Science.gov

Sample records for climate change sea

  1. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  2. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  3. Sea-ice switches and abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Gildor, Hezi; Tziperman, Eli

    2003-09-15

    We propose that past abrupt climate changes were probably a result of rapid and extensive variations in sea-ice cover. We explain why this seems a perhaps more likely explanation than a purely thermohaline circulation mechanism. We emphasize that because of the significant influence of sea ice on the climate system, it seems that high priority should be given to developing ways for reconstructing high-resolution (in space and time) sea-ice extent for past climate-change events. If proxy data can confirm that sea ice was indeed the major player in past abrupt climate-change events, it seems less likely that such dramatic abrupt changes will occur due to global warming, when extensive sea-ice cover will not be present.

  4. NASA Now: Climate Change: Sea Level Rise

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Dr. Josh Willis discusses the connection between oceans and global climate change. Learn why NASA measures greenhouse gases and how we detect ocean levels from space. These are crucial vital signs ...

  5. On how climate variability influences regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Forootan, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Regional trends in sea level change are strongly influenced by climate variations, such as ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation), the IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole), or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Hence, before computing long term regional sea level change, these sea level variations need to be taken into account as they lead to strong dependencies of computed regional sea level trends on the time period of the investigation. In this study, sea level change during the years 1993 to 2013 is analysed to identify the dominant modes of sea level change caused by climate variations. Here, two different gridded altimetry products are analysed, namely ESA's combined CCI SeaLevel v1.1 ECV product (doi: 10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2013-v_1.1-201412), and absolute dynamic topography produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, with support from Cnes (http://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/duacs/). Reconstructions using the different decomposition techniques including the standard principle component analysis (PCA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) and independent component analysis (ICA) method are analysed. They are compared with sea level change modelled with the global finite-element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM). The results indicate that from the applied methods, ICA is most suitable to separate the individual climate variability signals in independent modes of sea level change. This especially holds for extracting the ENSO contribution in sea level changes, which was better separated by applying ICA, from both altimetry and modelled sea level products. In addition, it is presented how modelled sea level change reflects climate variations compared to that identified in the altimetry products.

  6. Sudden change: Climate and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.

    1995-10-01

    Dates, magnitudes and rates of Holocene sea-level changes were reviewed at the 1995 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Richard B. Alley (Penn. State U.) described laminae in Greenland ice cores, with details at the annual level. A major event of unknown nature occurred at roughly 8,000 B.P. Gerard Bond (Lamont-Doherty Observ., N.Y.) described sediment cores from the North Atlantic, with a major event at 8,000 B.P. Published work of K.S. Petersen (Danish Geol. Survey) from a well near Vust (Denmark) was reviewed: A rapid sea level rise (25 m), then a similar drop centered at 8,000 B.P. at 8-15 cm/yr. W.F. Tanner (Florida State U.) described the beach ridge plain in northern Denmark, where a sequence of more than 270 Holocene ridges shows the date of the big Mid-Holocene sea level change couplet, 8,000 B.P., with a magnitude of {open_quotes}more than 14 m,{close_quotes} plus smaller changes. These data showed vertical magnitudes of the larger sea level events (except the Mid-Holocene catastrophe) in the range of 1-to-5 meters. W.C. Parker (Florida State) sought possible cycles in the same sequence, but they were too poorly defined for detailed forecasts. Charles R. Bentley (U. of Wisconsin) examined the possibility of an early collapse of the West Antarctic marine ice sheet, with a sea level rise of about 5 meters, but concluded that it is unlikely.

  7. Using Sea Level Change as a Climate Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, D. S.; Nerem, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level rise is one the more important risks due to climate change. Multiple satellite altimeters flying on the same repeating ground track have allowed estimation of global and regional sea level for the past 20 years, and the time series has yielded information about how sea level is responding to climate change. Due to the duration, consistency, and inter-calibration of the altimeter measurements, the time series is now considered a climate data record. The time series has also shown the strong dependence of sea level on interannual signals such as the ENSO and PDO. Global mean sea level change as estimated by the altimeters is arguably one of the most sensitive indicators of climate change because it varies almost entirely due to thermal expansion/contraction and the exchange of water between the land and oceans. Contributions to the latter include melting land ice and changes in the hydrologic cycle. While thermal expansion does not vary greatly on interannual time-scales, variations in the global hydrologic cycle and land ice melt can contribute to large variations in the sea level record. Isolating and understanding the causes and scales of these variations is important in interpreting the observed global and regional sea level change, especially for decision-makers assessing risk and planning for adaptation and/or mitigation. Since 1992, satellite altimeter measurements from the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason missions, have been providing precise estimates of sea level change between ±66° latitude every 10 days. We have been using these measurements to monitor both global average and regional sea level change. The GRACE mission has provided monthly estimates of the time-varying gravity field for the last 10 years. These measurements can estimate variations in global ocean mass, mass changes in the polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, as well as changes in the land surface water storage. These data sets can be used to inform us about the sea level change

  8. Future Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Kjellström, Erik; Zorita, Eduardo; Sonnenborg, Torben; Meier, Markus; Grinsted, Aslak

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate models have been used extensively since the first assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea region published in 2008, not the least for studies of Europe (and including the Baltic Sea catchment area). Therefore, conclusions regarding climate model results have a better foundation than was the case for the first BACC report of 2008. This presentation will report model results regarding future climate. What is the state of understanding about future human-driven climate change? We will cover regional models, statistical downscaling, hydrological modelling, ocean modelling and sea-level change as it is projected for the Baltic Sea region. Collections of regional model simulations from the ENSEMBLES project for example, financed through the European 5th Framework Programme and the World Climate Research Programme Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment, have made it possible to obtain an increasingly robust estimation of model uncertainty. While the first Baltic Sea assessment mainly used four simulations from the European 5th Framework Programme PRUDENCE project, an ensemble of 13 transient regional simulations with twice the horizontal resolution reaching the end of the 21st century has been available from the ENSEMBLES project; therefore it has been possible to obtain more quantitative assessments of model uncertainty. The literature about future climate change in the Baltic Sea region is largely built upon the ENSEMBLES project. Also within statistical downscaling, a considerable number of papers have been published, encompassing now the application of non-linear statistical models, projected changes in extremes and correction of climate model biases. The uncertainty of hydrological change has received increasing attention since the previous Baltic Sea assessment. Several studies on the propagation of uncertainties originating in GCMs, RCMs, and emission scenarios are presented. The number of studies on uncertainties related to

  9. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Demenocal, P.B.; Okahashi, H.; Linsley, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Aller??d Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until ???8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  10. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, Thomas M; Demenocal, Peter B; Okahashi, Hisayo; Linsley, Braddock K

    2008-02-05

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Allerød Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until approximately 8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less.

  11. Projected changes to Tasman Sea eddies in a future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; O'Kane, Terence J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2015-11-01

    The Tasman Sea is a hot spot of ocean warming, that is linked to the increased poleward influence of the East Australian Current (EAC) over recent decades. Specifically, the EAC produces mesoscale eddies which have significant impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Tasman Sea. To effectively consider and explain potential eddy changes in the next 50 years, we use high-resolution dynamically downscaled climate change simulations to characterize the projected future marine climate and mesoscale eddies in the Tasman Sea through the 2060s. We assess changes in the marine climate and the eddy field using bulk statistics and by detecting and tracking individual eddies. We find that the eddy kinetic energy is projected to increase along southeast Australia. In addition, we find that eddies in the projected future climate are composed of a higher proportion of anticyclonic eddies in this region and that these eddies are longer lived and more stable. This amounts to nearly a doubling of eddy-related southward temperature transport in the upper 200 m of the Tasman Sea. These changes are concurrent with increases in baroclinic and barotropic instabilities focused around the EAC separation point. This poleward transport and increase in eddy activity would be expected to also increase the frequency of sudden warming events, including ocean temperature extremes, with potential impacts on marine fisheries, aquaculture, and biodiversity off Tasmania's east coast, through direct warming or competition/predation from invasive migrating species.

  12. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    PubMed

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  13. Physical processes mediating climate change impacts on regional sea ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J.; Schrum, C.; Cannaby, H.; Daewel, U.; Allen, I.; Artioli, Y.; Bopp, L.; Butenschon, M.; Fach, B. A.; Harle, J.; Pushpadas, D.; Salihoglu, B.; Wakelin, S.

    2014-02-01

    Regional seas are exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore these physical processes and their biophysical interactions, and the effects of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial change on them. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within regional seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts: on long term changes in elemental budgets, on seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly on direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional models systems using ECOSMO, POLCOMS-ERSEM and BIMS_ECO. These cover the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and a region of the Northeast Atlantic, using a common global ocean-atmosphere model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and a more detailed analysis of the POLCOMS-ERSEM model. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from the varying mixing and circulation conditions. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas (Black and Baltic Seas) the

  14. Predicting evolutionary responses to climate change in the sea.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Warner, Robert R; Monro, Keyne; Pandolfi, John M; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of short-term experimental studies show significant effects of projected ocean warming and ocean acidification on the performance on marine organisms. Yet, it remains unclear if we can reliably predict the impact of climate change on marine populations and ecosystems, because we lack sufficient understanding of the capacity for marine organisms to adapt to rapid climate change. In this review, we emphasise why an evolutionary perspective is crucial to understanding climate change impacts in the sea and examine the approaches that may be useful for addressing this challenge. We first consider what the geological record and present-day analogues of future climate conditions can tell us about the potential for adaptation to climate change. We also examine evidence that phenotypic plasticity may assist marine species to persist in a rapidly changing climate. We then outline the various experimental approaches that can be used to estimate evolutionary potential, focusing on molecular tools, quantitative genetics, and experimental evolution, and we describe the benefits of combining different approaches to gain a deeper understanding of evolutionary potential. Our goal is to provide a platform for future research addressing the evolutionary potential for marine organisms to cope with climate change.

  15. How Does Climate Change Affect the Bering Sea Ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Michael F.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Ashjian, Carin J.; Lomas, Michael W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Van Pelt, Thomas I.

    2010-11-01

    The Bering Sea is one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, sustaining nearly half of U.S. annual commercial fish catches and providing food and cultural value to thousands of coastal and island residents. Fish and crab are abundant in the Bering Sea; whales, seals, and seabirds migrate there every year. In winter, the topography, latitude, atmosphere, and ocean circulation combine to produce a sea ice advance in the Bering Sea unmatched elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, and in spring the retreating ice; longer daylight hours; and nutrient-rich, deep-ocean waters forced up onto the broad continental shelf result in intense marine productivity (Figure 1). This seasonal ice cover is a major driver of Bering Sea ecology, making this ecosystem particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Predicted changes in ice cover in the coming decades have intensified concern about the future of this economically and culturally important region. In response, the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) entered into a partnership in 2007 to support the Bering Sea Project, a comprehensive $52 million investigation to understand how climate change is affecting the Bering Sea ecosystem, ranging from lower trophic levels (e.g., plankton) to fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and, ultimately, humans. The project integrates two research programs, the NSF Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) and the NPRB Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (BSIERP), with substantial in-kind contributions from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Global mean sea level - Indicator of climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, A.; Hansen, J.; Gornitz, V.; Lebedeff, S.; Moore, E.; Etkins, R.; Epstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the use by Etkins and Epstein (1982) of combined surface air temperature and sea level time series to draw conclusions concerning the discharge of the polar ice sheets. It is objected by Robock that they used Northern Hemisphere land surface air temperature records which are unrepresentative of global sea surface temperature, and he suggests that externally imposed volcanic dust and CO2 forcings can adequately account for observed temperature changes over the last century, with global sea level changing in passive response to sea change as a result of thermal expansion. Hansen et al. adduce evidence for global cooling due to ice discharge that has not exceeded a few hundredths of a degree centigrade in the last century, precluding any importance of this phenomenon in the interpretation of global mean temperature trends for this period. Etkins and Epstein reply that since their 1982 report additional evidence has emerged for the hypothesis that the polar ice caps are diminishing. It is reasserted that each of the indices discussed, including global mean sea surface temperature and sea level, polar ice sheet mass balance, water mass characteristics, and the spin rate and axis of rotation displacement of the earth, are physically linked and can be systematically monitored, as is currently being planned under the auspices of the National Climate Program.

  17. Global mean sea level - Indicator of climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, A.; Hansen, J.; Gornitz, V.; Lebedeff, S.; Moore, E.; Etkins, R.; Epstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    A critical discussion is presented on the use by Etkins and Epstein (1982) of combined surface air temperature and sea level time series to draw conclusions concerning the discharge of the polar ice sheets. It is objected by Robock that they used Northern Hemisphere land surface air temperature records which are unrepresentative of global sea surface temperature, and he suggests that externally imposed volcanic dust and CO2 forcings can adequately account for observed temperature changes over the last century, with global sea level changing in passive response to sea change as a result of thermal expansion. Hansen et al. adduce evidence for global cooling due to ice discharge that has not exceeded a few hundredths of a degree centigrade in the last century, precluding any importance of this phenomenon in the interpretation of global mean temperature trends for this period. Etkins and Epstein reply that since their 1982 report additional evidence has emerged for the hypothesis that the polar ice caps are diminishing. It is reasserted that each of the indices discussed, including global mean sea surface temperature and sea level, polar ice sheet mass balance, water mass characteristics, and the spin rate and axis of rotation displacement of the earth, are physically linked and can be systematically monitored, as is currently being planned under the auspices of the National Climate Program.

  18. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4oC warming and 50-80% decreasing ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants. Salinity will decrease by about 2 units. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favoured by AOM while phytoplankton may become hampered. More trophic levels in the food web will increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as effects of anthrophogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach and encompass both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g. bacterial) processes.

  19. Developing advanced tools for modelling extreme sea level climate change in European Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Murawski, Jens; Hintz, Kasper S.

    2017-04-01

    With increasing speed of global warming, sea level rise in the European coasts has become increasing threats to our social-economy and safety. "Hundred-year storm surge events" have been reported in different locations in recent years. Ocean hydrodynamic modelling is one of the major tools for reconstructing and predicting sea level changes in climate scales. Although storm surge modelling is one of the most classic applications of ocean models, there still exist changes in producing accurate sea level variability in all European Sea coasts, especially for the extreme events. This presentation addresses major challenges in pan-European storm surge modelling, presenting sea level simulation results from a two-way nested pan-European Sea (with 10 sub-domains) three-dimensional hydrodynamic model HIROMB-BOOS (HBM). The difference of using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models for storm surge prediction is also analyzed based on past years' operational experiences.

  20. Impact of climate change on the production and transport of sea salt aerosol on European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joana; Sofiev, Mikhail; Geels, Camilla; Christensen, Jens H.; Andersson, Camilla; Tsyro, Svetlana; Langner, Joakim

    2016-10-01

    The impact of climate change on sea salt aerosol production, dispersion, and fate over Europe is studied using four offline regional chemistry transport models driven by the climate scenario SRES A1B over two periods: 1990-2009 and 2040-2059. This study is focused mainly on European seas: Baltic, Black, North, and Mediterranean. The differences and similarities between the individual models' predictions of the impact on sea salt emission, concentration, and deposition due to changes in wind gusts and seawater temperature are analysed. The results show that the major driver for the sea salt flux changes will be the seawater temperature, as wind speed is projected to stay nearly the same. There are, however, substantial differences between the model predictions and their sensitivity to changing seawater temperature, which demonstrates substantial lack of current understanding of the sea salt flux predictions. Although seawater salinity changes are not evaluated in this study, sensitivity of sea salt aerosol production to salinity is similarly analysed, showing once more the differences between the different models. An assessment of the impact of sea salt aerosol on the radiative balance is presented.

  1. Strengths and Weaknesses of Sea Ice as a Potential Early Indicator of Climate Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sea ice is examined for its potential as an early indicator of climate change by considering how well it satisfies four criteria listed as desired... climate change , sea ice is unlikely any time in the near future to be a definitive early indicator of climate change when considered by itself.

  2. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  3. Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; von Storch, Hans; Isemer, Hans-Jörg

    2008-04-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC, 2007] has had a big impact on the public perception and acknowledgment of global climate change. However, regional climate change assessments are urgently needed to complement the big picture with regional results and scenarios of higher resolution, which local decision makers and stakeholders can use [Visbeck, 2008; von Storch and Meinke, 2008].

  4. Late holocene climate changes in the Sea of Azov region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Novenko, E. Yu.; Krasnorutskaya, K. V.

    2012-05-01

    The results of paleoclimatic reconstructions made with the help of the information-statistical method developed by V.A. Klimanov based on palynological data from the Sea of Azov bottom sediments. For the period of the last 3000 years, four phases of warm and dry climates and three phases of relatively cool and humid climates were identified. The latter phases were characterized by wider expansion of tree vegetation in the region around the Sea of Azov. The range of mean annual temperatures between warmer and cooler intervals was about 4°C.

  5. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Cheung, Ho Nam; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Koenigk, Torben; Semenov, Vladimir; Suo, Lingling; Yang, Shuting; Wang, Tao; King, Martin; Gastineau, Guillaume; Gulev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  6. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. N.; Ogawa, F.; Gao, Y.; Keenlyside, N. S.; Koenigk, T.; Semenov, V. A.; Suo, L.; Yang, S.; Wang, T.; King, M. P.; Gastineau, G.; Gulev, S.

    2016-12-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  7. Impacts of sea ice / SST changes for the observed climate change -GREENICE project-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Koenigk, Torben; Semenov, Vladimir; Suo, Lingling; Yang, Shuting; Wang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Under the recent global warming, melting of arctic sea-ice in recent decades could have contributed to recent climate changes including its long-term trend and extreme weather events. While the climatic response to the sea-ice loss have been studied recently, it is still an open question to what extent the sea-ice change has influenced recent climate change. Other factors, such as for example, SST could also have had an influence. A main objective of GREENICE research project is to show what extent of the observed climate trend as well as observed weather extremes could be explained by the change and variability in sea ice and SST, respectively. In this project, we designed two atmospheric general circulation model experiments: In both experiments observed daily sea ice cover variations are prescribed, while for SST, one experiment uses observed daily variations and the other the observed climatology. The experiment is performed by several different state-of-the-art AGCMs. Our preliminary results show that the observed wintertime temperature trend near the surface is poorly reproduced in our hindcast experiments using observed SIC and SST. The impact of SIC variation seems to be confined near the surface, while SST variation seems a key for temperature trend above. It suggests a necessity to consider the atmospheric poleward energy transport associated with SST variation to understand the observed arctic amplification. Other aspects of SIC/SST impact on the observed circulation change such as NAO shall also be discussed.

  8. Changes in Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice as a Microcosm of Global Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is a key element of the climate system and has now been monitored through satellite observations for over three and a half decades. The satellite observations reveal considerable information about polar ice and its changes since the late 1970s, including a prominent downward trend in Arctic sea ice coverage and a much lesser upward trend in Antarctic sea ice coverage, illustrative of the important fact that climate change entails spatial contrasts. The decreasing ice coverage in the Arctic corresponds well with contemporaneous Arctic warming and exhibits particularly large decreases in the summers of 2007 and 2012, influenced by both preconditioning and atmospheric conditions. The increasing ice coverage in the Antarctic is not as readily explained, but spatial differences in the Antarctic trends suggest a possible connection with atmospheric circulation changes that have perhaps been influenced by the Antarctic ozone hole. The changes in the polar ice covers and the issues surrounding those changes have many commonalities with broader climate changes and their surrounding issues, allowing the sea ice changes to be viewed in some important ways as a microcosm of global climate change.

  9. Climate change, sea-level rise, and conservation: keeping island biodiversity afloat.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Hoffmann, Benjamin D; Russell, James C; Leclerc, Camille; Bellard, Céline

    2014-03-01

    Island conservation programs have been spectacularly successful over the past five decades, yet they generally do not account for impacts of climate change. Here, we argue that the full spectrum of climate change, especially sea-level rise and loss of suitable climatic conditions, should be rapidly integrated into island biodiversity research and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate change projection of the Tasman Sea from an Eddy-resolving Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matear, R. J.; Chamberlain, M. A.; Sun, C.; Feng, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ocean's western boundary current regions display the greatest rate of twentieth century warming and global climate models project that the accelerated rate of warming will continue with climate change. All existing global climate change projections come from simulations that do not fully resolve either these boundary currents or their eddies. Using an Ocean Eddy-resolving Model (OEM) that captures the dynamics of the East Australian Current (EAC) and its eddies we show the response of the Tasman Sea to climate change differs from what is projected with a coarse resolution Global Climate Model (GCM). With climate change, the OEM projects increased EAC transport with increased eddy activity and an approximately 1° southward latitudinal shift in the point where the EAC separates from the shelf and flows eastward. The OEM increased eddy activity in the Tasman Sea with climate change increases the nutrient supply to the upper ocean and causes an increase in the phytoplankton concentrations and primary productivity by 10% in the oligotrophic waters of the Tasman Sea. The increase in primary productivity is absent in the GCM climate change projection, which projects the region will have a decrease in primary productivity with climate change. Applying the OEM climate change projection for the Tasman Sea to other western boundary current regions suggests the projected intensification of all western boundary currents with climate change should increase eddy activity and provide an important nutrient supply mechanism to counter the increased stratification projected with global warming.

  11. Two Decades of Global and Regional Sea Level Observations from the ESA Climate Change Initiative Sea Level Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, BrunoManuel; Timms, Gary; Johannessen, Johnny; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Scharfennberg, Martin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Guinle, Thierry; Andersen, Ole

    2015-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. After a first phase (2011-2013), the program has started in 2014 a second phase of 3 years. The objectives of this second phase are to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. To this extent, the ECV time series has been extended and it now covers the period 1993-2013. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 21 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the work plan and key challenges of the second phase of the project are described.

  12. North Sea wind climate in changing weather regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Ivonne; Rockel, Burkhardt

    2015-04-01

    Results from regional climate models (RCMs) are getting more and more important in future wind climate assessment. From RCMs often only the daily wind speed is available, but no information on prevailing wind direction of each day. Weather regime classification can close this gap and models ability of simulating surface wind speed can be analysed in detail. Several objective regime classifications have been investigated to be a sufficient diagnostic tool to evaluate the present wind climate at the German and Dutch coastal area of the North Sea. The classification by Jenkinson and Collison (1977) uses values for mean sea level pressure at 16 locations centered over the North Sea. Beside the predefined 8 prevailed wind directions and the two possibilities on cyclonic or anticyclonic turbulence, 2x8 hybrid weather types can be defined. In this way 27 different regimes can be distinguished including a class of non-classifiable cases. The 27 regimes could be reduced to a number of 11 by allotting the hybrid types to the directional or the centered types. As the classification is carried out for the North Sea based on ERA40 mean sea level pressure the different regimes clearly reflect the mean wind characteristics at the stations. Comparing the wind roses for the individual observations leads to the assumption that the regime classification described before fits the requirements to carry out the regime dependent evaluation of the RCMs with a focus on the German and Dutch coast. Trends in the occurrence of the regimes in the winter period of 1961 to 2000 show an increase of the regimes with Western and Southwestern wind directions and a decrease of wind events from Eastern directions in the North Sea. The trend is dominated by the strong positive phase of the NAO especially in the months January to March starting in the beginning of the 1980s. Due to the applied method ERA40 and the RCMs do not necessarily show the same regime at each day. The agreement among the RCM

  13. Climate change. How fast are sea levels rising?

    PubMed

    Church, J A

    2001-10-26

    Sea levels are rising as a result of global warming, but assessing the rate of the rise is proving difficult. In his Perspective, Church highlights the report by Cabanes et al., who have reassessed observational data and find that it is closer to model estimates than previously found. However, observational data are still limited and models disagree in their regional projections. With present data and models, regional sea-level changes cannot be predicted with confidence.

  14. Projected climate change impacts on North Sea and Baltic Sea: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model based scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpadas, D.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2015-08-01

    Climate change impacts on the marine biogeochemistry and lower trophic level dynamics in the North Sea and Baltic Sea have been assessed using regional downscaling in a number of recent studies. However, most of these where only forced by physical conditions from Global Climate Models (GCMs) and regional downscaling considering the climate change impact on oceanic nutrient conditions from Global Earth System Models (ESMs) are rare and so far solely based on CMIP3-generation climate models. The few studies published show a large range in projected future primary production and hydrodynamic condition. With the addition of CMIP5 models and scenarios, the demand to explore the uncertainty in regional climate change projections increased. Moreover, the question arises how projections based on CMIP5-generation models compare to earlier projections and multi-model ensembles comprising both AR4 and AR5 generation forcing models. Here, we investigated the potential future climate change impacts to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea ecosystem using a coherent regional downscaling strategy based on the regional coupled bio-physical model ECOSMO. ECOSMO was forced by output from different ESMs from both CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Multi-model ensembles using CMIP3/A1B and CMIP5/RCP4.5 scenarios are examined, where the selected CMIP5 models are the successors of the chosen CMIP3 models. Comparing projected changes with the present day reference condition, all these simulations predicted an increase in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both North Sea and Baltic Sea, reduction in sea ice in the Baltic, decrease in primary production in the North Sea and an increase in primary production in the Baltic Sea. Despite these largely consistent results on the direction of the projected changes, our results revealed a broad range in the amplitude of projected climate change impacts. Our study strengthens the claim that the choice of the ESM is a major factor for regional climate projections

  15. Arctic sea ice cover in connection with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. V.; Aleksandrov, E. I.; Glok, N. I.; Ivanov, N. E.; Smolyanitsky, V. M.; Kharlanenkova, N. E.; Yulin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently published studies on key issues in the evolution of Arctic sea ice cover are reviewed and attempts to answer disputable questions are made in the research part of the work. It is shown that climate warming, manifested in an increase in the surface air temperature, and reduction in the ice cover develop with a high degree of agreement in summer. Based on this fact, anomalies of the September ice-cover area have been retrieved from 1900. They show a significant decrease in the 1930-1940s, which is almost twice as low as in 2007-2012. The influence of fluctuations in the flow of warm and salty Atlantic water is noted in variations in the winter maximum of the ice-cover area in the Barents Sea. An accelerated positive trend has been ascertained for the air temperature in late autumn-early winter in 1993-2012 due to an increase in the open water area in late summer. Inherent regularities of the ice-cover-area variability made it possible to develop a prediction of the monthly values of sea-ice extent with a head time from 6 months to 2 years. Their strong correlation with summer air temperature is used to estimate the onset of summer ice clearance in the Arctic.

