate change, many will still picture that iconic lone polar bear clinging to a shrinking iceberg in Antarctica. But many don't realize that the impacts that we will face here at home could also be severe, directly affecting the food we eat, the health we have, and the natural environments we appreciate. To help better explain and ultimately localize those impacts for Great Lakes residents, 10 departments within Ohio State University partnered in 2009 to create the Global Change, Local Impact webinar series. The monthly series brings in experts from around the Great Lakes region to discuss issues and impacts we will encounter regionally as our climate changes. Originally designed as a small series for Ohioans, the series has broadened to focus on Great Lakes-related issues, with more than 4,500 attendees representing 500 organizations in governmental agencies, academia, non-profit groups, private industry, and the legislature from around the country. Over the past two years, the OSU Climate Team expanded its educational reach by partnering with external groups like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Great Lakes Regional Water Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network to help deliver the most knowledgeable experts and resources for each Great Lake-focused climate topic and archive those resources on its www.changingclimate.osu.edu web site. As a result of these collaborative efforts, participants say the webinars are one of their primary resources for climate-related research information in the region, with 80-90% polled saying they use this information as an unbiased resource to help not only understand how climate change could affect local concerns like public health, agriculture, and infrastructure, but what they in their vocations and daily lives can do to prepare for it. For scientists and practitioners, this series serves as the perfect low carbon venue

  15. Climate change and food safety: an emerging issue with special focus on Europe.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Battilani, P; Brera, C; Coni, E; Cubadda, F; Croci, L; De Santis, B; Dekkers, S; Filippi, L; Hutjes, R W A; Noordam, M Y; Pisante, M; Piva, G; Prandini, A; Toti, L; van den Born, G J; Vespermann, A

    2009-05-01

    According to general consensus, the global climate is changing, which may also affect agricultural and livestock production. The potential impact of climate change on food security is a widely debated and investigated issue. Nonetheless, the specific impact on safety of food and feed for consumers has remained a less studied topic. This review therefore identifies the various food safety issues that are likely to be affected by changes in climate, particularly in Europe. Amongst the issues identified are mycotoxins formed on plant products in the field or during storage; residues of pesticides in plant products affected by changes in pest pressure; trace elements and/or heavy metals in plant products depending on changes in their abundance and availability in soils; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods following changes in long-range atmospheric transport and deposition into the environment; marine biotoxins in seafood following production of phycotoxins by harmful algal blooms; and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods following more frequent extreme weather conditions, such as flooding and heat waves. Research topics that are amenable to further research are highlighted. PMID:19353812

  16. CAN-DOO: The Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J. P.; Perry, L. B.; Markham, J.; Kelly, G.

    2011-12-01

    The urgency of climate change demands a greater understanding of our climate system, not only by the leaders of today, but by the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow. Unfortunately, a large segment of the population currently possesses inadequate knowledge of climate science. In direct response to a need for greater scientific literacy with respect to climate science, researchers from Appalachian State University's Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) group, with support from NASA, have developed CAN-DOO: the Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach. CAN-DOO addresses climate science literacy by 1) Developing the infrastructure for sustaining and expanding public outreach through long-term climate measurements capable of complementing existing NASA measurements, 2) Enhancing public awareness of climate science and NASA's role in advancing our understanding of the Earth System, and 3) Introducing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics principles to homeschooled, public school, and Appalachian State University students through applied climate science activities. Project partners include the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, and local elementary schools. In partnership with Grandfather Mountain, climate science awareness is promoted through citizen science activities, interactive public displays, and staff training. CAN-DOO engages students by involving them in the entire scientific investigative process as applied to climate science. We introduce local elementary and middle school students, homeschooled students throughout North Carolina, and undergraduate students in a new Global Climate Change course and select other courses at Appalachian State University to instrument assembly, measurement techniques, data collection, hypothesis testing, and drawing conclusions. Results are placed in the proper context via comparisons with other student

  17. The U.S. climate change action plan: Challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Darmstadter, J.

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, the United States and 154 other countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international accord outlining measures for dealing with the threat of global warming. The following year, the Clinton administration released its Climate Change Action Plan for meeting the convention`s goal of stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Evaluation of the plan`s prospects for success must necessarily be speculative at this point, but already several of the assumptions on which the plan is predicated appear questionable. Moreover, even if the emissions stabilization goal is met, the problem of global warming will persist. Therefore, the greatest contribution of the plan might be to raise consciousness about the need for sustained measures to address climate change and its attendant socioeconomic consequences.

  18. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    SciTech Connect

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  19. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 233

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jaia, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  20. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 249

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "ARL" is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). "ARL" reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff and users; higher…

  1. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 241

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  2. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 247

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  3. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 251

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, 2007

    2007-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  4. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 242

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  5. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 236

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jaia, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  6. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 257

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  7. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 259

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "ARL" is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). "ARL" reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher…

  8. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 244

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  9. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  10. Actionable Science Lessons Emerging from the Department of Interior Climate Science Center Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, G.; Meadow, A. M.; Mikels-Carrasco, J.

    2015-12-01

    The DOI Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS) has recommended that co-production of actionable science be the core programmatic focus of the Climate Science Center enterprise. Efforts by the Southeast Climate Science Center suggest that the complexity of many climate adaptation decision problems (many stakeholders that can influence implementation of a decision; the problems that can be viewed at many scales in space and time; dynamic objectives with competing values; complex, non-linear systems) complicates development of research-based information that scientists and non-scientists view as comprehensible, trustworthy, legitimate, and accurate. Going forward, organizers of actionable science efforts should consider inclusion of a broad set of stakeholders, beyond formal decisionmakers, and ensure that sufficient resources are available to explore the interests and values of this broader group. Co-produced research endeavors should foster agency and collaboration across a wide range of stakeholders. We recognize that stakeholder agency may be constrained by scientific or political power structures that limit the ability to initiate discussion, make claims, and call things into question. Co-production efforts may need to be preceded by more descriptive assessments that summarize existing climate science in ways that stakeholders can understand and link with their concerns. Such efforts can build rapport and trust among scientists and non-scientists, and may help stakeholders and scientists alike to frame adaptation decision problems amenable to a co-production effort. Finally, university and government researchers operate within an evaluation structure that rewards researcher-driven science that, at the extreme, "throws information over the fence" in the hope that information users will make better decisions. Research evaluation processes must reward more consultative, collaborative, and collegial research approaches if

  11. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  12. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  14. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  15. Classroom Climate and Contextual Effects: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Evaluation of Group-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abduljabbar, Adel S.; Koller, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Classroom context and climate are inherently classroom-level (L2) constructs, but applied researchers sometimes--inappropriately--represent them by student-level (L1) responses in single-level models rather than more appropriate multilevel models. Here we focus on important conceptual issues (distinctions between climate and contextual variables;…

  16. From Science to Action: Teaching and Talking about Climate Change in a Museum Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, H.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of Earth Revealed, a permanent exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry (MSI) is to teach the science behind climate change by making the data accessible, personable, and relevant. In live science experiences guided by an MSI facilitator, guests discuss, vote, share knowledge, ideas, and action items that individuals can take to help reduce climate change. Through a partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), MSI receives the data sets and images that are projected onto a spherical display system. Using the Science on a Sphere, facilitators engage guests in a live participatory show up to five times a day to discuss climate change. Facilitators are trained to use inquiry based learning strategies and positive reinforcement engagement strategies. In the 20 minute live science experience, audience members participate and the facilitator is expected to tailor content according to the group's responses. The theme of Earth Revealed is climate change, and there are multiple stories that facilitators use to engage guests. Based on images from NOAA and through current science news research facilitators discuss content ranging from sea surface temperature to the earth's atmosphere. CO2 + You is the title of the longest running live science experience in Earth Revealed, and is dedicated to teaching how CO2 relates to climate change and how guests can reduce carbon dioxide emissions and thus help mitigate climate change. Participants in this session will learn a bit more in depth about the structure of MSI's Earth Revealed Live Science Experiences, and learn the teaching and participation strategies applied to increase guest participation, discussion, and learning. Session attendees will have an opportunity to participate in the inquiry process and explore various types of positive reinforcement strategies MSI facilitators are trained to implement.

  17. Toward fisheries sustainability in North America: Issues, challenges, and strategies for action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Knudsen, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many fisheries in North America are severely depleted and trending downwards. In an effort to find ways of reversing this disturbing situation, the American Fisheries Society and the Sustainable Fisheries Foundation invited leading experts in fisheries science and aquatic resource management to share their thoughts and insights in this book. These experts were asked to identify the factors that are currently impairing our ability to effectively manage fisheries resources and propose creative solutions for addressing the most challenging issues affecting fisheries sustainability. Based on the information that was provided by the experts (i.e., as presented in the earlier chapters of this book), it is apparent that a wide range of human activities are adversely affecting our shared fisheries resources and the aquatic habitats upon which they depend. The most challenging problems stem from causes that are largely beyond the scope of traditional fisheries management (e.g., human population growth, resource consumption patterns, global climate change, broad land-use patterns). It is also apparent that resolution of these challenges will require a new approach to fisheries management - one that effectively integrates economic, social, and environmental interests into a decision-making framework that supports fisheries sustainability. The key strategies for supporting such a transition toward a more holistic and comprehensive approach to managing the human activities that influence fisheries and aquatic resources are summarized in this chapter. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  18. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25613801

  19. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  20. Does Education Plus Action Lead to Leadership on Climate? Preliminary Results from the ACE Leadership Development Longitudinal Survey Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. K.; Qusba, L.; Lappe, M.; Flora, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Through education and leadership development, Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is building a generation of confident and capable youth driving climate solutions now throughout their lives. In 2011-12, a random sample of 2,800 high school students across the country was surveyed before and after seeing the ACE Assembly on climate science and solutions. The survey showed that the ACE Assembly resulted in a 27% increase in climate science knowledge scores, with 59% of students increasing their intentions to take action on climate and a doubling of the number of students talking to parents and peers about climate change. Students were also compared to the Global Warming's Six Americas classification of Americans' views on climate. Following the ACE Assembly, 60% of students were alarmed or concerned about climate change. Building off these results, in 2014 ACE began to assess the results of its leadership development program that follows the ACE Assembly. The goal of this survey project is to measure ACE's long-term impact on students' college and career pathways, civic engagement and climate action. Preliminary results show that a majority of students in ACE's leadership development program are alarmed about global warming and are having conversations about global warming. A majority of these students also feel confident in their ability to lead a climate-related campaign in their school and community. These students will continue to be surveyed through 2015.

  1. Prospects for Future Climate Change and the Reasons for Early Action

    SciTech Connect

    Edgerton, Sylvia A.

    2008-11-01

    Never before in human history has the global community collectively faced an environmental issue as complex as climate change. Left unchecked, the rapidly growing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are projected to change the world we live in to one that is likely to have longer and more severe droughts and water shortages, more intense storms, flooding of coastal communities, worsening of air pollution,migration of forests, and loss of valuable ecosystems.1 The scenario of this world presents presents a bleak future for our children and grandchildren.

  2. 75 FR 34750 - Web-Based Public Meeting To Discuss Issues Related to the Development of an Enforcement Action...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Access and Advertising Regulation). FDA published the final rule on March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13225) and the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Web-Based Public Meeting To Discuss Issues Related to the... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Web-based public meeting; request for data, information, and...

  3. Child Care for Infants and Toddlers and During Non-traditional Hours. Child Care Action Campaign. Issue Brief #9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    The Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference on December 8, 1997 to examine strategies to expand and improve family child care to meet the increased need for infant/toddler care and care during non-traditional hours. This issue brief summarizes the audioconference's presentations. Presenters were Julie Rogers, special projects…

  4. Making short-term climate forecasts useful: Linking science and action.

    PubMed

    Buizer, James; Jacobs, Katharine; Cash, David

    2016-04-26

    This paper discusses the evolution of scientific and social understanding that has led to the development of knowledge systems supporting the application of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, including the development of successful efforts to connect climate predictions with sectoral applications and actions "on the ground". The evolution of "boundary-spanning" activities to connect science and decisionmaking is then discussed, setting the stage for a report of outcomes from an international workshop comprised of producers, translators, and users of climate predictions. The workshop, which focused on identifying critical boundary-spanning features of successful boundary organizations, included participants from Australia, Hawaii, and the Pacific Islands, the US Pacific Northwest, and the state of Ceará in northwestern Brazil. Workshop participants agreed that boundary organizations have multiple roles including those of information broker, convenor of forums for engagement, translator of scientific information, arbiter of access to knowledge, and exemplar of adaptive behavior. Through these roles, boundary organizations will ensure the stability of the knowledge system in a changing political, economic, and climatic context. The international examples reviewed in this workshop demonstrated an interesting case of convergent evolution, where organizations that were very different in origin evolved toward similar structures and individuals engaged in them had similar experiences to share. These examples provide evidence that boundary organizations and boundary-spanners fill some social/institutional roles that are independent of culture.

  5. Health impacts of climate change in Vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

    2013-01-30

    Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change.

  6. Making short-term climate forecasts useful: Linking science and action

    PubMed Central

    Buizer, James; Jacobs, Katharine; Cash, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of scientific and social understanding that has led to the development of knowledge systems supporting the application of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, including the development of successful efforts to connect climate predictions with sectoral applications and actions “on the ground”. The evolution of “boundary-spanning” activities to connect science and decisionmaking is then discussed, setting the stage for a report of outcomes from an international workshop comprised of producers, translators, and users of climate predictions. The workshop, which focused on identifying critical boundary-spanning features of successful boundary organizations, included participants from Australia, Hawaii, and the Pacific Islands, the US Pacific Northwest, and the state of Ceará in northwestern Brazil. Workshop participants agreed that boundary organizations have multiple roles including those of information broker, convenor of forums for engagement, translator of scientific information, arbiter of access to knowledge, and exemplar of adaptive behavior. Through these roles, boundary organizations will ensure the stability of the knowledge system in a changing political, economic, and climatic context. The international examples reviewed in this workshop demonstrated an interesting case of convergent evolution, where organizations that were very different in origin evolved toward similar structures and individuals engaged in them had similar experiences to share. These examples provide evidence that boundary organizations and boundary-spanners fill some social/institutional roles that are independent of culture. PMID:20133668

  7. Partnering with children diagnosed with mental health issues: contributions of a sociology of childhood perspective to participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Liegghio, Maria; Nelson, Geoffrey; Evans, Scot D

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the use of participatory action research (PAR) with children diagnosed with mental health issues. We argue that critiques from the sociology of childhood are useful for guiding PAR with children. First, we describe and critique values and assumptions that underlie research and practice with children who experience mental health issues. Second, we outline key qualities of the sociology of childhood, discuss their implications for PAR with children diagnosed with mental health issues, and touch on ethical issues. Five themes are explored: (a) values, (b) ontology/epistemology, (c) views about children, (d) agency/power in children's relationships with adults, and (e) intervention/change focus. We conclude by encouraging community psychologists to consider PAR with children diagnosed with mental health issues.

  8. Integrating Climate Change Scenarios and Co-developed Policy Scenarios to Inform Coastal Adaptation: Results from a Tillamook County, Oregon Knowledge to Action Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiec, E.; Ruggiero, P.; Serafin, K.; Bolte, J.; Mills, A.; Corcoran, P.; Stevenson, J.; Lach, D.

    2014-12-01

    Local decision-makers often lack both the information and tools to reduce their community's overall vulnerability to current and future climate change impacts. Managers are restricted in their actions by the scale of the problem, inherent scientific uncertainty, limits of information exchange, and the global nature of available data, rendering place-based strategies difficult to generate. Several U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal communities are already experiencing chronic erosion and flooding, hazards only to be exacerbated by sea level rise and changing patterns of storminess associated with climate change. To address these issues, a knowledge to action network (KTAN) consisting of local Tillamook County stakeholders and Oregon State University researchers, was formed to project future flooding and erosion impacts and determine possible adaptation policies to reduce vulnerability. Via an iterative scenario planning process, the KTAN has developed four distinct adaptation policy scenarios, including 'Status Quo', 'Hold The Line', 'ReAlign', and 'Laissez-Faire'. These policy scenarios are being integrated with a range of climate change scenarios within the modeling framework Envision, a multi-agent GIS-based tool, which allows for the combination of physical processes data, probabilistic climate change information, coastal flood and erosion models, and stakeholder driven adaptation strategies into distinct plausible future scenarios. Because exact physical and social responses to climate change are impossible to ascertain, information about the differences between possible future scenarios can provide valuable information to decision-makers and the community at large. For example, the fewest projected coastal flood and erosion impacts to buildings occur under the 'ReAlign' policy scenario (i.e., adaptation strategies that move dwellings away from the coast) under both low and high climate change scenarios, especially in comparison to the 'Status Quo' or 'Hold The

  9. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of seven issues of the ARL (Association of Research Libraries) Newsletter, covering February 2002 through December 2002. Most issues include some or all of the following sections: "Current Issues"; "Leadership and Management"; "New Measures Initiative"; "Statistics and Measurement"; "Access Services"; "Diversity"; "Federal…

  10. An Overview of an Issue and Action Instruction Program for Stewardship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcinkowski, Tom

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize an issue instruction environmental education program developed by Harold Hungerford and his associates over the past three decades. The primary focus of the issue instruction program is on the development and application of investigation and evaluation skills to environmental problems and issues. Program…

  11. ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of six issues of the ARL (Association of Research Libraries) Newsletter, covering the year 2001. Each issue of the newsletter includes some or all of the following sections: "Current Issues," reports from the Office of Scholarly Communication, Office for Management Services, and Coalition for Networked Information, "Federal…

  12. ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of six issues of the ARL (Association of Research Libraries) newsletter, covering the year 1999. Each issue includes some of the following sections: "Current Issues"; reports from SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), Coalition for Networked Information, Office of Leadership & Management Services,…

  13. Beliefs and Issues Arising from a Virtual Collaborative Student-Alumni-Faculty Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sue Marquis; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Hollie-Major, Ramona D.

    2006-01-01

    Can graduate students in a distance learning environment gain meaningful research experience through a virtual action research project? The answer is an emphatic "yes." The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which students seeking an EdD degree can gain research experience through an action research project conducted in a virtual…

  14. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of "dangerous anthropogenic interference" (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for "early," "urgent," "rapid," and "fast-action" mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define "fast-action" to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2-3 years, be substantially implemented in 5-10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO(2) GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO(2) emissions.

  15. Fight Swack, Adapt to Climate Change or How to Use Humor to Engage the Public in Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R.; Elinich, K.; Johnson, R.; Fink, J.; Crawford, J.

    2014-12-01

    We are carefully considering how a humor-based campaign can help us communicate important climate change messages. Using pilot campaign strategies, we have engaged local residents in focus groups and interviews to understand how effective the approach can be. Growing educational research suggests learning about climate change can lead to feelings of depression, fear and inaction. Climate change seems too big of a task to take on. But with sweaty back (or "swack" as it's known in some circles), there's a public enemy that can be defeated. As only one piece of an innovative model for informal climate change education, the Climate and Urban Systems Partnership repositions the war on climate change by declaring a war on swack instead. This way, we can talk about climate change in a way it has never been talked about before that will certainly get people's attention. It also answers the common question of, "Yeah, but how does it affect me?" We're educating about responses to climate change because heat waves, floods, and excessive back sweat all kinda suck a lot.

  16. The role of observational reference data for climate downscaling: Insights from the VALUE COST Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Gutiérrez, José M.; Boberg, Fredrik; Bosshard, Thomas; Cardoso, Rita M.; Herrera, Sixto; Maraun, Douglas; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Pagé, Christian; Räty, Olle; Stepanek, Petr; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Szabo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of downscaling methods. Such assessments can be expected to crucially depend on the existence of accurate and reliable observational reference data. In dynamical downscaling, observational data can influence model development itself and, later on, model evaluation, parameter calibration and added value assessment. In empirical-statistical downscaling, observations serve as predictand data and directly influence model calibration with corresponding effects on downscaled climate change projections. We here present a comprehensive assessment of the influence of uncertainties in observational reference data and of scale-related issues on several of the above-mentioned aspects. First, temperature and precipitation characteristics as simulated by a set of reanalysis-driven EURO-CORDEX RCM experiments are validated against three different gridded reference data products, namely (1) the EOBS dataset (2) the recently developed EURO4M-MESAN regional re-analysis, and (3) several national high-resolution and quality-controlled gridded datasets that recently became available. The analysis reveals a considerable influence of the choice of the reference data on the evaluation results, especially for precipitation. It is also illustrated how differences between the reference data sets influence the ranking of RCMs according to a comprehensive set of performance measures.

  17. On conceptual issues in classical electrodynamics: Prospects and problems of an action-at-a-distance interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Wolfgang

    Some conceptual issues in the foundations of classical electrodynamics concerning the interaction between particles and fields have recently received increased attention among philosophers of physics. After a brief review of the debate, I argue that there are essentially two incompatible solutions to these issues corresponding to F.A. Muller's distinction between the extension and the renormalization program. Neither of these solutions comes free of cost: the extension program is plagued with all problems related to extended elementary charges, the renormalization program works with point charges but trades in the notorious divergences of the field energies. The aim of this paper is to bring back into the discussion a third alternative, the action-at-a-distance program, which avoids both the riddles of extended elementary charges as well as the divergences although it admittedly has other problems. It will be discussed, why action-at-a-distance theories are actually not a far cry from particle-field theories, and I will argue that the main reasons for rejecting action-at-a-distance theories originate in certain metaphysical prejudices about locality and energy conservation. I will broadly suggest how these concepts could be adapted in order to allow for action at a distance.

  18. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  19. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  20. Mothers' problem-solving skill and use of help with infant-related issues: the role of importance and need for action.

    PubMed

    Pridham, K F; Chang, A S; Hansen, M F

    1987-08-01

    Examination was made of the relationship of mothers' appraisal of the importance of and need for action around infant-related issues to maternal experience (parity and time since birth), use of help, and perceived problem-solving competence. Sixty-two mothers (38 primiparae and 24 multiparae) kept for 90 days post-birth a daily log of issues, rated for importance and for need for action, and of help used. Mothers also reported perceived problem-solving competence on an 11-item scale. Findings indicated tentativeness in ratings of importance and action. Ratings of importance were associated with action ratings, except for temperament issues. Action ratings for baby care and illness issues decreased significantly with time. Otherwise, maternal experience had no effect on ratings. More of the variance in perceived competence than use of help was explained by action and importance ratings.

  1. 75 FR 52916 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal... Ensure Authority to Issue Permits under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of... Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration program for sources of greenhouse gases. Public...

  2. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires children use to negotiate a socio-scientific issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens.