  16. Extremes of temperature, oxygen and blooms in the Baltic sea in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Thomas; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Meier, H E Markus; Savchuk, Oleg P

    2012-09-01

    In the future, the Baltic Sea ecosystem will be impacted both by climate change and by riverine and atmospheric nutrient inputs. Multi-model ensemble simulations comprising one IPCC scenario (A1B), two global climate models, two regional climate models, and three Baltic Sea ecosystem models were performed to elucidate the combined effect of climate change and changes in nutrient inputs. This study focuses on the occurrence of extreme events in the projected future climate. Results suggest that the number of days favoring cyanobacteria blooms could increase, anoxic events may become more frequent and last longer, and salinity may tend to decrease. Nutrient load reductions following the Baltic Sea Action Plan can reduce the deterioration of oxygen conditions.

  17. Climatic responses to tropical sea surface temperature changes on a ``greenhouse'' Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthew; Sloan, L. Cirbus

    2000-08-01

    The uncertainty associated with tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during past "greenhouse" climates may have important and unaccounted for effects. We explore early Paleogene climatic sensitivity to changes in tropical-subtropical SSTs with a general circulation model. We demonstrate that tropical SST changes have local and far-field climatic effects, underscoring their importance in understanding greenhouse climates. The responses of winds, upwelling, and surface water balance to tropical SST changes are substantial. Our results indicate that current tropical SST reconstructions may have a significant cool bias despite corrections and that the existence of hot (>30°C) tropical SSTs may be realistic for greenhouse climate intervals, including the Eocene.

  18. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  19. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the GISS 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric GCM to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  20. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16–0.3 °C min−1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR) was between 3.07–3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79–5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this

  1. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16-0.3 °C min(-1) and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (T LoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the T LoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean T LoR than E. lucunter. The mean T LoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher T LoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean T LoR) was between 3.07-3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79-5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this

  2. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  3. The role of sea ice in abrupt climate changes following the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisancioglu, Kerim; Dokken, Trond

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes following the last glacial maximum ( 21-10ka BP) are considered some of the most dramatic and wide reaching abrupt events of the geological past. On Greenland the transition from the last glacial maximum to the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warm period was extremely abrupt, as is the transitions in and out of the Younger Dryas (YD) cold period. In terms of ocean changes, there are indications from proxy records that the large scale Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) was significantly reduced a few thousand years before the BA and again at the start of the YD. However, the link between changes in AMOC and climate in the Northern Hemisphere and in particular on Greenland is unclear. Here, we study changes to climate and circulation in the North Atlantic across these key climate transitions based on a sediment core from the Nordic Seas as well as sensitivity studies with a global climate model. Preliminary results suggest that changes in sea ice and stratification of the Nordic Seas played a key role in the observed climate changes during and preceding the deglaciation of the large land based ice sheets. In particular the cold period following Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and ending at the BA as well as the cold YD are associated with expansions of Arctic sea ice into the Nordic Seas region.

  4. Spontaneous abrupt climate change due to an atmospheric blocking-sea-ice-ocean feedback in an unforced climate model simulation.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Gleeson, Emily; Dijkstra, Henk A; Livina, Valerie

    2013-12-03

    Abrupt climate change is abundant in geological records, but climate models rarely have been able to simulate such events in response to realistic forcing. Here we report on a spontaneous abrupt cooling event, lasting for more than a century, with a temperature anomaly similar to that of the Little Ice Age. The event was simulated in the preindustrial control run of a high-resolution climate model, without imposing external perturbations. Initial cooling started with a period of enhanced atmospheric blocking over the eastern subpolar gyre. In response, a southward progression of the sea-ice margin occurred, and the sea-level pressure anomaly was locked to the sea-ice margin through thermal forcing. The cold-core high steered more cold air to the area, reinforcing the sea-ice concentration anomaly east of Greenland. The sea-ice surplus was carried southward by ocean currents around the tip of Greenland. South of 70 °N, sea ice already started melting and the associated freshwater anomaly was carried to the Labrador Sea, shutting off deep convection. There, surface waters were exposed longer to atmospheric cooling and sea surface temperature dropped, causing an even larger thermally forced high above the Labrador Sea. In consequence, east of Greenland, anomalous winds changed from north to south, terminating the event with similar abruptness to its onset. Our results imply that only climate models that possess sufficient resolution to correctly represent atmospheric blocking, in combination with a sensitive sea-ice model, are able to simulate this kind of abrupt climate change.

  5. Spontaneous abrupt climate change due to an atmospheric blocking–sea-ice–ocean feedback in an unforced climate model simulation

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Gleeson, Emily; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Livina, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt climate change is abundant in geological records, but climate models rarely have been able to simulate such events in response to realistic forcing. Here we report on a spontaneous abrupt cooling event, lasting for more than a century, with a temperature anomaly similar to that of the Little Ice Age. The event was simulated in the preindustrial control run of a high-resolution climate model, without imposing external perturbations. Initial cooling started with a period of enhanced atmospheric blocking over the eastern subpolar gyre. In response, a southward progression of the sea-ice margin occurred, and the sea-level pressure anomaly was locked to the sea-ice margin through thermal forcing. The cold-core high steered more cold air to the area, reinforcing the sea-ice concentration anomaly east of Greenland. The sea-ice surplus was carried southward by ocean currents around the tip of Greenland. South of 70°N, sea ice already started melting and the associated freshwater anomaly was carried to the Labrador Sea, shutting off deep convection. There, surface waters were exposed longer to atmospheric cooling and sea surface temperature dropped, causing an even larger thermally forced high above the Labrador Sea. In consequence, east of Greenland, anomalous winds changed from north to south, terminating the event with similar abruptness to its onset. Our results imply that only climate models that possess sufficient resolution to correctly represent atmospheric blocking, in combination with a sensitive sea-ice model, are able to simulate this kind of abrupt climate change. PMID:24248352

  6. Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society

    PubMed Central

    MIMURA, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a major effect of climate change. It has drawn international attention, because higher sea levels in the future would cause serious impacts in various parts of the world. There are questions associated with sea-level rise which science needs to answer. To what extent did climate change contribute to sea-level rise in the past? How much will global mean sea level increase in the future? How serious are the impacts of the anticipated sea-level rise likely to be, and can human society respond to them? This paper aims to answer these questions through a comprehensive review of the relevant literature. First, the present status of observed sea-level rise, analyses of its causes, and future projections are summarized. Then the impacts are examined along with other consequences of climate change, from both global and Japanese perspectives. Finally, responses to adverse impacts will be discussed in order to clarify the implications of the sea-level rise issue for human society. PMID:23883609

  7. Sea-level rise caused by climate change and its implications for society.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a major effect of climate change. It has drawn international attention, because higher sea levels in the future would cause serious impacts in various parts of the world. There are questions associated with sea-level rise which science needs to answer. To what extent did climate change contribute to sea-level rise in the past? How much will global mean sea level increase in the future? How serious are the impacts of the anticipated sea-level rise likely to be, and can human society respond to them? This paper aims to answer these questions through a comprehensive review of the relevant literature. First, the present status of observed sea-level rise, analyses of its causes, and future projections are summarized. Then the impacts are examined along with other consequences of climate change, from both global and Japanese perspectives. Finally, responses to adverse impacts will be discussed in order to clarify the implications of the sea-level rise issue for human society.(Communicated by Kiyoshi HORIKAWA, M.J.A.).

  8. Projected Climate change effects on North Sea and Baltic Sea: CMIP3 and CMIP5 Model-Based Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpadas, Dhanya; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Climate change impacts on the marine biogeochemistry and lower trophic level dynamics in the North Sea and Baltic Sea have been assessed using regional downscaling in a number of recent studies. However, most of these where only forced by physical conditions from Global Climate Models and regional downscaling considering the climate change impact on oceanic nutrient conditions from Global Earth System Models (ESMs) are rare and so far solely based on CMIP3-generation climate models. The few studies published show a large range in projected future primary production and hydrodynamic condition. With the addition of CMIP5 models and scenarios, the demand to explore the uncertainty in regional climate change projections increased. Moreover, the question arise how projections based on CMIP5-generation models compare to earlier projections and multi-model ensembles comprising both, AR4 and AR5 generation forcing models are increasingly asked for. Here, we investigated the potential future climate change impacts to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea ecosystem using a coherent regional downscaling strategy based on the regional coupled bio-physical model ECOSMO. ECOSMO was forced by output from different ESMs from both CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Multi-model ensembles using CMIP3/A1B and CMIP5/RCP4.5 scenarios are examined, where the selected CMIP5 models are the successors of the chosen CMIP3 models. Comparing projected changes with the present day reference condition, all these simulations predicted an increase in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both North Sea and Baltic Sea, reduction in sea ice in the Baltic, decrease in primary production in the North Sea and an increase in primary production in the Baltic Sea. Despite these largely consistent results on the direction of the projected changes, our results revealed a broad range in the amplitude of projected climate change impacts. Our study strengthens the claim that the choice of the ESM is a major factor for regional

  9. Using expert opinion to prioritize impacts of climate change on sea turtles' nesting grounds.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M M P B; Cinner, J E

    2010-12-01

    Managers and conservationists often need to prioritize which impacts from climate change to deal with from a long list of threats. However, data which allows comparison of the relative impact from climatic threats for decision-making is often unavailable. This is the case for the management of sea turtles in the face of climate change. The terrestrial life stages of sea turtles can be negatively impacted by various climatic processes, such as sea level rise, altered cyclonic activity, and increased sand temperatures. However, no study has systematically investigated the relative impact of each of these climatic processes, making it challenging for managers to prioritize their decisions and resources. To address this we offer a systematic method for eliciting expert knowledge to estimate the relative impact of climatic processes on sea turtles' terrestrial reproductive phase. For this we used as an example the world's largest population of green sea turtles and asked 22 scientists and managers to answer a paper based survey with a series of pair-wise comparison matrices that compared the anticipated impacts from each climatic process. Both scientists and managers agreed that increased sand temperature will likely cause the most threat to the reproductive output of the nGBR green turtle population followed by sea level rise, then altered cyclonic activity. The methodology used proved useful to determine the relative impact of the selected climatic processes on sea turtles' reproductive output and provided valuable information for decision-making. Thus, the methodological approach can potentially be applied to other species and ecosystems of management concern. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do climate models reproduce complexity of observed sea level changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Marcos, M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2016-05-01

    The ability of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) to capture the statistical behavior of sea level (SL) fluctuations has been assessed at the local scale. To do so, we have compared scaling behavior of the SL fluctuations simulated in the historical runs of 36 CMIP5 AOGCMs to that in the longest (>100 years) SL records from 23 tides gauges around the globe. The observed SL fluctuations are known to manifest a power law scaling. We have checked if the SL changes simulated in the AOGCM exhibit the same scaling properties and the long-term correlations as observed in the tide gauge records. We find that the majority of AOGCMs overestimates the scaling of SL fluctuations, particularly in the North Atlantic. Consequently, AOGCMs, routinely used to project regional SL rise, may underestimate the part of the externally driven SL rise, in particular the anthropogenic footprint, in the projections for the 21st century.

  11. Options for managing impacts of climate change on a deep-sea community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Ronald E.; Guinotte, John M.; Matear, Richard J.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-07-01

    The deep sea hosts some of the world's largest, oldest, and most sensitive ecosystems. Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have severe implications for many deep-sea ecosystems and communities, but what, if anything, can be done to mitigate these threats is poorly understood. To begin to bridge this gap, we convened a stakeholder workshop to assess and prioritize options for conserving legislatively protected deep-sea coral reefs off southeast Australia that, without management intervention, are likely to be severely degraded within decades as a result of climate change. Seventeen possible options were explored that span biological, engineering and regulatory domains and that differed widely in their perceived costs, benefits, time to implementation, and risks. In the short term, the highest priority identified is the need to urgently locate and protect sites globally that are, or will become, refugia areas for the coral and its associated community as climate change progresses.

  12. Climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change (including climate variability) refers to regional or global changes in mean climate state or in patterns of climate variability over decades to millions of years often identified using statistical methods and sometimes referred to as changes in long-term weather conditions (IPCC, 2012). Climate is influenced by changes in continent-ocean configurations due to plate tectonic processes, variations in Earth’s orbit, axial tilt and precession, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, solar variability, volcanism, internal variability resulting from interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and ice (glaciers, small ice caps, ice sheets, and sea ice), and anthropogenic activities such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use and their effects on carbon cycling.

  13. Coherent Sea Ice Variations in the Nordic Seas and Abrupt Greenland Climate Changes over Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatzki, H.; Berben, S.; Dokken, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Jansen, E.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid changes in sea ice extent in the Nordic Seas may have played a crucial role in controlling the abruptness of ocean circulation and climate changes associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial (Li et al., 2010; Dokken et al., 2013). To investigate the role of sea ice for abrupt climate changes, we produced a sea ice record from the Norwegian Sea Core MD99-2284 at a temporal resolution approaching that of ice core records, covering four D-O cycles at ca. 32-41 ka. This record is based on the sea ice diatom biomarker IP25, open-water phytoplankton biomarker dinosterol and semi-quantitative phytoplankton-IP25 (PIP25) estimates. A detailed tephrochronology of MD99-2284 corroborates the tuning-based age model and independently constrains the GS9/GIS8 transition, allowing for direct comparison between our sediment and ice core records. For cold stadials we find extremely low fluxes of total organic carbon, dinosterol and IP25, which points to a general absence of open-water phytoplankton and ice algae production under a near-permanent sea ice cover. For the interstadials, in turn, all biomarker fluxes are strongly enhanced, reflecting a highly productive sea ice edge situation and implying largely open ocean conditions for the eastern Nordic Seas. As constrained by three tephra layers, we observe that the stadial-interstadial sea ice decline was rapid and may have induced a coeval abrupt northward shift in the Greenland precipitation moisture source as recorded in ice cores. The sea ice retreat also facilitated a massive heat release through deep convection in the previously stratified Nordic Seas, generating atmospheric warming of the D-O events. We thus conclude that rapid changes in sea ice extent in the Nordic Seas amplified oceanic reorganizations and were a key factor in controlling abrupt Greenland climate changes over D-O cycles. Dokken, T.M. et al., 2013. Paleoceanography 28, 491-502 Li, C. et al., 2010. Journ. Clim. 23, 5457-5475

  14. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  15. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Cazenave, Anny; Ablain, Michael; Larnicol, Gilles; Benveniste, Jerome; Johannessen, Johnny; Timms, Gary; Andersen, Ole; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Quartly, Graham; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Meyssignac, Benoit; Scharffenberg, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. We will firstly present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, new altimeter standards have been developed and the best one have been recently selected in order to produce a full

  16. The Arctic sea ice in climate models - variability and anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, L.; Martin, T.; Semenov, V.; Latif, M.

    2012-04-01

    Changes due to global warming are particularly obvious in the Arctic. The IPCC-Report of 2007 shows, that the warming in the Arctic is twice as strong as the mean global warming. We investigate changes in the Arctic sea ice in a set of 19 CMIP-3 Models with a focus on the entire Arctic as well as for different regions. In all regions, the models predict a reduction in sea ice extent, sea ice thickness and sea ice volume during the period 1900-2100. Furthermore, changes are obvious in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. The phase of the seasonal maximum ice extent occurs later in the year. However, this effect is not visible for the sea ice thickness and the sea ice volume. For the sea ice extent, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle increases in nearly all regions, because of the strongest sea ice extent decrease in September. In the entire Arctic, the amplitude of sea ice volume shows a damping because of the reduction of sea ice volume is stronger in March than in September. All model projections show a strong discrepancies in different regions. However, a multi model mean estimates are comparable with observational data for the entire Arctic. In smaller regions, the differences between the multi model mean and the observational data are large. The local sensitivity against global warming has been investigated. Here, we analyze the difference between different periods for the sea ice extent and the surface air temperature. A seasonal dependence of the sensitivity has been found in all models. The differences between the model predictions are smaller in winter in comparison to summer season. However, in the regions Barents Sea and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea the models sensitivities are very different in all season.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice Changes, Interactions, and Feedbacks on the Arctic Climate during the Satellite Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Key, J. R.; Liu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Of all the components of the Earth climate system, the cryosphere is arguably the least understood even though it is a very important indicator and an effective modulator of regional and global climate change. Changes in sea ice will significantly affect exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass between the ocean and the atmosphere, and have profound socio-economic impacts on transportation, fisheries, hunting, polar animal habitat and more. In the last three decades, the Arctic underwent significant changes in sea ice as part of the accelerated global climate change. With the recently developed One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM), sea and lake ice thickness and trends can be reasonably estimated. The OTIM has been extensively validated against submarine and moored upward-looking sonar measurements, meteorological station measurements, and comprehensive numerical model simulations. The Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset has 25 climate parameters covering surface, cloud, and sea ice properties as well as surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes for the period 1982 - 2004 over the Arctic and Antarctic at 25 km resolution. The OTIM has been used with APP-x dataset for Arctic sea ice thickness and volume estimation. Statistical analysis of spatial and temporal distributions and trends in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume over the satellite period has been performed, along with the temporal analysis of first year and multiple year sea ice extent changes. Preliminary results show clear evidence that Arctic sea ice has been experiencing significant changes over the last two decades of the 20th century. The Arctic sea ice has been shrinking unexpectedly fast with the declines in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, most apparent in the fall season. Moreover, satellites provide an unprecedented opportunity to observe Arctic sea ice and its changes with high spatial and temporal coverage that is making it an ideal data source for mitigating

  18. Impact of climate change on fish population dynamics in the Baltic sea: a dynamical downscaling investigation.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Meier, H E Markus; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Eero, Margit; Blenckner, Thorsten; Tomczak, Maciej T; Niiranen, Susa

    2012-09-01

    Understanding how climate change, exploitation and eutrophication will affect populations and ecosystems of the Baltic Sea can be facilitated with models which realistically combine these forcings into common frameworks. Here, we evaluate sensitivity of fish recruitment and population dynamics to past and future environmental forcings provided by three ocean-biogeochemical models of the Baltic Sea. Modeled temperature explained nearly as much variability in reproductive success of sprat (Sprattus sprattus; Clupeidae) as measured temperatures during 1973-2005, and both the spawner biomass and the temperature have influenced recruitment for at least 50 years. The three Baltic Sea models estimate relatively similar developments (increases) in biomass and fishery yield during twenty-first century climate change (ca. 28 % range among models). However, this uncertainty is exceeded by the one associated with the fish population model, and by the source of global climate data used by regional models. Knowledge of processes and biases could reduce these uncertainties.

  19. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  20. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  1. Simulating multi-decadal variability of Caspian Sea level changes using regional climate model outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.

    2006-02-01

    The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on earth, covering approximately 4×105 km2 and sharing its coast with five countries (Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan). Because it has no outlet to the ocean the Caspian Sea level (CSL) has undergone rapid shifts in response to climatic forcings, and these have been devastating for the surrounding countries. In this paper we present the initial results of a modeling effort aimed at building a regional climate model for the Caspian Sea basin suitable to study the response of the CSL to interdecadal climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. Simulations are performed using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM at a 50 km grid spacing for the period 1948 1990. During this period an abrupt shift occurred in the sea level after 1977, when the CSL rose about two meters until the early 1990s. Using a simple equation of hydrologic balance for the Caspian Sea basin to predict the CSL, we show that the model is able to reproduce the observed CSL changes at interannual to multidecadal scales. The correlation coefficient between the simulated and observed annual CSL changes is 0.91 and the model is able to reproduce the abrupt shift in CSL which occurred after 1977. Analysis of the climatologies before and after 1977 indicate that the CSL rise was mostly due to an increase in precipitation over the northern basin and a decrease in evaporation over the sea, primarily during the warm season. We plan to apply our model to the investigation of the response of the CSL to anthropogenic climate forcings.

  2. SeaWiFS-2: an ocean color data continuity mission to address climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, M. Gregory; Puschell, Jeffery J.

    2009-08-01

    Existing ocean color sensors are near or beyond the end of their mission lives and there will likely be a gap in climate quality Environmental Data Records (EDRs) until planned missions are launched. GeoEye's OrbView2 satellite with the SeaWiFS sensor has provided a 11+ year climatology of global chlorophyll a and other EDRs important for climate change and global warming studies. Upcoming sensors will not provide sufficient accuracy to provide continuity for the EDR time series and global monitoring. A 'stop-gap' mission is required, and we propose using the existing spare SeaWiFS sensor and a dedicated mission.

  3. Influence of the North Atlantic on climate change in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glok, Natalia; Alekseev, Genrikh; Smirnov, Aleksander; Vyasilova, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the observations taken from the meteorological archives, satellite and historic visual observations of sea ice, global SST, data of water temperature in the upper layer on the section in the Barents Sea. For processing data was used factor analysis, calculation of correlation matrices with different delay between the Barents Sea and selected areas in North Atlantic. It is shown that the inflow of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea has a major influence on the climate of the region and its changes affect the variations of all climate characteristics. Decadal and interannual changes of air temperature in the Barents Sea are closely related (correlation over 0.8) with temperature of water, coming from the Norwegian Sea. The effect of these changes is seen in the air temperature in the Kara Sea. Atlantic water inflow especially impact on winter sea ice in the Barents Sea. The correlation between the average water temperature at section along the Kola meridian and sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in May reaches values of -0.86. To enhance the predictive capability established dependence, the study was extended to the area of the North Atlantic, where temperature anomalies are formed. In the North Atlantic from the equator to 80 ° N were identified 6 areas where the average annual SST anomalies are associated with SST anomalies and sea ice extent (SIE) in the Barents Sea. Detailed analysis with monthly SST from HadISST for 1951 - 2013 identified two areas with the greatest influence on the Barents Sea. One area is the northern region of the Gulf Stream and other is the equatorial region. The corresponding delays amounted to 26 months and 4-5 years. The relationship between changes AMO index, averaged over August-October, and SIE in the Barents Sea in January is evaluated. Correlation coefficient between them with 3 year delay is -0.54. Implemented study revealed the importance of teleconnection between SST anomalies in the North Atlantic and SST

  4. Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhend, Jonas; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2015-04-01

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses. The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physical properties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change

  5. How Much Will the Sea Level Rise? Outcome Selection and Subjective Probability in Climate Change Predictions.

    PubMed

    Juanchich, Marie; Sirota, Miroslav

    2017-08-17

    We tested whether people focus on extreme outcomes to predict climate change and assessed the gap between the frequency of the predicted outcome and its perceived probability while controlling for climate change beliefs. We also tested 2 cost-effective interventions to reduce the preference for extreme outcomes and the frequency-probability gap by manipulating the probabilistic format: numerical or dual-verbal-numerical. In 4 experiments, participants read a scenario featuring a distribution of sea level rises, selected a sea rise to complete a prediction (e.g., "It is 'unlikely' that the sea level will rise . . . inches") and judged the likelihood of this sea rise occurring. Results showed that people have a preference for predicting extreme climate change outcomes in verbal predictions (59% in Experiments 1-4) and that this preference was not predicted by climate change beliefs. Results also showed an important gap between the predicted outcome frequency and participants' perception of the probability that it would occur. The dual-format reduced the preference for extreme outcomes for low and medium probability predictions but not for high ones, and none of the formats consistently reduced the frequency-probability gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in

  7. SEA screening of voluntary climate change plans: A story of non-compliant discretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kørnøv, Lone Wejs, Anja

    2013-07-15

    Screening within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the first critical stage involving considerations on whether an assessment is carried out or not. Although legislation and guidance offer practitioners a legal and logical approach to the screening process, it is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation and adaptation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon rests upon a documentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical analysis of mandatory SEA and/or obligation to screen CCPs according to significance criteria, the authors find that 18 out of the 48 CCPs are mandatory to SEA and 9 would require a screening of significance and thereby potentially be followed by a SEA. In practice only one plan was screened and one was environmentally assessed. The legal, democratic and environmental consequences of this SEA practice are critically discussed. Hereunder is the missed opportunity to use the broad environmental scope of SEA to avoid a narrow focus on energy and CO{sub 2} in CCPs, and the question whether this practice in Denmark complies with the EU Directive. -- Highlights: ► It is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. ► The article hereby

  8. Contribution of Regional Climate Drivers to Future Winter Sea-Level Changes in the Baltic Sea Estimated by Statistical Methods and Simulations of Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hünicke, B.; Zorita, E.

    2008-12-01

    A statistical downscaling approach is applied to the output of different global climate model simulations driven by SRES A2 future scenarios of greenhouse gas concentrations to estimate the contribution of changes in the atmospheric circulation and in precipitation to regional future winter sea-level changes. The method is based on observed statistical relationships between Sea level as predictand and large-scale climate fields as predictors. The approach is applied to the Baltic Sea as it is one of the largest brackish seas in the world and a clear example for a complex coupled ocean-atmosphere land system with a complex coastline and bathymetry. Recent studies indicated that Baltic Sea level variations on decadal and longer time scales are strongly influenced by atmospheric forcings, but the influence of different large-scale forcing factors on sea level vary geographically. While the decadal sea level variations in the northern and eastern Baltic gauges are strongly influenced by the atmospheric circulation, the decadal variations in the southern Baltic Sea can be (statistically) better explained by area-averaged precipitation. The results indicate that future trends in sea-level rise caused by these forcing are larger than the past variability. Using sea level pressure as predictor for the central and eastern Baltic Sea level stations, three climate models lead to 21st century future trends in the range of the order of 1 to 2 mm/year. Using precipitation as predictor for the stations in the Southern Baltic Coast all five models lead to significant trends with a range of the order of 0.4 mm/year. These numbers are smaller, but of the order of magnitude as the predicted future global sea level rise. Nevertheless, these estimations comprise only a partial contribution of selected large-scale regional predictors and an estimation of the total regional sea-level rise has to consider other regional factors such as the isostatic contribution to relative sea

  9. Arctic sea ice and climate change--will the ice disappear in this century?

    PubMed

    Johannessen, O M; Miles, M W

    2000-01-01

    A consensus among climate change prediction scenarios using coupled ocean-climate general circulation models (GCMs) is enhanced warming in the Arctic. This suggests that changes in the Arctic sea ice cover may provide early indications of global warming. Observational evidence of substantial changes in the ice cover has been found recently using data from satellites and submarines. Satellite-borne microwave sensor data analyses have established a 3% per decade decrease in the spatial extent of the Arctic ice cover in the past 20 years. Moreover, a 7% per decade decrease in thicker, multi-year (perennial) ice pack has been revealed. This apparent transformation is corroborated by independent data that indicate substantial decreases in the average ice thickness from 3.1 to 1.8 m from the 1950s/1970s to the mid 1990s, averaging about 4 cm per year. It remains uncertain whether these observed changes are manifestations of global warming or are the result of anomalous atmospheric circulation--or both. However, if the recent trends continue, the Arctic sea ice cover could disappear this century, at least in summer, with important consequences for the regional and global ocean-climate system. This article synthesizes recent variability and trends in Arctic sea ice in the perspective of global climate change, and discusses their potential ramifications.

  10. Projected impact of climate change in the North and Baltic Sea. Results from dynamical downscaling of global CMIP climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Sein, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    Climate models have predicted strongest climate change impact for the mid/high lattiude areas. Despite their importance, shelves seas (which are supposed to account for more than 20% of global marine primary production and for up to 50% of total marine carbon uptake) are not adequately resolved in climate models. In this study, the global ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model MPIOM/HAMOCC has been setup with an enhanced resolution over the NW European shelf (~10 km in the southern North Sea). For a realistic representation of atmosphere-ocean interactions the regional model REMO has been implemented. Thus, this model configuration allows a physically consistent simulation of climate signal propagation from the North Atlantic over the North Sea into the Baltic Sea since it interactively simulates mass and energy fluxes between the three basins. The results indicate substantial changes in hydrographic and biological conditions for the end of the 21st Century. A freshening by about 0.75 psu together with a surface warming of ~2.0 K and associated circulation changes in and outside the North Sea reduce biological production on the NW European shelf by ~35%. This reduction is twice as strong as the reduction in the open ocean. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the shelf break and the continental slope which reduces the winter mixed layer by locally more than 200 m compared to current conditions. As a consequence winter nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic declines between 40 and 50%. In addition to this, the volume transport of water and salt into the North Sea will slightly reduce (~10%) during summer. At the end of the 21st Century the North Sea appears nearly decoupled from the deep Atlantic. The projected decline in biological productivity and subsequent decrease of phytoplankton (by averaged 25%) will probably negatively affect the local fish stock in the North Sea. In the Baltic Sea the climate

  11. Impact of climate change on the Baltic Sea ecosystem over the past 1,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Karoline; Moros, Matthias; Porsche, Christian; Neumann, Thomas; Adolphi, Florian; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Siegel, Herbert; Gerth, Monika; Leipe, Thomas; Jansen, Eystein; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on ecosystem health, particularly in marginal seas such as the Baltic, for example causing the spreading of anoxic areas (oxygen-free areas, the so-called dead zones) through strong feedbacks. Marked ecosystem changes in the Baltic Sea have been recorded in the sedimentary archive, but the reasons are not fully understood. Here we report an integrated study of high-resolution sediment records (past 1,000 years) in combination with an ecosystem modelling approach, providing new insights into the functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem under natural and human-influenced climatic changes. Between the Little Ice Age and the Modern Warm Period the surface water temperatures reconstructed using TEX86 palaeothermometry increased by ~2°C. Simultaneously, the anoxic areas in the Baltic Sea began to expand significantly as evident from the accumulation of laminated sediments. Ecosystem model simulations support our findings of widespread oxic areas during the Little Ice Age. Backed up by the modelling results that take into account anthropogenic-influenced nutrient load scenarios, our results provide evidence that surface temperature changes strongly influence deepwater oxygenation. This highlights the risk of a continued spreading of anoxic areas during scenarios of continued climate warming in the future.

  12. Climate change scenarios and the effect of sea-level rise for Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kont, Are; Jaagus, Jaak; Aunap, Raivo

    2003-03-01

    Climate warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have a significant impact on natural environment and human activity in high latitudes. Mostly, it should have a positive effect on human activity. The main threats in Estonia that could be connected with sea-level rise are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbour constructions. Possible climate change and its negative impacts in the coastal regions of Estonia are estimated in this paper. Climate change scenarios for Estonia were generated using a Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) and a regional climate change database—SCENanario GENerator (SCENGEN). Three alternative emission scenarios were combined with data from 14 general circulation model experiments. Climate change scenarios for the year 2100 indicate a significant increase in air temperature (by 2.3-4.5 °C) and precipitation (by 5-30%) in Estonia. The highest increase is expected to take place during winter and the lowest increase in summer. Due to a long coastline (3794 km) and extensive low-lying coastal areas, global climate change through sea-level rise will strongly affect the territory of Estonia. A number of valuable natural ecosystems will be in danger. These include both marine and terrestrial systems containing rare plant communities and suitable breeding places for birds. Most sandy beaches high in recreational value will disappear. However, isostatic land uplift and the location of coastal settlements at a distance from the present coastline reduce the rate of risk. Seven case study areas characterising all the shore types of Estonia have been selected for sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation assessment. Results and estimates of vulnerability to 1.0-m sea-level rise by 2100 are presented in this paper. This is the maximum scenario according to which the actually estimated relative sea-level rise would vary from 0.9 m (SW Estonia) to 0

  13. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  14. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  15. Predictions of extreme precipitation and sea-level rise under climate change.

    PubMed

    Senior, C A; Jones, R G; Lowe, J A; Durman, C F; Hudson, D

    2002-07-15

    Two aspects of global climate change are particularly relevant to river and coastal flooding: changes in extreme precipitation and changes in sea level. In this paper we summarize the relevant findings of the IPCC Third Assessment Report and illustrate some of the common results found by the current generation of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), using the Hadley Centre models. Projections of changes in extreme precipitation, sea-level rise and storm surges affecting the UK will be shown from the Hadley Centre regional models and the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory storm-surge model. A common finding from AOGCMs is that in a warmer climate the intensity of precipitation will increase due to a more intense hydrological cycle. This leads to reduced return periods (i.e. more frequent occurrences) of extreme precipitation in many locations. The Hadley Centre regional model simulates reduced return periods of extreme precipitation in a number of flood-sensitive areas of the UK. In addition, simulated changes in storminess and a rise in average sea level around the UK lead to reduced return periods of extreme high coastal water events. The confidence in all these results is limited by poor spatial resolution in global coupled models and by uncertainties in the physical processes in both global and regional models, and is specific to the climate change scenario used.

  16. Long-term sea surface temperature and climate change in the Australian-New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Juggins, Steve; de Deckker, Patrick; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles

    2007-06-01

    We compile and compare data for the last 150,000 years from four deep-sea cores in the midlatitude zone of the Southern Hemisphere. We recalculate sea surface temperature estimates derived from foraminifera and compare these with estimates derived from alkenones and magnesium/calcium ratios in foraminiferal carbonate and with accompanying sedimentological and pollen records on a common absolute timescale. Using a stack of the highest-resolution records, we find that first-order climate change occurs in concert with changes in insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. Glacier extent and inferred vegetation changes in Australia and New Zealand vary in tandem with sea surface temperatures, signifying close links between oceanic and terrestrial temperature. In the Southern Ocean, rapid temperature change of the order of 6°C occurs within a few centuries and appears to have played an important role in midlatitude climate change. Sea surface temperature changes over longer periods closely match proxy temperature records from Antarctic ice cores. Warm events correlate with Antarctic events A1-A4 and appear to occur just before Dansgaard-Oeschger events 8, 12, 14, and 17 in Greenland.

  17. Influence of climate change and trophic coupling across four trophic levels in the Celtic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Valentina; Attrill, Martin J; Pinnegar, John K; Brown, Andrew; Edwards, Martin; Votier, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Climate change has had profound effects upon marine ecosystems, impacting across all trophic levels from plankton to apex predators. Determining the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems requires understanding the direct effects on all trophic levels as well as indirect effects mediated by trophic coupling. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the pelagic food web in the Celtic Sea, a productive shelf region in the Northeast Atlantic. Using long-term data, we examined possible direct and indirect 'bottom-up' climate effects across four trophic levels: phytoplankton, zooplankton, mid-trophic level fish and seabirds. During the period 1986-2007, although there was no temporal trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the decadal mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Celtic Sea increased by 0.66 ± 0.02 °C. Despite this, there was only a weak signal of climate change in the Celtic Sea food web. Changes in plankton community structure were found, however this was not related to SST or NAO. A negative relationship occurred between herring abundance (0- and 1-group) and spring SST (0-group: p = 0.02, slope = -0.305 ± 0.125; 1-group: p = 0.04, slope = -0.410 ± 0.193). Seabird demographics showed complex species-specific responses. There was evidence of direct effects of spring NAO (on black-legged kittiwake population growth rate: p = 0.03, slope = 0.0314 ± 0.014) as well as indirect bottom-up effects of lagged spring SST (on razorbill breeding success: p = 0.01, slope = -0.144 ± 0.05). Negative relationships between breeding success and population growth rate of razorbills and common guillemots may be explained by interactions between mid-trophic level fish. Our findings show that the impacts of climate change on the Celtic Sea ecosystem is not as marked as in nearby regions (e.g. the North Sea), emphasizing the need for more research at regional scales.

  18. Does Change in the Arctic Sea Ice Indicate Climate Change? A Lesson Using Geospatial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice has not since melted to the 2007 extent, but annual summer melt extents do continue to be less than the decadal average. Climate fluctuations are well documented by geologic records. Averages are usually based on a minimum of 10 years of averaged data. It is typical for fluctuations to occur from year to year and season to…

  19. Does Change in the Arctic Sea Ice Indicate Climate Change? A Lesson Using Geospatial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice has not since melted to the 2007 extent, but annual summer melt extents do continue to be less than the decadal average. Climate fluctuations are well documented by geologic records. Averages are usually based on a minimum of 10 years of averaged data. It is typical for fluctuations to occur from year to year and season to…

  20. Change of ocean circulation in the East Asian Marginal Seas under different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hong Sik; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Young Ho

    2010-05-01

    Global climate models do not properly resolve an ocean environment in the East Asian Marginal Seas (EAMS), which is mainly due to a poor representation of the topography in continental shelf region and a coarse spatial resolution. To examine a possible change of ocean environment under global warming in the EAMS, therefore we used North Pacific Regional Ocean Model. The regional model was forced by atmospheric conditions extracted from the simulation results of the global climate models for the 21st century projected by the IPCC SRES A1B scenario as well as the 20th century. The North Pacific Regional Ocean model simulated a detailed pattern of temperature change in the EAMS showing locally different rising or falling trend under the future climate condition, while the global climate models simulated a simple pattern like an overall increase. Changes of circulation pattern in the EAMS such as an intrusion of warm water into the Yellow Sea as well as the Kuroshio were also well resolved. Annual variations in volume transports through the Taiwan Strait and the Korea Strait under the future condition were simulated to be different from those under present condition. Relative ratio of volume transport through the Soya Strait to the Tsugaru Strait also responded to the climate condition.

  1. Modelling climate change effects on benthos: Distributional shifts in the North Sea from 2001 to 2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Michael; Mathis, Moritz; Kröncke, Ingrid; Neumann, Hermann; Pohlmann, Thomas; Reiss, Henning

    2016-06-01

    In the marine realm, climate change can affect a variety of physico-chemical properties with wide-ranging biological effects, but the knowledge of how climate change affects benthic distributions is limited and mainly restricted to coastal environments. To project the response of benthic species of a shelf sea (North Sea) to the expected climate change, the distributions of 75 marine benthic species were modelled and the spatial changes in distribution were projected for 2099 based on modelled bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC scenario A1B. Mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately increase by 1.7. The spatial changes in species distribution were modelled with Maxent and the direction and extent of these changes were assessed. The results showed a latitudinal northward shift for 64% of the species (maximum 109 km; brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis) and a southward shift for 36% (maximum 101 km; hermit crab Pagurus prideaux and the associated cloak anemone Adamsia carciniopados; 105 km). The relatively low rates of distributional shifts compared to fish or plankton species were probably influenced by the regional topography. The environmental gradients in the central North Sea along the 50 m depth contour might act as a 'barrier', possibly resulting in a compression of distribution range and hampering further shifts to the north. For 49 species this resulted in a habitat loss up to 100%, while only 11 species could benefit from the warming in terms of habitat gain. Particularly the benthic communities of the southern North Sea, where the strongest temperature increase was projected, would be strongly affected by the distributional changes, since key species showed northward shifts and high rates of habitat loss, with potential ramifications for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  2. Projections of Mediterranean Sea climate for the 21st century. Regional vs. local changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vives, Jose Antonio; Jordà, Gabriel; Gomis, Damià; Marcos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The climate change is a global process but its impacts will be noticed locally. Also, any adaptation strategy requires information of the projected changes at local scale in order to be effective. At present, monitoring networks and decadal prediction systems are designed to characterize the large scale features of the climate system. However, it is not clear in which cases the local changes can significantly differ from the large scale changes. That is, in which places and for which variables information about large scale changes can be used for local adaptation. In this presentation we address this issue using the Mediterranean Sea as a test case. First, we will review the projected evolution of the main marine variables (sea level, wind waves, temperature and salinity) for the next decades using a set of regional climate models. Then, we will characterize the spatial scales of the projected changes through an EOF decomposition in order to assess which part of those changes can be attributed to small scale features. In other words, we will characterize in which locations and for which variables the local changes could be approximated by the large scale signals.

  3. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions.

  4. Impact of the North Atlantic circulation on the climate change patterns of North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Mathis, Mortiz; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The physical properties of the North Sea are characterized by the exchange of water masses with the North Atlantic at the northern boundary and Baltic Sea to the east. The combined effects of localized forcing, tidal mixing and advection of water masses make the North Sea a challenging study area. Previous investigations indicated a possibility that the variability of the North Atlantic circulation and the strength of the sub-polar gyre (SPG) might influence the physical properties of the North Sea. The assessment of the complex interaction between the North Atlantic and the North Sea in a climate change scenario requires regionally coupled global RCP simulations with enhanced resolution of the North Sea and the North Atlantic. In this study we analyzed result from the regionally coupled ocean-atmosphere-biogeochemistry model system (MPIOM-REMO-HAMOCC) with a hydrodynamic (HD) model. The ocean model has a zoomed grid which provides the highest resolution over the West European Shelf by shifting its poles over Chicago and Central Europe. An index for the intensity of SPG was estimated by averaging the barotropic stream function (ψ) over the North Atlantic. Various threshold values for ψ were tested to define the strength of the SPG. These SPG indices have been correlated with North Sea hydrographic parameters at various levels to identify areas affected by SPG variability. The influence of the Atlantic's eastern boundary current, contributing more saline waters to the North West European shelf area is also investigated.

  5. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  6. Modeling the impact of changes in Atlantic sea surface temperature on the climate of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniyi, Mojisola O.

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the impacts of warming/cooling of the Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) on the climate of West Africa using Version 4.4 of Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The 1-2 K cooling and warming of the Atlantic SST both result in tripole temperature and precipitation change structure, having a northwest-southeast orientation over West Africa. Findings reveal that the responses of precipitation and temperature to the Atlantic SST cooling are opposite to those for the Atlantic SST warming and these responses intensify with increased warming/cooling of the Atlantic SST. The structure of the change in climate is attributed to the response of atmospheric/soil moisture gradient and orientation of orography in West Africa.

  7. Projected changes in regional climate extremes arising from Arctic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screen, James A.; Deser, Clara; Sun, Lantao

    2015-08-01

    The decline in Arctic sea ice cover has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts locally. An emerging and highly uncertain area of scientific research, however, is whether such Arctic change has a tangible effect on weather and climate at lower latitudes. Of particular societal relevance is the open question: will continued Arctic sea ice loss make mid-latitude weather more extreme? Here we analyse idealized atmospheric general circulation model simulations, using two independent models, both forced by projected Arctic sea ice loss in the late twenty-first century. We identify robust projected changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes arising solely due to Arctic sea ice loss. The likelihood and duration of cold extremes are projected to decrease over high latitudes and over central and eastern North America, but to increase over central Asia. Hot extremes are projected to increase in frequency and duration over high latitudes. The likelihood and severity of wet extremes are projected to increase over high latitudes, the Mediterranean and central Asia; and their intensity is projected to increase over high latitudes and central and eastern Asia. The number of dry days over mid-latitude Eurasia and dry spell duration over high latitudes are both projected to decrease. There is closer model agreement for projected changes in temperature extremes than for precipitation extremes. Overall, we find that extreme weather over central and eastern North America is more sensitive to Arctic sea ice loss than over other mid-latitude regions. Our results are useful for constraining the role of Arctic sea ice loss in shifting the odds of extreme weather, but must not be viewed as deterministic projections, as they do not account for drivers other than Arctic sea ice loss.

  8. Climate-mediated changes in zooplankton community structure for the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in zooplankton taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at zooplankton community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large zooplankton taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in zooplankton community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than

  9. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  10. Central Asian sand seas climate change as inferred from OSL dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maman, Shimrit; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan; Porat, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence dating techniques have become more accessible, widespread, more accurate and support studies of climate change. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to determine the time elapsed since quartz grains were last exposed to sunlight, before they were buried and the dune stabilized. Many sand seas have been dated extensively by luminescence, e.g., the Kalahari, Namib the Australian linear dunes and the northwestern Negev dune field, Israel. However, no ages were published so far from the central Asian sand seas. The lack of dune stratigraphy and numerical ages precluded any reliable assessment of the paleoclimatic significance of dunes in central Asia. Central Asian Sand seas (ergs) have accumulated in the Turan basin, north-west of the Hindu Kush range, and span from south Turkmenistan to the Syr-Darya River in Kazakhstan. These ergs are dissected by the Amu-Darya River; to its north lies the Kyzylkum (red sands) and to its south lies the Karakum (black sands). Combined, they form one of the largest sand seas in the world. This area is understudied, and little information has been published regarding the sands stabilization processes and deposition ages. In this study, OSL ages for the Karakum and Kyzylkum sands are presented and analysis of the implications of these results is provided. Optical dates obtained in this study are used to study the effects climatic changes had on the mobility and stability of the central Asian sand seas. Optically stimulated luminescence ages derived from the upper meter of the interdune of 14 exposed sections from both ergs, indicate extensive sand and dune stabilization during the mid-Holocene. This stabilization is understood to reflect a transition to a warmer, wetter, and less windy climate that generally persisted until today. The OSL ages, coupled with a compilation of regional paleoclimatic data, corroborate and reinforce the previously proposed Mid-Holocene Liavliakan phase, known to reflect a warmer

  11. Climate change effects on the marine characteristics of the Aegean and Ionian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Christos; Galiatsatou, Panagiota; Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Kombiadou, Katerina; Prinos, Panayotis; Velikou, Kondylia; Kapelonis, Zacharias; Tragou, Elina; Androulidakis, Yannis; Athanassoulis, Gerasimos; Vagenas, Christos; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Baltikas, Vassilis; Krestenitis, Yannis; Gerostathis, Theodoros; Belibassakis, Kostantinos; Rusu, Eugen

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses the effects of estimated climate change on the sea-surface dynamics of the Aegean and Ionian Seas (AIS). The main aim is the identification of climate change impacts on the severity and frequency of extreme storm surges and waves in areas of the AIS prone to flooding. An attempt is made to define design levels for future research on coastal protection in Greece. Extreme value analysis is implemented through a nonstationary generalized extreme value distribution function, incorporating time harmonics in its parameters, by means of statistically defined criteria. A 50-year time span analysis is adopted and changes of means and extremes are determined. A Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) is implemented with dynamical downscaling, forced by ECHAM5 fields under 20C3M historical data for the twentieth century and the SRES-A1B scenario for the twenty-first century. Storm surge and wave models (GreCSSM and SWAN, respectively) are used for marine climate simulations. Comparisons of model results with reanalysis and field data of atmospheric and hydrodynamic characteristics, respectively, are in good agreement. Our findings indicate that the dynamically downscaled RegCM3 simulation adequately reproduces the present general circulation patterns over the Mediterranean and Greece. Future changes in sea level pressure and mean wind fields are estimated to be small, yet significant for marine extremes. In general, we estimate a projected intensification of severe wave and storm surge events during the first half of the twenty-first century and a subsequent storminess attenuation leading to the resettlement of milder extreme marine events with increased prediction uncertainty in the second half of the twenty-first century.

  12. Desiccation of the Aral Sea and climate change in Central Asia: Interplay and mutual feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter; Huang, Huei-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation, we report results of a research project supported by US Civil Research and Development Foundation aimed at investigating the interplays between the Aral Sea desiccation, anthropogenic impacts, and climate change in Central Asia, and quantify principal feedbacks in the climatic system of the Aral Sea region by means of numerical model experiments as well as analyses of historical and newly obtained observational data. Aral Sea desiccation has been recognized as one of the worst anthropogenic ecological disasters ever. However, it is believed that a part of the desiccation may have been due to the natural climate variability manifested in larger scale warming trends across the Central Asia. The interaction between the lake and the climate change is a "two-way street": the shrinking of the Aral Sea leads to reduction in evaporation and precipitation, thus affecting regional moisture and temperature regimes, and atmospheric circulation. The altered meteorological condition may, in turn, induce further changes in the Aral Sea. In this study, we attempted to quantify the relative contribution from the alterations in the lake's hydrology and surface area to the regional climate change, and, reciprocally, from the large-scale and regional climate trends to the desiccation of the Aral Sea. We show, in particular, that the Aral Sea desiccation has led to significant changes in the regional precipitation, snow cover, and air temperature regimes. On the other hand, the large-scale variability of climate across Central Asia has modulated the hydrology of the lake and caused at least a part of the water level drop. We assessed the long-term trends of air temperature at different isobaric surfaces in the Aral Sea region basing on reanalysis and historical data. Temperature and rainfall daily measurements from 223 meteorological stations of the former USSR in period from 1936 to 1990 were used, as well as the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data. The differences between

  13. Climate change increases the production of female hatchlings at a northern sea turtle rookery.

    PubMed

    Reneker, J L; Kamel, S J

    2016-12-01

    The most recent climate change projections show a global increase in temperatures, along with major adjustments to precipitation, throughout the 21st century. Species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination are highly susceptible to such changes since the incubation environment influences critical offspring characteristics such as survival and sex ratio. Here we show that the mean incubation duration of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests from a high-density nesting beach on Bald Head Island, North Carolina, USA has decreased significantly over the past 25 yr. This decrease in incubation duration is significantly positively correlated with mean air temperature and negatively correlated with mean precipitation during the nesting season. Additionally, although no change in hatching success was detected during this same period, a potentially detrimental consequence of shorter incubation durations is that they lead to the production of primarily female offspring. Given that global temperatures are predicted to increase by as much as 4°C over the next century, the mass feminization of sea turtle hatchlings is a high-priority concern. While presently limited in number, studies using long-term data sets to examine the temporal correlation between offspring characteristics and climatic trends are essential for understanding the scope and direction of climate change effects on species persistence. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Contribution of climate-driven change in continental water storage to recent sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Cazenave, A.; Gennero, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a global model of continental water balance, forced by interannual variations in precipitation and near-surface atmospheric temperature for the period 1981-1998, we estimate the sea-level changes associated with climate-driven changes in storage of water as snowpack, soil water, and ground water; storage in ice sheets and large lakes is not considered. The 1981-1998 trend is estimated to be 0.12 mm/yr, and substantial interannual fluctuations are inferred; for 1993-1998, the trend is 0.25 mm/yr. At the decadal time scale, the terrestrial contribution to eustatic (i.e., induced by mass exchange) sea-level rise is significantly smaller than the estimated steric (i.e., induced by density changes) trend for the same period, but is not negligibly small. In the model the sea-level rise is driven mainly by a downtrend in continental precipitation during the study period, which we believe was generated by natural variability in the climate system.

  15. Deep-sea ostracode species diversity: Response to late Quaternary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; DeMartino, D.M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Rodriguez-Lazaro, J.

    1999-01-01

    Late Quaternary ostracode assemblages from the North Atlantic Ocean were studied to establish the effect of climatic changes of the past 210,000 yr (marine oxygen isotope stages 7-1) on deep-sea benthic biodiversity and faunal composition. Two-hundred and twenty five samples from the Chain 82-24 Core 4PC (41??43'N, 32??51'W, 3427 m water depth) on the western Mid-Atlantic Ridge revealed high amplitude fluctuations in ostracode abundance and diversity coincident with orbital and suborbital scale climate oscillations measured by several paleoceanographic proxy records. During the past 210,000 yr, ostracode biodiversity as measured by species number (S) and the Shannon-Weaver index, H(S), oscillated from H(S) = 0.4 during glacial periods (marine isotope stages 6, 5d, 5b, 4, and 2) to H(S) = 1.1 during interglacial and interstadial periods (stages 7, 5e, 5c, 5a, 3 and 1). A total of 23 diversity peaks could be recognized. Eleven of these signify major periods of high diversity [H(S) > 0.8, S = 10-21] occurring every 15-20 ka. Twelve were minor peaks which may represent millennial-scale diversity oscillations. The composition of ostracode assemblages varies with Krithe-dominated assemblages characterizing glacial intervals, and Argilloecia-Cytheropteron characterizing deglacials, and trachyleberid genera (Poseidonamicus, Echinocythereis, Henryhowella, Oxycythereis) abundant during interglacials. Diversity and faunal composition changes can be matched to independent deep-sea paleoceanographic tracers such as benthic foraminiferal carbon isotopes, Krithe trace elements (Mg/Ca ratios), and to North Atlantic region climate records such as Greenland ice cores. When interpreted in light of ostracode species' ecology, these faunal and diversity patterns provide evidence that deep-sea benthic ecosystems experience significant reorganization in response to climate changes over orbital to millennial timescales.