  3. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  4. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  5. Equal Employment Opportunity for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Affirmative Action, Reverse Discrimination, and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    This paper discusses some basic constitutional and statutory principles related to affirmative action and reverse discrimination in employment of educational personnel. The specifications of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, other statutes and regulations, and selected Supreme Court cases…

  6. Congressional Budget Action for Fiscal Year 2012 and Its Impact on Education Funding. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The fiscal year 2012 budget process has been anything but typical or predictable. While fiscal year 2012 starts in just a few weeks on October 1, 2011, the annual appropriations process is far from complete, and funding for federal education programs has not yet been finalized. Nevertheless, congressional action in the months that have led up to…

  7. Issues and Actions in California Education Policy: Setting the Stage for 2006. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a roundup of the rather modest set of actions the state Legislature and Governor Schwarzenegger took on education in 2005. It also sets the stage for what those who care about education might expect in the coming year. To provide some structure for addressing a wide breadth of topics, the report is organized into four…

  8. Post-Structuralism and Ethical Practical Action: Issues of Identity and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In an era when familiar categories of identity are breaking down, an argument is made for using post-structuralist vocabulary to talk about ethical practical action in mathematics education. Using aspects of Foucault's post-structuralism, an explanation is offered of how mathematical identifications are tied to the social organization of…

  9. Some Issues in Affirmative Action in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudien, C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to attempt a surfacing of the assumptions and discourses surrounding the affirmative action debate in higher education in South Africa. The article draws attention to two dominant discourses--the first being that of the patriotic university, and the second being that of the global university. In terms of the first…

  10. Empowering Parents: Developing Support, Leadership, Advocacy, and Activism. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Anderson, Candice

    This report from a 1995 Child Care Action Campaign national audioconference examines approaches to empowering parents through developing support, leadership, advocacy, and activism to better enable low-income parents to become effective change agents. The report describes the experiences of three parent programs, which found that parents typically…

  11. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  12. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  13. Global Issues and Environmental Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    An action of an individual or a societal action that has an impact on other societies constitutes a "global issue." Global climate change, airborne toxins, ozone depletion, and solid waste management are a few of the global issues concerning the environment. This digest discusses methods by which students learn about global issues and acquire…

  14. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in

  15. "Built-In" Action/Issues Tracking and Post-Ops Analysis Tool for Realtime Console Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) uses a number of formal databases to manage and track flight plan changes, onboard and ground equipment anomalies, and other events. However, individual console positions encounter many action items and/or occurrences that don't fit neatly into the databases, and while console logs are comprehensive, manual or automated searches do not always yield consistent results. The Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) team, whose members speak directly with the ISS onboard crew with respect to NASA payload operations, has found a creative way to reformat a mandatory Daily Report to organize action items, standing reminders, significant events, and other comments. While the report keeps others appraised of PAYCOMs activities and issues of the moment, the format makes it easy to capture very brief summaries of the items in a "Roll Off Matrix", including start and stop dates, resolution, and possible applicability to future ops. The matrix provides accountability for all action items, gives direct insight into the issues surrounding various payloads and methods of dealing with them, yields indirect information on PAYCOM priorities and processes, and provides a roadmap that makes it easier to get back to extensive details if needed. This paper describes how the ISS PAYCOM Daily Report and Roll Off Matrix are organized, used, and inter-related to each other and the PAYCOM operations log. While the application is for a manned vehicle, the concepts could apply in a wide spectrum of operational settings.

  16. State Lawmakers Gear for Action on Broad K-12 Issues Menu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers will attempt to tackle a range of issues in legislative sessions getting under way this month, from making common academic standards a reality and funding schools based on performance, to allowing armed teachers and staff members on school grounds. Their task may be complicated by the still small and spotty economic recovery in…

  17. Response: Epistemological Issues of Social Work Science as a Translational Action Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goppner, Hans-Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    A science-based practice should be caring, there is no dissent about this. But why a social work science? Until now "things are fine," and practice seems to be getting on very well without it!? It is claimed that there is no alternative in its own interest. Social work needs social work science because of the epistemological issues linked to the…

  18. Issues around Teaching Competencies in a Family Literacy Program. Action Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Finn

    Issues surrounding teaching competencies in family literacy programs were examined in a study of two well-established Even Start sites in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The program, which served 34 ethnically diverse adult learners, offered 25 hours of adult basic education, general educational development (GED), and…

  19. 75 FR 81874 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., 2010 (the earliest possible deadline), 75 FR at 77705,\\7\\ and those states are the subject of this... our proposed FIP rulemaking (see 75 FR at 53889), if a state for which we issue the SIP call does not... SIP revision under CAA section 110(c)(1)(A). Once we make that finding, we are required under...

  20. Issues relevant to the development of coupled chemistry/climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Austin, J.; Cariolle, D.; Kelder, H.; Kylling, A.; Prather, M.J.; Steil, B.; Sundet, J.K.

    1994-09-01

    Our belief that climate will inexorably change is driven by the very clear evidence of chemical abundance changes in the atmosphere during the last four decades. In the past, this belief has led to the development of two separate efforts: to understand and build models to describing the physical climate system and to understand and build models of the chemical climate system. But how will these two systems interact? Are there important chemical changes that result from climate change that need to be understood and properly accounted for in order to predict the evolution of the climate system? Are there important climate changes that may affect chemical abundances that must be addressed? Large strides have been made in our capability to predict both the physical climate system and the chemical climate system during the past few years. In spite of extant uncertainties in both General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Chemical Transport Models (CTMs), we should begin the process of understanding how and to what extent these errors might propagate in the coupled system. We have outlined a strategy for quantifying the effective uncertainties and have defined a few initial steps in the process. Systematic study of the importance of uncertainties and their impact in the coupled system is a prerequisite to progress in coupling the chemical and climate systems. Such coupling is necessary if we are to predict the evolution of climate in the future.

  1. 'Long-Cell Action' Corrosion: A Basic Mechanism Hidden Behind Components Degradation Issues in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Genn Saji

    2006-07-01

    In spite of industries' effort over the last 40 years, corrosion-related issues continue to be one of the largest unresolved problems for nuclear power plants worldwide. There are several types of strange corrosion phenomena from the point of view of our current understanding of corrosion science established in other fields. Some of these are IGSCC, PWSCC, AOA, and FAC (Erosion-Corrosion). Through studying and coping with diverse corrosion phenomena, the author believes that they share a common basis with respect to the assumed corrosion mechanism (e.g., 'local cell action' hypothesis). In general, local cell action is rarely severe since it produces a fairly uniform corrosion. The 'long cell action' that transports electrons through structures far beyond the region of local cell corrosion activities has been identified as a basic mechanism in soil corrosion. If this mechanism is assumed in nuclear power plants, the structure becomes anodic in the area where the potential is less positive and cathodic where this potential is more positive. Metallic ions generated at anodic corrosion sites are transported to remote cathodic sites through the circulation of water and deposits as corrosion products. The SCC, FAC (E-C) and PWSCC occur in the anodic sites as the structure itself acts as a short-circuiting conductor between the two sites, the action is similar to a galvanic cell but in a very large scale. This situation is the same as a battery that has been short-circuited at the terminals. No apparent external potential difference exists between the two electrodes, but an electrochemical reaction is still taking place inside the battery cell with a large internal short current. In this example what is important is the potential difference between the local coolant and the surface of the structural material. Long cell action corrosion is likely enhancing the local cell action's anodic corrosion activities, such as SCC, FAC/E-C, and PWSCC. It tends to be more hazardous

  2. Global climate change (GCC) issues and their impacts on the US Army Corps of Engineers. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, J.E.; Neander, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a survey of recent findings and arguments within the scientific arena on the subject of global climate change. The focus of this report looks at global, continental, and regional issues, as well as surface and upper atmospheric effects. Potential responses by the biosphere as well as the impacts on Army operations by global climate change are examined. The geologic past provides a detailed record of Earth's climate system. It also reveals changes that took place in the concentration of atmospheric gasses as Earth's climate switched from glacial to interglacial periods. The secular record of temperature shows that Earth's climate has warmed from 0.5 C to 0.7 C this past century. The world's populace is injecting tremendous amounts of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere at a rate where the effective doubling of pre-industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration could occur between the years 2035 to 2050. Clouds have been found to have a net cooling effect on the global average temperature. Anthropogenic pollutants and gasses produced from biological sources may increase the amount of clouds around the world, thus adding to the cooling effect. Aftereffects of volcanic eruption, and gasses emitted by phytoplankton that lead to cloud formation retard global warming. Weapon and support systems may require upgraded data bases to match vegetation changes due to evolving climate patterns.

  3. California renewable energy policy and implementation issues: An overview of recent regulatory and legislative action

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper has three primary goals: (1) to provide a brief account of recent events in California renewables policy; (2) to outline the California State Legislature`s ultimate decision on renewable energy policy; and (3) to aid other states in their efforts with renewables policy by summarizing some of the key implementation issues and political conflicts that may occur when crafting some of the potential threats and opportunities that electricity restructuring presents to the development of renewable energy. We then outline the renewables policy debate in California since the California Public Utility Commission`s ``Blue Book``, including both regulatory and legislative developments. We also provide some insight into the minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR) versus surcharge-based renewables policy debate in California. Finally, we identify and discuss key renewables policy implementation issues that have driven the dialogue and recent decisions in California`s renewables policy.

  4. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K. Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for “early,” “urgent,” “rapid,” and “fast-action” mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define “fast-action” to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2–3 years, be substantially implemented in 5–10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO2 GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO2 emissions. PMID:19822751

  5. Pro-environmental actions, climate change, and defensiveness: do self-affirmations make a difference to people's motives and beliefs about making a difference?

    PubMed

    Sparks, Paul; Jessop, Donna C; Chapman, James; Holmes, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Social concerns with the imperative of environmentally sustainable life-styles sit rather awkwardly with ideas about the widespread denial of global environmental problems. Given the very obvious threat and denial dimensions to these issues, we conducted two studies assessing the impact of self-affirmation manipulations on people's beliefs and motives regarding pro-environmental actions. In Study 1, participants (N=125) completed a self-affirmation task and read information on the threat of climate change. Results showed that the self-affirmation manipulation resulted in lower levels of denial and greater perceptions of personal involvement in relation to climate change. In Study 2, participants (N=90) completed a self-affirmation task and read some information on recycling. Findings showed a beneficial effect of a self-affirmation manipulation on intentions to increase recycling behaviour (among lower recyclers). The results are discussed in relation to the potential benefits of self-affirmation manipulations for promoting pro-environmental actions. PMID:19793407

  6. Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)

  7. Teaching Controversial Issues in Geography: Climate Change Education in Singaporean Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-Ching; Seow, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate 6 Singaporean geography teachers' understandings of climate change education. The findings indicate that the participants held very different beliefs about the primary purposes of climate change education, in spite of the highly centralized national curriculum and the unambiguous state support for the…

  8. ASR Application in Climate Change Adaptation: The Need, Issues and Research Focus

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on four key points: (a) Aquifer storage and recovery: a long-held practice offering a potential tool for climate change adaptation, (b) The drivers: 1) hydrological perturbations related to climate change, 2) water imbalance in both Qand Vbetween wat...

  9. Modelling climate impact on water in Australia: issues, methods and uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiew, F. H.

    2010-12-01

    Australia is going through a significant period of water reform. The increasing demand for water for cities, industries, irrigation and the environment, and the current prolonged drought in southern Australia and predictions of a drier future are putting immense pressure on water resources. The management challenge in Australia is compounded by the low runoff coefficient and high river flow variability in Australia compared to elsewhere in the world. To underpin water planning and management, several large modelling studies to assess historical and future water availability were recently completed. This paper will discuss the different methods that can be used to estimate future water availability. Simple rules of thumb based on climate elasticities of streamflow and Budyko-type energy and water balance equations can be used for data limited regions or where only mean annual estimates are required. More detailed studies will combine projections from global and regional climate models, methods to downscale climate model projections to catchment-scale climate series and hydrological models that properly consider potential changes in dominant hydrological processes in a warmer, drier and higher CO2 environment. This paper will show that the largest uncertainty in predicting future water availability is in the projections of regional climate, in particular rainfall. For example, there is little agreement between the different global climate models on the direction of change in rainfall in the northern half of continental Australia. However, over the highly populated and important agricultural regions of south-eastern Australia, a large majority of climate models indicate a drier future. The median result from hydrological modelling with future climate projections from more than 20 global climate models indicate that averaged across south-eastern Australia, there will be 10 percent less water (range of result from -30 percent to +10 percent) for a 1oC global warming

  10. Feminist-informed participatory action research: a methodology of choice for examining critical nursing issues.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Andrea M; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2007-04-01

    Identifying a methodology to guide a study that aims to enhance service delivery can be challenging. Participatory action research offers a solution to this challenge as it both informs and is informed by critical social theory. In addition, using a feminist lens helps acquiesce this approach as a suitable methodology for changing practice. This methodology embraces empowerment self-determination and the facilitation of agreed change as central tenets that guide the research process. Encouraged by the work of Foucault, Friere, Habermas, and Maguire, this paper explicates the philosophical assumptions underpinning critical social theory and outlines how feminist influences are complimentary in exploring the processes and applications of nursing research that seeks to embrace change. PMID:17394515

  11. The Use of Sage Water Vapor Data for Investigating Climate Change Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.

    2003-01-01

    SAGE water vapor data has proven valuable for addressing several of the important issues in climate change research. It has been used to investigate how the upper troposphere water vapor responds to warming and convection, a key question in understanding the water vapor feedback to anthropogenic global warming. In the case of summer versus winter differences, SAGE results showed that the upper tropospheric relative humidity remained approximately constant; this result was in general agreement with how a GCM handled the seasonal difference, and gave credence to the argument that the GCM was not overestimating the water vapor feedback associated with convection. In addition, the convection-water vapor relationship was investigated further using SAGE water vapor and ISCCP cloud data. The results showed that upper tropospheric drying did appear to occur simultaneously with deep convective events in the tropics, only to be replaced by moistening a few hours later, associated (most likely) with the reevaporation of moisture from anvil clouds. The total effect was, again, a moistening of the upper troposphere associated with convection. Calculation of the actual trends in upper tropospheric moisture is a potential goal for SAGE data usage; trends calculated with radiosonde data, or instruments calibrated with radiosonde data have the problem of the effect of changing radiosonde instruments. SAGE data have in effect been used to compare different radiosondes through comparisons, and could continue to do so. SAGE 3 should also help clarify the absolute accuracy of SAGE retrievals in the troposphere. and its consequences. Model results show that water vapor increases can help explain the observations of stratospheric cooling, along with increasing C02 and ozone reduction. SAGE has been shown to provide trends similar to those of some other satellite and in situ retrievals, with increasing water vapor over time. However, SAGE is impacted by aerosol contamination which must be

  12. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence and Implications for Clinical Actions

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. PMID:20371080

  13. Structural issues affecting creation of a community action and advocacy board

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M. R.; Abbott, M.; Hilario, H.; Radda, K.; Medina, Z.; Prince, M.; Li, J.; Kaplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The most effective woman-initiated method to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infections is the female condom (FC). Yet, FCs are often difficult to find and denigrated or ignored by community health and service providers. Evidence increasingly supports the need to develop and test theoretically driven, multilevel interventions using a community-empowerment framework to promote FCs in a sustained way. We conducted a study in a midsized northeastern US city (2009–2013) designed to create, mobilize and build capacity of a community group to develop and implement multilevel interventions to increase availability, accessibility and support for FCs in their city. The Community Action and Advocacy Board (CAAB) designed and piloted interventions concurrently targeting community, organizational and individual levels. Ethnographic observation of the CAAB training and intervention planning and pilot implementation sessions documented the process, preliminary successes, challenges and limitations of this model. The CAAB demonstrated ability to conceptualize, plan and initiate multilevel community change. However, challenges in group decision-making and limitations in members’ availability or personal capacity constrained CAAB processes and intervention implementation. Lessons from this experience could inform similar efforts to mobilize, engage and build capacity of community coalitions to increase access to and support for FCs and other novel effective prevention options for at-risk women. PMID:23660461

  14. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  15. Special Issue: In Google's Broad Wake: Taking Responsibility for Shaping the Global Digital Library. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    "ARL" is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). "ARL" reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff and users; higher…

  16. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Special Double Issue on New Measures. Number 230-231, October-December 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  17. After-Action Reports: Capturing Lessons Learned and Identifying Areas for Improvement. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This issue of "Lessons Learned" addresses after-action reports, which are an integral part of the emergency preparedness planning continuum and support effective crisis response. After-action reports have a threefold purpose. They…

  18. The crisis in access to essential medicines in India: key issues which call for action.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kalantri, S P

    2013-01-01

    The government is planning to introduce free generic and essential medicines in public health facilities. Most people in India buy healthcare from the private sector, a compulsion that accounts for a high proportion of healthcare-related expenditure. To reduce the burden of healthcare costs, the government must improve availability and affordability of generic and essential medicines in the market. It can do so because India's large pharmaceutical industry is a major source of generic medicines worldwide. In this article, we discuss three factors that have impeded access to generic and essential medicines: (1) mistaken notions among policymakers, prescribers and patients about branded drugs and generic drugs in India; (2) high prices of medicines due to the progressive dismantling of the system of regulation of medicine prices, and (3) a drug approval and regulatory system that allows medicines (including fixed dose combinations) of doubtful efficacy, rationale, safety and public health relevance to dominate the market at the cost of access to affordable generic and essential medicines. The consequences of ill-health and wasted expenditure on drugs raise issues of public health ethics.Improving access to essential medicines in India is an urgent public health and ethical imperative. This should include improved public provisioning, a system of regulation of drug prices, and an evidence-based drug approval process. PMID:23697486

  19. How the Alliance for Climate Education engages national and local partners to achieve collective impact in climate literacy and action (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Shanley Hope, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) has a mission to educate and inspire young people to break through the challenge of climate change. ACE believes that achieving a safe and stable climate in our lifetime requires the ideas, action and influence of young people. Since 2009, ACE has reached almost 2 million teens in 2,200 schools in over 20 states across the US. In order to support these young people to become leaders in their schools and communities, ACE works closely with local and national partners. In this presentation, ACE will discuss strategic partnerships that have yielded measurable impact and explore how nonprofits, universities, school districts, private companies and government agencies can more effectively align efforts to achieve shared goals. Examples of successful partnerships discussed will include PG&E, Chicago Public Schools, Monterey Bay Aquarium, DC Public Schools, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network, NOAA, The Next Generation, Los Angeles Public Schools and research universities. ACE will also discuss how research in the field of transformational leadership informs our partnership strategy.

  20. Short-Term Climate Variations: Recent Accomplishments and Issues for Future Progress.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1997-06-01

    A short nontechnical review of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and the associated teleconnections to higher latitudes is given. ENSO has been shown to be predictable to some degree for over a year ahead, which therefore provides a basis for skillful prediction of interannual variations in climate. The processes involved are emphasized in order to highlight the areas where future research may most profitably be directed to improve climate forecasts. This progress has been realized through the successful completion of the Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), which has established and maintained the TOGA Observing System, developed coupled atmosphere-ocean models of the tropical Pacific Ocean, demonstrated the predictive capabilities noted above, and conducted field programs to further the understanding of physical processes. Future research will take place in the context of a developing infrastructure associated with operational climate forecasts. Short-term climate variability involves much more than ENSO, and the challenge is to also capitalize on long timescales associated with anomalies in other parts of the climate system and any additional predictability that goes beyond simple persistence and build this into any prediction scheme. The international framework for helping to facilitate future research is CLIVAR-GOALS, the WCRP program on climate variability and predictability, and the subprogram on the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System. The research challenges are many, but the prospects are excellent for making further advances and the potential is high for socioeconomic benefits for many countries. Turning skillful but uncertain forecasts into useful information and beneficial decisions represents a particular challenge, so that collaboration will be required between the physical scientists and scientists from the applications and social science communities.

  1. The Radiation Issue in Cardiology: the time for action is now

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The "radiation issue" is the need to consider possible deterministic effects (e.g., skin injuries) and long-term cancer risks due to ionizing radiation in the risk-benefit assessment of diagnostic or therapeutic testing. Although there are currently no data showing that high-dose medical studies have actually increased the incidence of cancer, the "linear-no threshold" model in radioprotection assumes that no safe dose exists; all doses add up in determining cancer risks; and the risk increases linearly with increasing radiation dose. The possibility of deterministic effects should also be considered when skin or lens doses may be over the threshold. Cardiologists have a special mission to avoid unjustified or non-optimized use of radiation, since they are responsible for 45% of the entire cumulative effective dose of 3.0 mSv (similar to the radiological risk of 150 chest x-rays) per head per year to the US population from all medical sources except radiotherapy. In addition, interventional cardiologists have an exposure per head per year two to three times higher than that of radiologists. The most active and experienced interventional cardiologists in high volume cath labs have an annual exposure equivalent to around 5 mSv per head and a professional lifetime attributable to excess cancer risk on the order of magnitude of 1 in 100. Cardiologists are the contemporary radiologists but sometimes imperfectly aware of the radiological dose of the examination they prescribe or practice, which can range from the equivalent of 1-60 mSv around a reference dose average of 10-15 mSv for a percutaneous coronary intervention, a cardiac radiofrequency ablation, a multi-detector coronary angiography, or a myocardial perfusion imaging scintigraphy. A good cardiologist cannot be afraid of life-saving radiation, but must be afraid of radiation unawareness and negligence. PMID:22104562

  2. Barriers and Opportunities for Local-level Action on Climate Change and Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will highlight findings from a soon-to-be-released report (Climate Change Impacts and Potential Stormwater Responses in the Chesapeake and Great Lakes Regions) that is being developed as a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The report is the pr...

  3. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    PubMed Central

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Mesfin, Desalegn

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study

  4. An integrated climate service strategy for African drought monitoring and prediction: linking information to action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M.

    2008-12-01

    For 23 years, the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has applied climate data analysis in support of timely food insecurity mitigation and adaptation in Africa. FEWS NET, therefore, provides a compelling example of a sector-specific climate service. We briefly review the phases, successes and shortcomings of the FEWS NET climate service, describe an improved long term climate service strategy, and present new research supporting an improved, integrated drought monitoring approach. Our new monitoring system emphasizes seamless links between historical precipitation archives, near real-time rainfall estimates, and 1-to-4 month statistical predictions. Assessment of forecast skill shows useful levels of accuracy for many regions during key periods of the growing season. Integrating these forecasts with near real time blended satellite-gauge precipitation observations facilitates early identification of mid-season agricultural drought. Integrated historical climate archives (1979-present) permit analysis of observed and forecast climate conditions in terms of historical probabilities and analogs. Tools specific to staple crops and pastoralist settings are then used to assess the likely impacts of hydrometeorological anomalies. These are geographically integrated with livelihoods information and interpreted in terms of current food security conditions and timelines to determine human consequences. A client-server web-mapping data portal will allow users to dynamically access the climate anomaly information, and visualize the results in conjunction with livelihood information.