  16. Extreme floods in the Mekong River Delta under climate change: combined impacts of upstream hydrological changes and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Long; Nguyen Viet, Dung; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Koponen, Jorma; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Supit, Iwan; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Extreme floods cause huge damages to human lives and infrastructure, and hamper socio-economic development in the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Induced by climate change, upstream hydrological changes and sea level rise are expected to further exacerbate future flood hazard and thereby posing critical challenges for securing safety and sustainability. This paper provides a probabilistic quantification of future flood hazard for the Mekong Delta, focusing on extreme events under climate change. We developed a model chain to simulate separate and combined impacts of two drivers, namely upstream hydrological changes and sea level rise on flood magnitude and frequency. Simulation results show that upstream changes and sea level rise substantially increase flood hazard throughout the whole Mekong Delta. Due to differences in their nature, two drivers show different features in their impacts on floods. Impacts of upstream changes are more dominant in floodplains in the upper delta, causing an increase of up to +0.80 m in flood depth. Sea level rise introduces flood hazard to currently safe areas in the middle and coastal delta zones. A 0.6 m rise in relative sea level causes an increase in flood depth between 0.10 and 0.70 m, depending on location by 2050s. Upstream hydrological changes and sea level rise tend to intensify each other's impacts on floods, resulting in stronger combined impacts than linearly summed impacts of each individual driver. Substantial increase of future flood hazard strongly requires better flood protection and more flood resilient development for the Mekong Delta. Findings from this study can be used as quantified physical boundary conditions to develop flood management strategies and strategic delta management plans.

  17. Climate change impacts on southern Ross Sea phytoplankton composition, productivity, and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Daniel E.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Smith, Walker O.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hemmings, John C. P.