  5. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  6. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue 164

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Ssivachok, S.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian-language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  7. An Issues- and Concepts-Based Curriculum: Teaching about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Keith

    2014-01-01

    I argue that students want to see relevance in their studies. The National Curriculum in England is a list of concepts that we wish them to understand. However, the concepts need to be embedded into a meaningful context, such as climate change, which may become the overarching reason for teaching science. In this article I remember fondly…

  8. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  9. Using a Family Science Day Event to Engage Youth in Climate Change Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, C.; Brevik, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Each fall, Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events for elementary-aged children to increase their engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change and the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change and soil in a fun, interactive environment. The activities also helped the children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focusing on climate change was also offered during the event. The fully immersive, 360-degree show allowed the kids and their parents to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Education majors who participated practiced communicating science concepts to children, and students in other majors who helped with this event gained experiences that reinforced various concepts they had learned in their general education science courses.

  10. Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.

    PubMed

    Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2013-07-01

    Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. PMID:23642302

  11. Creating Impact Functions to Estimate the Domestic Effects of Global Climate Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifying and monetizing the impacts of climate change can be challenging due to the complexity of impacts, availability of data, variability across geographic and temporal time scales, sources of uncertainty, and computational constraints. Recent advancements in using consist...

  12. Problems, Prescriptions and Potential in Actionable Climate Change Science - A Case Study from California Coastal Marsh Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. M.; Ambrose, R. F.; Thorne, K.; Takekawa, J.; Brown, L. N.; Fejtek, S.; Gold, M.; Rosencranz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Frustrations regarding the provision of actionable science extend to both producers and consumers. Scientists decry the lack of application of their research in shaping policy and practices while decision makers bemoan the lack of applicability of scientific research to the specific problems at hand or its narrow focus relative to the plethora of engineering, economic and social considerations that they must also consider. Incorporating climate change adds additional complexity due to uncertainties in estimating many facets of future climate, the inherent variability of climate and the decadal scales over which significant changes will develop. Recently a set of guidelines for successful science-policy interaction was derived from the analysis of transboundary water management. These are; 1 recognizing that science is a crucial but bounded input into the decision-making processes, 2 early establishment of conditions for collaboration and shared commitment among participants, 3 understanding that science-policy interactions are enhanced through greater collaboration and social or group-learning processes, 4 accepting that the collaborative production of knowledge is essential to build legitimate decision-making processes, and 5 engaging boundary organizations and informal networks as well as formal stakeholders. Here we present as a case study research on California coastal marshes, climate change and sea-level that is being conducted by university and USGS scientists under the auspices of the Southwest Climate Science Center. We also present research needs identified by a seperate analysis of best practices for coastal marsh restoration in the face of climate change that was conducted in extensive consultation with planners and managers. The initial communication, scientific research and outreach-dissemination of the marsh scientfic study are outlined and compared to best practices needs identified by planners and the science-policy guidelines outlined above

  13. Seeking Sisterhood: Understanding the Gender Climate on a College Campus Using Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Through Participatory Action Research (PAR), the present study investigated psychological and social aspects of women's experiences at a diverse Catholic college in California (CU). The study sought to better understand female students' perspectives about the environment for women on campus and to develop actionable outcomes to improve…

  14. Engaging Youth in Climate Change Issues with Family Science Day Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.

    2016-04-01

    Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education

  15. Global Climate Change and the Transportation Sector: An Update on Issues and Mitigation Options

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, CA; Dooley, JJ; Kim, SH

    2003-08-24

    It is clear from numerous energy/economic modeling exercises that addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and all consumers on the planet. Yet, these and similar modeling exercises indicate that large stationary CO2 point sources (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) are often the first targets considered for serious CO2 emissions mitigation. Without participation of all sectors of the global economy, however, the challenges of climate change mitigation will not be met. Because of its operating characteristics, price structure, dependence on virtually one energy source (oil), enormous installed infrastructure, and limited technology alternatives, at least in the near-term, the transportation sector will likely represent a particularly difficult challenge for CO2 emissions mitigation. Our research shows that climate change induced price signals (i.e., putting a price on carbon that is emitted to the atmosphere) are in the near term insufficient to drive fundamental shifts in demand for energy services or to transform the way these services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. This paper presents an update of ongoing research into a variety of technological options that exist for decarbonizing the transportation sector and the various tradeoffs among them.

  16. Sciencetogo.Org: Using Humor to Engage a Public Audience with the Serious Issue of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Rabkin, D.; Wilson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators, scientists, and communication experts from multiple universities as well as a Science museum will report on the impact of ScienceToGo.org, which is an Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) exhibit targeting adults riding a major subway system. The campaign's goal is to design, implement, and study the efficacy of an OHMM model for free choice science learning about our changing climate. Subway riders represent a diverse and captive audience with most of them spending an average of one hour a day in the subway system. Through the use of specially designed OHMM such as train placards, platform posters, and virtual resources the campaign engages a potential audience of 500,000 riders/day with opportunities to learn climate change science informally. The primary goal of the ScienceToGo.org campaign is to engage, entertain, and educate the adult subway riding community in major U.S. city about climate change as a real, relevant, and solvable local challenge. A naturalistic quasi-experimental inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design with half of the subway system exposed to the project signage (experimental group) and the other half not being exposed to the project signage (control group). To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, analytic data associated with website, social media, web app, focus groups, and observations. This campaign is an example of how an individual's daily routine may be enhanced with an informal science learning opportunity. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The campaign makes deliberate use of humor and fun to engage a public and diverse audience with the serious issue of climate change. The research that will be presented will reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy when communicating science to a diverse

  17. Modeling Floods under Climate Change Condition in Otava River, Czech Republic: A Time Scale Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhelka, J.; Krejci, J.; Vlasak, T.

    2009-04-01

    While modeling of climate change (CC) impact on low flow and water balance is commonly done using daily time series of Global Circulation models (GCM) outputs, assessing CC impact on rare events as floods demands for special methodology. Paper demonstrates methodology, results and its sensitivity to the length of simulation in meso-scale basin. Multiple regional projection of temperature and precipitation under A2, A1B a B1 scenarios for 2040-2069 were evaluated in study of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Charles University (Pretel et al. 2008) for the Czech Republic. Daily time series of length of 30 years and 100 years (precipitation, Tmax, Tmin) were generated using LARS-WG (Semenov, 2008) based on expected monthly change of temperature and precipitation amount and variability for upper Otava river basin in mountainous region in SW Bohemia. Daily precipitation data were distributed into 6h time step using three step random generator. Spatial distribution of precipitation was based on random sampling of relevant historical analogues while temperature was distributed using simple vertical gradient rule. Derived time series of A2, A1B, B1 and recent climate (RC) scenarios inputted calibrated hydrological modeling system AquaLog (using SAC-SMA for rainfall-runoff modeling). Correction of SAC-SMA parameter defining potential evapotranspiration for changed climate was applied. Evaluation was made for Susice profile (534.5 km2), representing the mountainous part of the basin, and downstream Katovice profile (1133.4 km2). Results proved expected decrease of annual flow by 5-10 % (10-15 % in summer, 0-5 % in winter) for all modeled CC scenarios (for period 2040-2069) compared to recent climate. Design flows were computed based on yearly peaks using standard methodology. Decrease in design flow curves was observed for Katovice while no change (A1B, B1) or increase (A2) was found for Susice in 100 years time series. Estimates of 100y floods based on 30 or 100 years

  18. Climate Feedbacks: Some Conceptual and Physical Issues (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Discussion of feedbacks in the climate literature is hampered by a lack of clear distinction between the many different senses in which the term climate feedback is used. In a recent non-exhaustive study of this topic (Bates, QJRMS, 2007, 545-560, Erratum, p. 1071), four categories of feedback have been delineated: categories F1 (control theory definition), F2 (electronics definition), F3 (stability-altering definition) and F4 (sensitivity-altering definition). It was shown that these four categories, often regarded as synonymous, are conceptually distinct and that any pair of them can have conflicting signs when applied to an appropriately chosen system. In this presentation, the above results will be discussed and the investigation will be further extended. The system used for the extended investigation is a two-zone (tropics and extratropics) hemispheric climate model incorporating a linearized version of the Iris mechanism of Lindzen et al. (BAMS, 2001, 417-432) in the tropical zone, and dynamical heat transport between the tropical and extratropical zones. This model is based on top-of-the-atmosphere energy balance. The Iris feedback is in the first instance a local stability-altering (F3) feedback, being based on satellite observations that indicate how cloud-radiative effects cause a tropical SST perturbation about the equilibrium climate to decay back to zero. The observations were used by Lindzen et al. in conjunction with a simple one-zone hemispheric model to estimate the influence of the Iris mechanism as a global sensitivity-altering (F4) feedback. In the context of their model, the Iris feedback necessarily has the same sign as an F3 and an F4 feedback, strongly stabilizing local SST perturbations and strongly diminishing the equilibrium sensitivity of the global-mean surface temperature to a CO2 doubling. It will be shown that when the more complete two-zone model involving dynamical heat transport is used, the equivalence in sign between the Iris

  19. Climate Change and Children: Health Risks of Abatement Inaction, Health Gains from Action.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    As human-driven climate change advances, many adults fret about the losses of livelihoods, houses and farms that may result. Children fret about their parents' worries and about information they hear, but do not really understand about the world's climate and perhaps about their own futures. In chronically worried or anxious children, blood cortisol levels rise and adverse changes accrue in various organ systems that prefigure adult-life diseases. Meanwhile, for many millions of children in poor countries who hear little news and live with day-to-day fatalism, climate change threatens the fundamentals of life-food sufficiency, safe drinking water and physical security-and heightens the risks of diarrhoeal disease, malaria and other climate-sensitive infections. Poor and disadvantaged populations, and especially their children, will bear the brunt of climate-related trauma, disease and premature death over the next few decades and, less directly, from social disruption, impoverishment and displacement. The recent droughts in Somalia as the Indian Ocean warmed and monsoonal rains failed, on top of chronic civil war, forced hundreds of thousands of Somali families into north-eastern Kenya's vast Dadaab refugee camps, where, for children, shortages of food, water, hygiene and schooling has endangered physical, emotional and mental health. Children warrant special concern, both as children per se and as the coming generation likely to face ever more extreme climate conditions later this century. As children, they face diverse risks, from violent weather, proliferating aeroallergens, heat extremes and mobilised microbes, through to reduced recreational facilities, chronic anxieties about the future and health hazards of displacement and local resource conflict. Many will come to regard their parents' generation and complacency as culpable. PMID:27417469

  20. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence.

  1. Adjudicating pathological criminal incapacity within a climate of ultimate issue barriers: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Geert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Mental health experts are increasingly being utilised by the criminal justice system to provide assistance to courts during the assessment of issues falling beyond the knowledge and/or experience of the courts. A particular domain where the assistance of qualified psychiatrists and psychologists is becoming essential is where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity falls to be assessed. Mental health professionals testifying during trials where the defence of pathological criminal incapacity is raised will present opinion evidence which is one of the exceptions to the rule of inadmissibility of opinion evidence. Mental health professionals providing their opinion evidence are, however, prohibited from expressing opinions on so-called "ultimate issues" upon which only the court may ultimately rule upon. The latter rule is also commonly known in practice as the "ultimate issue" rule which presents multifaceted challenges in respect of the application of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. In this article, the author assesses the application of the ultimate issue rule with reference to the defence of pathological criminal incapacity as it operates within the South African criminal law context. A comparative analysis is also provided with reference to the rule as it operates in the United States of America and more specifically Federal Rule 704. It is concluded that the ultimate issue rule unnecessarily restricts testimony provided by mental health professionals as such placing a barrier on such evidence. As such, it is argued that the rule is superfluous as it remains within the discretion of the trier of fact to decide as to what weight to attach to such evidence. PMID:25681851

  2. Managing and Mitigating the Health Risks of Climate Change: Calling for Evidence-Informed Policy and Action

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shilu; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Ebi, Kristie; Olsen, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Climate change affects many natural and social systems and processes that are essential for life. It disrupts the Earth’s life-support systems that underpin the world’s capacity to supply adequate food and fresh water, and it disturbs the eco-physical buffering against natural disasters. Epidemiologists need to develop and improve research and monitoring programs to better understand the scale and immediacy of the threat of climate change to human health and to act within a much larger and more comprehensive framework. To address one of the greatest environmental issues of our lifetime, the scientific and policy-making communities should work together to formulate evidence-informed public policy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to its inevitable impacts in this generation and, more importantly, in future generations to come. PMID:27689449

  3. Zika virus: A call to action for physicians in the era of climate change.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Sarfaty, Mona

    2016-12-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a "public health emergency of international concern" as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, it's highly likely that the changes in the climate contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus, the pathogen causing serious birth defects. Physicians, both individually and collectively, as trusted and educated members of society have critical roles to play. In addition to clinical management and prevention of Zika, physicians should communicate about the health benefits of addressing climate change in straightforward evidence-based language to their local communities and policymakers, and make clear their support for policies mitigating climate change.

  4. Time for Action. The World Embarks on the Tortuous Road toward a Climate Treaty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the United Nations call for a climate treaty to be ready to sign in 1992. The international controls on the emissions of gases that threaten to warm the planet are at the core of the proposed treaty. U.S. policy and other policies are discussed. (KR)

  5. Zika virus: A call to action for physicians in the era of climate change.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Sarfaty, Mona

    2016-12-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a "public health emergency of international concern" as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, it's highly likely that the changes in the climate contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus, the pathogen causing serious birth defects. Physicians, both individually and collectively, as trusted and educated members of society have critical roles to play. In addition to clinical management and prevention of Zika, physicians should communicate about the health benefits of addressing climate change in straightforward evidence-based language to their local communities and policymakers, and make clear their support for policies mitigating climate change. PMID:27617189

  6. The Promise of Using Energy Tracking Data to Promote Home-School Connections and Youth Agency in Climate Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E.; Jenkins, D.; Cordero, E.

    2015-12-01

    Formal classroom learning experiences that support energy conservation behaviors outside the classroom necessarily must bridge students' home and school lives, as knowledge and practice learned in the classroom is implemented outside of school. To this end, we study the impact of the Green Ninja Energy Tracker curriculum, which uses students' home energy data in the classroom to promote engagement in climate change and conservation behaviors. Data is drawn from class observations, a focus group, and pre- and post- surveys of a pilot implementation of this curriculum in a diverse 12th-grade Earth Science classroom at an alternative school. We investigate what factors contributed to student engagement in learning about and participating in energy conservation behaviors. We found that students were engaged by the immediacy of tracking their energy use in near-real time, and were motivated by the economic benefits experienced as a direct result of changing their behaviors. In addition, students reported discussing and problem-solving energy use with their families, and surfaced considerations that informed which energy behaviors were implemented and why. Students also reported high levels of personal agency in taking action on climate change, but were pessimistic about the likelihood of society as a whole taking action. We suggest that this pilot demonstrates that potential power of connecting students' home and school lives through energy tracker software as a catalyst for developing scientific expertise and engagement, and supporting energy conservation behaviors.

  7. Relative role of climatic factors and anthropogenic actions in the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Queiroga, Henrique; Brotas, Vanda; Fortunato, André B.; Manso, Maria Dolores

    2013-04-01

    The Aveiro lagoon harbours one of the largest saltmarshes in Europe, with a significant role of ecological services, supporting at the same time several economic activities that might impact its water and ecological quality. Besides the pressures associated with human activities, the impacts of climate change in estuarine ecosystems are also matter of concern worldwide. In this context, understanding the systems' natural variability, the impacts of climate change and the relative role of anthropogenic pressures is essential to ensure estuarine ecosystems' long-term management. Thus, this study evaluates the influence of climatic factors and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon based on an integrated approach. This approach combines the analysis of long time series from the past 25 years and high-resolution numerical modelling of future scenarios of climate change (increase in air temperature, changes in the precipitation regimes and sea level rise) and anthropogenic interventions (dredging, a marina construction and emergency by-pass wastewater discharges) in the lagoon. The analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of variability of the water and ecological quality in the Aveiro lagoon at different scales, based on historical data from 1985 to 2010 complemented by the campaigns performed, suggested a combined influence of the climatic variability and anthropogenic interventions. Future scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic interventions simulated revealed a larger influence of climate change when compared with the analysed anthropogenic actions. The most important variations from the reference scenario are predicted for the sea level rise scenarios, followed by the changes in the hydrological regimes scenarios, putting in evidence the main role of circulation (tide and river flow) in establishing the water quality and ecological dynamics in the lagoon. A significant decrease of chlorophyll a and

  8. Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Solomon Islands: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    PubMed Central

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands’ responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  9. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  10. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-06-25

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change.

  11. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  12. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  13. 20 CFR 10.541 - What action will OWCP take after issuing written notice of its intention to reduce or terminate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What action will OWCP take after issuing written notice of its intention to reduce or terminate compensation? 10.541 Section 10.541 Employees... of its intention to reduce or terminate compensation? (a) If the beneficiary submits evidence...

  14. Response to Special Issue of "Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education" Concerning "Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the six authors in the special issue of "Action, Criticism and Theory for Music Education" concerning her book "Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy." In this response, the author focuses on some general observations that came to mind whilst reading the valuable set of…

  15. An Action Research Study on the Influence of Gangsta Rap on Academic and Behavioral Issues of 5th Grade African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…

  16. Evaluation of awareness and preparedness of school Principals and teachers on earthquake reduction effects issues - State's actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourou, Assimina; Ioakeimidou, Anastasia; Mokos, Vasileios; Bakas, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    primary and secondary schools of 9 different prefectures of Greece. Approximately 1.100 responses have been gathered. The analysis of the results indicated that approximately 60% of the surveyed teachers have experienced at least one earthquake at school, which is expected due to Greece's high seismicity (50% of the released seismic energy in Europe). Additionally, the level of knowledge of surveyed teachers on earthquake protection measures is very high. A significant majority of the teachers, were reported being familiar with the identification and reduction of non structural hazards at their home, and the development of School's Emergency Plans. On the other hand, approximately the 25% of the responders were not aware of their school emergency plan or they claimed that such a plan does not exist at their schools. These teachers have not participated in any earthquake school drill. Thus, even though a lot of State's initiatives have been implemented till now to build awareness towards earthquakes and establish a preparedness status for prospective earthquakes in school community, there are still proposed actions to be taken in order to improve the teachers' ability to plan or implement activities concerning earthquake management issues.

  17. How long can fisheries management delay action in response to ecosystem and climate change?

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher J; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of fisheries is often compromised by management delaying implementation of regulations that reduce harvest, in order to maintain higher catches in the short-term. Decreases or increases in fish population growth rate driven by environmental change, including ecosystem and climate change, affect the harvest that can be taken sustainably. If not acted on rapidly, environmental change could result in unsustainable fishing or missed opportunity for higher catches. Using simulation models of harvested fish populations influenced by environmental change, we explore how long fisheries managers can afford to wait before changing harvest regulations in response to changes in population growth. If environmental change causes population declines, delays greater than five years increase the probability of population collapse. Species with fast and highly variable population growth rates are more susceptible to collapse under delays and should be a priority for revised management where delays occur. Generally, the long-term cost of delay, in terms of lost fishing opportunity, exceeds the short-term benefits of overfishing. Lowering harvest limits and monitoring for environmental change can alleviate the impact of delays; however, these measures may be more costly than reducing delays. We recommend that management systems that allow rapid responses to population growth changes be enacted for fisheries management to adapt to ecosystem and climate change.

  18. ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, Nos. 190-195. February-December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    This document consists of six issues of the ARL (Association of Research Libraries) Newsletter, covering the year 1997. Each issue of the newsletter includes some or all of the following sections: "Current Issues," reports from the Office of Scholarly Communication, Office for Management Services, and Coalition for Networked Information, "Federal…

  19. Effects of Climate Change on soil carbon and nitrogen storage in the US Great Plains. Special Issue "Mitigation of Climate Change"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils of the US Great Plains are strongly affected by climate and contain enormous soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic nitrogen stocks (SON) that are likely vulnerable to predicted climate and land-use change. Climate change scenarios predict a 2.2-3.6°C (4-6.5°F) increase in temperature acro...

  20. Prospects for future climate change and the reasons for early action

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, Michael C.

    2008-06-15

    Combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas, and to a lesser extent deforestation, land-cover change, and emissions of halocarbons and other greenhouse gases, are rapidly increasing the atmospheric concentrations of climate-warming gases. The global average temperature is already approximately 0.8{sup o}C above its preindustrial level, and present atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases will contribute to further warming of 0.5-1{sup o}C as equilibrium is re-established. Warming has been and will be greater in mid and high latitudes compared with low latitudes, over land compared with oceans, and at night compared with day. As emissions continue to increase, both warming and the commitment to future warming are presently increasing at a rate of approximately 0.2{sup o}C per decade, with projections that the rate of warming will further increase if emission controls are not put in place. Such warming and the associated changes are likely to result in severe impacts on key societal and environmental support systems. Present estimates are that limiting the increase in global average surface temperature to no more than 2-2.5{sup o}C above its 1750 value of approximately 15{sup o}C will be required to avoid the most catastrophic, but certainly not all, consequences of climate change. Accomplishing this will require reducing emissions sharply by 2050 and to near zero by 2100. This can only be achieved if: (1) developed nations move rapidly to demonstrate that a modem society can function without reliance on technologies that release carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases to the atmosphere; and (2) if developing nations act in the near-term to sharply limit their non-CO{sub 2} emissions while minimizing growth in CO{sub 2} emissions, and then in the long-term join with the developed nations to reduce all emissions as cost-effective technologies are developed. 183 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Climate change: Update on international negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the following: United Nations` framework convention on climatic change; the United States` climate change action plan; current issues to be resolved (targets/timetables, policies, advancing commitments of all parties, and compliance); and implications for clean coal technologies.

  2. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization.

  3. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host–parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)—phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference—provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. PMID:25688014

  4. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. PMID:25688014

  5. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  6. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable.

  8. Tectonic-Climate Interactions in Action Orogenic Belts: Quantification of Dynamic Topography with SRTM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbank, Douglas W.; Oskin, Mike; Niemi, Nathan; Miller, Scott

    2005-01-01

    where to sample to obtain the optimal erosion rate estimates using CRN techniques. Finally, we developed computational techniques to operate on DEMs to extract useful information that would enable quantification of climate-erosion interactions. In particular, we worked on rapid techniques to define catchments of any given range of sizes, to extract channel gradients, to combine precipitation information to calculate discharge, and to utilize various stream-power models to determine the erosional energy within any given catchment within a transect. We briefly describe results from Wheeler Ridge, the Kyrgyz Range, the Nepal Himalaya, and our numerical modeling.