    2017-03-01

    The Ross Sea, a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean, is expected to experience warming during the next century along with reduced summer sea ice concentrations and shallower mixed layers. This study investigates how these climatic changes may alter phytoplankton assemblage composition, primary productivity, and export. Glider measurements are used to force a one-dimensional biogeochemical model, which includes diatoms and both solitary and colonial forms of Phaeocystis antarctica. Model performance is evaluated with glider observations, and experiments are conducted using projections of physical drivers for mid-21st and late-21st century. These scenarios reveal a 5% increase in primary productivity by midcentury and 14% by late-century and a proportional increase in carbon export, which remains approximately 18% of primary production. In addition, scenario results indicate diatom biomass increases while P. antarctica biomass decreases in the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the century, diatom biomass remains relatively constant and P. antarctica biomass increases. Additional scenarios examining the independent contributions of expected future changes (temperature, mixed layer depth, irradiance, and surface iron inputs from melting ice) demonstrate that earlier availability of low light due to reduction of sea ice early in the growing season is the primary driver of productivity increases over the next century; shallower mixed layer depths additionally contribute to changes of assemblage composition and export. This study further demonstrates how glider data can be effectively used to facilitate model development and simulation, and inform interpretation of biogeochemical observations in the context of climate change.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding how the global ocean responds to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> requires knowing the natural behavior of individual regions and anticipating how future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1354795-variability-climate-change-simulations-affects-needed-long-term-riverine-nutrient-reductions-baltic-sea','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1354795-variability-climate-change-simulations-affects-needed-long-term-riverine-nutrient-reductions-baltic-sea"><span>Variability in <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bring, Arvid; Rogberg, Peter; Destouni, Georgia</p> <p>2015-05-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> to runoff due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence management of nutrient loading to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">changing</span> runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Action Plan. For several countries, <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections point to large variability in load <span class="hlt">changes</span> in relation to reduction targets. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countriesmore » with more limited commitments. Finally, in the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow <span class="hlt">changes</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1354795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1354795"><span>Variability in <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bring, Arvid; Rogberg, Peter; Destouni, Georgia</p> <p>2015-05-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> to runoff due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence management of nutrient loading to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of <span class="hlt">changing</span> runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Action Plan. For several countries, <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections point to large variability in load <span class="hlt">changes</span> in relation to reduction targets. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countries with more limited commitments. Finally, in the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017580"><span>Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise Due to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future <span class="hlt">climate</span> disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise linked to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the <span class="hlt">sea</span> through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at “Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve”, in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide. PMID:27611802</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27611802"><span>Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise Due to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Montilla, Mariana C; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future <span class="hlt">climate</span> disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise linked to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the <span class="hlt">sea</span> through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at "Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve", in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..65..244O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006QuRes..65..244O"><span>Should Quaternary <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> be used to correct glacier ELAs, vegetation belt altitudes and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level temperatures for inferring <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osmaston, Henry A.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the altitudes of glacier snowlines (ELAs) and the altitudes of montane vegetation belts (VBAs) measure Quaternary <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. An accepted 'correction' to such <span class="hlt">changes</span> by deducting the amount of contemporary <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fall is wrong, since the air displaced by the ice sheets approximately fills the space left by the falling <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and so there is no overall downward movement of the troposphere. This also causes a reduced cooling at the lowered <span class="hlt">sea</span> level relative to that at the former inter-glacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, about 1°C at the Las Glacial Maximum, which reduces the discrepancies previously noted by others between terrestrial and marine estimates of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level cooling. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in temperature is indicated by the product of the ELA or VBA lowering and the environmental lapse rate (ELR). Prior estimates of ΔELA (-900 ± 135 m) and ELR (-6° ± 0.1°C km -1) would indicate a cooling of -5.4°C at interglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and -4.4°C at glacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, although glacial-period ELRs are not known reliably. Established ELA corrections for local epeirogenic uplift or subsidence are appropriate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSR...123...16T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSR...123...16T"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> can cause complex responses in Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> macroalgae: A systematic review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takolander, Antti; Cabeza, Mar; Leskinen, Elina</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Estuarine macroalgae are important primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, and often foundation species providing structurally complex habitat. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> alters many abiotic factors that affect their long-term persistence and distribution. Here, we review the existing scientific literature on the tolerance of key macroalgal species in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, the world's largest brackish water body. Elevated temperature is expected to intensify coastal eutrophication, further promoting growth of opportunistic, filamentous species, especially green algae, which are often species associated with intensive filamentous algal blooms. Declining salinities will push the distributions of marine species towards south, which may alter the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> community compositions towards a more limnic state. Together with increasing eutrophication trends this may cause losses in marine-originating foundation species such as Fucus, causing severe biodiversity impacts. Experimental results on ocean acidification effects on macroalgae are mixed, with only few studies conducted in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We conclude that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> can alter the structure and functioning of macroalgal ecosystems especially in the northern Baltic coastal areas, and can potentially act synergistically with eutrophication. We briefly discuss potential adaptation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11.1641E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NHESS..11.1641E"><span>Looking for evidence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts in the eastern Irish <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esteves, L. S.; Williams, J. J.; Brown, J. M.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Although storminess is often cited as a driver of long-term coastal erosion, a lack of suitable datasets has only allowed objective assessment of this claim in a handful of case studies. This reduces our ability to understand and predict how the coastline may respond to an increase in "storminess" as suggested by global and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> models. With focus on 16 km of the Sefton coastline bordering the eastern Irish <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (UK), this paper analyses available measured datasets of water level, surge level, wave height, wind speed and barometric pressure with the objective of finding trends in metocean <span class="hlt">climate</span> that are consistent with predictions. The paper then examines rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in shoreline position over the period 1894 to 2005 with the aim of establishing relationships with <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variability using a range of measured and modelled metocean parameters (with time spans varying from two to eight decades). With the exception of the mean monthly wind speed, available metocean data do not indicate any statistically significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> outside seasonal and decadal cycles. No clear relationship was found between <span class="hlt">changes</span> in metocean conditions and rates of shoreline <span class="hlt">change</span> along the Sefton coast. High interannual variability and the lack of long-term measurements make unambiguous correlations between <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and shoreline evolution problematic. However, comparison between the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index (NAOw) and coastline <span class="hlt">changes</span> suggest increased erosion at times of decreasing NAOw values and reduced erosion at times of increasing NAOw values. Erosion tends to be more pronounced when decreasing NAOw values lead to a strong negative NAO phase. At present, anthropogenic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the local sediment budget and the short-term impact of extreme events are still the largest threat likely to affect coastal flooding and erosion risk in the short- and medium-term. Nevertheless, the potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the long-term should not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12113207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12113207B"><span>An attempt to deconstruct recent <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkhordarian, A.; Storch, H.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We investigate whether the recently observed temperature and precipitation trends over the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin are consistent with state-of-the-art regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections. To address this question we use several data sources: (1) multidecadal trends derived from various observational data sets, (2) estimates of natural variability provided by a 2000 year paleoclimatic model simulation, and (3) response to greenhouse gas forcing derived from regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations driven by the A1B and RCP4.5 scenarios (from ENSEMBLES and CORDEX projects). Results indicate that, over the past decades, the <span class="hlt">climate</span> in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin has undergone a <span class="hlt">change</span> that is beyond the estimated range of natural variability. We test the hypothesis that this <span class="hlt">change</span> may be understood as a manifestation of global warming due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We find that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in near-surface temperature support our hypothesis that the effect of GHG is needed to simulate the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The pattern correlation and regression results clearly illustrate the concerted emergence of an anthropogenic signal consistent with the GHG signal in summer and autumn in the 21st century. However, none of the 19 regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations used in this study reproduce the observed warming. The observed trends in precipitation and surface solar radiation are also partially inconsistent with the expected <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to GHG forcing. We conclude that, besides the regional response to GHG forcing, other human-made drivers have had an imprint. Regional emission of industrial aerosols has been strongly reduced in this region, and we suggest that this reduction may be the missing driver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Glaciers&pg=3&id=EJ397123','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Glaciers&pg=3&id=EJ397123"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Summarizes reports on <span class="hlt">changes</span> related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Lists 16 references. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glaciers&pg=3&id=EJ397123','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glaciers&pg=3&id=EJ397123"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Summarizes reports on <span class="hlt">changes</span> related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Lists 16 references. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..331....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SedG..331....1L"><span>Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and oceanographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid <span class="hlt">climate</span> in the hinterland and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level fluctuations at the end of the early</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900344"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and adaptational impacts in coastal systems: the case of <span class="hlt">sea</span> defences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Thompson, Richard C; Hawkins, Stephen J</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We briefly review how coastal ecosystems are responding to and being impacted by <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, one of the greatest challenges facing society today. In adapting to rising and stormier <span class="hlt">seas</span> associated with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, coastal defence structures are proliferating and becoming dominant coastal features, particularly in urbanised areas. Whilst the primary function of these structures is to protect coastal property and infrastructure, they inevitably have a significant secondary impact on the local environment and ecosystems. In this review we outline some of the negative and positive effects of these structures on physical processes, impacts on marine species, and the novel engineering approaches that have been employed to improve the ecological value of these structures in recent years. Finally we outline guidelines for an environmentally sensitive approach to design of such structures in the marine environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13C1086D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC13C1086D"><span>Adapting to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> despite scientific uncertainty: A case study of coastal protection from <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise in Kiribati</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donner, S. D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation is an increasing focus of international aid. At recent meetings of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (UNFCCC), the developed world agreed to rapidly increase international assistance to help developing countries, like the low-lying island nation of Kiribati, respond to the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. These emerging adaptation efforts must proceed despite the large and partially irreducible scientific uncertainty about the magnitude of those future <span class="hlt">climate</span> impacts. In this study, we use the example of efforts to adapt to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise in Kiribati to document the challenges facing such internationally-funded <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation projects given the scientific uncertainty about <span class="hlt">climate</span> impacts. Drawing on field and document research, we describe the scientific uncertainty about projected <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise in Tarawa, the capital of Kiribati, how that uncertainty can create trade-offs between adaptation measures, and the social, political and economic context in which adaptation decisions must be made. The analysis shows there is no 'silver bullet' adaptation strategy in countries like Kiribati, given the long-term scientific uncertainty about <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and the environment of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> aid. The existence of irreducible scientific uncertainty does not preclude effective <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation, but instead requires adaptation programs that embrace multiple strategies and planning horizons, and continually build on and re-adjust previous investments. This work highlights the importance of sustained international <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> financing, as proposed in UNFCCC negotiations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8230P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8230P"><span>Circulation and oxygen cycling in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Sensitivity to future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Powley, Helen R.; Krom, Michael D.; Van Cappellen, Philippe</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is expected to increase temperatures and decrease precipitation in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (MS) basin, causing substantial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the thermohaline circulation (THC) of both the Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (WMS) and Eastern Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (EMS). The exact nature of future circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> remains highly uncertain, however, with forecasts varying from a weakening to a strengthening of the THC. Here we assess the sensitivity of dissolved oxygen (O2) distributions in the WMS and EMS to THC <span class="hlt">changes</span> using a mass balance model, which represents the exchanges of O2 between surface, intermediate, and deep water reservoirs, and through the Straits of Sicily and Gibraltar. Perturbations spanning the ranges in O2 solubility, aerobic respiration kinetics, and THC <span class="hlt">changes</span> projected for the year 2100 are imposed to the O2 model. In all scenarios tested, the entire MS remains fully oxygenated after 100 years; depending on the THC regime, average deep water O2 concentrations fall in the ranges 151-205 and 160-219 µM in the WMS and EMS, respectively. On longer timescales (>1000 years), the scenario with the largest (>74%) decline in deep water formation rate leads to deep water hypoxia in the EMS but, even then, the WMS deep water remains oxygenated. In addition, a weakening of THC may result in a negative feedback on O2 consumption as supply of labile dissolved organic carbon to deep water decreases. Thus, it appears unlikely that <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven <span class="hlt">changes</span> in THC will cause severe O2 depletion of the deep water masses of the MS in the foreseeable future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Tectp.222..333K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Tectp.222..333K"><span>Paleoglobal <span class="hlt">change</span> during deposition of cyclothems: calculating the contributions of tectonic subsidence, glacial eustasy and long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> influences on Pennsylvanian <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein, George D.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>New sedimentological determinations of the water depth and associated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> of Midcontinent Pennsylvanian cyclothems shows that they accumulated in water depths ranging from as low as 32 m to as high as 160 m. depending on which model is used to establish the deepest water facies. These depth determinations also indicate that regardless of model, depth variations existed for different cyclothems both laterally and in time. Average water depth determinations and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> for models of Heckel and Gerhard are 96.4 and 86.0 m, respectively. Analysis of tectonic subsidence permits calculation of the magnitude of tectonic processes and associated <span class="hlt">climatic</span> effects, which controlled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during deposition of Pennsylvanian cyclothems. Far-field tectonic effects in response to regional orogenic movements partially influenced Pennsylvanian <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Midcontinent. Organization of Virgilian and Missourian mid-coninent cyclothems into four- to five-fold bundles suggests that <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Midcontinent platform areas were influenced both by Milankovitch orbital parameters and longer-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, whereas Desmoinesian <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> apparently was influenced more strongly by tectonic subsidence controlled by foreland-basin tectonism. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> associated with cyclothems in the Illinois basin, Central Appalachian basin, and the Asturias basin of Spain were controlled mostly by foreland basin subsidence and later strike-slip faulting. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the southeast Netherlands coal field was influenced primarily by strike-slip movements within the Hercynian tectonic orogenic zone. The magnitude of tectonically contributed <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level varied laterally. In the Midcontinent, tectonic subsidence accounts for ~ 5-20% of the total <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in platform areas, and perhaps as much as 20% in basin depocenters, whereas in the Illinois basin, tectonic subsidence accounts for 90% of estimated <span class="hlt">sea</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616870L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616870L"><span>How <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled <span class="hlt">climatic</span> models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC13A0933J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC13A0933J"><span>Interannual Variability of Primary Production and Fishery in Response to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, M.; Deal, C.; McRoy, P.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">climate</span> trends of reducing <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover and rising temperature have profound impacts on the lower tropic level production and fishery production. The lower trophic level production from 1970 to 2005 was simulated using a vertically 1-D coupled ice-ocean ecosystem model (Jin et al., 2007) that includes 10 compartments: three phytoplankton (pelagic diatom, flagellates and ice algae), three zooplankton (copepods, large zooplankton, and microzooplankton), three nutrients (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium, silicon) and detritus. By using a turbulence closure model (Mellor, 2001), tidal mixing and its interactions with wind stirring, and thermal stratification were realistically reproduced. The 1-D model was applied to the mooring site M2 in the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The water depth H=74m. The model is forced by NCEP reanalysis data and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration data from Hadley Center (monthly) before 1978 and SSM/I (daily) after 1997. Surface boundary includes wind stress, heat and salt flux. Model results are validated favorably with observations: 1) temperature, salinity, fluorometer data at 12m, 24m and 44m at NOAA/PMEL mooring from 1995-2005; 2) daily <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS chl a data (1997-2005). While the quantity of variability of the primary production did not show an increase/decrease trend in the past three decade, there exists a shift of dominant phytoplankton species coincident of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The model primary production were dominant by ice algae before the 1976/77 regime shift, and by open water species of diatom and flagellates thereafter with only occasional ice algal blooms. Fish catches in the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> showed mixed reponse to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Among the 12 dominant economic fish species, only Walleye pollock and Yellowfin sole showed significant correlations with the PDO index in certain regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G51B..07W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G51B..07W"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in US extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels and the role of large scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wahl, T.; Chambers, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We analyze a set of 20 tide gauge records covering the contiguous United States (US) coastline and the period from 1929 to 2013 to identify long-term trends and multi-decadal variations in extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels (ESLs) relative to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (MSL). Significant but small long-term trends in ESLs above/below MSL are found at individual sites along most coastline stretches, but are mostly confined to the southeast coast and the winter season when storm surges are primarily driven by extra-tropical cyclones. We identify six regions with broadly coherent and considerable multi-decadal ESL variations unrelated to MSL <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Using a quasi-non-stationary extreme value analysis approach we show that the latter would have caused variations in design relevant return water levels (RWLs; 50 to 200 year return periods) ranging from ~10 cm to as much as 110 cm across the six regions. To explore the origin of these temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the role of large-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability we develop different sets of simple and multiple linear regression models with RWLs as dependent variables and <span class="hlt">climate</span> indices, or tailored (toward the goal of predicting multi-decadal RWL <span class="hlt">changes</span>) versions of them, and wind stress curl as independent predictors. The models, after being tested for spatial and temporal stability, explain up to 97% of the observed variability at individual sites and almost 80% on average. Using the model predictions as covariates for the quasi-non-stationary extreme value analysis also significantly reduces the range of <span class="hlt">change</span> in the 100-year RWLs over time, turning a non-stationary process into a stationary one. This highlights that the models - when used with regional and global <span class="hlt">climate</span> model output of the predictors - should also be capable of projecting future RWL <span class="hlt">changes</span> to be used by decision makers for improved flood preparedness and long-term resiliency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6760381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6760381"><span>Iceberg severity off eastern North America: Its relationship to <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice variability and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marko, J.R.; Fissel, D.B. ); Wadhams, P. ); Kelly, P.M. ); Brown, R.D. )</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Iceberg trajectory, deterioration (mass loss), and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice data are reviewed to identify the sources of observed interannual and seasonal variations in the numbers of icebergs passing south of 48[degrees]N off eastern North America. The results show the dominant role of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the observed variations. Important mechanisms involved include both seasonal modulation of the southerly iceberg flow by ice cover control of probabilities for entrapment and decay in shallow water, and the suppression of iceberg melt/deterioration rates by high concentrations of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. The Labrador spring ice extent, shown to be the critical parameter in interannual iceberg number variability, was found to be either determined by or closely correlated with midwinter Davis Strait ice extents. Agreement obtained between observed year-to-year and seasonal number variations with computations based upon a simple iceberg dissipation model suggests that downstream iceberg numbers are relatively insensitive to iceberg production rates and to fluctuations in southerly iceberg fluxes in areas north of Baffin Island. Past variations in the Davis Strait ice index and annual ice extents are studied to identify trends and relationships between regional and larger-scale global <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters. It was found that, on decadal timescales in the post-1960 period of reasonable data quality, regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters have varied, roughly, out of phase with corresponding global and hemispheric <span class="hlt">changes</span>. These observations are compared with expectations in terms of model results to evaluate current GCM-based capabilities for simulating recent regional behavior. 64 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018780"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice/<span class="hlt">climate</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parkinson, C. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The objectives were to determine and analyze the annual cycle of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extents in the Arctic Ocean and peripheral <span class="hlt">seas</span> and bays over the period 1973 to 1986, looking in particular for any long term trends; to examine the relationship between local <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice covers and the surrounding atmosphere and ocean; and to examine <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice as a potential early indicator of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The work involves creating regional and hemispheric time series of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice variables from satellite passive microwave data and analyzing these through various intercomparisons amongst themselves and with oceanographic and atmospheric fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43C2348V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43C2348V"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature and Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Change</span> Across the Mid-Miocene <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Optimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veenstra, T. J. T.; Bakker, V. B.; Sangiorgi, F.; Peterse, F.; Schouten, S.; Sluijs, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Even though the term Mid-Miocene <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Optimum (MMCO; ca. 17 to 14 Ma) has been widely used in the literature since the early 1990's, almost no early-middle Miocene <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) proxy records have been published that support <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming across its onset. Benthic (and diagenetically altered planktic) foram δ18O records show a decrease, suggesting (deep) ocean warming and/or Antarctic ice sheet melting. However, reliable absolute SST proxy records are absent from the tropics and very scarce in temperate and polar regions. This leaves the question if the warmth of the MMCO was truly global and how its onset relates to the widely recorded positive (Monterey) carbon isotope excursion and volcanism. Finally, it remains uncertain how marine ecosystems responded to this hypothesized warming. We present organic biomarker SST proxy records (Uk'37 and TEX86) spanning the MMCO for several locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean along a pole-to-pole transect, including Ocean Drilling Program Site 959 in the eastern Tropical Atlantic, ODP Site 643 in the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, ODP Site 1007 on the Great Bahama Bank and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1352 off New Zealand. Additionally, we use marine palynology (mostly dinoflagellate cysts) to assess ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> at these locations. The resulting spatial reconstruction of SST <span class="hlt">change</span> shows that Middle Miocene warming was global. Nevertheless, the records also show distinct regional variability, including relatively large warming in the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and a damped signal in the southern hemisphere, suggesting pronounced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean circulation. The onset of the MMCO was marked by prominent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ecological and depositional setting at the studied sites, likely also related to ocean circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282283"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and fishing: a century of shifting distribution in North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> cod</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Engelhard, Georg H; Righton, David A; Pinnegar, John K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Globally, spatial distributions of fish stocks are shifting but although the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in range shifts is increasingly appreciated, little remains known of the likely additional impact that high levels of fishing pressure might have on distribution. For North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> cod, we show for the first time and in great spatial detail how the stock has shifted its distribution over the past 100 years. We digitized extensive historical fisheries data from paper charts in UK government archives and combined these with contemporary data to a time-series spanning 1913–2012 (excluding both World Wars). New analysis of old data revealed that the current distribution pattern of cod – mostly in the deeper, northern- and north-easternmost parts of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> – is almost opposite to that during most of the Twentieth Century – mainly concentrated in the west, off England and Scotland. Statistical analysis revealed that the deepening, northward shift is likely attributable to warming; however, the eastward shift is best explained by fishing pressure, suggestive of significant depletion of the stock from its previous stronghold, off the coasts of England and Scotland. These spatial patterns were confirmed for the most recent 3½ decades by data from fisheries-independent surveys, which go back to the 1970s. Our results demonstrate the fundamental importance of both <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and fishing pressure for our understanding of <span class="hlt">changing</span> distributions of commercially exploited fish. PMID:24375860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17784354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17784354"><span>The rise of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level as an indication of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Etkins, R; Epstein, E S</p> <p>1982-01-15</p> <p>Rising mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, it is proposed, is a significant indicator of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The principal factors that can have contributed to the observed increases of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in recent decades are thermal expansion of the oceans and the discharge of polar ice sheets. Calculations indicate that thermal expansion cannot be the sole factor responsible for the observed rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level over the last 40 years; significant discharges of polar ice must also be occurring. Global warming, due in some degree presumably to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, has been opposed by the extraction of heat necessary to melt the discharged ice. During the past 40 years more than 50,000 cubic kilometers of ice has been discharged and has melted, reducing the surface warming that might otherwise have occurred by as much as a factor of 2. The transfer of mass from the polar regions to a thin spherical shell covering all the oceans should have increased the earth's moment of inertia and correspondingly reduced the speed of rotation by about 1.5 parts in 10(8). This accounts for about three quarters of the observed fractional reduction in the earth's angular velocity since 1940. Monitoring of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, ocean surface temperatures, and the earth's speed of rotation should be complemented by monitoring of the polar ice sheets, as is now possible by satellite altimetry. All parts of the puzzle need to be examined in order that a consistent picture emerge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC11D1167H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC11D1167H"><span>Healthy coral reefs may assure coastal protection in face of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> related <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, D. L.; Rovere, A.; Parravicini, V.; Casella, E.; Canavesio, R.; Collin, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that support millions of people worldwide providing crucial services, of which, coastal protection is one of the most relevant. The efficiency of coral reefs in protecting coastlines and dissipating waves is directly linked to the cover of living corals and three dimensional reef structural complexity. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and human impacts are leading to severe global reductions in live coral cover, posing serious concerns regarding the capacity of degraded reef systems in protecting tropical coastal regions. Although it is known that the loss of structurally complex reefs may lead to greater erosion of coastlines, this process has rarely been quantified and it is still unknown whether the maintenance of healthy reefs through conservation will be enough to guarantee coastal protection during rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. We show that a significant loss of wave dissipation and a subsequent increase in back-reef wave height (up to 5 times present wave height) could occur even at present <span class="hlt">sea</span> level if living corals are lost and reef structural complexity is reduced. Yet we also show that healthy reefs, measured by structural complexity and efficiency of vertical reef accretion, may maintain their present capacity of wave dissipation even under rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. Our results indicate that the health of coral reefs and not <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise will be the major determinant of the coastal protection services provided by coral reefs and calls for investments into coral reef conservation to ensure the future protection of tropical coastal communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031023','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031023"><span>Holocene <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Multiple marine incursions related to freshwater discharge events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Martin, R.E.; Leorri, E.; McLaughlin, P.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Repeated marine invasions of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the Holocene have been inferred by many eastern scientists as resulting from episodes of marine inflow from the Mediterranean beneath a brackish outflow from the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We support this scenario but a fundamental question remains: What caused the repeated marine invasions? We offer an hypothesis for the repeated marine invasions of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> based on: (1) the overall similarity of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level curves from both tectonically quiescent and active margins of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and their similarity to a sequence stratigraphic record from the US mid-Atlantic coast. The similarity of the records from two widely-separated regions suggests their common response to documented Holocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> ocean-atmosphere reorganizations (coolings); (2) the fact that in the modern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, freshwater runoff from surrounding rivers dominates over evaporation, so that excess runoff might have temporarily raised Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level (although the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> would have remained brackish). Following the initial invasion of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> by marine Mediterranean waters (through the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) in the early Holocene, repeated marine incursions were modulated, or perhaps even caused, by freshwater discharge to the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> amelioration (warming) following each documented ocean-atmosphere reorganization during the Holocene likely shifted precipitation patterns in the surrounding region and caused mountain glaciers to retreat, increasing freshwater runoff above modern values and temporarily contributing to an increase of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level. Freshwater-to-brackish water discharges into the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> initially slowed marine inflow but upon mixing of runoff with more marine waters beneath them and their eventual exit through the Bosphorus, marine inflow increased again, accounting for the repeated marine invasions. The magnitude of the hydrologic and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level fluctuations became increasingly attenuated through the Holocene, as reflected by Black</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.8109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.8109L"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air fluxes of CO2 in three Arctic <span class="hlt">seas</span>: a sensitivity study using Earth observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Cowling, R. D.; Woolf, D. K.; Walker, P.; Findlay, H. S.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Donlon, C. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We applied coincident Earth observation data collected during 2008 and 2009 from multiple sensors (RA2, AATSR and MERIS, mounted on the European Space Agency satellite Envisat) to characterise environmental conditions and integrated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air fluxes of CO2 in three Arctic <span class="hlt">seas</span> (Greenland, Barents, Kara). We assessed net CO2 sink sensitivity due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in temperature, salinity and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration arising from future <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios. During the study period the Greenland and Barents <span class="hlt">seas</span> were net sinks for atmospheric CO2, with integrated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air fluxes of -36 ± 14 and -11 ± 5 Tg C yr-1, respectively, and the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was a weak net CO2 source with an integrated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air flux of +2.2 ± 1.4 Tg C yr-1. The combined integrated CO2 <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air flux from all three was -45 ± 18 Tg C yr-1. In a sensitivity analysis we varied temperature, salinity and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration. Variations in temperature and salinity led to modification of the transfer velocity, solubility and partial pressure of CO2 taking into account the resultant variations in alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Our results showed that warming had a strong positive effect on the annual integrated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air flux of CO2 (i.e. reducing the sink), freshening had a strong negative effect and reduced <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration had a small but measurable positive effect. In the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario examined, the effects of warming in just over a decade of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> up to 2020 outweighed the combined effects of freshening and reduced <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration. Collectively these effects gave an integrated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-air flux <span class="hlt">change</span> of +4.0 Tg C in the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, +6.0 Tg C in the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and +1.7 Tg C in the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, reducing the Greenland and Barents sinks by 11% and 53%, respectively, and increasing the weak Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> source by 81%. Overall, the regional integrated flux <span class="hlt">changed</span> by +11.7 Tg C, which is a 26% reduction in the regional sink. In terms of CO2 sink strength, we conclude that the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is the most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...152...51G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...152...51G"><span>Glacial terminations and the Last Interglacial in the Okhotsk <span class="hlt">Sea</span>; Their implication to global <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbarenko, Sergey; Velivetskaya, Tatyana; Malakhov, Mikhail; Bosin, Aleksandr</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Paleoclimate data from the Okhotsk <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (OS) over Terminations II and I (TII, TI), and the Last and Present Interglacial (LIG, PIG) periods were compiled in order to examine Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Based on records of four AMS 14C-dated OS cores over TI-PIG, it is argued that the OS productivity/<span class="hlt">climate</span>, IRD (ice-rafted debris), and benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (δ18Obf) proxies provide representative and in-phase evidence of the Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">climate</span> and continental ice sheet <span class="hlt">changes</span> consistent with the LR 04 δ18Obf curve. Chronologies for two central OS cores over TII-LIG-cooling event 23 (C23) were constructed by correlating OS productivity proxies with well-dated δ18O records of Chinese speleothems because OS environment is modulated by East Asian Monsoon; and, as well as correlating measured magnetic paleointensity excursions with those in the dated PISO-1500 paleointensity stack. Results show several OS <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and environment states, including TII coeval with Asian Weak Monsoon Interval (WMI) II since 136 ka, LIG with a sharp two-step transition (130.2-129 ka) and demise at C25 (116.5 ka), and last glaciation with coolings at C24 (111 ka) and C23. The OS productivity and IRD records demonstrate certain <span class="hlt">climate</span> amelioration in the middle of WMI-II, and two insignificant cooling events inside the LIG marked by C27 (126 ka) and C26 (120.6 ka). OS δ18Obf records of both cores demonstrate a gradual trend of lighter values since around 131.5 ka BP, continuing from the onset of LIG (129 ka) to minimum values at 126 ka BP (C27), then nearly constant values until 121.5 ka, followed by a slight increase up to 120.6 ka (C26), and a subsequent strong increase up to 116.5 ka (C25). The magnitude of OS δ18Obf oscillations is 1.35‰, which is less than those in the N. Atlantic. It may therefore be suggested that this OS index probably tracks <span class="hlt">changes</span> in continental ice sheet volume and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO54C3256J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO54C3256J"><span>Coupled circulation and ecosystem trends in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: response to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jianping, G.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The ocean circulation in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) is controlled by wind-driven ocean circulation in the basin and by mass flux through the straits that are linked with adjacent <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The ecosystem of the SCS is governed physically by intrusion/extrusion of nutrients in the water column via the straits and bio-geochemically by the nutrient cycle through food web dynamics in the upper SCS. The ecosystem of the SCS and circulation are closely coupled, particularly in their long-term trends. Based on results from a future 100-year simulation using China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Multi-scale Ocean Modeling System (CMOMS) of coupled physics-biogeochemistry, which are validated by the available measurements and scientific understandings at the present time, we investigated the responses of ocean circulation and biogeochemical process to the <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> in both the basin and adjacent <span class="hlt">seas</span> and elaborated the coupled circulation and ecosystem trends in the SCS. We found that as result of the <span class="hlt">changing</span> atmospheric forcing, Norther Equatorial Current and thus Kuroshio in the West Pacific Ocean (WPO) strengthen, which weakens the mass and nutrient transports into the SCS via Luzon Strait. The ocean circulations in both SCS and WPO are more sensitivity to the <span class="hlt">change</span> of atmospheric heat flux and less sensitive to the <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation. The spatially heterogeneous atmospheric heating to the ocean is attributed to the ocean circulation and transport <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the WPO and SCS. The ecosystem trend is primarily controlled by the input/output of nutrients by the transport crossing the straits around the SCS, rather than by the biogeochemical processes in the upper SCS. The biological productivity has a weakening trend in the SCS as a result of the reduction of nutrient fluxes through the deep Luzon Strait and the enhancement of water column stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J"><span>Decoupling of Northern North Atlantic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature and Deep Circulation during Abrupt Glacial <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jonkers, L.; Barker, S.