  9. Economic Affirmative Action in College Admissions: A Progressive Alternative to Racial Preferences and Class Rank Admissions Plans. Issue Brief Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard

    This brief explores the pros and cons of three alternative approaches to college admissions policies: race-based preferences, which are backed by most Democrats; class-rank plans (admitting the top students in each high school), which is backed by the Bush administration; and economic affirmative action for the disadvantaged of all races, which…

  10. When Soda Is a Social Justice Issue: Design and Documentation of a Participatory Action Research Project with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    Schools are increasingly seen as having a promising role to play in reducing adverse health and wellness outcomes among young people. This paper uses a collaborative action research approach to examine the effects of one school's efforts to change its students' eating habits by implementing a "junk-food free campus." By engaging school…

  11. Actionable Science in Practice: Co-Producing Climate Change Information for Water Utility Vulnerability Assessments. Four Case Studies from the Water Utility Climate Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.; Behar, D. H.; Fleming, P.; Asefa, T.; Heyn, K.; Brooks, K.; Cohn, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Piloting Utility Modeling Applications (PUMA) project featured four water utilities - New York, Tampa Bay, Seattle, and Portland - from the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) who worked in collaboration with local climate science consortiums to hand-pick or develop locally appropriate tools, projections, and approaches to understand the impact of climate change on drinking water supplies. These utilities pursued customized approaches based on specific utility needs and learned important lessons in conducting assessments that may be of interest to the wider adaptation community. In addition, these projects are examples of succesfull environments in which utility managers worked collaboratively and iteratively with climate scientists to understand both utility concerns and the ability or limitations of today's climate science to respond to those concerns. Broader lessons that cut across the pilots are presented in a closing chapter.

  12. An actionable climate target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  13. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California

  14. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  15. Breast Cancer and Occupation: The Need for Action: APHA Policy Statement Number 20146, Issued November 18, 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women in the United States and other countries, making it a major public health concern. Despite significant scientific evidence about its known or suspected causes, research and prevention measures to identify and eliminate occupational and other environmental hazards and risk factors for breast cancer remain largely overlooked. As a result, hazards continue unabated for women generally, especially those who work outside the home. The science linking breast cancer and occupation in particular is growing. Researchers have identified commonly used chemicals that induce breast tumors in test animals. Animal studies link chemicals that mimic reproductive hormones to elevated breast cancer rates. Other animal and human studies link chemical exposures to increased breast cancer rates, including two recent investigations focused on occupational hazards. But the latter are the exception. Studies that attempt to identify and characterize workplace agents linked to breast cancer, as well as intervention studies focusing on the use of less toxic processes and substances, are limited. In what might be construed as a case of gender and social class bias, many research and funding agencies have ignored or downplayed the role of occupational studies despite their relevance to prevention efforts. Action required starts with making a national priority of promoting and supporting research on occupational and other environmental causes of breast cancer. Other public health actions include hazard surveillance and primary prevention activities such as reductions in the use of toxic materials, informed substitution, and green chemistry efforts. The original document is accessible at the APHA website, http://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2015/01/07/14/55/breast-cancer-and-occupation.

  16. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area. PMID:21528402

  17. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area.

  18. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed. PMID:26989826

  19. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  20. Career Issues and Laboratory Climates: Different Challenges and Opportunities for Women Engineers and Scientists (survey of Fiscal Year 1997 Powre Awardees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Zieseniss, Mireille

    A survey of fiscal year 1997 POWRE (Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education) awardees from the National Science Foundation revealed that women engineers and scientists face similar issues, challenges, and opportunities and think that the laboratory climate has similar impacts on their careers. Separating responses of women scientists from those of women engineers revealed that 70% of both groups listed balancing work with family responsibilities as the most difficult issue. Discrepancies in percentages of women, coupled with differences among disciplinary and subdisciplinary cultures within science, engineering, mathematics, and technology fields, complicate work climates and their impact on women's careers. More frequently than women scientists, women engineers listed issues such as (a) low numbers of women leading to isolation, (b) lack of camaraderie and mentoring, (c) gaining credibility/respect from peers and administrators, (d) time management, (e) prioritizing responsibilities due to disproportionate demands, and (f) learning the rules of the game to survive in a male-dominated environment. Women engineers also listed two positive issues more frequently than women scientists: active recruitment/more opportunities for women and impact of successful women in the profession. The small number of women engineers may explain these results and suggests that it may be inappropriate to group them with other women scientists for analysis, programs, and policies.

  1. Scientific issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements

    PubMed Central

    Shine, K. P.; Berntsen, T. K.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Sausen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol seeks to limit emissions of various greenhouse gases but excludes short-lived species and their precursors even though they cause a significant climate forcing. We explore the difficulties that are faced when designing metrics to compare the climate impact of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with other emissions. There are two dimensions to this difficulty. The first concerns the definition of a metric that satisfactorily accounts for its climate impact. NOx emissions increase tropospheric ozone, but this increase and the resulting climate forcing depend strongly on the location of the emissions, with low-latitude emissions having a larger impact. NOx emissions also decrease methane concentrations, causing a global-mean radiative forcing similar in size but opposite in sign to the ozone forcing. The second dimension of difficulty concerns the intermodel differences in the values of computed metrics. We explore the use of indicators that could lead to metrics that, instead of using global-mean inputs, are computed locally and then averaged globally. These local metrics may depend less on cancellation in the global mean; the possibilities presented here seem more robust to model uncertainty, although their applicability depends on the poorly known relationship between local climate change and its societal/ecological impact. If it becomes a political imperative to include NOx emissions in future climate agreements, policy makers will be faced with difficult choices in selecting an appropriate metric. PMID:16243971

  2. Scientific issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements.

    PubMed

    Shine, K P; Berntsen, T K; Fuglestvedt, J S; Sausen, R

    2005-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol seeks to limit emissions of various greenhouse gases but excludes short-lived species and their precursors even though they cause a significant climate forcing. We explore the difficulties that are faced when designing metrics to compare the climate impact of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) with other emissions. There are two dimensions to this difficulty. The first concerns the definition of a metric that satisfactorily accounts for its climate impact. NO(x) emissions increase tropospheric ozone, but this increase and the resulting climate forcing depend strongly on the location of the emissions, with low-latitude emissions having a larger impact. NO(x) emissions also decrease methane concentrations, causing a global-mean radiative forcing similar in size but opposite in sign to the ozone forcing. The second dimension of difficulty concerns the intermodel differences in the values of computed metrics. We explore the use of indicators that could lead to metrics that, instead of using global-mean inputs, are computed locally and then averaged globally. These local metrics may depend less on cancellation in the global mean; the possibilities presented here seem more robust to model uncertainty, although their applicability depends on the poorly known relationship between local climate change and its societal/ecological impact. If it becomes a political imperative to include NO(x) emissions in future climate agreements, policy makers will be faced with difficult choices in selecting an appropriate metric.

  3. [Keynote address: Climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Forrister, D.

    1994-12-31

    Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

  4. Providing farmers, ranchers, and foresters in California with actionable climate information: opportunities and obstacles for California's USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Stine, P.; Chambers, J.; Fischer, C.; Kiger, L.; Hedt, T.; Gonzales, O.; Tse, R.; Tse, A.; Gunasekara, A.; Henly, R.; DeLaRosa, J.; Battany, M.; Pathak, T.; Parker, D.; Schwartz, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Kalansky, J.; Kehmeier, E.; Xides, A.; Marshall, A.; Jagannathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    California is the #1 agricultural state in the US, with output worth $50 billion in 2014. California produces half the nation's specialty crops (fruits, vegetables, and nuts) and is a leader in beef and dairy production. California also has 10% of the forestland west of the Mississippi, including many economically and ecologically important forest types. The USDA Regional Climate Sub Hub for California was created in 2014 to help land users (farmers, ranchers, and forest land owners) cope with climate variability and change, via two-way linkages with producers of climate information. In its first year and a half, the Sub Hub has formed partnerships with California's many other climate-focused organizations, including state and federal government, universities, and NGOs. The Sub Hub coordinates climate-related work among several USDA agencies (ARS, FS, NRCS, and others), which formerly had no mechanism to do so. The Sub Hub also works with other federal climate programs (such as the DOI's CA Landscape Conservation Cooperative, with which the Sub Hub is engaged in a multi-year assessment to balance conservation and agriculture in the Central Valley). State government agencies, such as the Natural Resources Agency and the Department of Food and Agriculture, are key partners for priority-setting and data-sharing. One of the Sub Hub's crucial synergies is with UC Cooperative Extension, which provides insight into land users' needs and provides an outlet to deliver Sub Hub products on the ground. In response to stakeholder concerns, the Sub Hub's 2015-16 emphasis is the ongoing California drought. The Sub Hub's current stakeholder-focused projects include (1) a climate vulnerability assessment of California rangelands, including detailed maps of likely vegetation change and suggestions for location-specific adaptation options; (2) a comprehensive climate-related update of Cooperative Extension's widely used Forest Stewardship Series for private landowners; (3) a study on

  5. Interagency collaboration in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains: Federal-university climate service networks for producing actionable information for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; McNie, E.; Averyt, K.; Morisette, J. T.; Derner, J. D.; Ojima, D. S.; Dilling, L.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Several federal agencies in north-central United States are each working to develop and disseminate useful climate information to enhance resilience to climate change. This talk will discuss how the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) the North Central Climate Science Center, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Water Assessment RISA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Climate Hub, are building and managing a collaborative research and climate-service network in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. This presentation will describe the evolution of the interagency collaboration and the partnership with universities to build a climate service network. Such collaboration takes time and intention and must include the right people and organizations to effectively bridge the gap between use-inspired research and application. In particular, we will discuss a focus on the Upper Missouri Basin, developing research to meet needs in a basin that has had relatively less attention on risks of climate change and adaptation to those risks. Each organization has its own mission, stakeholders, and priorities, but there are many commonalities and potential synergies. Together, these organizations, and their agency scientists and university partners, are fostering cross-agency collaboration at the regional scale to optimize efficient allocation of resources while simultaneously enabling information to be generated at a scale that is relevant to decision makers. By each organization knowing the others needs and priorities, there are opportunities to craft research agendas and strategies for providing services that take advantage of the strengths and skills of the different organizations. University partners are key components of each organization, and of the collaboration, who bring in expertise beyond that in the agencies, in particular connections to social scientists, extension services.

  6. Top scientific organizations urge governments to tackle climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commissariat, Tushna

    2015-09-01

    Some 24 of the UK's foremost academic and professional institutions, including the Royal Society and the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World, have issued a joint statement on climate change urging governments to take immediate action to avert the risks posed by the changing climate.

  7. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  8. Climate Science Centers: An "Existence Theorem" for a Federal-University Partnership to Develop Actionable and Needs-Driven Science Agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    Climate Science Centers: An "Existence Theorem" for a Federal-University Partnership to Develop Actionable and Needs-Driven Science Agendas. Berrien Moore III (University of Oklahoma) The South Central Climate Science Center (CSC) is one of eight regional centers established by the Department of the Interior (DoI) under Secretarial Order 3289 to address the impacts of climate change on America's water, land, and other natural and cultural resources. Under DoI leadership and funding, these CSCs will provide scientific information tools and techniques to study impacts of climate change synthesize and integrate climate change impact data develop tools that the DoI managers and partners can use when managing the DOI's land, water, fish and wildlife, and cultural heritage resources (emphasis added) The network of Climate Science Centers will provide decision makers with the science, tools, and information they need to address the impacts of climate variability and change on their areas of responsibility. Note from Webster, a tool is a device for doing work; it makes outcomes more realizable and more cost effective, and, in a word, better. Prior to the existence of CSCs, the university and federal scientific world certainly contained a large "set" of scientists with considerable strength in the physical, biological, natural, and social sciences to address the complexities and interdisciplinary nature of the challenges in the areas of climate variability, change, impacts, and adaptation. However, this set of scientists were hardly an integrated community let alone a focused team, but rather a collection of distinguished researchers, educators, and practitioners that were working with disparate though at times linked objectives, and they were rarely aligning themselves formally to an overarching strategic pathway. In addition, data, models, research results, tools, and products were generally somewhat "disconnected" from the broad range of stakeholders. I should note also

  9. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  10. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured.

  11. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  12. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  13. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    In examining interrelationships among population, resources, environment and development, it must always be kept in mind that population trends not only affect those other factors but are profoundly affected by them. This requires an approach that goes beyond inquiries into the determinants and consequences of demographic change, involving a systems approach in which all factors are treated simultaneously. 4 topics are treated: 1) food and nutrition; 2) social aspects of development; 3) resources and environment; and 4) integrated planning; each viewed as a selected example of key problem areas, the understanding of which is better revealed when considered as an aspect of the holistic and synergistic character of the interrelationships. The division of topics is not arbitrary: the 1st 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The latter process and the environmental problems which result from affluence are described in the next section, where the environment is viewed both as a supplier of resources and as a repository of wastes. Supplies of minerals, energy and water are considered 1st. Attention then turns to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and that may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization and waterlogging. The 4th section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning.

  14. Water-the Nation's Fundamental Climate Issue A White Paper on the U.S. Geological Survey Role and Capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, Harry F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kiang, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Of all the potential threats posed by climatic variability and change, those associated with water resources are arguably the most consequential for both society and the environment (Waggoner, 1990). Climatic effects on agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, energy, and industry are strongly influenced by climatic effects on water. Thus, understanding changes in the distribution, quantity and quality of, and demand for water in response to climate variability and change is essential to planning for and adapting to future climatic conditions. A central role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with respect to climate is to document environmental changes currently underway and to develop improved capabilities to predict future changes. Indeed, a centerpiece of the USGS role is a new Climate Effects Network of monitoring sites. Measuring the climatic effects on water is an essential component of such a network (along with corresponding effects on terrestrial ecosystems). The USGS needs to be unambiguous in communicating with its customers and stakeholders, and with officials at the Department of the Interior, that although modeling future impacts of climate change is important, there is no more critical role for the USGS in climate change science than that of measuring and describing the changes that are currently underway. One of the best statements of that mission comes from a short paper by Ralph Keeling (2008) that describes the inspiration and the challenges faced by David Keeling in operating the all-important Mauna Loa Observatory over a period of more than four decades. Ralph Keeling stated: 'The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking changes decade after decade and poring over the records.' There are three key ideas that are important to the USGS in the above-mentioned sentence. First, to understand what is happening requires measurement. While models are a tool for learning and testing our understanding

  15. "It's Not a Political Issue!" The Interaction of Subject and Politics on Professors' Beliefs in Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the interaction of political orientation with academic discipline on beliefs in anthropogenic climate change (ACC) among higher education faculty. Over 300 faculty members at two research institutions in the United States were surveyed on topics concerning ACC and the results were analyzed with multiple regression. Even among…

  16. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  17. Using a map-based assessment tool for the development of cost-effective WFD river basin action programmes in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Jacobsen, Torsten Vammen; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Boegh, Eva; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Müller, Henrik Gioertz; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-08-01

    For the 2nd and 3rd river basin management cycles (2015-2027) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), EU Member States are required to fully integrate climate change into the process of river basin management planning (RBMP). Complying with the main WFD objective of achieving 'good ecological status' in all water bodies in Denmark requires Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to reduce nitrogen (N) pollution from point and diffuse sources. Denmark is among the world's most intensively farmed countries and in spite of thirty years of significant policy actions to reduce diffuse nutrient emissions, there is still a need for further reductions. In addition, the impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a situation where nutrient loads will have to be reduced still further in comparison to current climate conditions. There is an urgent need to address this challenge in WFD action programmes in order to develop robust and cost-effective adaptation strategies for the next WFD RBMP cycles. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and discuss how a map-based PoMs assessment tool can support the development of adaptive and cost-effective strategies to reduce N losses in the Isefjord and Roskilde Fjord River Basin in the north east of Denmark. The tool facilitates assessments of the application of agri-environmental measures that are targeted towards low retention agricultural areas, where limited or no surface and subsurface N reduction takes place. Effects of climate change on nitrate leaching were evaluated using the dynamic agro-ecosystem model 'Daisy'. Results show that nitrate leaching rates increase by approx. 25% under current management practices. This impact outweighs the expected total N reduction effect of Baseline 2015 and the first RBMP in the case study river basin. The particular PoMs investigated in our study show that WFD N reduction targets can be achieved by targeted land use changes on approx. 4% of the agricultural area under current climate conditions

  18. Using a map-based assessment tool for the development of cost-effective WFD river basin action programmes in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Jacobsen, Torsten Vammen; Butts, Michael Brian; Jensen, Niels H; Boegh, Eva; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Müller, Henrik Gioertz; Kjaer, Tyge

    2016-08-01

    For the 2nd and 3rd river basin management cycles (2015-2027) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), EU Member States are required to fully integrate climate change into the process of river basin management planning (RBMP). Complying with the main WFD objective of achieving 'good ecological status' in all water bodies in Denmark requires Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to reduce nitrogen (N) pollution from point and diffuse sources. Denmark is among the world's most intensively farmed countries and in spite of thirty years of significant policy actions to reduce diffuse nutrient emissions, there is still a need for further reductions. In addition, the impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a situation where nutrient loads will have to be reduced still further in comparison to current climate conditions. There is an urgent need to address this challenge in WFD action programmes in order to develop robust and cost-effective adaptation strategies for the next WFD RBMP cycles. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and discuss how a map-based PoMs assessment tool can support the development of adaptive and cost-effective strategies to reduce N losses in the Isefjord and Roskilde Fjord River Basin in the north east of Denmark. The tool facilitates assessments of the application of agri-environmental measures that are targeted towards low retention agricultural areas, where limited or no surface and subsurface N reduction takes place. Effects of climate change on nitrate leaching were evaluated using the dynamic agro-ecosystem model 'Daisy'. Results show that nitrate leaching rates increase by approx. 25% under current management practices. This impact outweighs the expected total N reduction effect of Baseline 2015 and the first RBMP in the case study river basin. The particular PoMs investigated in our study show that WFD N reduction targets can be achieved by targeted land use changes on approx. 4% of the agricultural area under current climate conditions

  19. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Arne; Bond, Tami C.; Lam, Nicholoas L.; Hultman, Nathan

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  20. COST Action ES1206: Advanced GNSS Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; Dick, Galina; de Haan, Siebren; Pottiaux, Eric; Bock, Olivier; Pacione, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    GNSS is a well established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Water vapour observations are currently under-sampled in operational meteorology and obtaining and exploiting additional high-quality humidity observations is essential to improve severe weather forecasting and climate monitoring. Inconsistencies introduced into long-term time series from improved GNSS processing algorithms make climate trend analysis challenging. Ongoing re-processing efforts using state-of-the-art models are underway which will provide consistent time series' of tropospheric data, using 15+ years of GNSS observations and from over 600 stations worldwide. These datasets will enable validation of systematic biases from a range of instrumentation, improve the knowledge of climatic trends of atmospheric water vapour, and will potentially be of great benefit to global and regional NWP reanalyses and climate model simulations (e.g. IPCC AR5)

  1. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  2. Understanding environmental and climatic influences on regional differences and spatio-temporalscale issues of dengue fever transmission in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Ginsberg, H. S.; Couret, J.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, roughly 30 times the number of cases as 50 years ago, with some estimates even higher. Puerto Rico (PR) has experienced epidemic dengue activity since 1963, and the disease is currently endemic. Since 1990 there have been 4 large epidemics, the most recent in 2010 where there were nearly 27,000 cases reported, amounting to almost 1% of the island's total population. Because no vaccine is currently available, effective control is dependent on our ability to understand the complex relationship between environmental factors, mosquito vector ecology, and disease epidemiology. Dengue virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, as humans are the preferred host for Ae. aegypti. The purpose of our analysis is to assess temporal and spatial patterns of dengue transmission in PR and relate this to both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Unlike past studies, which have used San Juan to represent the island as a whole, our research will investigate regional dynamics in dengue transmission, as preliminary results have shown significant differences in population density, disease incidence, and environmental and climatic variables. Data from the Passive Dengue Surveillance System of CDC, meteorological observations from NCDC, and remote sensing data from USGS and NASA will be used together to identify relationships between climate, urbanization, and dengue incidence for PR at various spatial and temporal scales. Preliminary climatic factors considered include precipitation, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, we will assess measures of urbanization such as land cover, land use, population density, and infrastructure that can make regional differences in dengue incidence each year. Results from this study could help create early warning systems for dengue surveillance in Puerto Rico, and develop techniques that can be applied to other areas of the world.

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Texas Water: A White Paper Assessment of the Past, Present and Future and Recommendations for Action

    SciTech Connect

    Banner, Jay L.; Jackson, Charles S.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Hayhoe, Katharine; Woodhouse, Connie; Gulden, Lindsey; Jacobs, Kathy; North, Gerald; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Washington, Warren M.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Casteel, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Texas comprises the eastern portion of the Southwest region, where the convergence of climatological and geopolitical forces has the potential to put extreme stress on water resources. Geologic records indicate that Texas experienced large climate changes on millennial time scales in the past, and over the last thousand years, tree-ring records indicate that there were significant periods of drought in Texas. These droughts were of longer duration than the 1950s 'drought of record' that is commonly used in planning, and they occurred independently of human-induced global climate change. Although there has been a negligible net temperature increase in Texas over the past century, temperatures have increased more significantly over the past three decades. Under essentially all climate model projections, Texas is susceptible to significant climate change in the future. Most projections for the 21st century show that with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, there will be an increase in temperatures across Texas and a shift to a more arid average climate. Studies agree that Texas will likely become significantly warmer and drier, yet the magnitude, timing, and regional distribution of these changes are uncertain. There is a large uncertainty in the projected changes in precipitation for Texas for the 21st century. In contrast, the more robust projected increase in temperature with its effect on evaporation, which is a dominant component in the region's hydrologic cycle, is consistent with model projections of frequent and extended droughts throughout the state. For these reasons, we recommend that Texas invest resources to investigate and anticipate the impacts of climate change on Texas water resources, with the goal of providing data to inform resource planning. This investment should support development of (1) research programs that provide policy-relevant science; (2) education programs to engage future researchers and policy-makers; and (3

  4. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  5. Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Zhang, Kai; Kazil, Jan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the need for appropriate numerical techniques to represent process interactions in climate models. In two versions of the ECHAM-HAM model, different time integration methods are used to solve the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) gas evolution equation, which lead to substantially different results in the H2SO4 gas concentration and the aerosol nucleation rate. Using convergence tests and sensitivity simulations performed with various time stepping schemes, it is confirmed that numerical errors in the second model version are significantly smaller than those in version one. The use of sequential operator splitting in combination with long time step is identified as the main reason for the large systematic biases in the old model. The remaining errors in version two in the nucleation rate, related to the competition between condensation and nucleation, have a clear impact on the simulated concentration of cloud condensation nuclei in the lower troposphere. These errors can be significantly reduced by employing an implicit solver that handles production, condensation and nucleation at the same time. Lessons learned in this work underline the need for more caution when treating multi-time-scale problems involving compensating and competing processes, a common occurrence in current climate models.

  6. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  7. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives. PMID:27100790

  8. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.

  9. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues

    PubMed Central

    Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives. PMID:27100790

  10. Arts and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Arts and climate science have more in common points than it appears at first glance. Artistic works can help us to directly or indirectly learn about climatic conditions and weather events in the past, but are also very efficient in raising awareness about climate change nowadays. Long scientific articles get very little response among general public, because most people don't want to read long articles. There is a need to communicate climate change issues more powerfully and more directly, with simple words, pictures, sculptures, installations. Artistic works can inspire people to take concrete action. A number of communication media can fit this purpose. Artists can speak to people on an emotional and intellectual level; they can help people to see things from another perspective and in new ways. Artists can motivate change; they have the freedom to weave facts, opinions, thoughts, emotion and colour all together. Paintings are witnesses of the past climatic conditions. We can learn from paintings, architectural constructions and sculptures about the vegetation, weather events, animals, and way of living. Mentioning only some few examples: old paintings in caves, also Flemish painters are often shown for their winter landscapes, and paintings are very useful to illustrate how fast glaciers are melting. At the end, we shall not forget that dilapidation of art masterpieces often depends on climatic conditions.

  11. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    PubMed

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists.

  12. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  13. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  14. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  15. Role of the nurse in addressing the health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Benny

    Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of health such as clean air, sufficient food, safe drinking water and secure shelter, and may be considered a threat to health. Healthcare professionals have been called to take action on carbon reduction. Action depends on various factors such as personal commitment to environmental issues and professionals' understanding of climate change, and action may occur at individual, organisational, community, national and international levels. As public health is a core component of the nurse's role, this article discusses the health effects of climate change and suggests ways to address these effects.

  16. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  17. Raising Students' Perception of the Relevance of Science Teaching and Promoting Communication and Evaluation Capabilities Using Authentic and Controversial Socio-Scientific Issues in the Framework of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of different lesson plans dealing with authentic and controversial socio-scientific issues in the framework of climate change. These lesson plans orient themselves along the socio-critical, problem-oriented approach to science teaching. They deal with the use of bioethanol as an alternative fuel and with the…

  18. Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions: Skill Development Modules. A Curriculum Development Project Designed to Teach Students How to Investigate and Evaluate Science-Related Social Issues. Modules I-VI. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    Presented are the teacher and student editions for six modules designed to teach students how to investigate and evaluate science-related social issues. These modules (each of which includes an introduction, objectives, readings, and activities) focus on: (1) environmental problem solving; (2) preparing to investigate an environmental issue; (3)…

  19. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  20. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

    2010-12-01

    climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

  1. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project establishes a new multi-model framework to systematically assess the impacts, economic damages, and risks from climate change in the United States. The primary goal of this framework to estimate how climate change impac...

  2. Promoting climate literacy through social engagement: the Green Ninja Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Todd, A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the challenges of communicating climate change to younger audiences is the disconnect between global issues and local impacts. The Green Ninja is a climate-action superhero that aims to energize young people about climate science through media and social engagement tools. In this presentation, we'll highlight two of the tools designed to help K-12 students implement appropriate local mitigation strategies. A mobile phone application builds and supports a social community around taking action at local businesses regarding themes such as food, packaging and energy efficiency. An energy efficiency contest in local schools utilizes smart meter technology to provide feedback on household energy use and conservation. These tools are supported by films and lesson plans that link formal and informal education channels. The effectiveness of these methodologies as tools to engage young people in climate science and action will be discussed.

  3. Considerations for climate intervention research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Action to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is essential for addressing rapid environmental change in the Earth's polar regions. However, the potential for threshold crossing events in polar climate elements with untenable consequences for society and ecosystems may motivate consideration of additional "climate interventions". A recent National Research Council study identified risks and research needs associated with global scale intervention options such as atmospheric carbon removal and albedo modification. In addition to the issues raised by the NRC panel, any serious study of climate interventions would likely transcend the traditional scope of earth system science. Current observational systems are not designed to detect, attribute or monitor climate intervention attempts and would warrant significant augmentation. Potential field experiments to improve scientific understanding of albedo modification options would likely span a huge range of physical scales, material and energy (some in-family with established atmospheric research but others that would be wholly unprecedented). Targeted interventions focused on polar climate elements have received even less study than global-scale intervention and their consideration could present unique challenges. Finally, research priorities have not yet been informed by any strategy or scenarios about where and when climate interventions might fit in society's portfolio of climate responses.

  4. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  5. Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

  6. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    One of the activities of the European Science Foundation (ESF, www.esf.org) is developing European scale Research Networking Programmes (RNPs). RNPs lay the foundation for nationally funded research groups to address major scientific and research infrastructure issues, in order to advance the frontiers of existing science. MOLTER (www.esf.org/molter or www.molter.no) is such an RNP. MOLTER stands for "Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes" aims at stimulating the use of isotopic and organic chemistry to study carbon stabilization and biogeochemistry in terrestrial ecosystems and soils in particular. The understanding of the formation, stabilization and decomposition of complex organic compounds in the environment is currently being revolutionized by advanced techniques in identification, quantification, and origin tracing of functional groups and individual molecules. MOLTER focuses on five major research themes: - Molecular composition and turnover time of soil organic matter; - Plant molecular structures as drivers of C stabilisation in soils; - Fire transformations of plant and soil molecular structures - Molecular markers in soils; - Dissolved organic molecules in soils: origin, functionality and transport. These research themes are covered via the following activities: - Organisation of international conferences; - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Organisation of summer schools for PhD students; - Short- and long-term exchange grants for scientists. MOLTER is supported by research funding or performing agencies from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The ESF is also the implementing agency of COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, www.cost.esf.org), one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. COST Action 639 "Greenhouse gas budget of

  7. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate Science Literacy is an understanding of your influence on climate and climate’s influence on you and society.” In order to ensure the nation increases its literacy, the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science document has been developed. In order to promote the implementation of these Climate Literacy Essential Principles the Climate Literacy Network (CLN, http://www.climateliteracynow.org) was formed in January 2008. Made up of a broad spectrum of stakeholders, this group addresses the complex issues involved in making climate literacy real for all citizens. Efforts within the CLN to improve climate literacy and energy awareness include: 1) the development of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway project, recently funded by NSF’s National STEM Education Distributed Learning (NSDL) and Climate Change Education programs; and 2) the development of a regional model (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network-New England - CLEAN-NE) to coordinate and leverage the wide range of activities focused on climate and energy that are already occurring, with plans that the model will be adapted to other regions around the country. The CLEAN Pathway project will steward a collection of resources that directly address the Climate Literacy: Essential Principles of Climate Science. In addition, it will provide a number of avenues of professional and community development opportunities to facilitate cyberlearning on climate and energy. CLEAN-NE is an initiative to educate high school and college students in the region about climate change and energy and its importance to our planet and society. Through this program, high school students will connect with college mentors, and together they will gain the foundation of climate literacy necessary to change their actions to reflect a more energy-conscious lifestyle. They will then engage their peers and communities in their mission to become climate-literate citizens and

  8. The Issue of the Arrangement of New Environments for Science Education through Collaborative Actions between Schools, Museums and Science Centres in the Brazilian Context of Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer…

  9. Yes, I Can: Action Projects To Resolve Equity Issues in Educational Computing. A Project of ECCO, the Educational Computer Consortium of Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredman, Alice, Ed.

    This book presents reports on selected "local action" projects that were developed as part of the Equity in Technology Project, which was inaugurated in 1985 by the Educational Computer Consortium of Ohio (ECCO). The book is organized into three sections, one for each of the populations targeted by the project. An introduction by Alice Fredman…

  10. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Special Issue on the Role of the Library in a Digital Landscape, Number 243

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.; Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue of "ARL: A Bimonthly Report" contains the remarks that William G. Bowen delivered to the research library community in October 2005 at the 147th Membership Meeting of ARL. For the past 17 years Dr. Bowen has served as President of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. In these remarks, entitled "New Times Always; Old Time We Cannot…

  11. Put a Frame on It: Contextualizing Climate Change for Museum Visitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canning, Katharine

    Public opinion polls continue to show that Americans are divided---particularly along political and ideological lines---on whether climate change is real and warrants immediate action. Those in the natural and social sciences have recognized that effective communication is key to closing the gap that exists between scientific and public understanding on this issue. A body of social science research on climate change communication has emerged within the last decade. This field has identified strategies for climate change communicators and educators, emphasizing the importance of framing climate change issues in ways that help it resonate with a wider range of public concerns and values in order to develop a shared belief regarding the necessity of action. Museum exhibits and programs on climate change that were developed within the last five years are likely to have benefitted from this body of work. This qualitative research seeks to examine and analyze the various ways museums in the United States are communicating about climate change related issues to the public. Three case studies of museum exhibits on climate change issues were examined. The scope and purpose of climate change communication in museums, the specific messages that museums are choosing to communicate, and how those messages are being framed for public audiences were explored through these case studies. The findings suggest that museums are considering their audience when framing messages about climate change and have used work from the climate change communication field to inform message development. In particular, museums are making climate change issues more relevant by emphasizing social, economic, and human health concerns, and are considering strategies to counteract fear-fatigue and empower visitors to take action.

  12. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2007-06-15

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change.

  13. Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

  14. Meeting the Urgent Need for Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, M.; Comer, C. C.

    2008-12-01

    As the world confronts the reality of global climate change, education has emerged as a crucial issue. An informed public understands the natural and human factors that affect climate, comprehends the potential large-scale impacts of climate change and considers responsibly the personal and societal choices that might help reduce the rate and magnitude of climate change. Resilient communities and a sustainable world are goals of such efforts. However, this requires a multi-faceted approach to climate education in schools, web and other venues with the support and direct involvement of educators and the climate research community. To meet this goal the Revolution on Earth Science Education has worked with the Council of State Science Supervisors to create a cross-reference on existing climate literacy concepts within state standards. This has led to state-based action plans for professional development around these concepts and skills. This session will address how existing standards on climate literacy have spurred states to launch this work. We will debut the new Climate Literacy Now website that incorporates the use of visualization technologies and strong connections between science and mathematics to develop and disseminate relevant curriculum and information to educators K-12. We are also working to provide cutting-edge professional development using best practices and relevant research data. Information regarding the exciting new Earth and Space Science senior level course in Texas and the latest developments surrounding this course will be discussed.

  15. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  16. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  17. Issues management made easier

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, L.

    1993-10-01

    Increases in ES&H compliance issues within the past few years have necessitated a formal process by which DOE facilities address these issues. In May 1991, ANL-W implemented the ANL-W Issues Management System (IMS) to facilitate the management of compliance issues and scheduling of corrective action plans with limited resources. The central focus of this process is a computer database, Integrated Resource Management System (IRMS), which allows quick retrieval of compliance information, organization of compliance issues based on a risk-based prioritization methodology, and tracking of corrective action plans. Without the IRMS, the ANL-W Issues Management System would have been difficult to administer and manage. ANL-W has used the IRMS for both audit preparation and audit response, most noticeably the preparation and subsequent response to the 1991 Tiger Team audit. The IRMS was used to track ANL-W Self-Assessment corrective action plans, provide instant information to Tiger Team members regarding Self-Assessment findings, produce prioritized lists of Tiger Team concerns for developing corrective action plans, and track Tiger Team corrective action plans. Status reports to senior, laboratory management regarding the Tiger Team corrective action plan are produced based on information provided by the IRMS. This paper discusses the criteria used for selecting the IRMS, implementation of the Issues Management System using the IRMS, lessons learned, and the future evolution of the IRMS.

  18. Addressing Global Change Issues Using Atmospheric Chemistry Observations from Space: Providing Measurements for the Recovery of the Ozone Layer, Climate, and Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, J.

    2008-05-01

    As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, there is a trilogy of major issues around which satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols can be classified. The first large-scale problem focuses on the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, where satellites have a multi-decadal heritage of making important contributions to understanding the chemistry and dynamics of stratospheric ozone. The second aspect of this trilogy is the long-term build up of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols that affect climate, where relevant measurements include methane and the precursors to tropospheric ozone formation, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. Satellite observations during the past decade have provided new insight into both trends and interannual variability of key tropospheric trace gases. However, the last and the most challenging aspect of this trilogy deals with the capability to use space observations to observe and hopefully help mitigate the detrimental aspects of air pollution that result in widespread harm to human health and other biological systems. The recently released "Decadal Survey" by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) concurs with this philosophy and strongly encourages the use of satellite measurements for societal benefits. The NRC emphasized that if Earth scientists are to foster applications and extend the societal benefits of their work, they must also understand that satellite measurements need to be transformed into useful information that is understandable and meets the needs of being a tool for those who make decisions regarding air quality and policy-makers as well as for scientists, the traditional users of such measurements. Specifically, with respect to future atmospheric chemistry missions, the NRC (2007) recommended that a mission dedicated to the measurement of tropospheric trace gases from a geostationary satellite should be launched in the 2013-2016 timeframe (GEO-CAPE, Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution

  19. A history of the science and politics of climate change: the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Bolin, B.

    2007-11-15

    In response to growing concern about human-induced global climate change, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988. Written by its first Chairman, this book is a unique overview of the history of the IPCC. It describes and evaluates the intricate interplay between key factors in the science and politics of climate change, the strategy that has been followed, and the regretfully slow pace in getting to grips with the uncertainties that have prevented earlier action being taken. The book also highlights the emerging conflict between establishing a sustainable global energy system and preventing a serious change in global climate. Contents are: Part I. The Early History of the Climate Change Issue: 1. Nineteenth century discoveries; 2. The natural carbon cycle and life on earth; 3. Global research initiatives in meteorology and climatology; 4. Early international assessments of climate change; Part II. The Climate Change Issue Becomes One of Global Concern: 5. Setting the stage; 6. The scientific basis for a climate convention; 7. Serving the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; 8. The Second IPP Assessment Report; 9. In the aftermath of the IPCC Second Assessment; 10. The Kyoto Protocol is agreed and a third assessment begun; 11. A decade of hesitance and slow progress; Part III. A Turning Point in Addressing Climate Change?: 12. Key scientific finding of prime political relevance; 13. Climate change and the future global energy supply system; Concluding remarks. 9 figs.

  20. Convinced, ambivalent or annoyed: Tyrolean ski tourism stakeholders and their perceptions of climate change☆

    PubMed Central

    Trawöger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Its focus on snow-dependent activities makes Alpine winter tourism especially sensitive to climate change. Stakeholder risk perceptions are a key factor in adaptation to climate change because they fundamentally drive or constrain stakeholder action. This paper examines climate change perceptions of winter tourism stakeholders in Tyrol (Austria). Using a qualitative approach, expert interviews were conducted. Four opinion categories reflecting different attitudes toward climate change issues were identified: convinced planners, annoyed deniers, ambivalent optimists, convinced wait-and-seers. Although the findings generally indicate a growing awareness of climate change, this awareness is mainly limited to perceiving the issue as a global phenomenon. Awareness of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change that lead to a demand for action could not be identified. Current technical strategies, like snowmaking, are not primarily climate-induced. At present, coping with climate change is not a priority for risk management. The findings point out the importance of gaining and transferring knowledge of regional and branch-specific consequences of climate change in order to induce action at the destination level. PMID:27064520

  1. ISSUES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie

    2007-06-27

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Issues Management Program encompasses the continuous monitoring of work programs, performance and safety to promptly identify issues to determine their risk and significance, their causes, and to identify and effectively implement corrective actions to ensure successful resolution and prevent the same or similar problems from occurring. This document describes the LBNL Issues Management Program and prescribes the process for issues identification, tracking, resolution, closure, validation, and effectiveness of corrective actions. Issues that are governed by this program include program and performance deficiencies or nonconformances that may be identified through employee discovery, internal or external oversight assessment findings, suggested process improvements and associated actions that require formal corrective action. Issues may also be identified in and/or may result in Root Cause Analysis (RCA) reports, Price Anderson Amendment Act (PAAA) reports, Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) reports, Accident Investigation reports, assessment reports, and External Oversight reports. The scope of these issues may include issues of both high and low significance as well as adverse conditions that meet the reporting requirements of the University of California (UC) Assurance Plan for LBNL or other reporting entities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy). Issues that are found as a result of a walk-around or workspace inspection that can be immediately corrected or fixed are exempt from the requirements of this document.

  2. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  3. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  4. Promoting Climate Literacy and Enhancing Student Achievement Through a Worldwide Student Research Campaign on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    In 2011, the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) program in collaboration with numerous U.S. and international scientific and educational organizations, will launch a worldwide student research campaign on Climate Change. The goals of the campaign are: (1) to engage over 1 million K-16 students and teachers in collaborative, grade-level appropriate climate research, (2) enhance climate and environmental literacy for students, teachers, parents, and citizens in tens of thousands of communities around the world, and (3) encourage action stewardship on climate-related environmental issues at local and regional levels. "Climate Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts" (NOAA, 2008) will provide a foundation for student learning, research, and stewardship activities. Planning is currently underway between scientists, students, and teachers from around the world to identify the key questions that will guide student research investigations on topics ranging from Climate, Carbon and Energy to Climate, Weather, and Water to Climate and Ecosystems to Climate and Human Health. Once a set of key climate questions and investigation topics have been selected, high quality climate resources including learning activities, data sets, images, models, and professional development modules and courses, will be found, assembled, and made available to Climate Change Campaign participants through the GLOBE Research Collaboratory. The Collaboratory, which is currently under development, will be a virtual learning, research, and collaboration environment that will include easy to use data collection, analysis, sharing, review, and reporting tools as well as tools and services to promote school to school and student-scientist- teacher collaborations. The formal portion of the Climate Campaign will end in 2013 with a high-profile student research conference at which students will share the results of their research and their local and regional

  5. Assessing urban climate change resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskaki, Asimina

    2016-04-01

    Recent extreme weather events demonstrate that many urban environments are vulnerable to climate change impacts and as a consequence designing systems for future climate seems to be an important parameter in sustainable urban planning. The focus of this research is the development of a theoretical framework to assess climate change resilience in urban environments. The methodological approach used encompasses literature review, detailed analysis, and combination of data, and the development of a series of evaluation criteria, which are further analyzed into a list of measures. The choice of the specific measures is based upon various environmental, urban planning parameters, social, economic and institutional features taking into consideration key vulnerabilities and risk associated with climate change. The selected criteria are further prioritized to incorporate into the evaluation framework the level of importance of different issues towards a climate change resilient city. The framework could support decision making as regards the ability of an urban system to adapt. In addition it gives information on the level of adaptation, outlining barriers to sustainable urban planning and pointing out drivers for action and reaction.

  6. Natural climate variability and future climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine L.; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Large ensemble climate modelling experiments demonstrate the large role natural variability plays in local climate on a multi-decadal timescale. Variability in local weather and climate influences individual beliefs about climate change. To the extent that support for climate mitigation policies is determined by citizens' local experiences, natural variability will strongly influence the timescale for implementation of such policies. Under a number of illustrative threshold criteria for both national and international climate action, we show that variability-driven uncertainty about local change, even in the face of a well-constrained estimate of global change, can potentially delay the time to policy implementation by decades. Because several decades of greenhouse gas emissions can have a large impact on long-term climate outcomes, there is substantial risk associated with climate policies driven by consensus among individuals who are strongly influenced by local weather conditions.

  7. The issue of the arrangement of new environments for science education through collaborative actions between schools, museums and science centres in the Brazilian context of teacher training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer relations between formal and non-formal places. Currently, non-formal environments such as museums and science and technology centres are considered potential educational resources within the reach of schools. Educators from museums have conducted studies which demonstrate a predominant model of the utilization of these institutions by teachers, which consists of illustrative visits during the exhibitions, but does not feature a collaborative relationship or partnership between schools and these institutions. In Brazil, the main examples of approaches to collaboration between these places and schools have been taking place through the initiatives of teachers or through projects developed by the educational sector, aiming to broaden the dialogue between their institutions and the school community. Another approach mechanism relates to research and extension projects developed by university researchers, sponsored by state and federal funding agencies. In this case, the universities and university museums appear as new social actors that stand in the way of the schools and the cultural environments, complicating the relationship and, at the same time, bringing new questions to the field of educational research. We believe that the discourse in this paper should bring about further discussions in the initial teacher training courses to contribute to the understanding of practices related to the extension of the field of activity of the school.

  8. Gore's Nobel May Bring Even More Attention on Campuses to Environmental Issues: Award for Combating Climate Change Implicitly Honors the Work of Academic Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard; Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    When the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize would be shared by Al Gore, the former U.S. vice president, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the award implicitly celebrated a third party--academic institutions. Much of the research on global warming has come from university scientists, and higher…

  9. An innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education: Sustainability in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change and climate science are a core component of environment-related degree programmes, but there are many programmes, for example business studies, that have clear linkages to climate change and sustainability issues which often have no or limited coverage of the subject. Although an in-depth coverage of climate science is not directly applicable to all programmes of study, the subject of climate change is of great relevance to all of society. Graduates from the higher education system are often viewed as society's ‘future leaders', hence it can be argued that it is important that all graduates are conversant in the issues of climate change and strategies for moving towards a sustainable future. Rather than an in depth understanding of climate science it may be more important that a wider range of students are educated in strategies for positive action. One aspect of climate change education that may be missing, including in programmes where climate change is a core topic, is practical strategies, skills and knowledge for reducing our impact on the climate system. This presentation outlines an innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education which focuses on the strategies for moving towards sustainability, but which is supported by climate science understanding taught within this context. Students gain knowledge and understanding of the motivations and strategies for businesses to improve their environmental performance, and develop skills in identifying areas of environmental improvement and recommending actions for change. These skills will allow students to drive positive change in their future careers. Such courses are relevant to students of all disciplines and can give the opportunity to students for whom climate change education is not a core part of their programme, to gain greater understanding of the issues and an awareness of practical changes that can be made at all levels to move towards a more sustainable society.