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Abrupt <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is a prominent feature of the ice ages. The prevailing view is that these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are related to fluctuations in ocean circulation, possibly triggered by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in freshwater forcing as a result of ice-rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we investigate this view by presenting results from a sediment core in the Northern North Atlantic (ODP 983 60.4°N, 23.6°W, 1984m depth, ~12-35 kyr), which is ideally positioned to monitor <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the flow speed of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Waters. The mean size of silt (10-63 μm) has been proposed as a useful flow speed indicator, but can be influenced the presence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). We present grain size data obtained using a Coulter counter as well as a laser diffraction particle sizer, which we compare to the proportion of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (proxy for <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature) and manually counted coarse IRD. Grain size results are comparable for the two techniques and the influence of IRD is clearly visible in the mean size data. We use end-member modelling to derive an IRD-free estimate of flow speed variability and find clear reductions in the flow speed associated with IRD input. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> surface temperature however, appears to vary independently from IRD input and hence deep circulation. In particular, IRD appears and current speed decreases after the onset of cooling and additional temperature variability is observed that is not associated with IRD events or <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation. These results question the classical view of freshwater forcing as the driver of abrupt <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. We suggest that North Atlantic temperature variability may be related to shifts in position of the polar front and that, while IRD events may be coeval with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation, these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are not required to explain the abrupt temperature variability in the Northern North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..126..275W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..126..275W"><span>Late Cretaceous <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> recorded in Eastern Asian lacustrine deposits and North American Epieric <span class="hlt">sea</span> strata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chengshan; Scott, Robert W.; Wan, Xiaoqiao; Graham, Stephan A.; Huang, Yongjian; Wang, Pujun; Wu, Huaichun; Dean, Walter E.; Zhang, Laiming</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Cretaceous <span class="hlt">climate</span> data of the long-lived Cretaceous Songliao Basin (SB) in eastern Asia is correlated and compared with the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) on the northern American plate, in order to understand better the dynamics of the Earth's past 'greenhouse' <span class="hlt">climates</span>. Nearly continuous Late Cretaceous terrestrial deposition in the Songliao Basin is represented by two cores totaling 2431 m in length. The Turonian-Maastrichtian age of the section is based on integrated stratigraphy, and is comparable in age with Upper Cretaceous strata in the WIS. Being consistent with global trends, the dynamic Late Cretaceous <span class="hlt">climates</span> of both the SB and WIS gradually cooled from the warmest Albian-Cenomanian time to the end of the Maastrichtian with several intervening warm periods as did the global <span class="hlt">climate</span>. However regional differences existed, the Songliao Basin <span class="hlt">climate</span> was humid to semi-humid, warm temperate-subtropical and the Western Interior Seaway was in the humid, warm temperate zone and experienced only moderate <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The shifts of oxygen isotope data in the Songliao Basin were frequent and abrupt, whereas WIS records more gradual <span class="hlt">change</span> affected mainly by fresh-water runoff mixing with southern Tethyan and northern Arctic waters. Sedimentary cycles of eccentricity, obliquity and precession bands are recorded in both the SB and WIS basins. The sedimentary cycles in the WIS and SB are interpreted to be related to variations of the wet/dry runoff cycles, which indicate that orbital forcing played an important role in global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in Late Cretaceous. The most favorable condition for organic carbon burial in both the SB and WIS basin was bottom water anoxia regardless of the cause of the anoxia. But the organic carbon burial rate was usually much higher in the Songliao Lake than in the WI epeiric <span class="hlt">sea</span> suggesting that giant lakes may serve as important sinks of atmospheric CO2. In both basins organic-rich deposits formed during a rise in water level and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41E..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41E..02D"><span>Simulating the effect of glacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> on Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Nezio, P. N.; Tierney, J. E.; Timmermann, A.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Mapes, B. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Lowered <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) altered the geography of the Maritime Continent exposing the Sunda shelf. Multi-proxy evidence indicates that the exposure of the Sunda shelf has a first-order effect on the <span class="hlt">climate</span> of the Indo-Pacific warm pool. The <span class="hlt">climate</span> response involves <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Walker circulation driven by a massive reduction in atmospheric deep convection over the Sunda shelf. Few <span class="hlt">climate</span> models participating in the Paleo Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) are capable of simulating this response. Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1) we show that a models ability of to simulate this response depends on the formulation of the atmospheric deep convection scheme. Using CESM1 we also find that the Indian Ocean amplifies the response via the Bjerknes feedback. This results in a large reorganization of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> of the Indian Ocean, which during the LGM resembles the Pacific, with a cold tongue and dry conditions in the east, and warmer SSTs and wetter conditions in the west. Ideas for testing these mechanisms using proxy data will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1965T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1965T"><span>Estimating the regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> responses over river basins to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tropical <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Chii-Yun; Forest, Chris E.; Wagener, Thorsten</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigate how to identify and assess teleconnection signals between anomalous patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) <span class="hlt">changes</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables related to hydrologic impacts over different river basins. The regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivity to tropical SST anomaly patterns is examined through a linear relationship given by the global teleconnection operator (GTO, also generally called a sensitivity matrix or an empirical Green's function). We assume that the GTO defines a multilinear relation between SST forcing and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> response of a target area. The sensitivities are computed based on data from a large ensemble of simulations using the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 (CAM 3.1). The linear approximation is evaluated by comparing the linearly reconstructed response with both the results from the full non-linear atmospheric model and observational data. The results show that the linear approximation can capture regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability that the CAM 3.1 AMIP-style simulations produce at seasonal scales for multiple river basins. The linear method can be used potentially for estimating drought conditions, river flow forecasting, and agricultural water management problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B34B..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B34B..06M"><span>Estuarine Nitrogen Dynamics Along the Alaskan Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Coast: Seasonal Patterns and Potential <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McClelland, J. W.; Connelly, T. L.; Crump, B. C.; Kellogg, C.; Dunton, K. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Seasonal runoff and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover create highly dynamic estuarine conditions in the Arctic. Studies focusing on major systems such as the Mackenzie have demonstrated how these variables interact to influence nutrient supply and uptake dynamics. Far less is known about the seasonality of smaller estuarine systems in the Arctic. Data collected from lagoons along the eastern Alaska Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast show that salinities range from near zero in the spring to as high as 50 in the winter. Runoff and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice thaw in the spring create highly stratified conditions, with hyper-saline bottom waters persisting through the summer in some locations. These variations in physical conditions are accompanied by variations in nitrogen availability within the lagoons. High concentrations of ammonium, and to a lesser extent nitrate, build up under the ice during the winter months. These nutrients are rapidly depleted during the ice break-up period and remain low throughout the summer. Concentrations of organic nitrogen, on the other hand, peak during the ice break-up period. While river inputs contribute directly to this nitrogen peak through the supply of land-derived organic matter, fatty acid markers also show that locally produced organic matter (primarily diatoms) peaks during the ice break-up period. Seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in nitrogen are accompanied by distinct shifts in microbial community composition as well as <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stable isotope values of metazoan consumers. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> that are altering both runoff and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice have the potential to influence the quantity and timing of nutrient availability and associated biological production in arctic coastal waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMOS31B2011R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMOS31B2011R"><span>Seasonal <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Cycle <span class="hlt">Change</span>: Understanding the Possible <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Feedbacks Over the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricko, M.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">change</span> in the seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle has been observed in satellite radar altimetry record, especially over regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream region. Gridded satellite data is in a good agreement with ground tide gauge data that also confirm increased annual amplitude of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during most recent years. Data analysis is based on a set of tide gauges, satellite measurements and models. A consistent positive trend in the seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle during recent years over different regions has been well confirmed (e.g., Wahl et al. 2014, Etcheverry et al. 2015). Over a longer timescale, historical tide gauge data give a neutral or slightly positive trend in the seasonal cycle of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This observed signal of increased seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle in tide gauges over the coastal areas is extended with satellite observations to open ocean regions. It is most evident during last several years (2007-2015) over most of the Gulf of Mexico, especially over north-eastern and central parts of the Gulf of Mexico, and over the Gulf Stream region, showing mean annual amplitude larger than 15 cm. One part of this increase appears to be due to <span class="hlt">change</span> in mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure. However, main causes of seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle <span class="hlt">change</span> on interannual to <span class="hlt">climate</span> scale have not yet been understood. To determine possible <span class="hlt">climate</span> feedbacks responsible for observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in the seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle, its relationship with parameters such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, wind curl, circulation, mesoscale eddies, etc., is investigated. Model-based results (e.g., NASA's GMAO model) give similar trend and feedbacks, but with a consistent bias and underestimation of annual amplitude increase. Understanding <span class="hlt">climate</span> mechanisms responsible for observed seasonal <span class="hlt">sea</span> level cycle <span class="hlt">change</span> would offer better prediction of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U34B..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U34B..01A"><span>Rapid coastal erosion on the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast: A triple whammy induced by <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, R. S.; Wobus, C. W.; Overeem, I.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Stanton, T. P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on landscape evolution can be pronounced in polar regions due to amplification of warming at high latitudes and sensitivity of ice-rich landscapes to warming. Documented coastal erosion rates exceeding 20-30 m/yr suggest that the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are already being felt along northern coastlines. We seek to combine direct observational evidence of coastal retreat with relevant environmental information to generate predictive models capable of describing how these erosion processes respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. We study a section of the Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coastline roughly midway between Point Barrow and Prudhoe Bay. Three-to five-meter high, ice-rich silty bluffs have been eroding at a consistent rate of 15-25 m/yr through two years of direct monitoring. Our onshore data includes time-lapse photography, GPS-located flag lines, meteorological observations, bluff substrate properties, and size distributions of eroded blocks. Offshore, we use models and measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice coverage, bathymetry, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, and wave dynamics. Time-lapse films collected during the summers of 2008 and 2009 indicate that episodic block failure during storm events is superimposed on a slow, steady notching of the base of the ice-rich bluffs, which appears to be driven primarily by melting from relatively warm seawater. Block failure occurs preferentially along ice wedges. Once the blocks have toppled, thermal disintegration by warm nearshore waters occurs within days. The nearshore water responsible for melting the permafrost-rich coastline is very shallow; the local shelf slopes at less than 1 m/km. The water is commonly opaque due to suspended silt: light extinction depth scales of decimeters suggest that solar radiation should be efficiently absorbed in surface waters. Nearshore temperatures display distinct diurnal histories, and are vertically uniform, implying that they are well mixed. Variations in water level are dominated by storm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS33A1638M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS33A1638M"><span>The Guayas Estuary and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level corrections to calculate flooding areas for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreano, H. R.; Paredes, N.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Guayas estuary is the inner area of the Gulf of Guayaquil, it holds a water body of around 5000 km2 and the Puna island divides the water flow in two main streams : El Morro and Estero Salado Channel (length: 90 Km.) and Jambeli and Rio Guayas Channel (length: 125km.). The geometry of the estuarine system with the behavior of the tidal wave (semidiurnal) makes tidal amplitude higher at the head than at the mouth, whereas the wave crest at the head is delayed from one and a half to two hours from that at the mouth and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level recorded by gages along the estuary are all different because of the wave propagation and mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (msl) calculated for each gage show differences with that of La Libertad which is the base line for all altitudes on land (zero level). A leveling and calculations were made to correct such differences in a way that all gages (msl) records were linked to La Libertad and this in turn allowed a better estimates of flooding areas and draw them on topographic maps where zero level corresponds to the mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level at La Libertad. The procedure and mathematical formulation could be applied to any estuary or coastal area and it is a useful tool to calculate such areas especially when impacts are on people or capital goods and related to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926882"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impact on riverine nutrient load and land-based remedial measures of the Baltic <span class="hlt">sea</span> action plan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arheimer, Berit; Dahné, Joel; Donnelly, Chantal</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>To reduce eutrophication of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, all nine surrounding countries have agreed upon reduction targets in the HELCOM Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Action Plan (BSAP). Yet, monitoring sites and model concepts for decision support are few. To provide one more tool for analysis of water and nutrient fluxes in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin, the HYPE model has been applied to the region (called Balt-HYPE). It was used here for experimenting with land-based remedial measures and future <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections to quantify the impacts of these on water and nutrient loads to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. The results suggest that there is a possibility to reach the BSAP nutrient reduction targets by 2100, and that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may both aggravate and help in some aspects. Uncertainties in the model results are large, mainly due to the spread of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections, but also due to the hydrological model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071299"><span>Ecosystem responses in the southern Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Gordon T; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Thunell, Robert C; Scranton, Mary I; Astor, Yrene; Varela, Ramon; Ghinaglia, Luis Troccoli; Lorenzoni, Laura; Fanning, Kent A; Hameed, Sultan; Doherty, Owen</p> <p>2012-11-20</p> <p>Over the last few decades, rising greenhouse gas emissions have promoted poleward expansion of the large-scale atmospheric Hadley circulation that dominates the Tropics, thereby affecting behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Expression of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tropical marine ecosystems is poorly understood because of sparse observational datasets. We link contemporary ecological <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the southern Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> indices. Monthly observations from the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series between 1996 and 2010 document significant decadal scale trends, including a net <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) rise of ∼1.0 ± 0.14 °C (±SE), intensified stratification, reduced delivery of upwelled nutrients to surface waters, and diminished phytoplankton bloom intensities evident as overall declines in chlorophyll a concentrations (ΔChla = -2.8 ± 0.5%⋅y(-1)) and net primary production (ΔNPP = -1.5 ± 0.3%⋅y(-1)). Additionally, phytoplankton taxon dominance shifted from diatoms, dinoflagellates, and coccolithophorids to smaller taxa after 2004, whereas mesozooplankton biomass increased and commercial landings of planktivorous sardines collapsed. Collectively, our results reveal an ecological state <span class="hlt">change</span> in this planktonic system. The weakening trend in Trade Winds (-1.9 ± 0.3%⋅y(-1)) and dependent local variables are largely explained by trends in two <span class="hlt">climatic</span> indices, namely the northward migration of the Azores High pressure center (descending branch of Hadley cell) by 1.12 ± 0.42°N latitude and the northeasterly progression of the ITCZ Atlantic centroid (ascending branch of Hadley cell), the March position of which shifted by about 800 km between 1996 and 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375860"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and fishing: a century of shifting distribution in North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> cod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engelhard, Georg H; Righton, David A; Pinnegar, John K</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Globally, spatial distributions of fish stocks are shifting but although the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in range shifts is increasingly appreciated, little remains known of the likely additional impact that high levels of fishing pressure might have on distribution. For North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> cod, we show for the first time and in great spatial detail how the stock has shifted its distribution over the past 100 years. We digitized extensive historical fisheries data from paper charts in UK government archives and combined these with contemporary data to a time-series spanning 1913-2012 (excluding both World Wars). New analysis of old data revealed that the current distribution pattern of cod - mostly in the deeper, northern- and north-easternmost parts of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> - is almost opposite to that during most of the Twentieth Century - mainly concentrated in the west, off England and Scotland. Statistical analysis revealed that the deepening, northward shift is likely attributable to warming; however, the eastward shift is best explained by fishing pressure, suggestive of significant depletion of the stock from its previous stronghold, off the coasts of England and Scotland. These spatial patterns were confirmed for the most recent 3 1/2 decades by data from fisheries-independent surveys, which go back to the 1970s. Our results demonstrate the fundamental importance of both <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and fishing pressure for our understanding of <span class="hlt">changing</span> distributions of commercially exploited fish. © 2013 Crown copyright. Global <span class="hlt">Change</span> Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9340K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9340K"><span>Holocene rapid <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Okhotsk <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Amur watershed based on pollen analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kokfelt, U.; Tiedemann, R.; Nuernberg, D.; Biebow, N.; Kozdon, R.; Lembke, L.; Kaiser, A.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Recent investigations in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Okhotsk reveal high resolution records of rapid past <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and vegetation pattern <span class="hlt">changes</span> within this marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span> and the adjacent Amur river drainage basin. The watershed of the Amur undergoes exteme seasonal as well as longer term <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. A humid SE-Asia monsoon regime in summer is contrasted by cold, dry continental <span class="hlt">climate</span> of Siberia in wintertime. Thus this region is crucial for our understanding of complex <span class="hlt">changes</span> and shifts of athmospheric systems in the subarctic Far East and western North Pacific region. Gravity core LV28-4-4 was recovered from the continental margin off NE Sakhalin. Our age model consists of 16 AMS radiocarbon control points from planktic foraminifera and benthic shell fragments fit together by ninth order polynomial regressions. According to this, sedimentation rates exceed 100cm/kyr. Thus to date our investigations gain a temporal resolution of 200-600 years between discrete samples. We use analysis of terrestrial pollen and freshwater algae as proxies for vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Amur catchment area and the adjacent Siberian hinterland. Within this 930 cm long sequence, four pollen zones were distinguished: Pollen zone I (12,600-11,800 years BP), which comprises the Younger Dryas event, was dominated by non-arboreale taxa such as grasses (gramineae) and sedges (cyperaceae). The following pollen zone II (11,800-8,500 years BP) was in general dominated by birch (Betula) and elder (Alnus). The rise of spruce-dominated taiga (Picea jezoensis and P. glehnii) is clearly seen to the end of this zone and shows the preboreal warming. The oldest part of the pollen zone II has distinctly high values of birch and spruce and very low values of gramineae and cyperaceae suggesting a period of intense warming. Pollenzone III (8,500-3,600 years BP) is dominated by darkneedled taiga components and increased oak (Quercus) values and reflects the Holocene <span class="hlt">climatic</span> optimum. The latest pollen zone IV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510011R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510011R"><span>Toward a dynamic biogeochemical division of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in a context of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reygondeau, Gabriel; Olivier Irisson, Jean; Guieu, Cecile; Gasparini, Stephane; Ayata, Sakina; Koubbi, Philippe</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In recent decades, it has been found useful to ecoregionalise the pelagic environment assuming that within each partition environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique. Indeed, each partition of the ocean that is proposed aimed to delineate the main oceanographical and ecological patterns to provide a geographical framework of marine ecosystems for ecological studies and management purposes. The aim of the present work is to integrate and process existing data on the pelagic environment of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in order to define biogeochemical regions. Open access databases including remote sensing observations, oceanographic campaign data and physical modeling simulations are used. These various dataset allow the multidisciplinary view required to understand the interactions between <span class="hlt">climate</span> and Mediterranean marine ecosystems. The first step of our study has consisted in a statistical selection of a set of crucial environmental factors to propose the most parsimonious biogeographical approach that allows detecting the main oceanographic structure of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Second, based on the identified set of environmental parameters, both non-hierarchical and hierarchical clustering algorithms have been tested. Outputs from each methodology are then inter-compared to propose a robust map of the biotopes (unique range of environmental parameters) of the area. Each biotope was then modeled using a non parametric environmental niche method to infer a dynamic biogeochemical partition. Last, the seasonal, inter annual and long term spatial <span class="hlt">changes</span> of each biogeochemical regions were investigated. The future of this work will be to perform a second partition to subdivide the biogeochemical regions according to biotic features of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (ecoregions). This second level of division will thus be used as a geographical framework to identify ecosystems that have been altered by human activities (i.e. pollution, fishery, invasive species) for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH31A1885C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH31A1885C"><span>Korean mean and extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels projection under AR5 <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios using Monte-Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cha, W. Y.; Choi, J.; Okjeong, L.; Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Coastal areas are vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. However, the preparation capability for <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise of South Korea is insufficient. Global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is causing a lot of damage to the coastal zone. In addition, since the coastal population in South Korea shows a growing trend, many coastal cities are likely to become more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. The impacts of future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise will affect shoreline erosion, the disappearance of coastal wetlands, the intrusion of <span class="hlt">sea</span> water, and increased flood vulnerability due to the performance reduction of the hydraulic structures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the increase amount of the Korea <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise under AR5 <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. The study area is Busan, Incheon, Mokpo, and Sokcho, which are coastal cities representing South Korea. In order to consider the global and local components for future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise at the same time, the accelerating rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise for each city are first calculated using the global rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise presented in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. After that, the local <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise trend derived from observations of each city is additionally considered, and the final future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is projected. In addition, uncertainties included in the acceleration rate from the global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and localized upward trend derived from local observations are reflected in probabilistic projection of the future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise range. In a similar way, the extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is also estimated. Simulation results show that extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels in 2100 could rise by more than 1 meter. It is also expected to increase the rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise gradually with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. The results of this study will be utilized for flood vulnerability assessment in coastal areas of South Korea later. AcknowledgementThis research was supported by a grant `Development of the Evaluation Technology for Complex Causes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21B2242V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21B2242V"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature and Ecosystem <span class="hlt">Change</span> Across the Mid-Miocene <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Optimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veenstra, T. J. T.; Bakker, V. B.; Sangiorgi, F.; Peterse, F.; Schouten, S.; Sluijs, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Mid-Miocene <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Optimum (MMCO) (ca. 17 to 14 Ma) is generally considered as the warmest episode of the Neogene based on deep marine oxygen isotope records and terrestrial plant fossils. To date, however, reasonable resolution high-quality <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) proxy records spanning its onset are scarce at best. For the remainder of the MMCO, reliable SST records are absent from the tropics and very scarce in temperate and polar regions. This leaves the question if the MMCO was truly associated with global warming and if this warming was associated with biotic <span class="hlt">change</span>. We use organic biomarker paleothermometry (Uk'37 and TEX86) to reconstruct SST across the MMCO at four locations along a pole-to-pole transect in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Additionally, we use marine palynology (mostly dinoflagellate cysts) to assess ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> at these locations. This study includes the first tropical biomarker-based SST records of the MMCO. Together with new and existing SST records from higher latitudes and the corresponding palynological records, they provide new insights in the temporal and spatial development of the MMCO. Our results indicate that Mid-Miocene warming was most prominent in the Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, showed a more complex, perhaps upwelling-related pattern in a tropical location, and was small in the Southern Hemisphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010QuRes..73..385P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010QuRes..73..385P"><span>Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">climatic</span> events and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> recorded by turbidite activity, Dakar Canyon, NW Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pierau, Roberto; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Henrich, Rüdiger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The relationship of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> and short-term <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> with turbidite deposition is poorly documented, although the mechanisms of gravity-driven sediment transport in submarine canyons during <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> have been reported from many regions. This study focuses on the activity of the Dakar Canyon off southern Senegal in response to major glacial/interglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level shifts and variability in the NW-African continental <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The sedimentary record from the canyon allows us to determine the timing of turbidite events and, on the basis of XRF-scanning element data, we have identified the <span class="hlt">climate</span> signal at a sub-millennial time scale from the surrounding hemipelagic sediments. Over the late Quaternary the highest frequency in turbidite activity in the Dakar Canyon is confined to major <span class="hlt">climatic</span> terminations when remobilisation of sediments from the shelf was triggered by the eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. However, episodic turbidite events coincide with the timing of Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. During these times continental <span class="hlt">climate</span> has <span class="hlt">changed</span> rapidly, with evidence for higher dust supply over NW Africa which has fed turbidity currents. Increased aridity and enhanced wind strength in the southern Saharan-Sahelian zone may have provided a source for this dust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022332"><span>Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem-based management under <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>: Synthesis and future challenges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blenckner, Thorsten; Österblom, Henrik; Larsson, Per; Andersson, Agneta; Elmgren, Ragnar</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714238M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714238M"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and on groundwater availability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masciopinto, Costantino; Liso, Isabella S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A new formula for determining increasing <span class="hlt">sea</span> intrusion in coastal fractured rock aquifers as a consequence of local <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (LSLR) was presented. The formula was applied to the Salento peninsula (Southern Italy), which is an important source of drinking water for locals and, it can be applied to any coastal groundwater at a regional scale in order to evaluate the impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on local water resources. Moreover the interpolation of tide-gauge measurements was performed at three monitoring stations from 2000 to 2014. The best fit of measurements provides a rate of LSLR ranging from 4.4 to 8.8 mm/y. This local calculated rate matches the recent 21st and 22nd century projections of mean global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. It includes the melting of Greenland and Antarctica's ice sheets, the effect of seawater thermal expansion, glaciers and ice caps melting and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land water storage quantity. Thus, the Ghyben-Herzberg's equation of freshwater/saltwater interface position was rewritten in order to determine the decrease in groundwater discharge due to the maximum LSLR during the 21st and 22nd centuries. Results regarding the progress of seawater intrusion due to LSLR suggest an impressive depletion of available groundwater volume, which locally may achieve 15% of current pumping for drinking purposes from Salento's groundwater. This reduction does not take into account groundwater impairment due to overexploitations. This study strongly suggests the need for a prompt actuation of measures in order to limit groundwater depletion in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14D0636B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME14D0636B"><span>Projected shifts in copepod surface communities in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> under several <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benedetti, F.; Guilhaumon, F.; Adloff, F.; Irisson, J. O.; Ayata, S. D.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Although future increases in water temperature and future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in regional circulation are expected to have great impacts on the pelagic food-web, estimates focusing on community-level shifts are still lacking for the planktonic compartment. By combining statistical niche models (or species distribution models) with projections from a regional circulation model, the impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on copepod epipelagic communities is assessed for the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Habitat suitability maps are generated for 106 of the most abundant copepod species to analyze emerging patterns of diversity at the community level. Using variance analysis, we also quantified the uncertainties associated to our modeling strategy (niche model choice, CO2 emission scenario, boundary forcings of the circulation model). Comparing present and future projections, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in species richness (alpha diversity) and in community composition (beta diversity, decomposed into turnover and nestedness component) are calculated. Average projections show that copepod communities will mainly experience turn-over processes, with little <span class="hlt">changes</span> in species richness. Species gains are mainly located in the Gulf of Lions, the Northern Adriatic and the Northern Aegean <span class="hlt">seas</span>. However, projections are highly variable, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. We show that such variability is mainly driven by the choice of the niche model, through interactions with the CO2 emission scenario or the boundary forcing of the circulation model can be locally important. Finally, the possible impact of the estimated community <span class="hlt">changes</span> on zooplanktonic functional and phylogenetic diversity is also assessed. We encourage the enlargement of this type of study to other components of the pelagic food-web, and argue that niche models' outputs should always be given along with a measure of uncertainty, and explained in light of a strong theoretical background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22410625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22410625"><span>Modeling the influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamon, Lara; MacLeod, Matthew; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> forcing is forecasted to influence the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region in a variety of ways, including increasing temperature, and affecting wind speeds, marine currents, precipitation and water salinity. The Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is intensively developed with agriculture, industry, and port activities that introduce pollutants to the environment. Here, we developed and applied a Level III fugacity model for the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to estimate the current mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and to examine the effects of a <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario on the distribution of these pollutants. The model's performance was evaluated for three PCB congeners against measured concentrations in the region using environmental parameters estimated from the 20th century <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario described in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) by the IPCC, and using Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We find that modeled fugacities of PCBs in air, water and sediment of the Adriatic are in good agreement with observations. The model indicates that PCBs in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are closely coupled with the atmosphere, which acts as a net source to the water column. We used model experiments to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in temperature, wind speed, precipitation, marine currents, particulate organic carbon and air inflow concentrations forecast in the IPCC A1B <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario on the mass balance of PCBs in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Assuming an identical PCBs' emission profile (e.g. use pattern, treatment/disposal of stockpiles, mode of entry), modeled fugacities of PCBs in the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> under the A1B <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario are higher because higher temperatures reduce the fugacity capacity of air, water and sediments, and because diffusive sources to the air are stronger. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157303','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157303"><span>Response of salt marsh and mangrove wetlands to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric CO2, <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mckee, Karen L.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Middleton, Beth A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coastal salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span>-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span>. We provide a review of the literature detailing theoretical predictions and observed responses of coastal wetlands to a range of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> stressors, including CO2, temperature, rainfall, and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. This review incorporates a discussion of key processes controlling responses in different settings and thresholds of resilience derived from experimental and observational studies. We specifically consider the potential and observed effects on salt marsh and mangrove vegetation of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in (1) elevated [CO2] on physiology, growth, and distribution; (2) temperature on distribution and diversity; (3) rainfall and salinity regimes on growth and competitive interactions; and (4) <span class="hlt">sea</span> level on geomorphological, hydrological, and biological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G43B1045L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G43B1045L"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Consequences <span class="hlt">Changing</span> the Middle <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level in the Brazilian Coast: Impacts on Ceará State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacerda, E. G.; Pires, L. B. M.; Pinto, V. K. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Since the Industrial Revolution, man started to generate increasing amounts of waste and pollutants, which on a large scale in the long term is causing a series of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> consequences, both globally as well as locally. One of the many effects of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> has been reflected in the ocean levels, depending on various factors. Thus, the population living in coastal areas suffers from the negative effects of the advancement of ocean waters. The coast of northeastern Brazil is an example of this, especially the state of Ceará coast. The state of Ceará has 573 km of coastline, a region that has suffered extensive erosion, in which the Middle <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level (MSL) <span class="hlt">changes</span> exert a significant influence. The coastal plain is a strip of land of small extent, with an average width of 2.5 km, formed depending on the availability of high sediment stocks provided through the action of wind, marine, or river processes, individually in combination with each other. In many beaches it is observed that the strip of beach is narrow due to the presence of topographic elevations carved into sharp cliffs. Between periods of high tide and low tide, often rocky beach features are observed that have recently formed. The waves control the stretches of beach which are mostly sandy. This paper presents a survey about the evidence already apparent on the rise in the MSL and correlates it with the advance of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> on the coast of Ceará, as well as assesses the possible consequences of this process. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in relevant scientific publications. The data used are from the station "Global <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Observing System - GLOSS" which maintains a tide gauge installed in Ceará in Fortaleza. The analyses show that the phenomenon has caused a lot of inconvenience to the people, streets have disappeared, as well as several buildings located along the coast. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> advances destroyed beaches and have promoted an accelerated level of erosion, <span class="hlt">changing</span> the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C21C0758A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C21C0758A"><span>Declining <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Extent Links Early Winter <span class="hlt">Climate</span> to <span class="hlt">Changing</span> Arctic Lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexeev, V. A.