  10. The Legitimacy of Leadership in International Climate Change Negotiations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Christer; Hjerpe, Mattias; Parker, Charles; Linnér, Björn-Ola

    2012-01-29

    Leadership is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. In this study, we aim at answering two questions that are crucial for understanding the legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations. Based on the responses of three consecutive surveys distributed at COPs 14-16, we seek first to chart which actors are actually recognized as leaders by climate change negotiation participants. Second, we aim to explain what motivates COP participants to support different actors as leaders. Both these questions are indeed crucial for understanding the role, importance, and legitimacy of leadership in the international climate change regime. Our results show that the leadership landscape in this issue area is fragmented, with no one clear-cut leader, and strongly suggest that it is imperative for any actor seeking recognition as climate change leader to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  11. The legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Christer; Hjerpe, Mattias; Parker, Charles; Linner, Bjorn-Ola

    2012-01-01

    Leadeship is an essential ingredient in reaching international agreements and overcoming the collective action problems associated with responding to climate change. In this study, we aim at answering two questions that are crucial for understanding the legitimacy of leadership in international climate change negotiations. Based on the responses of the three consecutive surveys distributed at COPs 14-16, we seek first to chart which actors are actually recognized as leaders by climate change negotiation participants. Second, we aim to explain what motivates COP participants to support different actors as leaders. Both these questions are indeed crucial for understanding the role, importance, and legitimacy of leadership in the international climate change regime. Our results show that the leadership landscape in this issue area is fragmented, with no one clear-cut leader, and strongly suggest that it is imperative for any actor seeking recognition as climate change leader to be perceived as being devoted to promoting the common good.

  12. Roadmap towards justice in urban climate adaptation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linda; Chu, Eric; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Aylett, Alexander; Debats, Jessica; Goh, Kian; Schenk, Todd; Seto, Karen C.; Dodman, David; Roberts, Debra; Roberts, J. Timmons; Vandeveer, Stacy D.

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris (COP21) highlighted the importance of cities to climate action, as well as the unjust burdens borne by the world's most disadvantaged peoples in addressing climate impacts. Few studies have documented the barriers to redressing the drivers of social vulnerability as part of urban local climate change adaptation efforts, or evaluated how emerging adaptation plans impact marginalized groups. Here, we present a roadmap to reorient research on the social dimensions of urban climate adaptation around four issues of equity and justice: (1) broadening participation in adaptation planning; (2) expanding adaptation to rapidly growing cities and those with low financial or institutional capacity; (3) adopting a multilevel and multi-scalar approach to adaptation planning; and (4) integrating justice into infrastructure and urban design processes. Responding to these empirical and theoretical research needs is the first step towards identifying pathways to more transformative adaptation policies.

  13. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation.

  14. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  15. An Interface between Law and Science: The Climate Change Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Grandbois, M.; Kaniaha, S.

    2012-04-01

    Law and Science are jointly building the international climate change regime. Up to date, international law and climate science have been unable to take into consideration both regional law and Pacific climate science in this process. Under the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (the Australian Government Initiative to assist with high priority climate adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region) significant efforts were dedicated to improve understanding of climate in the Pacific through the Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP) and through the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program (PASAP). The first comprehensive PCCSP scientific report on the South Pacific climate has been published in 2011. Under the PASAP, web-based information tools for seasonal climate prediction have been developed and now outputs from dynamical climate model are used in 15 countries of the North-West and South Pacific for enhanced prediction of rainfall, air and sea surface temperatures which reduces countries' vulnerability to climate variability in the context of a changing climate. On a regional scale, the Meteorological and Geohazards Department of Vanuatu is preparing a full report on Climate change impacts on the country. These scientific reports and tools could lead to a better understanding of climate change in the South Pacific and to a better understanding of climate change science, for lawyers and policy-makers. The International climate change regime develops itself according to science findings, and at the pace of the four scientific reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In return, Law is a contributing factor to climate change, a structural data in the development and perception of environmental issues and it exerts an influence on Science. Because of the dependency of law on science, the PCCSP and PASAP outcomes will also stimulate and orientate developments in law of the Pacific

  16. Providing rapid climate risk assessments to support cities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Horton, R. M.; Bader, D.; Ali, S.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy struck the East Coast of the United States on October 29, 2012 and brought the issue of urban resilience to the forefront of public discussion not only in New York City, but in cities around the world. While Hurricane Sandy as an individual extreme climate event cannot be attributed to climate change, it can serve as a warning for cities regarding disaster risks, focus attention on the importance of reducing climate vulnerability, and the need to include increasing climate risks and resilience into rebuilding programs. As severe as Sandy was, the the storm could have been much worse. The science behind potential impacts was ';in place' and ';in time,' i.e., climate risks were well understood before the storm, due to work by scientists in the region starting in the late 1990s. In the wake of this transformative storm, the rebuilding process in New York is being informed by the potential for a changing climate. The $20 billion Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR) Plan for New York is grounded upon climate risk information provided by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). This expert panel, tasked with advising on the City on climate-related issues, completed a 'rapid response' climate assessment with updated climate projections and coastal flood maps. Cities are emerging as the ';first responders' to climate change in both adaptation and mitigation. Their efforts are playing a role in catalyzing national and international responses as well. New York City's actions in the wake of Hurricane Sandy are an example of a positive tipping-point response. The Urban Climate Change Research Network, a consortium of over 450 scholars and practitioners in developing and developed country cities around the world, was established in 2007 to enhance science-based decision-making on climate and other sustainability related issues in urban areas around the world. The UCCRN's first major publication is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on

  17. The science of climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.

    1999-09-10

    A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

  18. Geoengineering Policy and Governance Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Sean; Moore, Nigel; Chen, Zhewen; McManamen, Keith; Blackstock, Jason J.

    Geoengineering - the deliberate and technological manipulation of the climate system to forestall the worst effects of global warming (also referred to as climate engineering) - has recently emerged as a novel and controversial issue in climate governance. It is sometimes proposed as an insurance policy, should either (a) primary efforts to develop sustainable energy and societal systems prove unable to quickly enough overcome the inertia of current ones, or (b) uncertainty in the climate system lead to unexpectedly large damage to societies and ecosystems [1]. This entry explores the current attempts and future ideas for governing emerging geoengineering research programs and technologies in ways that effectively manage their climatic and societal impacts.

  19. Climate Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    The latest Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Status Report on global climate observations, delivered to the UNFCCC COP21 in November 2016, showed how satellite data are critical for observations relating to climate. Of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) identified by GCOS as necessary for understanding climate change, about half are derived only from satellite data while half of the remainder have a significant input from satellites. Hence data from Earth observing satellite systems are now a fundamental requirement for understanding the climate system and for managing the consequences of climate change. Following the Paris Agreement of COP21 this need is only greater. Not only will satellites have to continue to provide data for modelling and predicting climate change but also for a much wider range of actions relating to climate. These include better information on loss and damage, resilience, improved adaptation to change, and on mitigation including information on greenhouse gas emissions. In addition there is an emerging need for indicators of the risks associated with future climate change which need to be better quantified, allowing policy makers both to understand what decisions need to be taken, and to see the consequences of their actions. The presentation will set out some of the ways in which satellite data are important in all aspects of understanding, managing and predicting climate change and how they may be used to support future decisions by those responsible for policy related to managing climate change and its consequences.

  20. Natural Climate Variability and Future Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-12-01

    Individual beliefs about climate change and willingness-to-pay for its mitigation are influenced by local weather and climate. Large ensemble climate modeling experiments have demonstrated the large role natural variability plays in local weather and climate on a multidecadal timescale. Here we illustrate how if support for global climate policies and subsequent implementation of those policies are determined by citizens' local experiences, natural variability could influence the timeline for implementation of emissions reduction policies by decades. The response of complex social systems to local and regional changes in weather and climate cannot be quantitatively predicted with confidence. Both the form and timing of the societal response can be affected by interactions between social systems and the physical climate system. Here, to illustrate one type of influence decadal natural variability can have on climate policy, we consider a simple example in which the only question is when, if ever, the different parties will support emissions reduction. To analyze the potential effect that unpredictable extreme events may have on the time to reach a global agreement on climate policy, we analyzed the output from a 40-member Community Climate System Model version 3 simulation ensemble to illustrate how local experiences might affect the timing of acceptance of strong climate policy measures. We assume that a nation's decision to take strong actions to abate emissions is contingent upon the local experiences of its citizens and then examine how the timelines for policy action may be influenced by variability in local weather. To illustrate, we assume that a social 'tipping point' is reached at the national level occurs when half of the population of a nation has experienced a sufficiently extreme event. If climate policies are driven by democratic consensus then variability in weather could result in significantly disparate times-to-action. For the top six CO2 emitters

  1. Some Issues in Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning: A Case Study of Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Regional Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Lin, Guang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yaocun

    2012-03-05

    The current tuning process of parameters in global climate models is often performed subjectively, or treated as an optimization procedure to minimize the difference between model fields and observations. The later approach may be generating a set of tunable parameters that approximate the observed climate but via an unrealistic balance of physical processes and/or compensating errors over different regions in the globe. In this study, we run the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional model constrained by the reanalysis data over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) where abundant observational data from various resources are available for calibration of the input parameters and validation of the model results. Our goal is to quantify the uncertainty ranges and identify the optimal values of five key input parameters in a new Kain-Frisch (KF) convective parameterization scheme incorporated in the WRF model. A stochastic sampling algorithm, Multiple Very Fast Simulated Annealing (MVFSA), is employed to efficiently sample the input parameters in KF scheme based on the skill score so that the algorithm progressively moves toward regions of the parameter space that minimize model errors. The results based on the WRF simulations with 25-km grid spacing over the SGP show that the model bias for precipitation can be significantly reduced by using five optimal parameters identified by the MVFSA algorithm. The model performance is very sensitive to downdraft and entrainment related parameters and consumption time of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). Simulated convective precipitation decreases as the ratio of downdraft to updraft flux increases. Larger CAPE consumption time results in less convective but more stratiform precipitation. The simulation using optimal parameters obtained by only constraining precipitation generates positive impact on the other output variables, such as temperature and wind. By using the optimal parameters obtained at 25 km

  2. Loss of Biodiversity and Climate Change as Presented in Biology Curricula for Ethiopian Schools: Implications for Action-Oriented Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    Schools, as institutions for general education, are believed to have a responsibility to equip their students with the knowledge and commitment to take personally meaningful decisions and action to address the challenges posed by both lifestyle and societal conditions. Achieving this goal requires, among other things, adequate integration of the…

  3. Population and Development [Issue Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on population and development. The materials have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of the world's population and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the population issue.…

  4. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  5. From vision to action: roadmapping as a strategic method and tool to implement climate change adaptation - the example of the roadmap 'water sensitive urban design 2020'.

    PubMed

    Hasse, J U; Weingaertner, D E

    2016-01-01

    As the central product of the BMBF-KLIMZUG-funded Joint Network and Research Project (JNRP) 'dynaklim - Dynamic adaptation of regional planning and development processes to the effects of climate change in the Emscher-Lippe region (North Rhine Westphalia, Germany)', the Roadmap 2020 'Regional Climate Adaptation' has been developed by the various regional stakeholders and institutions containing specific regional scenarios, strategies and adaptation measures applicable throughout the region. This paper presents the method, elements and main results of this regional roadmap process by using the example of the thematic sub-roadmap 'Water Sensitive Urban Design 2020'. With a focus on the process support tool 'KlimaFLEX', one of the main adaptation measures of the WSUD 2020 roadmap, typical challenges for integrated climate change adaptation like scattered knowledge, knowledge gaps and divided responsibilities but also potential solutions and promising chances for urban development and urban water management are discussed. With the roadmap and the related tool, the relevant stakeholders of the Emscher-Lippe region have jointly developed important prerequisites to integrate their knowledge, to clarify vulnerabilities, adaptation goals, responsibilities and interests, and to foresightedly coordinate measures, resources, priorities and schedules for an efficient joint urban planning, well-grounded decision-making in times of continued uncertainties and step-by-step implementation of adaptation measures from now on.

  6. From vision to action: roadmapping as a strategic method and tool to implement climate change adaptation - the example of the roadmap 'water sensitive urban design 2020'.

    PubMed

    Hasse, J U; Weingaertner, D E

    2016-01-01

    As the central product of the BMBF-KLIMZUG-funded Joint Network and Research Project (JNRP) 'dynaklim - Dynamic adaptation of regional planning and development processes to the effects of climate change in the Emscher-Lippe region (North Rhine Westphalia, Germany)', the Roadmap 2020 'Regional Climate Adaptation' has been developed by the various regional stakeholders and institutions containing specific regional scenarios, strategies and adaptation measures applicable throughout the region. This paper presents the method, elements and main results of this regional roadmap process by using the example of the thematic sub-roadmap 'Water Sensitive Urban Design 2020'. With a focus on the process support tool 'KlimaFLEX', one of the main adaptation measures of the WSUD 2020 roadmap, typical challenges for integrated climate change adaptation like scattered knowledge, knowledge gaps and divided responsibilities but also potential solutions and promising chances for urban development and urban water management are discussed. With the roadmap and the related tool, the relevant stakeholders of the Emscher-Lippe region have jointly developed important prerequisites to integrate their knowledge, to clarify vulnerabilities, adaptation goals, responsibilities and interests, and to foresightedly coordinate measures, resources, priorities and schedules for an efficient joint urban planning, well-grounded decision-making in times of continued uncertainties and step-by-step implementation of adaptation measures from now on. PMID:27148728

  7. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  8. Redefining the issues: Action and research agendas

    SciTech Connect

    Cota-Robles, E.

    1995-12-31

    The January conference involved approximately 45 key researchers, practitioners and policymakers who together addressed the critical themes outlined in the commissioned papers presented at the meeting. In addition to the papers presented in this session, others covered the middle years and adolescent years, and the experience of minority math, science and engineering students as they entered graduate school or the workplace. This paper presents the research and policy agendas arising from the conference, and invites comments from the AAAS audience.

  9. Adolescent Health Issues: State Actions 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Joanne; Rollins, Kathy

    Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and other drug abuse, and the consequences of those behaviors. This publication summarizes approximately 200 child health-related laws and resolutions passed in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, and the U.S.…

  10. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  11. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  12. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Wael M

    2014-11-01

    Climate change is an emerging global issue. It is expected to have significant impacts both in Egypt and around the world. Thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. Also, weather and climate play a significant role in people's health. Direct impacts of climate change on the Egyptians public health may include also increased prevalence of human parasitic diseases. Climate could strongly influence parasitic diseases transmitted through intermediate hosts. The present work reviews the future of such parasitic diseases in the view of the current available evidence and scenarios for climate change in the Egypt.

  13. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging global issue. It is expected to have significant impacts both in Egypt and around the world. Thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. Also, weather and climate play a significant role in people’s health. Direct impacts of climate change on the Egyptians public health may include also increased prevalence of human parasitic diseases. Climate could strongly influence parasitic diseases transmitted through intermediate hosts. The present work reviews the future of such parasitic diseases in the view of the current available evidence and scenarios for climate change in the Egypt. PMID:25685530

  14. Pursuing Solutions to Sustain Groundwater in California's Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, James

    2014-08-01

    A century of groundwater development in California with comparatively little regulation has yielded enduring legal, political, and hydrologic challenges compounded by drought, population growth and shifts, and climate change. With the debate over state and local roles in managing the resource garnering considerable attention, focus is shifting to how best to address groundwater issues for future sustainability. Groundwater does not exist in isolation, and sustainable management requires understanding interconnections with climate, land surface, and human actions. This integrated approach to California's groundwater raises significant cross-disciplinary questions that will need to be answered by the next generation of scientists, managers, and policy makers.

  15. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  16. Creating a New Model for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation for Critical Infrastructure: The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NYC Panel on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W. D.; Freed, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, launched in August 2008, aims to secure the city's critical infrastructure against rising seas, higher temperatures and fluctuating water supplies projected to result from climate change. The Climate Change Adaptation Task Force is part of PlaNYC, the city's long- term sustainability plan, and is composed of over 30 city and state agencies, public authorities and companies that operate the region's roads, bridges, tunnels, mass transit, and water, sewer, energy and telecommunications systems - all with critical infrastructure identified as vulnerable. It is one of the most comprehensive adaptation efforts yet launched by an urban region. To guide the effort, Mayor Michael Bloomberg has formed the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), modeled on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Experts on the panel include climatologists, sea-level rise specialists, adaptation experts, and engineers, as well as representatives from the insurance and legal sectors. The NPCC is developing planning tools for use by the Task Force members that provide information about climate risks, adaptation and risk assessment, prioritization frameworks, and climate protection levels. The advisory panel is supplying climate change projections, helping to identify at- risk infrastructure, and assisting the Task Force in developing adaptation strategies and guidelines for design of new structures. The NPCC will also publish an assessment report in 2009 that will serve as the foundation for climate change adaptation in the New York City region, similar to the IPCC reports. Issues that the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NPCC are addressing include decision- making under climate change uncertainty, effective ways for expert knowledge to be incorporated into public actions, and strategies for maintaining consistent and effective attention to long-term climate change even as municipal governments cycle

  17. A deeper look at climate change and national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Backus, George A.; Romig, Alton Dale, Jr.

    2010-03-01

    Climate change is a long-term process that will trigger a range of multi-dimensional demographic, economic, geopolitical, and national security issues with many unknowns and significant uncertainties. At first glance, climate-change-related national security dimensions seem far removed from today's major national security threats. Yet climate change has already set in motion forces that will require U.S. attention and preparedness. The extent and uncertainty associated with these situations necessitate a move away from conventional security practices, toward a small but flexible portfolio of assets to maintain U.S. interests. Thoughtful action is required now if we are to acquire the capabilities, tools, systems, and institutions needed to meet U.S. national security requirements as they evolve with the emerging stresses and shifts of climate change.

  18. Dangerous climate change: the role for risk research.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Irene; Pidgeon, Nick F; O'Connor, Robert E

    2005-12-01

    The notion of "dangerous climate change" constitutes an important development of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It persists, however, as an ambiguous expression, sustained by multiple definitions of danger. It also implicitly contains the question of how to respond to the complex and multi-disciplinary risk issues that climate change poses. The invaluable role of the climate science community, which relies on risk assessments to characterize system uncertainties and to identify limits beyond which changes may become dangerous, is acknowledged. But this alone will not suffice to develop long-term policy. Decisions need to include other considerations, such as value judgments about potential risks, and societal and individual perceptions of "danger," which are often contested. This article explores links and cross-overs between the climate science and risk communication and perception approaches to defining danger. Drawing upon nine articles in this Special Issue of Risk Analysis, we examine a set of themes: limits of current scientific understanding; differentiated public perceptions of danger from climate change; social and cultural processes amplifying and attenuating perceptions of, and responses to, climate change; risk communication design; and new approaches to climate change decision making. The article reflects upon some of the difficulties inherent in responding to the issue in a coherent, interdisciplinary fashion, concluding nevertheless that action should be taken, while acknowledging the context-specificity of "danger." The need for new policy tools is emphasised, while research on nested solutions should be aimed at overcoming the disjunctures apparent in interpretations of climate change risks.

  19. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…

  20. Learning Organization Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on learning organization issues. "How Action Learning Builds the Learning Organization: A Conceptual Analysis" (Michael Marquardt, Ty Alexander) is a systematic examination of four subsystems of learning organizations (learning dynamics, organization renewal, people empowerment, knowledge management)…

  1. [Confronting the Health-Related Challenges of Climate Change: Nursing Education for the Future].

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Lee, Chi-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Climate change is the greatest threat to public health in the 21st century. The increasing health impact of heat waves, the increasing magnitudes and spatial expansions of vector and water-borne diseases epidemics, and the increasing medical burdens of biological allergic illnesses, worsening local air pollution, and other related issues are expected to continue to increase in severity in the near future. All of these issues are global problems that must be faced. Adaptation strategies and action plans related to climate change are needed and emerging. Moreover, integrating the basic concepts, scientific evidences, and new technology into public and professional education systems is already recognized as a priority in the national adaptation program. Nurses stand on the frontlines of medical care and health communication. The integration of climate change and adaptation to climate change into nursing education and training is become increasingly important. This article reviews both the expected health impacts of climate change and the mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been proposed / adopted by medical care facilities around the world. Further, we outline the current, priority needs for action in medical care facilities in Taiwan in order to mitigate and adapt to climate-change-related healthcare issues. Additionally, we present an integrated strategic plan for educating healthcare professionals, including nurse, in the future. We hope that the ideas that are presented in this paper encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and help bridge the gap between technology development and practical application in Taiwan's medical care system.

  2. [Confronting the Health-Related Challenges of Climate Change: Nursing Education for the Future].

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Lee, Chi-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Climate change is the greatest threat to public health in the 21st century. The increasing health impact of heat waves, the increasing magnitudes and spatial expansions of vector and water-borne diseases epidemics, and the increasing medical burdens of biological allergic illnesses, worsening local air pollution, and other related issues are expected to continue to increase in severity in the near future. All of these issues are global problems that must be faced. Adaptation strategies and action plans related to climate change are needed and emerging. Moreover, integrating the basic concepts, scientific evidences, and new technology into public and professional education systems is already recognized as a priority in the national adaptation program. Nurses stand on the frontlines of medical care and health communication. The integration of climate change and adaptation to climate change into nursing education and training is become increasingly important. This article reviews both the expected health impacts of climate change and the mitigation and adaptation strategies that have been proposed / adopted by medical care facilities around the world. Further, we outline the current, priority needs for action in medical care facilities in Taiwan in order to mitigate and adapt to climate-change-related healthcare issues. Additionally, we present an integrated strategic plan for educating healthcare professionals, including nurse, in the future. We hope that the ideas that are presented in this paper encourage multidisciplinary cooperation and help bridge the gap between technology development and practical application in Taiwan's medical care system. PMID:27492290

  3. Satellites as Sentinels for Climate and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector- borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality,. harmful algal blooms, W radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIs), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computation capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities, together with local knowledge, are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global climate and health issues. These collaborative efforts are enabling increased understanding of the relationships among changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and health issues. This increased understanding and improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental decision-makers to better predict climate-related health problems, decrease vulnerability, take preventive measures, and improve response actions. This paper provides a number of recent examples of how satellites - from their unique vantage point in space - can serve as sentinels for climate and health.

  4. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  5. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  6. Cannabis: The Issue is Control.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    Where is the national issue of cannabis (marijuana) regulation going? Recent actions at the State level are moving to guide us to a national perspective on how to control this new marketplace. PMID:26800184

  7. Inspiring your audience to action: insights from theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, W.; Hekkers, J.; Mott, B.

    2011-12-01

    Findings from market research sponsored by The Ocean Project, along with many other recent studies, have revealed two troubling facts: 1. Despite increased efforts to grow climate and ocean literacy among the general public, American adult's knowledge of climate and ocean health has remained stagnant in the past decade; and 2. Knowledge and level of concern about climate change show little correlation, i.e. the people who are most concerned about climate change are not the ones who know most about the science of climate change, and vice versa. If knowledge does not lead to action among the general public, what implications does this have for those of us working for conservation? How can we motivate people to act for conservation? The Ocean Project's large-scale survey of American attitudes and values vis-à-vis ocean, climate change, and related conservation issues provides answers to many such burning questions. Our research findings reveal critical insights about what, who, and how we can communicate for maximum efficacy. In particular, youth and minorities emerged as important constituencies: not only are they more environmentally aware and/or socially conscious, they are important influencers who demonstrate greater propensity to modify their behaviors and/or engage in conservation advocacy. Our presentation will discuss the implications of these findings for strategic communication for conservation action as well as present case studies from the Monterey Bay Aquarium that support these research findings and provide insights from evaluation of two significantly different interpretive approaches to communicate about climate change-a live animal exhibit and a video-based, live-narrated auditorium program.

  8. The science and politics of global climate change: a guide to the debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, E. A.; Dessler, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    Our book, "The science and politics of global climate change: A guide to the debate", provides an integrated treatment of the science, technology, economics, policy, and politics of climate change for the educated non-specialist reader. The book explains how scientific and policy debates work, summarizes present scientific knowledge and uncertainty about climate change (including rebutting some common deceptive claims being made to deny the scientific basis for concern), and discusses available options to manage the risks of climate change. We find that widespread confusion arises from the tangling of normative, value-based claims and positive, science-based claims. Combined with arguments over the meaning of uncertainty and its implications for action, this confusion has encouraged the widespread belief that less is known about climate change, and the scientific basis for action to manage climate-change risks is weaker, than is actually the case. Such confusion is common in debates over environmental issues, but in the climate-change debate has been especially promoted by opponents of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Climate science, denial and the Declaration of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Laking, George; Woodward, Alistair; Metcalfe, Scott; Macmillan, Alexandra; Lindsay, Graeme; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Maclennan, Anne; Thompson, Imogen; Wells, Susan

    2009-12-11

    Human-induced climate change is now the central health issue facing humanity. The World Medical Association recently adopted the Declaration of Delhi, committing the medical profession to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. This is new professional territory for many doctors. Even so, the profession has often engaged with issues outside 'the health sector' when the stakes are high, for example leaded petrol, road safety, tobacco, and nuclear weapons. The scientific basis to the declaration merits scrutiny in light of commonly used contrary arguments. Decisions in medicine, as elsewhere, must be taken on the evidence to hand, weighing up the risks, given that complete knowledge is seldom available and time is precious. There are strong analogies between clinical experience and our approach to planetary climate. The relevant context for scientific observations on climate is the world's multi-gigatonne annual CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions drive changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases, which matters when they are rapid or prolonged. The current variation in global temperature is alarming, even when within 'normal range'. Climate models inform and guide present-day decision-making, and perform well in explaining observed warming. They corroborate other evidence that tells us that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are harmful at current atmospheric concentrations. As a profession and as global citizens, we need to move beyond dissent and denial about anthropogenic climate change. The WMA correctly says that circumstances now require us all to take action.

  10. Climate science, denial and the Declaration of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Laking, George; Woodward, Alistair; Metcalfe, Scott; Macmillan, Alexandra; Lindsay, Graeme; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Maclennan, Anne; Thompson, Imogen; Wells, Susan

    2009-12-11

    Human-induced climate change is now the central health issue facing humanity. The World Medical Association recently adopted the Declaration of Delhi, committing the medical profession to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. This is new professional territory for many doctors. Even so, the profession has often engaged with issues outside 'the health sector' when the stakes are high, for example leaded petrol, road safety, tobacco, and nuclear weapons. The scientific basis to the declaration merits scrutiny in light of commonly used contrary arguments. Decisions in medicine, as elsewhere, must be taken on the evidence to hand, weighing up the risks, given that complete knowledge is seldom available and time is precious. There are strong analogies between clinical experience and our approach to planetary climate. The relevant context for scientific observations on climate is the world's multi-gigatonne annual CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions drive changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases, which matters when they are rapid or prolonged. The current variation in global temperature is alarming, even when within 'normal range'. Climate models inform and guide present-day decision-making, and perform well in explaining observed warming. They corroborate other evidence that tells us that CO2 and other greenhouse gases are harmful at current atmospheric concentrations. As a profession and as global citizens, we need to move beyond dissent and denial about anthropogenic climate change. The WMA correctly says that circumstances now require us all to take action. PMID:20148048

  11. Climate change and child health.

    PubMed

    Seal, Arnab; Vasudevan, Chakrapani

    2011-12-01

    Postindustrial human activity has contributed to rising atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming and climate change. The adverse effects of climate change affect children disproportionately, especially in the developing world. Urgent action is necessary to mitigate the causes and adapt to the negative effects of climate change. Paediatricians have an important role in managing the effects of climate change on children and promoting sustainable development.

  12. Longitudinal changes of nerve conduction velocity, distal motor latency, compound motor action potential duration, and skin temperature during prolonged exposure to cold in a climate chamber.

    PubMed

    Maetzler, Walter; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Zscheile, Julia; Gabor, Kai-Steffen; Lindemann, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Changes of nerve conduction velocity (NCV), distal motor latency (DML), compound motor action potential (CMAP) duration, and skin temperature with regard to cold have been investigated by use of ice packs or cold water baths, but not after cooling of environmental temperature which has higher ecological validity. The aim of this study was to investigate these parameters during cooled room temperature. NCV, DML, and CMAP duration of the common fibular nerve, and skin temperature were measured in 20 healthy young females during exposure to 15°C room temperature, coming from 25°C room. We found that NCV decreased and DML increased linearly during 45 min observation time, in contrast to CMAP duration and skin temperature which changes followed an exponential curve. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating changes of these parameters during exposure to environmental cold. The results may pilot some new hypotheses and studies on physiological and pathological changes of the peripheral nervous system and skin to environmental cold, e.g., in elderly with peripheral neuropathies. PMID:22510085

  13. Identification of limiting climatic and geographical variables for the distribution of the tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae): a baseline for conservation actions

    PubMed Central

    Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Just as for most other tortoise species, the once common Chaco tortoise, Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudinidae), is under constant threat across it distribution in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Despite initial qualitative description of the species distribution and further individual reports of new locations for the species, there is no description of the species distribution in probabilistic terms. With this work we aim to produce an updated predictive distribution map for C. chilensis to serve as a baseline management tool for directed strategic conservation planning. Methods. We fitted a spatially expanded logistic regression model within the Bayesian framework that accounts for uncertainty on presence-only and generated pseudo-absence data into the parameter estimates. We contrast the results with reported data for the national networks of protected areas to assess the inclusion of the species in area-based conservation strategies. Results. We obtained maps with predictions of the occurrence of the species and reported the model’s uncertainty spatially. The model suggests that potential suitable habitats for the species are continuous across Argentina, West Paraguay and South Bolivia, considering the variables, the scale and the resolution used. The main limiting variables were temperature-related variables, and precipitation in the reproductive period. Discussion. Given the alarming low density and coverage of protected areas over the distribution area of C. chilensis, the map produced provides a baseline to identify areas where directed strategic conservation management actions would be more efficient for this and other associated species. PMID:26557430

  14. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of

  15. Taming the Beast: Policy-based Solutions for Addressing Corporate Interference in Climate Policy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifo, F.

    2012-12-01

    Inappropriate corporate influence in science-based policy has been a persistent problem in the United States across multiple issue areas and through many administrations. Interference in climate change policy has been especially pervasive in recent years, with tremendous levels of corporate resources being utilized to spread misinformation on climate science and reduce and postpone regulatory action. Much of the influence exerted by these forces is concealed from public view. Better corporate disclosure laws would reveal who is influencing climate policy to policy makers, investors, and the public. Greater transparency in the political activity of corporate actors is needed to shed light on who is responsible for the misinformation campaigns clouding the discussion around climate change in the United States. Such transparency will empower diverse stakeholders to hold corporations accountable. Specific federal policy reforms can be made in order to guide the nation down a path of greater corporate accountability in climate change policy efforts.

  16. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  17. On the importance for climate science communication - the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Lemke, Peter; Dethloff, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge for national and international action and cooperation. A wide variation in the vulnerability is to be expected across different regions, due to regional differences in local environmental conditions, preexisting stresses to ecosystems, current resource-use patterns, and the framework of factors affecting decision-making including government policies, prices, preferences, and values. Thus, considerable regional impact differences will be faced as a result of climate change. Being aware will help to prepare for these inevitable consequences in time. Climate change is nowhere more strongly expressed than in the polar regions which respond to even small changes in climate. Given the major role played by these regions within the Earth's climate system the climate office for polar regions and sea level rise is hosted by the Foundation Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) which conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic and at temperate latitudes since 1980. The major goal of the climate office is to encourage the communication and dialogue between science and public. Primarily, this is done by the unique close contact and cooperation to the research center scientists. A continuous exchange is supported beyond the research center towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. The climate office represents polar aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting research institute e.g. the understanding of the ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, the animal and plant kingdoms of the Arctic and Antarctic, and the evolution of the polar continents and seas. The climate office translates the scientific work into English, making complex issues accessible to policymakers and the public. It compiles, evaluates, comprehensively process and transparently communicate the latest findings from polar related climate research. The paper will present different

  18. Task Force Report on Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    Issues raised by affirmative action are explored and a legislative agenda for reform is offered. Part One of the report examines affirmative action in practice and includes discussions of the Bakke case and affirmative action in the federal government. Part Two considers the legal aspect of affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and Part…

  19. Affirmative Action: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Frederick R.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this special issue: affirmative action for blacks; the bases of contemporary affirmative action attitudes; reverse discrimination cases; how the media and the public react to affirmative action; and affirmative action strategies for the future. (RM)

  20. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  1. Managing Protected Areas Under Climate Change: Challenges and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D.; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  2. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate. PMID:24722848

  3. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the fourth assessment of Earth’s climate in 2007, laying the foundation for mitigation and adaptation measures but leaving a chasm between well-documented evidence and society’s ability to comprehend climate change mechanisms. Educators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are bridging this climate literacy gap with on-line curriculum and a NASA supported professional development program for science teachers. The distance learning curriculum (http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/climatechange/) utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the IPCC Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy. With funding from NASA’s Global Climate Change Education program (GCCE), UW-Madison’s Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) combines teacher workshops with the web-based course and an emerging discussion forum to support educators as they become ambassadors of climate literacy in their local schools and communities. This session will demonstrate key elements and activities featured in the on-line course and describe some first-tier Climate Literacy Ambassador projects which range from classroom lesson plans to household mitigation actions to community action plans.

  4. Gender Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilfeld, Ellen M., Ed.; Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" focuses on gender issues in early childhood. The first article, "Both Halves of the Sky: Gender Socialization in the Early Years," focuses on the arguments that have led to an international call for increased participation of girls in education, an introduction to studies which map young children's…

  5. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  6. Future Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    James Houseworth

    2001-10-12

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada (Figure 1), the site of a potential repository for high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this AMR provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the infiltration model (USGS 2000) and for the total system performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) at YM. Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one method, among many, of establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Revision 00 of this AMR was prepared in accordance with the ''Work Direction and Planning Document for Future Climate Analysis'' (Peterman 1999) under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The planning document for the technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department''. (BSC 2001b, Addendum B

  7. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  8. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  9. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  10. Issues Management Tool

    2010-12-31

    IMTool performs the following: • The IMTool can manage issues, actions, and activities from one screen. • Provides enhanced and intuitive searching, sorting, and filtering capabilities. Grids allow for filtering any column instantly by any data heading. • IMTool uses drop-down menus to ensure date is entered accurately with consistency. • User-friendly system – highly utilized commitment tracking screen functions. Information is viewed on the left side of the screen and managed on the right.

  11. Online and classroom tools for Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samenow, J. P.; Scott, K.

    2004-12-01

    EPA's Office of Atmospheric Programs has developed unique tools for educating students about the science of global warming and on actions that help address the issue. These tools have been highly successful and used in hundreds of classrooms across the country. EPA's Global Warming Kids' Site features interactive web-based animations for educating children, grades 4-8, about climate change. The animations illustrate how human activities likely influence the climate system through processes such as the greenhouse effect and carbon and water cycles. The pages also contain interactive quizzes. See: http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids/animations.html For advanced high school and college students, EPA is nearing completion on the development of interactive visualizations of the emissions and climate scenarios featured in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report. These visualizations allow students to choose a scenario and see how emissions, the climate and the earth's surface change over time. The Global Warming Wheelcard Classroom Activity Kit is designed to help teachers of middle school students introduce the concept of human induced global warming in the context of how rates of energy usage can influence the increase or eventual slowing of climate change. The Climate Change, Wildlife, and Wildlands Toolkit for Teachers and Interpreters was produced in a partnership among three agencies - EPA, US Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service (NPS). Both classroom teachers and outdoor interpreters find it useful in conveying information about climate change science and impacts to their students and visitors. The development of the toolkit led to a larger program between EPA and NPS that assists parks in inventorying their emissions, creating action plans, and talking to the public about what they are doing - a "lead by example" type program that the two agencies hope to replicate in other venues in the coming year.

  12. Towards a science of climate and energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Paul C.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Dietz, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The linked problems of energy sustainability and climate change are among the most complex and daunting facing humanity at the start of the twenty-first century. This joint Nature Energy and Nature Climate Change Collection illustrates how understanding and addressing these problems will require an integrated science of coupled human and natural systems; including technological systems, but also extending well beyond the domain of engineering or even economics. It demonstrates the value of replacing the stylized assumptions about human behaviour that are common in policy analysis, with ones based on data-driven science. We draw from and engage articles in the Collection to identify key contributions to understanding non-technological factors connecting economic activity and greenhouse gas emissions, describe a multi-dimensional space of human action on climate and energy issues, and illustrate key themes, dimensions and contributions towards fundamental understanding and informed decision making.

  13. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  14. Heating up Climate Literacy Education: Understanding Teachers' and Students' Motivational and Affective Response to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinatra, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    presentation, findings from a research program exploring the role of "hot constructs" such as motivation and emotion in teaching and learning about climate change will be shared. In these studies, we have explored constructs such as emotions, misconceptions, plausibility perceptions, understanding deep time, and dispositions towards uncertainty. Results from four studies will be highlighted. In the first study, we demonstrated that comfort with ambiguity and a willingness to think deeply about issues predicted both change in attitudes towards climate change and expressed willingness to take mitigative action in college students (Sinatra, et al. 2011). In another study with college students, we demonstrated that knowledge of deep time and plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change were related to students' understanding of weather and climate distinctions (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). In a study with graduate education students, we found that misconceptions about climate change were associated with strong emotions (Broughton, et al., 2011). With practicing teachers we have found that emotions, specifically anger and hopelessness, were significant predictors of plausibility perceptions of human-induced climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation). The implications for climate change education of the findings will be discussed.

  15. Climate Services at AEMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Mestre, A.

    2010-09-01

    AEMET activities with regard to Climate Services are mainly focused on climate monitoring and generation of regionalized climate change scenarios. AEMET also provides all services related with observational and modelling data for different types of users. With respect to climate monitoring, the operational activities of AEMET include the issue of a monthly bulletin describing the behaviour of climatic elements from the previous month, and the release of a hydrological cycle monitoring product (with information on precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil water status and reservoirs storage) produced with ten days periodicity. Drought is also being monitored through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for different periods of time, aimed at capturing the severity, intensity, duration and geographical extent of every drought episode. Regarding climate change scenarios, AEMET is embarked on the periodical production of downscaled projections data based on a multiplicity of global models and downscaling algorithms, both statistical and dynamical, all of them based on the most recent information of IPCC global models. Special emphasis has been put on the evaluation of global climate models over the Euro-Atlantic region and on the estimation and communication of uncertainties. This periodical production of updated downscaled climate change projections is framed within the National Plan of Adaptation to Climate Change which encompasses all economical activities and sectors sensitive to climate conditions.

  16. [Climate change and health].

    PubMed

    Martens, Pim

    2009-01-01

    Despite the targets for greenhouse gas emissions agreed in Kyoto under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - again to be discussed in Copenhagen in December - climate change will still have serious effects on public health. The health effects of climate change will be noticeable also in the short run. Diseases which are transmitted by arthropod vectors will spread to more areas of the world than where they are present now. In addition, we will have to deal with allergies, deaths due to heat waves, diarrhoea and malnutrition. For this reason, every action is needed now in order to minimise the adverse effects on health.

  17. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  18. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Centres (GPCs). Indications are that the current seasonal forecasting system used by CARICOF has produced reliable outlooks than previously available. Nevertheless, through its forum platform, areas for further development are continuously being defined, which are then implemented through efficient information exchanges between and hands-on training of forecasters. Finally, the disaster research and emergency management communities have shown that effective early warnings of impending hazards need to be complemented by information on the risks actually posed by the hazards and pathways for action. CARICOF is to address this issue by designing the outputs of the seasonal climate outlooks such that they can then effectively feed into an early warning information system of seasonal climate variability related hazards to its constituent countries' and territories major socio-economic sectors.

  19. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  20. Towards a new climate diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Angel; Moffat, Andrew S.; Weinfurter, Amy J.; Schwartz, Jason D.

    2015-06-01

    A new kind of climate politics is emerging, as national actions prove insufficient to address the changing climate. Subnational actors -- ranging from provinces and cities, to civil sector organizations and private companies -- are acting alongside nation states, making up for lost ground and missed opportunities.

  1. Titan Aeromony and Climate Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézard, Bruno; Lavvas, Panayotis; Rannou, Pascal; Sotin, Christophe; Strobel, Darrell; West, Robert A.; Yelle, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The observations of the Cassini spacecraft since 2004 revealed that Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an active climate cycle with a cloud cover related to the large scale atmospheric circulation, lakes of methane and hyrdrocarbons with variable depth, a dried fluvial system witnessing a past wetter climate, dunes, and deep changes in the weather and atmospheric structure as Titan went through the North Spring equinox. Moreover, the upper atmosphere is now considered the cradle of complex chemistry leading to aerosol formation, as well as the manifestation place of atmospheric waves. However, as the Cassini mission comes to its end, many fundamental questions remain unresolved... The objective of the workshop is to bring together international experts from different fields of Titan's research in order to have an overview of the current understanding, and to determine the remaining salient scientific issues and the actions that could be implemented to address them. PhD students and post-doc researchers are welcomed to present their studies. This conference aims to be a brainstorming event leaving abundant time for discussion during oral and poster presentations. Main Topics: - Atmospheric seasonal cycles and coupling with dynamics. - Composition and photochemistry of the atmosphere. - Formation and evolution of aerosols and their role in the atmosphere. - Spectroscopy, optical properties, and radiative transfer modeling of the atmosphere. - Surface composition, liquid reservoirs and interaction with atmosphere. - Evolution of the atmosphere. - Titan after Cassini, open questions and the path forward.

  2. River Restoration for a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Pollock, M. M.; Pess, G. R.; Roni, P.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate scenarios suggest that riverine habitats will be significantly altered in the next few decades, forcing managers to ask whether and how river restoration activities should be altered to accommodate climate change. Obvious questions include: Will climate change alter river flow and temperature enough to reduce action effectiveness? What types of restoration actions are more likely to remain effective in a climate altered future? To help address these questions, we reviewed literature on habitat restoration actions and river processes to determine the degree to which different restoration actions are likely to either ameliorate a climate effect or increase habitat diversity and resilience. Key findings are that restoring floodplain connectivity and re-aggrading incised channels ameliorate both stream flow and temperature changes and increase lateral connectivity, whereas restoring in-stream flows can ameliorate decreases in low flows as well as stream temperature increases. Other restoration actions (e.g., reducing sediment supply, in-stream rehabilitation) are much less likely to ameliorate climate change effects. In general, actions that restore watershed and ecosystem processes are most likely to be robust to climate change effects because they allow river channels and riverine ecosystems to evolve in response to shifting stream flow and temperature regimes. We offer a decision support process to illustrate how to evaluate whether a project design should be altered to accommodate climate change effects, and show examples of restoration actions that are likely to be resilient to a changing climate.

  3. Permafrost and gas hydrate related methane release in the Arctic and its impact on climate change - European cooperation for long-term monitoring: COST Action PERGAMON (www.cost-pergamon.eu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, Jens; Treude, Tina; Members, Pergamon

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic is a key area in our warming world as massive releases of terrestrial and oceanic methane could increase atmospheric methane concentrations much faster than expected. The vast Arctic shelf might become a major emitter of methane in the future. Only a few projects are engaged in research on methane seepage in this area. The exchange of information about ongoing and planned activities in the Arctic with respect to gas hydrate destabilization and permafrost thawing is low within the EU and almost non-existent at an international level. The aim of the COST Action PERGAMON is to promote networking internationally within the EU and beyond: data integration of terrestrial studies from wetlands and permafrost regions marine research on gas release from seeps due to decomposing gas hydrate and/or permafrost melting and atmospheric investigations carried out by monitoring stations and via satellite is urgently needed to achieve a better understanding of methane emission processes in high latitude areas. The "official" main objective of PERGAMON is to quantify the methane input from marine and terrestrial sources into the atmosphere in the Arctic region, and ultimately to evaluate the impact of Arctic methane seepage on the global climate. This will be achieved by studying the origin and type of occurrence (dissolved/free gas, gas hydrate) of different methane sources (both on land and in the sub-seabed) as well as methane migration mechanisms, biogeochemical turnover, release mechanisms, and finally by quantifying the flux into the atmosphere. Biannual meetings and open workshops/conferences that will be announced throughout the scientific community serve as a platform to exchange and proliferate knowledge on methane in the Arctic. At present, fourteeen European countries are partners in PERGAMON, several non-COST country institutions are currently applying to participate (e.g. the US and Russia). PERGAMON aims to be open for new members, suggestions and input at

  4. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  5. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  6. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  7. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  8. Faculty Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for courses on faculty issues are discussed, and four sample syllabi are presented. Few doctoral programs in higher education administration were identified that devote an entire course to the subject of American college and university faculty. For four courses that did devote an entire course to the…

  9. Newspaper Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The Cooperative Africana Microform Project" (Ray…

  10. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  11. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  12. Rethinking Actions: Implementation and Association

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word “action”—one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the fronto-parietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others’ actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  13. Positive Youth Action towards Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttigieg, Karen; Pace, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences of young people who are leaders of change in the environmental field. This study views environmental activism as a personal commitment towards pro-environmental behaviour. The motivations and challenges of such work are viewed as important to learn more not only about volunteering in environmental…

  14. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  15. Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio, F.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information at global, regional and national levels and in timeframes ranging from the past, present and future climate is fundamental for planning, sustainable development and to help organizations, countries and individuals adopt appropriate strategies to adapt to climate variability and change. Based on this recognition, in 2009, the Heads of States and Governments, Ministers and Heads of Delegation representing more than 150 countries, 34 United Nations Organizations and 36 Governmental and non-Governmental international organizations, and more than 2500 experts present at the Third World Climate Conference (WCC - 3) unanimously agreed to develop the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to strengthen the production, availability, delivery and application of science-based climate prediction and services. They requested that a taskforce of high-level independent advisors be appointed to prepare a report, including recommendations on the proposed elements of the Framework and the next steps for its implementation. The high-level taskforce produced a report which was endorsed by the Sixteeth World Meteorological Congress XVI in May 2011. A process for the development of the implementation plan and the governance structure of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is well under way being led by the World Meteorological Organization within the UN system. This process involves consultations that engage a broad range of stakeholders including governments, UN and international agencies, regional organizations and specific communities of practitioners. These consultations are being conducted to facilitate discussions of key issues related to the production, availability, delivery and application of climate services in the four priority sectors of the framework (agriculture, water, health and disaster risk reduction) so that the implementation plan of the Framework is a true reflection of the aspirations of stakeholders. The GFCS is envisaged as

  16. Issues in Personality Conceptualizations of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes issues and implications associated with personality conceptualizations of addictive behaviors. Directs attention toward characterizing the sociopolitical climate's effect on identification, evaluation, and management of substance abuse disorders. Explores alcohol and drug use in conceptual schemata encompassing multifactorial,…

  17. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  18. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  19. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  20. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  1. Public Reception of Climate Science: Coherence, Reliability, and Independence.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ulrike; Harris, Adam J L; Corner, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Possible measures to mitigate climate change require global collective actions whose impacts will be felt by many, if not all. Implementing such actions requires successful communication of the reasons for them, and hence the underlying climate science, to a degree that far exceeds typical scientific issues which do not require large-scale societal response. Empirical studies have identified factors, such as the perceived level of consensus in scientific opinion and the perceived reliability of scientists, that can limit people's trust in science communicators and their subsequent acceptance of climate change claims. Little consideration has been given, however, to recent formal results within philosophy concerning the relationship between truth, the reliability of evidence sources, the coherence of multiple pieces of evidence/testimonies, and the impact of (non-)independence between sources of evidence. This study draws on these results to evaluate exactly what has (and, more important, has not yet) been established in the empirical literature about the factors that bias the public's reception of scientific communications about climate change. PMID:26705767

  2. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  3. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  4. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  5. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  6. Other issues before Congress.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Issues awaiting congressional action cover work incentives, patients' bill of rights, and hate crimes. The work incentive bill would allow States to enact Medicaid buy-in programs so people with HIV or other disabilities can obtain health services necessary to become or remain employed. A limited version of a patient's bill of rights, passing from the Senate to the House, would ensure that patients in health maintenance organizations have access to emergency room care and specialists, and can get doctor referrals outside their networks. A Senate bill involving hate crimes would prosecute violent hate crimes against people because of their disabilities, sexual orientation or gender.