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Cai, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Lakes on the Alaskan North Slope regulate surface energy balance and interactions with permafrost as well as providing important habitat. Winter lake ice regimes (floating-ice or bedfast-ice conditions) determine whether lakes develop and maintain taliks and can support overwintering fish habitat. Lake ice thickness is a key variable determining whether a lake has a bedfast or floating-ice regime. Recent observations suggest a trend towards more lakes with floating-ice conditions due to thinner ice growth, but the broader scale associated <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions driving these regime shift are less certain. This study finds that the <span class="hlt">changing</span> arctic summer/fall <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions might be affecting lake ice thickness on the North Slope. Late ocean freeze-up near the Alaskan coast leads to warmer weather and more snowfall in the early winter. Warmer early winters and thicker snowpack result in thinner lake ice the following winter thus potentially developing more ice-floating lakes before the start of the summer. Experiments with a regional atmospheric model WRF for two years with very different <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions indicate that the extent of open water next to the North Slope is a crucial factor for developing thicker snowpack, also warmer air temperature in early winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26086045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26086045"><span>Modelling the increased frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and other effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. A shelf-<span class="hlt">sea</span> model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in other environmental conditions under <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may alter the frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections and the future scenario increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and other effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235420&keyword=Greenhouse+AND+effect&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89728452&CFTOKEN=31374275','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235420&keyword=Greenhouse+AND+effect&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89728452&CFTOKEN=31374275"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235420&keyword=coastal+AND+flooding&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235420&keyword=coastal+AND+flooding&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911209S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911209S"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span>-related relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> from Chesapeake Bay, U.S. Atlantic coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Timothy; Horton, Benjamin; Kemp, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Mann, Michael; Engelhart, Simon; Kopp, Robert; Brain, Matthew; Clear, Jennifer; Corbett, Reide; Nikitina, Daria; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Walker, Jennifer</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Proxy-based reconstructions of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (RSL) from the coastlines of the North Atlantic have revealed spatial and temporal variability in the rates of RSL rise during periods of known Late-Holocene <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variability. Regional driving mechanisms for such variability include glacial isostatic adjustment, static-equilibrium of land-ice <span class="hlt">changes</span> and/or ocean dynamic effects as well as more localized factors (e.g. sediment compaction and tidal range <span class="hlt">change</span>). We present a 4000-year RSL reconstruction from salt-marsh sediments of the Chesapeake Bay using a foraminiferal-based transfer function and a composite chronology. A local contemporary training set of foraminifera was developed to calibrate fossil counterparts and provide estimates of paleo marsh elevation with vertical uncertainties of ±0.06m. A composite chronology combining 30 radiocarbon dates, pollen chronohorizons, regional pollution histories, and short-lived radionuclides was placed into a Bayesian age-depth framework yielding low temporal uncertainties averaging 40 years. A compression-only geotechnical model was applied to decompact the RSL record. We coupled the proxy reconstruction with direct observations from nearby tide gauge records before rates of RSL rise were quantified through application of an Errors-In-Variables Integrated Gaussian Process model. The RSL history for Chesapeake Bay shows 6 m of rise since 2000 BCE. Between 2000 BCE and 1300 BCE, rates of RSL increasing to 1.4 mm/yr precede a significant decrease to 0.8 mm/yr at 700 BCE. This minimum coincides with widespread <span class="hlt">climate</span> cooling identified in multiple paleoclimate archives of the North Atlantic. An increase in the rate of RSL rise to 2.1 mm/yr at 200 CE similarly precedes a decrease in the rate of RSL rise at 1450 CE (1.3 mm/yr) that coincides with the Little Ice Age. Modern rates of RSL rise (3.6 mm/yr) are the fastest observed in the past 4000 years. The temporal length and decadal resolution of the RSL reconstruction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26011613"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and agricultural adaptation on nutrient loading from Finnish catchments to the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huttunen, Inese; Lehtonen, Heikki; Huttunen, Markus; Piirainen, Vanamo; Korppoo, Marie; Veijalainen, Noora; Viitasalo, Markku; Vehviläinen, Bertel</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is expected to increase annual and especially winter runoff, shorten the snow cover period and therefore increase both nutrient leaching from agricultural areas and natural background leaching in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> catchment. We estimated the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and possible future scenarios of agricultural <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the phosphorus and nitrogen loading to the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from Finnish catchments. In the agricultural scenarios we assumed that the prices of agricultural products are among the primary drivers in the adaptation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, as they affect the level of fertilization and the production intensity and volume and, hence, the modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in gross nutrient loading from agricultural land. Optimal adaptation may increase production while supporting appropriate use of fertilization, resulting in low nutrient balance in the fields. However, a less optimal adaptation may result in higher nutrient balance and increased leaching. The <span class="hlt">changes</span> in nutrient loading to the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> were predicted by taking into account the agricultural scenarios in a nutrient loading model for Finnish catchments (VEMALA), which simulates runoff, nutrient processes, leaching and transport on land, in rivers and in lakes. We thus integrated the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the agricultural sector, nutrient loading in fields, natural background loading, hydrology and nutrient transport and retention processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159421','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159421"><span>Beyond just <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise: Considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Gabler, Christopher A.; Stagg, Camille L.; Grace, James B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Due to their position at the land-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of <span class="hlt">climate-change</span> related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, <span class="hlt">changing</span> macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26342186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26342186"><span>Beyond just <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise: considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas M; Day, Richard H; Gabler, Christopher A; Stagg, Camille L; Grace, James B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Due to their position at the land-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>-related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, <span class="hlt">changing</span> macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.5815H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRC..119.5815H"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the northwestern Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrmann, Marine; Estournel, Claude; Adloff, Fanny; Diaz, Frédéric</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The northwestern Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (NWMS) is biologically one of the most productive Mediterranean regions. NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics, in particular by deep convection that could significantly weaken under the influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Here we investigate the response of this ecosystem and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we developed a tridimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model and performed two groups of annual simulations under the <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions of respectively the 20th and the end of 21st centuries. Our results suggest that the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations does not modify the NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle at a first order. However, differences mainly induced by the deep convection weakening and the surface warming are obtained at a second order. The spring bloom occurs 1 month earlier. Resulting from the decrease in nutrients availability, the bottom up control of phytoplankton development and bacteria growth by the nitrogen and phosphorus availability strengthens and the microbial loop intensifies as the small-sized plankton biomass increases. Carbon net fixation and deep export do not <span class="hlt">change</span> significantly. The choice of the biogeochemical initial and boundary conditions does not <span class="hlt">change</span> the representation of the ecosystem seasonal cycle, but the associated uncertainty range can be one order of magnitude larger than the predicted interannual and long-term variabilities. The uncertainty range of long-term trends associated with the physical forcing (hydrological, atmospheric, hydrodynamical, and socioeconomic) is much smaller (<10%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNS21C..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNS21C..07H"><span>Airborne geophysics for mesoscale observations of polar <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, S.; Haas, C.; Krumpen, T.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thickness is an important geophysical parameter with a significant impact on various processes of the polar energy balance. It is classified as Essential <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Variable (ECV), however the direct observations of the large ice-covered oceans are limited due to the harsh environmental conditions and logistical constraints. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-ice thickness retrieval by the means of satellite remote sensing is an active field of research, but current observational capabilities are not able to capture the small scale variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness and its evolution in the presence of surface melt. We present an airborne observation system based on a towed electromagnetic induction sensor that delivers long range measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness for a wide range of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions. The purpose-built sensor equipment can be utilized from helicopters and polar research aircraft in multi-role science missions. While airborne EM induction sounding is used in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice research for decades, the future challenge is the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform that meet the requirements for low-level EM <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice surveys in terms of range and altitude of operations. The use of UAV's could enable repeated <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice surveys during the the polar night, when manned operations are too dangerous and the observational data base is presently very sparse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769106"><span>Modeling marine protected areas for threatened eiders in a <span class="hlt">climatically</span> <span class="hlt">changing</span> Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lovvorn, James R; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Bump, Joseph K; Richman, Samantha E</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Delineating protected areas for sensitive species is a growing challenge as <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> alters the geographic pattern of habitats as well as human responses to those shifts. When human impacts are expected within projected ranges of threatened species, there is often demand to demarcate the minimum habitat required to ensure the species' persistence. Because diminished or wide-ranging populations may not occupy all viable (and needed) habitat at once, one must identify thresholds of resources that will support the species even in unoccupied areas. Long-term data on the shifting mosaic of critical resources may indicate ranges of future variability. We addressed these issues for the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri), a federally threatened species that winters in pack ice of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> has decreased ice cover and severely reduced the eiders' benthic prey and has increased prospects for expansion of bottom trawling that may further affect prey communities. To assess long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in habitats that will support eiders, we linked data on benthic prey, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, and weather from 1970 to 2001 with a spatially explicit simulation model of eider energy balance that integrated field, laboratory, and remote-sensing studies. Areas estimated to have prey densities adequate for eiders in 1970-1974 did not include most areas that were viable 20 years later (1993-1994). Unless the entire area with adequate prey in 1993-1994 had been protected, the much reduced viable area in 1999-2001 might well have been excluded. During long non-foraging periods (as at night), eiders can save much energy by resting on ice vs. floating on water; thus, loss of ice cover in the future might substantially decrease the area in which prey densities are adequate to offset the eiders' energy needs. For wide-ranging benthivores such as eiders, our results emphasize that fixed protected areas based on current conditions can be too small or inflexible to subsume long</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512685B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512685B"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (GCC) and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/cmb/bams-sotc/climate-assessment-2004.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/cmb/bams-sotc/climate-assessment-2004.pdf"><span>Polar <span class="hlt">Climate</span>: Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, R.S.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, G.I.; Drobot, S.D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Recent decreases in snow and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover in the high northern latitudes are among the most notable indicators of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent for the year as a whole was the third lowest on record dating back to 1973, behind 1995 (lowest) and 1990 (second lowest; Hadley Center–NCEP). September <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, which is at the end of the summer melt season and is typically the month with the lowest <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent of the year, has decreased by about 19% since the late 1970s (Fig. 5.2), with a record minimum observed in 2002 (Serreze et al. 2003). A record low extent also occurred in spring (Chapman 2005, personal communication), and 2004 marked the third consecutive year of anomalously extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice retreat in the Arctic (Stroeve et al. 2005). Some model simulations indicate that ice-free summers will occur in the Arctic by the year 2070 (ACIA 2004).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..156...19Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..156...19Y"><span>Estuarine response to river flow and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise under future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and human development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, land-use/land-cover <span class="hlt">change</span> (LULC), and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and <span class="hlt">change</span> in river flow due to the effect of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> and LULC <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is strongly nonlinear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1188905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1188905"><span>Estuarine Response to River Flow and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise under Future <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Human Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Voisin, Nathalie; Copping, Andrea E.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Understanding the response of river flow and estuarine hydrodynamics to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, land-use/land-cover <span class="hlt">change</span> (LULC), and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is essential to managing water resources and stress on living organisms under these <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. This paper presents a modeling study using a watershed hydrology model and an estuarine hydrodynamic model, in a one-way coupling, to investigate the estuarine hydrodynamic response to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and <span class="hlt">change</span> in river flow due to the effect of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> and LULC <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Snohomish River estuary, Washington, USA. A set of hydrodynamic variables, including salinity intrusion points, average water depth, and salinity of the inundated area, were used to quantify the estuarine response to river flow and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. Model results suggest that salinity intrusion points in the Snohomish River estuary and the average salinity of the inundated areas are a nonlinear function of river flow, although the average water depth in the inundated area is approximately linear with river flow. Future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> will shift salinity intrusion points further upstream under low flow conditions and further downstream under high flow conditions. In contrast, under the future LULC <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario, the salinity intrusion point will shift downstream under both low and high flow conditions, compared to present conditions. The model results also suggest that the average water depth in the inundated areas increases linearly with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise but at a slower rate, and the average salinity in the inundated areas increases linearly with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise; however, the response of salinity intrusion points in the river to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise is strongly nonlinear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23B1748G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPP23B1748G"><span>Late Pleistocene-Holocene <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Inferred from Fossil Fauna in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurung, D.; McHugh, C. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Giosan, L.; Mart, Y.; Cagatau, N.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Paleoenvironmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> that document the reconnection of the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the world's oceans were investigated from sediment cores and high-resolution CHIRP subbottom profiles acquired by the R/V Mediterranean Explorer in 2005. The transition from a glacial fresh/brackish water lake to a <span class="hlt">sea</span> took place after global <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level reached the Dardanelles outlet sill depth of -85m. We surveyed the continental shelf-slope boundary along the northern margin at Cekmece and the eastern margin at the Prince Islands in water depths extending from 80 to 135 m. Mollusk, ostracod, and foraminiferal faunal assemblages calibrated to radiocarbon chronology and sediment analyses reveal the mixing of marine and lake sediments, and very high sedimentation rates, 50 cm per 1000 years, from ~12 to 10.5 cal ka BP. Very high sedimentation rates (70 cm/1000 years) and an abrupt transition from lake stage to marine were documented along the southern shelf at Imrali from ~12.5 to 11.5 cal ka BP. This older age was derived from foraminifers. Marine mollusks Corbula sp., Lucinella sp., and Gouldia sp. are found in sand beds contained within stiff clays. The sands are rich in spherical, calcium carbonate, oolites commonly associated with shallow environments, agitated waters, and warm evaporative <span class="hlt">climates</span>. The stiff clays contain low salinity 1-5 per mil bivalve Dreissena rostriformis, gastropod, Theodoxus fluviatilis, and fresh brackish ostracods and are interpreted as lake sediments. Paleoshorelines along the northern, eastern, and southern shelves were below the Dardanelles outlet sill of -85m at the time of marine reconnection. The drawdown of Marmara Lake prior to marine intrusion is also consistent with regional aridity. After 10.5 cal ka BP sediments and faunal assemblages are fully marine with mollusks (Corbula sp., Lucinella sp., Turritela sp., and Gouldia sp) and ostracods. Even though benthic foraminifers are rich after the marine conditions were established, planktonic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.4010J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.4010J"><span>Response of lower trophic level production to long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Meibing; Deal, Clara; Wang, Jia; McRoy, C. Peter</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem has undergone profound <span class="hlt">changes</span> in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> regime shifts in the past decades. Here, lower trophic level production is assessed with a vertically one-dimensional (1-D) coupled ice-ocean ecosystem model, which was applied to data collected by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) mooring from 1995 to 2005. The physical model is forced by <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface winds, heat and salt fluxes, tides, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. The biological model includes coupled pelagic and ice algae components. Model results are validated with daily mooring temperature, fluorometer, and daily <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (<span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS) chlorophyll data. Two distinct ocean conditions and phytoplankton bloom patterns are related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index regimes: warmer temperature and later warm-water phytoplankton species bloom in PDO > 1 year; colder temperature and earlier cold-water phytoplankton species bloom in PDO < -1 year. Productivity of different phytoplankton species <span class="hlt">changed</span> dramatically after the 1976 <span class="hlt">climate</span> shift, but the total annual net primary production (NPP) remained flat over the past four decades under similar nutrient regulation. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> shift also affected the vertical distribution of lower trophic level production and energy flow to the upper ocean pelagic ecosystem or the benthic community. A long-term PDO regime shift occurred in 1976, and a short-term PDO reversal occurred in 1998. Phytoplankton biomass responded promptly to both short- and long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Zooplankton biomass responded more to the long-term than to the short-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> shift. The model results captured observed trends of zooplankton abundance <span class="hlt">changes</span> from the 1990s to 2004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H34E..05V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H34E..05V"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise caused by <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> on Saltwater Intrusion into the Gulf Coast Aquifer of South Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Venkataraman, K.; Uddameri, V.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Coastal aquifers are a vital source of freshwater but are also vulnerable to hydrological problems such as saltwater intrusion, if managed incorrectly. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise induced by long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and groundwater development in coastal regions can cause migration of saltwater from the <span class="hlt">sea</span> to an aquifer. Tide gauge records from Rockport, Port Mansfield and South Padre Island in South Texas indicate that the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level has risen at a rate of about 0.25 mm/yr to 2.8mm/yr between 1948 and 2003. The Intergovernmental Panel for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC; 2007) Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Models (GCMs) have projected a <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise between 20 cm and 87 cm by the year 2100 across the coastal bend of South Texas. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> also impacts groundwater recharge which directly influences the location and behavior of the freshwater-saltwater interface. In semi-arid regions like South Texas, additional factors such as large variability in rainfall, extended periods of droughts and limited availability of natural water resources have led to intensive groundwater extraction, increasing the susceptibility to saltwater intrusion. At present, two-thirds of the water demand is met by groundwater. The population of South Texas is expected to double over the next few decades, with half the population estimated to be living along the coast. As such, there is a need for proper management of water resources to match the trends in <span class="hlt">climate</span>, economic and demographic <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In this study, a hydrologic saltwater intrusion model has been developed and coupled with various global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> models. Numerous model simulations have been performed to assess the combined effect of urbanization, groundwater recharge, and long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios on saltwater intrusion in the Gulf Coast Aquifer of South Texas. The significance of inland controls versus coastal controls has also been assessed. A decision support system that evaluates uncertainties associated with future groundwater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435450','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435450"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on coastal plant species in the central California coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chang, Michelle Y.; Fulda, Matthew T.; Berlin, Jonathan A.; Freed, Rachel E.; Soo-Hoo, Melissa M.; Revell, Dave L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Kendall, Bruce E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local increases in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level caused by global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> pose a significant threat to the persistence of many coastal plant species through exacerbating inundation, flooding, and erosion. In addition to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR), <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the form of air temperature and precipitation regimes will also alter habitats of coastal plant species. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on future habitats through species distribution models (SDMs), none have incorporated the threat of exposure to SLR. We developed a model that quantified the effect of both SLR and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on habitat for 88 rare coastal plant species in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties, California, USA (an area of 23,948 km2). Our SLR model projects that by the year 2100, 60 of the 88 species will be threatened by SLR. We found that the probability of being threatened by SLR strongly correlates with a species’ area, elevation, and distance from the coast, and that 10 species could lose their entire current habitat in the study region. We modeled the habitat suitability of these 10 species under future <span class="hlt">climate</span> using a species distribution model (SDM). Our SDM projects that 4 of the 10 species will lose all suitable current habitats in the region as a result of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. While SLR accounts for up to 9.2 km2 loss in habitat, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> accounts for habitat suitability <span class="hlt">changes</span> ranging from a loss of 1,439 km2 for one species to a gain of 9,795 km2 for another species. For three species, SLR is projected to reduce future suitable area by as much as 28% of total area. This suggests that while SLR poses a higher risk, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation and air temperature represents a lesser known but potentially larger risk and a small cumulative effect from both. PMID:26020011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020011"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on coastal plant species in the central California coast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garner, Kendra L; Chang, Michelle Y; Fulda, Matthew T; Berlin, Jonathan A; Freed, Rachel E; Soo-Hoo, Melissa M; Revell, Dave L; Ikegami, Makihiko; Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L; Kendall, Bruce E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Local increases in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level caused by global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> pose a significant threat to the persistence of many coastal plant species through exacerbating inundation, flooding, and erosion. In addition to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR), <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the form of air temperature and precipitation regimes will also alter habitats of coastal plant species. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on future habitats through species distribution models (SDMs), none have incorporated the threat of exposure to SLR. We developed a model that quantified the effect of both SLR and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on habitat for 88 rare coastal plant species in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties, California, USA (an area of 23,948 km(2)). Our SLR model projects that by the year 2100, 60 of the 88 species will be threatened by SLR. We found that the probability of being threatened by SLR strongly correlates with a species' area, elevation, and distance from the coast, and that 10 species could lose their entire current habitat in the study region. We modeled the habitat suitability of these 10 species under future <span class="hlt">climate</span> using a species distribution model (SDM). Our SDM projects that 4 of the 10 species will lose all suitable current habitats in the region as a result of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. While SLR accounts for up to 9.2 km(2) loss in habitat, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> accounts for habitat suitability <span class="hlt">changes</span> ranging from a loss of 1,439 km(2) for one species to a gain of 9,795 km(2) for another species. For three species, SLR is projected to reduce future suitable area by as much as 28% of total area. This suggests that while SLR poses a higher risk, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation and air temperature represents a lesser known but potentially larger risk and a small cumulative effect from both.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11j4007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11j4007S"><span>Adapting to rates versus amounts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>: a case of adaptation to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shayegh, Soheil; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Caldeira, Ken</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Adaptation is the process of adjusting to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities associated with it. Most adaptation strategies are designed to adjust to a new <span class="hlt">climate</span> state. However, despite our best efforts to curtail greenhouse gas emissions, <span class="hlt">climate</span> is likely to continue <span class="hlt">changing</span> far into the future. Here, we show how considering rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> affects the projected optimal adaptation strategy. We ground our discussion with an example of optimal investment in the face of continued <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, presenting a quantitative model that illustrates the interplay among physical and economic factors governing coastal development decisions such as rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, land slope, discount rate, and depreciation rate. This model shows that the determination of optimal investment strategies depends on taking into account future rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, as well as social and political constraints. This general approach also applies to the development of improved strategies to adapt to ongoing trends in temperature, precipitation, and other <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables. Adaptation to some amount of <span class="hlt">change</span> instead of adaptation to ongoing rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> may produce inaccurate estimates of damages to the social systems and their ability to respond to external pressures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17448357"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebi, Kristie L; Paulson, Jerome A</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is increasing the burden of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-sensitive health determinants and outcomes worldwide. Acting through increasing temperature, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the hydrologic cycle, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of heat events and extreme events (floods and droughts), <span class="hlt">change</span> the geographic range and incidence of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-sensitive vector-, food-, and waterborne diseases, and increase diseases associated with air pollution and aeroallergens. Children are particularly vulnerable to these health outcomes because of their potentially greater exposures, greater sensitivity to certain exposures, and their dependence on caregivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389200"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level-rise disaster in Micronesia: sentinel event for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keim, Mark E</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>To describe the impact of an acute-onset <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level-rise disaster in 2 coral atoll populations and to generate hypotheses for further investigation of the association between <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and public health. Households of Lukunoch and Oneop islands, Micronesia, were assessed for demographics, asset damage, food availability, water quantity and quality, hygiene and sanitation, and health status. Every fourth household on Lukunoch was randomly selected (n = 40). All Oneop households were surveyed (n = 72). Heads of each household were interviewed in the local language using a standard survey tool. Prevalence data were analyzed, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 112 total households were respondents representing 974 inhabitants. On Lukunoch, roughly half of all households surveyed reported at least a partial loss of their primary dietary staple and source of calories (taro and breadfruit). Six (15%) of 40 Lukunoch households surveyed (95% CI, 6%-30%) reported a complete loss of taro and four (10%) of the 40 households (95% CI, 3%-24%) reported a complete loss of breadfruit. On Oneop, nearly all households reported at least a partial loss of these same food staples. Twenty four (31%) of all 76 Oneop households reported a complete loss of taro and another 24 (31%) households reported a complete loss of breadfruit. One third of all households surveyed reported a complete loss. On Lukunoch 11 (28%) of 40 households, (95% CI, 15%-43%) reported damage from salination, but none were damaged to the point of a complete loss. Forty-nine (64%) of 76 Oneop households reported salination and five (6%) reported complete loss of their well. On March 5, 2007, an acute-onset, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise event resulting in coastal erosion, shoreline inundation, and saltwater intrusion occurred in two coral atoll islands of Micronesia. The findings of this study suggest that highly vulnerable populations of both islands experienced disastrous losses involving crop productivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4824L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4824L"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise along Malaysian coasts due to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luu, Quang-Hung; Tkalich, Pavel; Tay, Tzewei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Malaysia consists of two major parts, a mainland on the Peninsular Malaysia and the East Malaysia on the Borneo Island. Their surrounding waters connect the Andaman <span class="hlt">Sea</span> located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the Celebes <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the western tropical Pacific Ocean through the southern East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Vietnam/South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. As a result, inter-annual <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the Malaysian waters is governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. We estimated <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR) rate in the domain using tide gauge records often being gappy. To reconstruct the missing data, two methods are used: (i) correlating <span class="hlt">sea</span> level with <span class="hlt">climate</span> indices El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and (ii) filling the gap using records of neighboring tide gauges. Latest vertical land movements have been acquired to derive geocentric SLR rates. Around the Peninsular Malaysia, geocentric SLR rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia during 1986-2011 are found to be 3.9±3.3 mm/year and 4.2 ± 2.5 mm/year, respectively; while in the East Malaysia waters the rate during 1988-2011 is 6.3 ± 4.0 mm/year. These rates are arguably higher than global tendency for the same periods. For the overlapping period 1993-2011, the rates are consistent with those obtained using satellite altimetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SciDr..12...32Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SciDr..12...32Y"><span>IODP Expedition 325: Great Barrier Reefs Reveals Past <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Environmental <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Since the Last Ice Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J. M.; Cotterill, C.; Braga, J. C.; Jovane, L.; Mills, H.; Morgan, S.; Suzuki, A.; IODP Expedition 325 Scientists, the</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The timing and courses of deglaciations are key components in understanding the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. Cyclic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in global <span class="hlt">climate</span> have occurred, with growth and decay of high latitude ice sheets, for the last two million years. It is believed that these fluctuations are mainly controlled by periodic <span class="hlt">changes</span> to incoming solar radiation due to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Earth's orbit around the sun. However, not all <span class="hlt">climate</span> variations can be explained by this process, and there is the growing awareness of the important role of internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> feedback mechanisms. Understanding the nature of these feedbacks with regard to the timing of abrupt global <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> is of prime importance. The tropical ocean is one of the major components of the feedback system, and hence reconstructions of temporal variations in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface conditions will greatly improve our understanding of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 drilled 34 holes across 17 sites in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia to recover fossil coral reef deposits. The main aim of the expedition was to understand the environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> that occurred during the last ice age and subsequent deglaciation, and more specifically (1) establish the course of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span>, (2) reconstruct the oceanographic conditions, and (3) determine the response of the reef to these <span class="hlt">changes</span>. We recovered coral reef deposits from water depths down to 126 m that ranged in age from 9,000 years to older than 30,000 years ago. Given that the interval of the dated materials covers several paleoclimatologically important events, including the Last Glacial Maximum, we expect that ongoing scientific analyses will fulfill the objectives of the expedition. doi:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011" target="_blank">10.2204/iodp.sd.12.04.2011</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001clch.book.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001clch.book.....C"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cowie, Jonathan</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>In recent years <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> has become recognised as the foremost environmental problem of the twenty-first century. Not only will <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> potentially affect the multibillion dollar energy strategies of countries worldwide, but it also could seriously affect many species, including our own. A fascinating introduction to the subject, this textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> from the viewpoints of biology, ecology and human ecology. It will be of interest to a wide range of people, from students in the life sciences who need a brief overview of the basics of <span class="hlt">climate</span> science, to atmospheric science, geography, and environmental science students who need to understand the biological and human ecological implications of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. It will also be a valuable reference for those involved in environmental monitoring, conservation, policy-making and policy lobbying. The first book to cover not only the human impacts on <span class="hlt">climate</span>, but how <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will affect humans and the species that we rely on Written in an accessible style, with specialist terms used only when necessary and thoroughly explained The author has years of experience conveying the views of biological science learned societies to policy-makers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP31B1863K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP31B1863K"><span>IODP Exp 323 Site U1342 from the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> may indicate past <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean ventilation and <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knudson, K. P.; Ravelo, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> represents a gateway between the North Pacific Ocean and the Arctic Ocean and may provide insights into past <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circulation between the oceans. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in ocean circulation within the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> may be related to global <span class="hlt">climate</span> cycles on orbital to sub-orbital timescales, but the role and nature of Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> has never been studied in detail before long, continuous cores were drilled as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323. IODP Site U1342 is ideally situated to reconstruct <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and ocean circulation. As the shallowest of the Exp 323 sites, it is located within the present-day oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which may display <span class="hlt">changes</span> in intensity and depth in response to variations in intermediate water ventilation and surface productivity. Alternations within the core between massive bioturbated sediments, dominated by fine-grained siliciclastic and diatom oozes that are sometimes laminated, attests to large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and OMZ conditions recorded at this site. We present new δ13C and δ18O records at IODP Site U1342 from benthic foraminifera species Uvigerina perigrina. Our results show variations in δ18O indicating the presence of all late Pleistocene marine isotope stages. Comparison of our δ18O record with the lithologic <span class="hlt">changes</span> indicates that the low-density, diatom-rich (sometimes laminated) intervals at this site occur at higher frequencies than the 100K glacial cycles. These intervals are found predominantly in sediments deposited during interglacial times, although not during the warmest part of the interglacials. Additionally, our results show that δ13C values are generally lower in glacial intervals. Overall, future work at IODP Site U1342 will determine the history of past <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean ventilation within the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuRes..86..170P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuRes..86..170P"><span>A chronology of alluvial fan response to Late Quaternary <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, Crete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pope, Richard J. J.; Candy, Ian; Skourtsos, Emmanuel</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>To better understand how fluvial systems respond to late Quaternary <span class="hlt">climatic</span> forcing OSL and U-series dating was applied to stratigraphically significant sedimentary units within a small (<6.5 km2) alluvial fan system (the Sphakia fan) in southwest Crete. The resultant chronology (comprising 32 OSL and U-series ages) makes Sphakia fan one of the best dated systems in the Mediterranean and suggests that Cretan fans responded to <span class="hlt">climate</span> in two ways. First, during the transitions between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a/4 and MIS 2/1 Sphakia fan was characterised by significant entrenchment and distal shift in the zone of deposition. It is proposed that the phases of entrenchment were driven by <span class="hlt">sea</span> level induced base level fall during MIS 5a/4 and landscape stabilisation during the onset of the current interglacial (MIS 2/1). Second, with the exception of these two entrenchment episodes fan alluviation occurred across the entire last interglacial/glacial cycle in all <span class="hlt">climatic</span> settings i.e. interglacials, interstadials and stadials. It is likely that the topographic setting of the catchment supplying sediment to Sphakia fan maintained high sediment transfer rates during most <span class="hlt">climatic</span> settings enabling fan aggradation to occur except during major <span class="hlt">climatic</span> driven transitions i.e. major <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fall and postglacial vegetation development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC24A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC24A..05D"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise in Kiribati</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. This "Green <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535143','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535143"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Meier, M.F.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Change</span>, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> and the principal terms in the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0501L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0501L"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Projection of Maximum Water Level accounting for the Effect of Waves, Storm Surges and Mean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Changes</span>: an Application to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Projections along the Coastline of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lionello, P.; Conte, D.; Marzo, L.; Scarascia, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The maximum level that water reaches during a storm depends on <span class="hlt">changes</span> of mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and storminess. Increase of mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level can be caused by mass addition, steric effects and land subsidence. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of storminess will <span class="hlt">change</span> the height of ocean waves and storm surges. This study proposes a methodology for estimating the <span class="hlt">change</span> of maximum water level at the coast as it results from the superposition of these different factors, and applies it to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario simulations in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The analysis is based on a 7-member ensemble of regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model simulations covering the period 1951-2050 under the A1B emission scenario. Models that include a high resolution Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> circulation component have been used for diagnosing the steric <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span>. Model <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure and wind fields are used for forcing a hydro-dynamical shallow water model (HYPSE), wind fields are used for forcing a wave model (WAM), obtaining estimates of storm surges and ocean waves, respectively. The <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> signal is computed as the difference between water level maxima in the 1971-2000 and 2021-2050 period. Results show that in the next decades storm surge level and wave height will decrease and partially compensate for the increase of maximum water level produced by the positive steric effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26027581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26027581"><span>Cuba confronts <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Among environmental problems, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological <span class="hlt">changes</span>, extreme weather events, water quality and rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810148"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>-related regime shifts have altered spatial synchrony of plankton dynamics in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Defriez, Emma J; Sheppard, Lawrence W; Reid, Philip C; Reuman, Daniel C</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>During the 1980s, the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plankton community underwent a well-documented ecosystem regime shift, including both spatial <span class="hlt">changes</span> (northward species range shifts) and temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> (increases in the total abundances of warmer water species). This regime shift has been attributed to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Plankton provide a link between <span class="hlt">climate</span> and higher trophic-level organisms, which can forage on large spatial and temporal scales. It is therefore important to understand not only whether <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> affects purely spatial or temporal aspects of plankton dynamics, but also whether it affects spatiotemporal aspects such as metapopulation synchrony. If plankton synchrony is altered, higher trophic-level feeding patterns may be modified. A second motivation for investigating <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synchrony is that the possibility of such alterations has been examined for few organisms, in spite of the fact that synchrony is ubiquitous and of major importance in ecology. This study uses correlation coefficients and spectral analysis to investigate whether synchrony <span class="hlt">changed</span> between the periods 1959-1980 and 1989-2010. Twenty-three plankton taxa, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST), and wind speed were examined. Results revealed that synchrony in SST and plankton was altered. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> were idiosyncratic, and were not explained by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in abundance. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the synchrony of Calanus helgolandicus and Para-pseudocalanus spp appeared to be driven by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in SST synchrony. This study is one of few to document alterations of synchrony and <span class="hlt">climate-change</span> impacts on synchrony. We discuss why <span class="hlt">climate-change</span> impacts on synchrony may well be more common and consequential than previously recognized.