  7. The Evolving Risk of Climate Change and National Security: People not Polar Bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titley, D.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will provide a general overview of climate change and discuss why this is a national security issue. Climate change is about people, about water, and about change itself. Understanding the rate of climate change, relative to the abilities of both humans and ecosystems to adapt is critical. I will briefly describe the multiple, independent lines of evidence that the climate is changing, and that the primary cause of this change is a change in atmospheric composition caused by the burning of fossil fuels. I will cover the history of climate change as seen within the U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Navy, how this challenge is being addressed from budgetary, policy, and political angles, and what are the greatest challenges to national security that arise from climate change and in particular, the associated changes in the Arctic. I will conclude with an assessment of future challenges and opportunities regarding climate change, from science, policy, and political perspectives, and why we know enough to take significant action now, even if we don't know every detail about the future. In addition, this talk will address how to effectively talk about climate change through the use of analogies, plain, non-jargon English, and even a little humor.

  8. Disturbing Information and Denial in the Classroom and Beyond: Climate Change, Emotions and Everyday Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgaard, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is the most significant environmental issue of our time, yet public response in Western nations has been meager. Why have so few taken any action? Most studies of public response to climate change have focused on information deficit approaches. Many in the general public and environmental community have presumed that the public's failure to engage is a function of lack of concern about climate change. Instead, using interviews and ethnographic research on how knowledge of climate change is experienced in everyday life I describe "the social organization of climate denial" and discuss how it impacts classroom learning and the broader social understanding of climate change. Disturbing emotions of guilt, helplessness and fear of the future arose when people were confronted with the idea of climate change. People then normalized these disturbing emotions by changing the subject of conversations, shifting their attention elsewhere, telling jokes, and drawing on stock social discourses that deflected responsibility to others. The difficulty people have in making sense of climate change is in direct relation to the social world around them. This research suggests that educational strategies in the classroom and for the general public that consider and target the social, cultural and political aspects of the meaning of climate change will be most effective (in addition to factors that affect individual cognition).

  9. Climate Variability and Change and Their Potential Health Effects in Small Island States: Information for Adaptation Planning in the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Lewis, Nancy D.; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and long-term climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen short-term and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09–0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states. PMID:17185291

  10. Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Lewis, Nancy D; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and longterm climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen shortterm and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09-0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states.

  11. Climate Change? When? Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

  12. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  13. Residents' strikes on policy issues.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Aggarwal, Sourabh

    2009-01-01

    Strikes by residents or medical students have become fairly common and the new trend is to resort to strikes to protest matters concerning health policies. This article discusses the justification for and the ethical issues involved in these strike actions. Mechanisms to prevent such strikes are also discussed. PMID:19241959

  14. Household Waste. Issues and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Andy; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide citizens with information about household waste and to indicate how they can contribute to its reduction. Information indicates how each individual can reduce waste by adopting new habits, making informed choices, and becoming involved in community action. Discussed are: (1) specific issues of general and…

  15. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  16. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  17. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  18. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  19. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  20. Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.

    2007-07-01

    This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. Notes from the field: Educating, inspiring and activating the next generation of climate leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the inherent lag time within the climate system, some of the greatest impacts of climate change will be felt in future decades by those who are today too young to control the course of human action (or inaction). Though today’s youth are not in the driver’s seat yet, this does not mean they are powerless to shape their own futures. To do this, students need to be empowered with an understanding of why and how climate change is happening and how it affects their lives. To prevent students from disengaging entirely in the face of such bleak picture, however, this information must be balanced with a more hopeful message of optimism about the future that they themselves can help to create. The Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to educate high school students about climate change and to inspire them to take action that makes a difference on this important issue. ACE educators deliver dynamic and engaging multimedia assembly presentations to high schools in 9 regions around the country. During the 2009-2010 school year, ACE educators spoke to over 400,000 high school students at over 900 high schools, educating students about current climate science in a dynamic manner that is meaningful and relevant. The presentation uses animated graphics to explain how humans are causing climate change, providing both a historical and paleoclimate perspective. Educators discuss the consequences of climate change with real-world video footage, showing both current impacts and model-based predictions for the future. The accompanying script has been thoroughly referenced with peer-reviewed articles to back up all information given. ACE’s education model illustrates for students how climate change will and does impact their lives—which can be sobering news to young people—but also imparts to students a sense of hope for the future by giving them tools to take action. ACE strives to form a crucial link between a foundation

  3. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  4. Fostering Hope in Climate Change Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Fraser, John

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change is a complex set of issues with large social and ecological risks. Addressing it requires an attentive and climate literate population capable of making informed decisions. Informal science educators are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate engagement, but many have resisted the topic because of self-doubt about…

  5. Teaching Climate Social Science and Its Practices: A Two-Pronged Approach to Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwom, R.; Isenhour, C.; McCright, A.; Robinson, J.; Jordan, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy states that a climate-literate individual can: "understand the essential principles of Earth's climate system, assess scientifically credible information about climate change, communicate about climate and climate change in a meaningful way, and make informed and responsible decisions with regard to actions that may affect climate." We argue that further integration of the social science dimensions of climate change will advance the climate literacy goals of communication and responsible actions. The underlying rationale for this argues: 1) teaching the habits of mind and scientific practices that have synergies across the social and natural sciences can strengthen students ability to understand and assess science in general and that 2) understanding the empirical research on the social, political, and economic processes (including climate science itself) that are part of the climate system is an important step for enabling effective action and communication. For example, while climate literacy has often identified the public's faulty mental models of climate processes as a partial explanation of complacency, emerging research suggests that the public's mental models of the social world are equally or more important in leading to informed and responsible climate decisions. Building student's ability to think across the social and natural sciences by understanding "how we know what we know" through the sciences and a scientific understanding of the social world allows us to achieve climate literacy goals more systematically and completely. To enable this integration we first identify the robust social science insights for the climate science literacy principles that involve social systems. We then briefly identify significant social science contributions to climate science literacy that do not clearly fit within the seven climate literacy principles but arguably could advance climate literacy goals. We conclude

  6. 75 FR 22391 - Notice of Web Site Publication for the Climate Program Office

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Notice of Web Site Publication for the Climate Program Office AGENCY: Climate Program Office (CPO), Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Climate...

  7. 76 FR 11427 - National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory... Administration; Department of Commerce. ACTION: Request for nominations to the National Climate Assessment... qualified individuals for the National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee (NCADAC)...

  8. The Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) Second Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities (ARC3-2), and the UCCRN Hubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Ali Ibrahim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this session is to foster a dialogue between experts working on global-scale, climate change and cities assessments in order to simultaneously present state-of-the-art knowledge on how cities are responding to climate change and to define emerging opportunities and challenges to the effective placement of this knowledge in the hands of local stakeholders and decision-makers. We will present the UCCRN and the Second UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities (ARC3-2), the second in an ongoing series of global, interdisciplinary, cross-regional, science-based assessments to address climate risks, adaptation, mitigation, and policy mechanisms relevant to cities. This is an especially important time to examine these issues. Cities continue to act as world leaders in climate action. Several major climate change assessment efforts are in full swing, at a crucial stage where significant opportunities for the co-production of knowledge between researchers and stakeholders exist. The IPCC AR5 Working Group II and III Reports have placed unprecedented attention on cities and urbanization and their connection to the issue of climate change. Concurrently several major, explicitly city-focused efforts have emerged from the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN), ICLEI, the Durban Adaptation Charter (DAC), C40, Future Earth, and the Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) Project, among others. The underlying rationale for the discussion will be to identify methods and approaches to further foster the development and dissemination of new climate change knowledge and information that will be useful for cities, especially in small and medium-sized cities and in the developing country context where the demand is particularly acute. Participants will leave this session with: · The latest scientific data and state-of-the-knowledge on how cities are responding to climate change · Emerging opportunities and challenges to the effective

  9. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  10. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R.

    2009-12-01

    Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate Change Impacts Report identifies examples of adaptation-related actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change, as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change such as urban air pollution and heat waves. Some adaptation options that are currently being pursued in various regions and sectors to deal with climate change and/or other environmental issues are identified in this report. A range of adaptation responses can be employed to reduce risks through redesign or relocation of infrastructure, sustainability of ecosystem services, increased redundancy of critical social services, and operational improvements. Adapting to climate change is an evolutionary process and requires both analytic and deliberative decision support. Many of the climate change impacts described in the report have economic consequences. A significant part of these consequences flow through public and private insurance markets, which essentially aggregate and distribute society's risk. However, in most cases, there is currently insufficient robust information to evaluate the practicality, efficiency, effectiveness, costs, or benefits of adaptation measures, highlighting a need for research. Adaptation planning efforts such as that being conducted in New York City and the Colorado River will be described. Climate will be continually changing, moving at a relatively rapid rate, outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. The precise amounts and timing of these changes will not be known with certainty. The

  11. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  12. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in Tanzania: a review.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Mayala, Benjamin K; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2011-12-01

    Climate change (CC) has a number of immediate and long-term impacts on the fundamental determinants of human health. A number of potential human health effects have been associated either directly or indirectly with global climate change. Vulnerability to the risks associated with CC may exacerbate ongoing socio-economic challenges. The objective of this review was to analyse the potential risk and vulnerability in the context of climate-sensitive human diseases and health system in Tanzania. Climate sensitive vector- and waterborne diseases and other health related problems and the policies on climate adaptation in Tanzania during the past 50 years are reviewed. The review has shown that a number of climate-associated infectious disease epidemics have been reported in various areas of the country; mostly being associated with increase in precipitation and temperature. Although, there is no single policy document that specifically addresses issues of CC in the country, the National Environmental Management Act of 1997 recognizes the importance of CC and calls for the government to put up measures to address the phenomenon. A number of strategies and action plans related to CC are also in place. These include the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the National Action Programme, and the National Bio-safety Framework. The government has put in place a National Climate Change Steering Committee and the National Climate Change Technical Committee to oversee and guide the implementation of CC activities in the country. Recognizing the adverse impacts of natural disasters and calamities, the government established a Disaster Management Division under the Prime Minister's Office. Epidemic Preparedness and Response Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for emergency preparedness, mostly disease outbreaks. However, specific climate changes associated with human health issues are poorly addressed in the MoHSW strategies and the national

  13. Motivated recall in the service of the economic system: The case of anthropogenic climate change.

    PubMed

    Hennes, Erin P; Ruisch, Benjamin C; Feygina, Irina; Monteiro, Christopher A; Jost, John T

    2016-06-01

    The contemporary political landscape is characterized by numerous divisive issues. Unlike many other issues, however, much of the disagreement about climate change centers not on how best to take action to address the problem, but on whether the problem exists at all. Psychological studies indicate that, to the extent that sustainability initiatives are seen as threatening to the socioeconomic system, individuals may downplay environmental problems in order to defend and protect the status quo. In the current research, participants were presented with scientific information about climate change and later asked to recall details of what they had learned. Individuals who were experimentally induced (Study 1) or dispositionally inclined (Studies 2 and 3) to justify the economic system misremembered the evidence to be less serious, and this was associated with increased skepticism. However, when high system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in a recovery, they recalled climate change information to be more serious than did those assigned to a control condition. When low system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in recession, they recalled the information to be less serious (Study 3). These findings suggest that because system justification can impact information processing, simply providing the public with scientific evidence may be insufficient to inspire action to mitigate climate change. However, linking environmental information to statements about the strength of the economic system may satiate system justification needs and break the psychological link between proenvironmental initiatives and economic risk. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123575

  14. Climate change negotiation simulations for students: responses across gender and age.A case study: San Francisco State University World Climate Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, role-play and simulation exercises have been utilized for learning and policy decision making. While the power of Model UN simulations in building first-person experience and understanding of complex international issues is well known, the effectiveness of simulations for inspiring citizen engagement in scientific public-policy issues is little studied. My work hypothesizes that climate-change negotiation simulations can enhance students' scientific literacy and policy advocacy. It aims to determine how age and gender influence the responsiveness of students to such simulations. During the 2015 fall semester, I am conducting World Climate exercises for fellow graduate and undergraduate students at San Francisco State University. At the end of the exercise, I will have collected the responses to an anonymous questionnaire in which the participants indicate age and gender. The questionnaire asks participants to describe their hopes and fears for the future and to propose public and personal actions for achieving a strong climate change agreement. I am tracking differences to determine whether participants' age and gender correlate with particular patterns of feeling and thinking. My future research will aim to determine whether and how strongly the World Climate Exercise has affected participants' actual policy engagement. This work will also reflect on my experiences as a World Climate facilitator. I will describe the facilitation process and then discuss some of my observations from the sessions. I will specify the challenges I have encountered and suggest strategies that can strengthen the learning process. World Climate is a computer-simulation-based climate change negotiations role-playing exercise developed by Climate Interactive in partnership with the System Dynamics Group at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

  15. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  16. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    PubMed

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  17. Climate Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteleoni, Claire; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Alexander, Francis J.; Niculescu-Mizil, Alexandru; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Tippett, Michael; Banerjee, Arindam; Blumenthal, M. Benno; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Tedesco, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of present and potential future climate change will be one of the most important scientific and societal challenges in the 21st century. Given observed changes in temperature, sea ice, and sea level, improving our understanding of the climate system is an international priority. This system is characterized by complex phenomena that are imperfectly observed and even more imperfectly simulated. But with an ever-growing supply of climate data from satellites and environmental sensors, the magnitude of data and climate model output is beginning to overwhelm the relatively simple tools currently used to analyze them. A computational approach will therefore be indispensable for these analysis challenges. This chapter introduces the fledgling research discipline climate informatics: collaborations between climate scientists and machine learning researchers in order to bridge this gap between data and understanding. We hope that the study of climate informatics will accelerate discovery in answering pressing questions in climate science.

  18. Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    Discussion of climate sensitivity requires careful definition of forcings, feedbacks and response times, indeed, foggy definitions have produced flawed assessments of climate sensitivity. The best information available on climate sensitivity comes from insightful interpretation of the Earth's history aided by quantitative information from climate models and understanding of climate processes. Climate sensitivity is a strong function of time scale, in part because of the nature of climate feedbacks. Unfortunately for humanity, the preponderance of feedbacks on the century time scale appears to be positive. The chief implication is the need for a sharp reversal in the trend of human-made climate forcing, if we are to avoid creating a planet that is dramatically different than the one on which civilization developed.

  19. Anthropogenic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Budyko, M.I.; Izreal, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    The climate modeling community would agree that the present generation of theoretical models cannot adequately answer important question about the climatic implications of increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases. Society, however, is presently deciding by its action, or inaction, the policies that will deal with the extent and results of our collective flatulence. In this situation, an engineering approach to estimating the developing pattern of anthropogenic climate change is appropriate. For example, Budyko has argued that, while scientists may have made great advances in modelling the flow around an airfoil, engineers make extensive use of empirical equations and measurements to design airplanes that fly. Budyko and Izreal have produced an encyclopedic treatise summarizing the results of Soviet researchers in applying empirical and semiempirical methods to estimating future climatic patterns, and some of their ensuring effects. These techniques consist mainly of statistical relationships derived from 1850-1950 network data and of patterns revealed by analysis of paleoclimatic data. An important part of the Soviet effort in anthropogenic climate-change studies is empirical techniques that represent independent verification of the results of theoretical climate models.

  20. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  1. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades.

  2. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  3. Global Climate Change and Ocean Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The New England Aquarium, collaborating with other aquariums across the country, is leading a national effort to enable aquariums and related informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine animals, habitats and ecosystems. Our goal is to build on visitors' emotional connection with ocean animals, connect to their deeply held values, help them understand causes and effects of climate change and motivate them to embrace effective solutions. Our objectives are to: (1) Build a national coalition of aquariums and related informal education institutions collaborating on climate change education; (2) Develop an interpretive framework for climate change and the ocean that is scientifically sound, research-based, field tested and evaluated; and (3) Build capacity of aquariums to interpret climate change via training for interpreters, interactive exhibits and activities and communities of practice for ongoing support. Centers of informal learning have the potential to bring important environmental issues to the public by presenting the facts, explaining the science, connecting with existing values and interests, and motivating concern and action. Centers that work with live animals (including aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, national marine sanctuaries, etc.) are unique in that they attract large numbers of people of all ages (over 140 million in the US), have strong connections to the natural, and engage many visitors who may not come with a primary interest in science. Recent research indicates that that the public expects and trusts aquariums, zoos, and museums to communicate solutions to environmental and ocean issues, and to advance ocean conservation, and that climate change is the environmental issue of most concern to the public; Ironically, however, most people do not associate climate change with ocean health, or understand the critical role that the ocean plays in

  4. Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly

  5. Evaluation of the Alliance for Climate Education's national high school edutainment program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.

  6. Resolving Ethical Issues when Conducting Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are…

  7. School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Mazzarella, Jo Ann

    Chapter 7 of a volume on school leadership, this chapter defines, describes, and suggests ways to improve climate at the school building level. After citing a number of definitions of school climate, the authors conclude that school climate is the feel an individual gets from experiences within a school system, or the global summation of the…

  8. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  9. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  10. Past, Present and Future: Urgency of Dealing with Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper gives an historic perspective on 10 critical phases and actions in advancing an understanding of climate change and taking appropriate domestic and international action. Credit goes to atmospheric scientists for their committed efforts to understand, model and measure ...

  11. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    results of the earlier decisions, as simulated by C-ROADS. Preliminary evaluations show that both exercises have the potential to provide powerful learning experiences. University students who played World Climate in a climate change course cited it as one of the course activities "promoting the most learning." Students' responses on anonymous surveys and open-ended questions revealed that the experience affected them at visceral, as well as intellectual levels. All of the students recommended that the exercise be continued in future years and many felt that it was the most important learning experience of the semester. Similarly, understanding of climate change and the dynamics of the climate improved for the majority of Future Climate participants, and 90% of participants stated that they were more likely to take action to address climate change on a personal level because of their experience.

  12. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A 2008 Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions Science 320 889-92 Handoh I C and Lenton T M 2003 Periodic mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events linked by oscillations of the phosphorus and oxygen biogeochemical cycles global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 1092 MacDonald G K, Bennett E M, Potter P A and Ramankutty N 2011 Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world_s croplands Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 3086-91 Malthus T 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population (available at http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/m\\#a1411 Smil V 2000 Phosphorus in the environment: Natural flows and human interferences Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25 53-88 Rockström J et al 2009 A safe operating space for humanity Nature 461 472-5 Sanchez P A and Swaminathan M S 2005 Cutting world hunger in half Science 307 357-9 Schlesinger W H 2009 Planetary boundaries: Thresholds risk prolonged degradation Nature Reports Climate Change doi:10.1038/climate.2009.93 Smith V H and Schindler D W 2009 Eutrophication science: where do we go from here? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24 201-7 Van Kauenbergh S J 2010 World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources (Muscle Shoals, AL: International Fertilizer Development Center) Vitousek P M, Naylor R, Crews T, David M B, Drinkwater L E, Holland E, Johnes P J, Katzenberger J, Martinelli L A, Matson P A, Nziguheba G, Ojima D, Palm C A, Robertson G P, Sanchez P A, Townsend A R, Zhang F S 2009 Nutrient Imbalances in Agricultural Development Science 324 1519-20

  13. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  14. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  15. Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Anne; Parkinson, Jim; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control. PMID:23847563

  16. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  17. Affirmative Action and the AAUP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Malcolm J.

    1975-01-01

    An associate professor at the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA) describes reactions and counterreactions to SUNYA's affirmative action plan and discusses the broader issues of "quotas" and reverse discrimination, challenging the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) to take a more positive role in working for equality…

  18. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  19. Do the risks justify action?

    PubMed

    Clarke, R H

    2000-11-01

    The key issues that have been raised at the meeting on Cosmic Radiation Doses to Air Crew and Astronauts are identified. The paper summarizes the radiation environment and radiation risks associated with exposures to both groups. Finally, the summary concludes that the risks do justify action. PMID:11045540

  20. John Rawls and Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of John Rawls, asserting that although Rawls never wrote about affirmative action, his ideas are relevant to the issue. Rawls concentrated on "ideal theory," which he believed was the theory of what constituted a truly just society. He considered slavery and racial segregation paradigms of injustice. His ideal theory of…