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.2347T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.2347T"><span>Assessment of coastal vulnerability to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> hazards at the regional scale: the case study of the North Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Rizzi, J.; Marcomini, A.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in storms and wave <span class="hlt">climate</span> as a consequence of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are expected to increase the size and magnitude of flooded and eroding coastal areas, thus having profound impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. River deltas, beaches, estuaries and lagoons are considered particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, which should be studied at the regional/local scale. This paper presents a regional vulnerability assessment (RVA) methodology developed to analyse site-specific spatial information on coastal vulnerability to the envisaged effects of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and assist coastal communities in operational coastal management and conservation. The main aim of the RVA is to identify key vulnerable receptors (i.e. natural and human ecosystems) in the considered region and localize vulnerable hot spot areas, which could be considered as homogeneous geographic sites for the definition of adaptation strategies. The application of the RVA methodology is based on a heterogeneous subset of bio-geophysical and socio-economic vulnerability indicators (e.g. coastal topography, geomorphology, presence and distribution of vegetation cover, location of artificial protection), which are a measure of the potential harm from a range of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related impacts (e.g. <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise inundation, storm surge flooding, coastal erosion). Based on a system of numerical weights and scores, the RVA provides relative vulnerability maps that allow to prioritize more vulnerable areas and targets of different <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related impacts in the examined region and to support the identification of suitable areas for human settlements, infrastructures and economic activities, providing a basis for coastal zoning and land use planning. The implementation, performance and results of the methodology for the coastal area of the North Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Italy) are fully described in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.2421M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.2421M"><span>Modeling the combined impact of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">changing</span> nutrient loads on the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> environment in an ensemble of transient simulations for 1961-2099</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meier, H. E. M.; Hordoir, R.; Andersson, H. C.; Dieterich, C.; Eilola, K.; Gustafsson, B. G.; Höglund, A.; Schimanke, S.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The combined future impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and industrial and agricultural practices in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> catchment on the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem were assessed. For this purpose 16 transient simulations for 1961-2099 using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> were performed. Four <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Action Plan (BSAP). Annual and seasonal mean <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters and ecological quality indicators describing the environmental status of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> like bottom oxygen, nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations and Secchi depths were studied. Assuming present-day nutrient concentrations in the rivers, nutrient loads from land increase during the twenty first century in all investigated scenario simulations due to increased volume flows caused by increased net precipitation in the Baltic catchment area. In addition, remineralization rates increase due to increased water temperatures causing enhanced nutrient flows from the sediments. Cause-and-effect studies suggest that both processes may play an important role for the biogeochemistry of eutrophicated <span class="hlt">seas</span> in future <span class="hlt">climate</span> partly counteracting nutrient load reduction efforts like the BSAP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26152856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26152856"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A</p> <p>2016-01-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of <span class="hlt">changes</span>, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AdSpR..41....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AdSpR..41....1M"><span>Deriving a <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature record suitable for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> research from the along-track scanning radiometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merchant, C. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Saunders, R. W.; Rayner, N. A.; Kent, E. C.; Old, C. P.; Berry, D.; Birks, A. R.; Blackmore, T.; Corlett, G. K.; Embury, O.; Jay, V. L.; Kennedy, J.; Mutlow, C. T.; Nightingale, T. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Pritchard, M. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Tett, S.</p> <p></p> <p>We describe the approach to be adopted for a major new initiative to derive a homogeneous record of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature for 1991 2007 from the observations of the series of three along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). This initiative is called (A)RC: (Advanced) ATSR Re-analysis for <span class="hlt">Climate</span>. The main objectives are to reduce regional biases in retrieved <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) to less than 0.1 K for all global oceans, while creating a very homogenous record that is stable in time to within 0.05 K decade-1, with maximum independence of the record from existing analyses of SST used in <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> research. If these stringent targets are achieved, this record will enable significantly improved estimates of surface temperature trends and variability of sufficient quality to advance questions of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> attribution, <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivity and historical reconstruction of surface temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The approach includes development of new, consistent estimators for SST for each of the ATSRs, and detailed analysis of overlap periods. Novel aspects of the approach include generation of multiple versions of the record using alternative channel sets and cloud detection techniques, to assess for the first time the effect of such choices. There will be extensive effort in quality control, validation and analysis of the impact on <span class="hlt">climate</span> SST data sets. Evidence for the plausibility of the 0.1 K target for systematic error is reviewed, as is the need for alternative cloud screening methods in this context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7152601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7152601"><span>Models for fine-scale movements along growth faults associated with <span class="hlt">climate/sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lowrie, A.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>Along the northern Gulf of Mexico, the deglaciation phase of a Pliocene-Pleistocene glacial cycle produced up to a tenfold increase in waters available for sediment transportation to continental margins. With lowered <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels during glacial maxima, sedimentary pulses are deposited along the shelf break and on the slope. High-energy deposition promotes foundation instability. Growth faults then originate along the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure due to rapid deposition on underlying unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments, semiplastic salt, and marine clays promote flow that accelerates compaction, fluid migration, growth fault movements, and salt tectonics. Sedimentary depositional cycles of deca- and centenary-millennia are recorded throughout the Phanerozoic. Planetary orbital motions, controlling the amount of incoming solar radiation and lasting 20,000, 40,00, and 100,000 years, apparently cause these depositional cycles via <span class="hlt">climate/sea</span> level fluctuations. When <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is low, sediments are deposited about or beyond the shelf break. Increased lithostatic pressure promotes movement on the fault, deposition on the downthrown block, accelerated compaction of sediments, and fluid expulsion and migration. When <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is high, sediment deposition is along the upper and middle shelf. Fault activity should be minimal or nil. Thus, the geologic episodes that record the greatest amount of downthrown block growth may also be punctuated by bursts of large drops in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Onshore Louisiana production is usually greatest from maximum growth downthrown blocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31A1028H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31A1028H"><span>Modeled Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet-<span class="hlt">climate</span> interactions and contributions to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> since the Last Glacial Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinemann, M.; Timmermann, A.; Elison Timm, O.; Saito, F.; Abe-Ouchi, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>One of the most recent massive <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> events in earth's history was the last glacial termination 19-9 thousand years before present (ka BP). Northern Hemisphere ice-sheets receded quickly, causing global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level to rise by more than 100 m, meltwater was injected into the North Atlantic halting its deepwater formation, atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose by almost 100 ppmv, and the global surface warmed by about 4°C. It is still unresolved what exactly caused this deglacial <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and ice sheet melting. To address this question, we set out to conduct a series of transient modeling experiments with a coupled 3-dimensional ice-sheet-<span class="hlt">climate</span> model (iLove). The model includes atmosphere-ocean-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-vegetation components of the intermediate complexity model LOVECLIM and uses bi-directional coupling to the ice-sheet model IcIES. Supporting Milankovitch theory, our results indicate that the deglaciation was initiated by orbital parameter <span class="hlt">changes</span>. However, according to our model, rising CO2 concentrations after 17 ka BP accelerated the deglaciation. Without this deglacial CO2 increase, large parts of North America and Scandinavia would be covered by ice sheets today. Present <span class="hlt">sea</span> level would be as much as 100 m lower, and still dropping by about 2.5 m per thousand years due to growing ice sheets. Despite the deglacial CO2-rise and global warming of 4°C, the simulated Greenland ice-sheet only looses about 25% of its volume during the deglaciation, and grows again in the Holocene after 8 ka BP at a rate of about 0.1 m <span class="hlt">sea</span> level equivalent per thousand years. Our results indicate that the stability of the Greenland ice sheet during the deglaciation and Holocene is supported by <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the atmospheric stationary wave pattern, and by the deglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice retreat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...70...36K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...70...36K"><span>Temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sponge populations are correlated to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in surface <span class="hlt">climate</span> and food supply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kahn, Amanda S.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Smith, Kenneth L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Density and average size of two species of abyssal sponges were analyzed at Station M (∼4100 m depth) over an 18-year time-series (1989-2006) using camera sled transects. Both sponge taxa share a similar plate-like morphology despite being within different families, and both showed similar variations in density and average body size over time, suggesting that the same factors may control the demographics of both species. Peaks in significant cross correlations between increases in particulate organic carbon flux and corresponding increases in sponge density occurred with a time lag of 13 months. Sponge density also fluctuated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in two <span class="hlt">climate</span> indices: the NOI with a time lag of 18 months and NPGO with a time lag of 15 months. The results support previous suggestions that increased particulate organic carbon flux may induce recruitment or regeneration in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sponges. It is unknown whether the appearance of young individuals results from recruitment, regeneration, or both, but the population responses to seasonal and inter-annual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in food supply demonstrate that sponge populations are dynamic and are capable of responding to inter-annual <span class="hlt">changes</span> despite being sessile and presumably slow-growing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9286O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9286O"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the intensity of ice gouging at the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> bottom by hummocky formations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogorodov, Stanislav; Arkhipov, Vasily; Kokin, Osip; Natalia, Shabanova</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice as a zonal factor is an important passive and active relief-forming agent in the coastal-shelf zone of the Arctic and other freezing <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The most dangerous process in relation to the hydrotechnical facilities is ice gouging - destructive mechanical impact of the ice of the ground, connected with the dynamics of the ice cover, formation of hummocks and stamukhas under the influence of hydrometeorologic factors and of the relief of the coastal-shelf zone. Underestimation of the ice gouging intensity can lead to damage of the engineering facilities, while excessive deepening increases the expenses of the construction. Finding the optimal variant and, by this, decreasing the risks of extreme situations is a relevant task of the science and practice. This task is complicated by the fact that the oil and gas infrastructure within the coastal and shelf areas of the freezing <span class="hlt">seas</span> is currently being developed in the conditions of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In the present work, several results of the repeated sounding of bottom ice gouging microrelief within the area of the underwater pipeline crossing of the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, are presented. Based on the results of the monitoring, as well as the analysis of literature sources and modeling it has been established that under the conditions of <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice reduction, the zone of the most intensive ice gouging is shifted landwards, on shallower water areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.5821H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002DSRII..49.5821H"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and control of the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> pelagic ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunt, George L., Jr.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Walters, Gary; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Brodeur, Richard D.; Napp, Jeffery M.; Bond, Nicholas A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p> provide forage. The OCH predicts that the ability of large predatory fish populations to sustain fishing pressure will vary between warm and cold regimes. The OCH points to the importance of the timing of ice retreat and water temperatures during the spring bloom for the productivity of zooplankton, and the degree and direction of coupling between zooplankton and forage fish. Forage fish (e.g., juvenile pollock, capelin, Pacific herring [ Clupea pallasii]) are key prey for adult pollock and other apex predators. In the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, important <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the biota since the mid-1970s include a marked increase in the biomass of large piscivorous fish and a concurrent decline in the biomass of forage fish, including age-1 walleye pollock, particularly over the southern portion of the shelf. Populations of northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and seabirds such as kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) at the Pribilof Islands have declined, most probably in response to a diminished prey base. The available evidence suggests that these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are unlikely the result of a decrease in total annual new primary production, though the possibility of reduced post-bloom production during summer remains. An ecosystem approach to management of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and its fisheries is of great importance if all of the ecosystem components valued by society are to thrive. Cognizance of how <span class="hlt">climate</span> regimes may alter relationships within this ecosystem will facilitate reaching that goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25017634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25017634"><span>Interdisciplinary assessment of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the lower Nile delta, Egypt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Baumert, Niklas; Kloos, Julia; Renaud, Fabrice G; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Mabrouk, Badr; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran; Ludwig, Ralf; Fischer, Georg; Roson, Roberto; Zografos, Christos</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">CLImate</span>-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> on WAter and SECurity (CLIWASEC) was a cluster of three complementary EC-FP7 projects assessing <span class="hlt">climate-change</span> impacts throughout the Mediterranean on: hydrological cycles (CLIMB - <span class="hlt">CLimate</span>-Induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the hydrology of Mediterranean Basins); water security (WASSERMed - Water Availability and Security in Southern EuRope and the Mediterranean) and human security connected with possible hydro-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> conflicts (CLICO - <span class="hlt">CLImate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> hydro-COnflicts and human security). The Nile delta case study was common between the projects. CLIWASEC created an integrated forum for modelling and monitoring to understand potential impacts across sectors. This paper summarises key results from an integrated assessment of potential challenges to water-related security issues, focusing on expected <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise impacts by the middle of the century. We use this common focus to illustrate the added value of project clustering. CLIWASEC pursued multidisciplinary research by adopting a single research objective: <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise related water security threats, resulting in a more holistic view of problems and potential solutions. In fragmenting research, policy-makers can fail to understand how multiple issues can materialize from one driver. By combining efforts, an integrated assessment of water security threats in the lower Nile is formulated, offering policy-makers a clearer picture of inter-related issues to society and environment. The main issues identified by each project (land subsidence, saline intrusion - CLIMB; water supply overexploitation, land loss - WASSERMed; employment and housing security - CLICO), are in fact related. Water overexploitation is exacerbating land subsidence and saline intrusion, impacting on employment and placing additional pressure on remaining agricultural land and the underdeveloped housing market. All these have wider implications for regional development. This richer understanding could be critical in making better</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41C..06T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41C..06T"><span>Staggering <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperatures Coincide with Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Evolution Transitions during the Late Miocene - Pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tzanova, A.; Herbert, T.; Peterson, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Late Miocene warmer-than-modern Earth is a time of important transitions such as the C3/C4 photosynthesis transition, the appearance of the Sahara and the hominin evolution. The interconnections and drivers for <span class="hlt">climate</span> and evolutionary <span class="hlt">change</span> during this time, such as pCO2, albedo, vegetation and temperatures, are still speculative. The causal relationships can be better understood via paleoproxy records from sensitive to <span class="hlt">climate</span> shifts areas such as the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a largely enclosed mid-latitude basin on the cusp of the subtropical <span class="hlt">climate</span> zone formed after the closure of the Tethys. The enclosed nature of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> makes it sensitive to continental <span class="hlt">climate</span> and shifts in <span class="hlt">climate</span> zones with the advantage of resolution, preservation and detail usually reserved for marine records Here we present a continuous 30 kyr resolution, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) record for the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Late Miocene - Pliocene) from the well-dated, uplifted marine sequences of Monte dei Corvi in Northern Italy and Rosello in Sicily, Italy. The Late Miocene portion of the record is from the pelagic, uplifted Monte dei Corvi land section. The data from two organic paleothermometers UK'37 and TEX86, establish the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as notably warmer than present. SSTs were equivalent and even higher than the warmest parts of the modern ocean. For the oldest samples, ~ 12.9 Ma to ~8.1 Ma, UK'37 derived temperatures hovered close to 28oC and possibly even higher. A distinct cooling trend takes over starting at ~8.1 Ma and superimposed upon it are prominent, high variability, cold episodes lasting from ~7 Ma to 6 Ma. During these extreme episodes, reconstructed SSTs reach values comparable the modern eastern Mediterranean annual average SST of 19.5oC. The variability during this colder period is substantial, with temperature swings of as much as ~6-8 oC over 40 kyr. Continuous pelagic sedimentation resumes after the Messinian Salinity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3663797','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3663797"><span>Top-Down Regulation, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Multi-Decadal <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The structure of many marine ecosystems has <span class="hlt">changed</span> substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast during 30 years, and relate their development to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span>, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural <span class="hlt">changes</span>, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in species composition was associated with large scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737998"><span>Top-down regulation, <span class="hlt">climate</span> and multi-decadal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The structure of many marine ecosystems has <span class="hlt">changed</span> substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast during 30 years, and relate their development to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span>, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural <span class="hlt">changes</span>, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in species composition was associated with large scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212861M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212861M"><span>Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Thickness Distribution as an Indicator of Arctic <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> - Synthesis of Model Results and Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslowski, Wieslaw; Clement Kinney, Jaclyn; Jakacki, Jaromir; Osinski, Robert; Zwally, Jay</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Arctic region is an integral part of the Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> system through its influence on global surface energy and moisture fluxes and on atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Within the Arctic, its <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover is possibly the most sensitive indicator of the polar amplified global warming and of the state of Arctic <span class="hlt">climate</span> system as a whole. Hence <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the decline of multi-year <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover have significant ramifications to the entire pan-Arctic region and beyond. Having the recorded average global surface temperature about 0.54°C (0.96°F) above the 20th Century average the decade of 2000-2009 has been the warmest of the 130-year record, with the maximum positive temperatures anomalies in the northern high latitude regions. Satellite records of the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice show a decreasing and accelerating trend in ice extent and concentration since the late 1979, as a result of the global warming. More importantly there is growing evidence that the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness and volume have been decreasing at even faster rate. This means that our knowledge of the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice melt might be significantly biased due to the interpretation of 2-dimensional <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent / concentration records only instead of ice thickness and volume. The rates of recent ice thickness and volume melt derived from our pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean model results combined with recent remotely sensed data suggest an accelerating negative trend. This trend is robust and lends credence to the postulation that the Arctic not only might but it is likely to be ice-free during the summer in the near future. However, global <span class="hlt">climate</span> models vary widely in their predictions of warming and the rate of Arctic ice melt, suggesting it may take anywhere from a couple of decades to more than a century to melt most of the summer <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover. Also many regional models are limited in their representation of the rapid Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thinning and volume loss. The inability of models</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017008','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017008"><span>Late Pliocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> 3.4-2.3 Ma: paleoceanographic record from the Yabuta Formation, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Kitamura, A.; Ikeya, Noriyuki; Watanabe, M. E.; Kamiya, T.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Late Pliocene paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan between 3.4 and2.3 Ma were investigated through study of molluscs, diatoms, and ostracodes from the Yabuta Formation in Toyama Prefecture. The period 3.4-2.7 Ma was characterized by relatively high <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and cool water benthic faunas. A progressive paleoceanographic shift towards colder oceanic conditions and lower <span class="hlt">sea</span> level occurred beginning near 2.7 Ma, intenifying about 2.5 Ma, when important <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ostracode and molluscan faunas occurred. Between 2.7 and 2.3 Ma, eight glacial events can be inferred based on drops in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level of 50-60 m and increasing proportions of cold, shallow water ostracode species whose modern ecology and zoogeography indicate colder winter water temperatures (3-4??C). The glacial events between 2.5 and 2.3 Ma were the most intense. Preliminary interpretation of the faunal and oceanographic events of the Yabuta Formation suggests that they correspond to Northern Hemispheric cooling also known from North Atlantic deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> oxygen isotope, IRD, and planktic foraminiferal records, North Pacific diatom and radiolarian record, and the Chinese loess sequences. The eight glacial events may record a 41,000-yr obliquity cycle which characterized other late Pliocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> proxy records. Inferred <span class="hlt">sea</span> level drops near 2.5-2.3 Ma of about 50-60 m provide direct evidence from an ocean margin setting that supports deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> oxygen isotopic evidence indicating major <span class="hlt">changes</span> in global ice volume <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32117','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32117"><span>Global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise: potential losses of intertidal habitat for shorebirds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>H. Galbraith; R. Jones; R. Park; J. Clough; S. Herrod-Julius; B. Harrington; G. Page</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Global warming is expected to result in an acceleration of current rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, inundating many low-lying coastal and intertidal areas. This could have important implications for organisms that depend on these sites, including shorebirds that rely on them for foraging habitat during their migrations and in winter. We modeled the potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP51B2310D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP51B2310D"><span>Extracting Past <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Local <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Change</span> from the Geologic Record of Coastal Sediment Transport in The Bahamas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyer, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Rovere, A.; Lorscheid, T.; Casella, E.; Raymo, M. E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Detailed reconstructions of past interglacial Earth <span class="hlt">climate</span> provide a baseline to differentiate natural variability from human caused <span class="hlt">change</span> and can reveal feedbacks that may become fundamental in predicting future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In the last interglacial period (marine isotope stage 5e; MIS 5e - 128 to 116 kyr BP), global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level was up to 6-9 meters higher than today, and greenhouse gases were similar to pre-industrial levels. If these observations are valid, they suggest that current <span class="hlt">sea</span> level may be primed for sudden and drastic <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, the exact elevation of global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during MIS 5e, and the rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> during that interglacial are complicated by incomplete chronologies in the geologic record and uncertainties in local isostatic or tectonic adjustment of these records since deposition. The Bahamian archipelago consists of several isolated, shallow carbonate platforms that are tectonically stable and may record a relatively straightforward history of past interglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. The rocky islands on the eastern margins of the platforms are composed of carbonate sediments arranged in coast-parallel and V-shaped coast-perpendicular ridges as high as 20-30 meters above modern <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. There is a lack of scientific consensus as to whether these sediments were deposited by the ocean during an interval of higher <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (MIS 5e or 11), or if the ridges are aeolian carbonate dunes. We scan hand samples from these deposits and develop image segmentation code to isolate individual grains. With this dataset, we quantify the relative arrangement of grain sizes and shapes to objectively identify evidence of aeolian depositional features such as the inverse grading of ripple sets. Additionally, the modern average wind direction in the Bahamas aligns with the observed orientation of V-shaped ridges across the archipelago within 10 degrees. Remarkably, there are very few active dunes in the Bahamas today, which raises an important discussion on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...81a2077Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...81a2077Q"><span>Comparison of two Centennial-scale <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Datasets in the Regional <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Studies of the China <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qingyuan, Wang; Yanan, Wang; Yiwei, Liu</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Two widely used <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) datasets are compared in this article. We examine characteristics in the <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability of SST in the China <span class="hlt">Seas</span>.Two series yielded almost the same warming trend for 1890-2013 (0.7-0.8°C/100 years). However, HadISST1 series shows much stronger warming trends during 1961-2013 and 1981-2013 than that of COBE SST2 series. The disagreement between data sets was marked after 1981. For the hiatus period 1998-2013, the cooling trends of HadISST1 series is much lower than that of COBE SST2. These differences between the two datasets are possibly caused by the different observations which are incorporated to fill with data-sparse regions since 1982. Those findings illustrate that there are some uncertainties in the estimate of SST warming patterns in certain regions. The results also indicate that the temporal and spatial deficiency of observed data is still the biggest handicap for analyzing multi-scale SST characteristics in regional area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171200&hterms=Climate+Change+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171200&hterms=Climate+Change+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%2Benvironment"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Benjamin F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level; any short-term or long-term <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of <span class="hlt">sea</span> water) following global <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (2) mass-budget <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171200&hterms=Rebound&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRebound','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171200&hterms=Rebound&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRebound"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, Benjamin F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level; any short-term or long-term <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of <span class="hlt">sea</span> water) following global <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (2) mass-budget <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710300C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710300C"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise: Potential impact on the coast of the Edremit Plain, NW Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Over the past century, most of the world's mountain glaciers and the ice sheets have lost mass due to global warming. When the temperature exceeds a particular level, glaciers and polar ice caps will continue to lose mass. Recent studies report that low-lying coastal areas will be seriously affected by <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the amount of natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols had a warming effect on the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> during last century. Thus, the pace of melting of ice sheets increased, and, accordingly, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level began to rise faster. Rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level between 1961 and 2003 was equal to 1.8 mm/year while it was 3.1 mm/year between 1993 and 2003. The total rise in the 20th century is estimated to be between 17 and 19 cm. The models based on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> indicate that the average global temperature at the end of the 21st century will increase by 0.3°C - 6.4°C. Global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is projected to rise 8-25 cm by 2030, relative to 2000 levels, 18-48 cm by 2050, and 50-140 cm by 20110. The Edremit Plain lies between Mount Madra and the Kaz Mountains on the coast of Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in NW Turkey. It is lowland with an area of 141 km2. The widest part of the plain is 16 km along the E - W direction. The N - S direction amounts to a width of 15 km. The plain is covered with alluvial deposits that settled in the Quaternary Period. The elevation ranges from 0 to 50 m a.s.l. in the plain. This study aims to determine how the low-lying coastal land areas of the Edremit Plain may be affected by possible <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Elevation dataset is based on the digital elevation model (DEM) of Landsat ETM + satellite images. To that end, satellite images were used to draw the current coastline. Curves of 2.5, 5, and 10 m were drawn through the use of maps with a scale of 1/25.000. Later on, the areas of the fields between these points were calculated. Current estimates show that 2.5 m rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level will cause <span class="hlt">sea</span> water to cover an area of 8.6 km2 (%14</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESRv...91...77Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ESRv...91...77Z"><span>Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability, environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> and human impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zillén, Lovisa; Conley, Daniel J.; Andrén, Thomas; Andrén, Elinor; Björck, Svante</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The hypoxic zone in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has increased in area about four times since 1960 and widespread oxygen deficiency has severely reduced macro benthic communities below the halocline in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, which in turn has affected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The cause of increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the spatial variability of hypoxia on long time-scales is poorly known: and so are the driving mechanisms. We review the occurrence of hypoxia in modern time (last c. 50 years), modern historical time (AD 1950-1800) and during the more distant past (the last c. 10 000 years) and explore the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability, environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> and human impact. We present a compilation of proxy records of hypoxia (laminated sediments) based on long sediment cores from the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The cumulated results show that the deeper depressions of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> have experienced intermittent hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that regular laminations started to form c. 8500-7800 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the formation of a permanent halocline at the transition between the Early Littorina <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Littorina <span class="hlt">Sea</span> s. str. Laminated sediments were deposited during three main periods (i.e. between c. 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr BP and subsequent to AD 1800) which overlap the Holocene Thermal Maximum (c. 9000-5000 cal. yr BP), the Medieval Warm Period (c. AD 750-1200) and the modern historical period (AD 1800 to present) and coincide with intervals of high surface salinity (at least during the Littorina s. str.) and high total organic carbon content. This study implies that there may be a correlation between <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability in the past and the state of the marine environment, where milder and dryer periods with less freshwater run-off correspond to increased salinities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535148"><span><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mean thickness in the Arctic basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nagurny, A.P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>A method for automatically monitoring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness by measuring ice-plate vibration is proposed. Two energy maximums are clearly manifested in the spectrum of ice cover vibrations, corresponding to the resonant waves (the equality of ice eigen frequency as a plate and upper water layer without ice cover) and to the waves at the minimum of the dispersion curve of the ice-water system. The free vibrations of the resonant waves have low amplitudes and can be adequately described by linear theory of elastic gravity wave propagation. Data are presented for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness determined by measuring elastic-gravity waves at points in the Arctic basin for the years 1970 through 1992. During this period, a linear decrease in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness was observed. The thickness decreased by 12-14 centimeters, or 3 to 4% of average thickenss, overall. Taking into account the significant scattering of data, a trend of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> warming in the atmosphere-Arctic Ocean system is indicated. 11 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4036L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4036L"><span>Consequences of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and society evolution on the Kerkennah archipelago coast and sabkha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lucile, Etienne; Gérard, Beltrando; Abdelkarim, Daoud</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Interaction between human activities, <span class="hlt">climate</span> evolution and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level can be summarised in a system where every element impacts the others. In the Kerkennah archipelago (Tunisia), recent observations have shown that the <span class="hlt">climate</span> has become more arid, that the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is rising and that the society is modernizing at least since 1970. In our work we tried to understand the relations between the elements of the socio-ecosystem of Kerkennah to identify potential causes of the coastline movements and sabkhas extension (low and salty areas). Using photointerpretation (topographic map, Spot 5 image, aerial photographs) and remote sensing (2 landsat TM5 images), we detected and evaluated the movements of the coastline and of the sabkhas limits. Field data have also been added and all information has been used together in a GIS showing a significant retreat of the coastline (maximum of 41.2±6m in 47years) and an increase in the surface of sabkhas (+18%) between 1963 and 2010. The same dataset has been reanalysed at a much finer spatial scale to correlate observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> to human pressure. This showed that coast erosion rates are more important where the coastline is partially artificialized or just after the end of a dam or a rockfill. Advances to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> observed on some portions of the coast are always linked to human infrastructures. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise increased the physical vulnerability of the archipelago and that the human installations near the coast amplify this vulnerability. Similarly, the extension of sabkha surfaces is global and most likely due to a natural perturbation of the seasonal cycle in the sabkhas by the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and by the stronger aridity in summer. However, discrepancies exist between individual areas and can be explained by the presence of active fault and/or by the evolution of agricultural practices. Indeed, frequent periods of drought and the political will for development of the Kerkennah</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.113..235D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.113..235D"><span>Potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the distribution of longline catches of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Tasman <span class="hlt">sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dell, James T.; Wilcox, Chris; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Hobday, Alistair J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The spatial distribution of living marine resources in the Tasman <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is expected to shift due to the impacts of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Understanding the most likely future locations of valuable pelagic species will inform the sustainable harvest and management of species such as yellowfin tuna (YFT; Thunnus albacares). We estimate future upper ocean structure in the Tasman <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, using both historical data and dynamically downscaled ocean projections for the 2060s, and apply a catch distribution model to estimate possible <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the YFT catch in the eastern Australia domestic longline fishery. Both approaches project that locations with concentrated YFT catch in the Tasman <span class="hlt">Sea</span> will shift poleward in response to likely <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. By the 2060s, the core fishing areas are projected to have shifted both poleward and offshore of existing high catch areas. Shifts in the distribution and hence availability of this species may require future domestic fishing vessels to modify their fishing behaviors, which in turn may require social and economic adjustments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23625760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23625760"><span>Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (CC) and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected <span class="hlt">climatic</span> niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..360C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..360C"><span>Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Peter U.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Mix, Alan C.; Eby, Michael; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders; Milne, Glenn A.; Pfister, Patrik L.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Solomon, Susan; Stocker, Thomas F.; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Archer, David; Bard, Edouard; Goldner, Aaron; Lambeck, Kurt; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of the policy debate surrounding the actions needed to mitigate and adapt to anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> has been framed by observations of the past 150 years as well as <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level projections for the twenty-first century. The focus on this 250-year window, however, obscures some of the most profound problems associated with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Here, we argue that the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, a period during which the overwhelming majority of human-caused carbon emissions are likely to occur, need to be placed into a long-term context that includes the past 20 millennia, when the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will grow and persist. This long-term perspective illustrates that policy decisions made in the next few years to decades will have profound impacts on global <span class="hlt">climate</span>, ecosystems and human societies -- not just for this century, but for the next ten millennia and beyond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...99..146M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...99..146M"><span>Delta growth and river valleys: the influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the South Adriatic shelf (Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Ceregato, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Taviani, M.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Incised valleys across continental margins represent the response of fluvial systems to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in their equilibrium dynamics, mainly driven by base level fall forced by glacial-eustatic cycles. The Manfredonia Incised Valley formed during the last glacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level lowstand, when most of the southern Adriatic shelf was sub-aerially exposed but the outer shelf remained under water. The pronounced upstream deepening of the valley is ascribed to river incision of the MIS5e highstand coastal prism and related subaqueous clinoform under the influence of MIS5-4 <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuations, while the downstream shallowing and narrowing mainly reflects the impact of increased rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fall at the MIS3-2 transition on a flatter mid-outer shelf. Until 15 ka BP, the valley fed an asymmetric delta confined to the mid-outer shelf, testifying that continental and deep marine systems remained disconnected during the lowstand. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise reached the inner shelf during the Early Holocene, drowning the valley and leading to the formation of a sheltered embayment confined toward the land: at this time part of the incision remained underfilled with a marked bathymetric expression. This mini-basin was rapidly filled by sandy bayhead deltas, prograding from both the northern and southern sides of the valley. In this environment, protected by marine reworking and where sediment dispersal was less effective, the accommodation space was reduced and autogenic processes forced the formation of multiple and coalescing delta lobes. Bayhead delta progradations occurred in few centuries, between 8 and 7.2 ka cal BP, confirming the recent hypothesis that in this area the valley was filled during the formation of sapropel S1. This proximal valley fill, representing the very shallow-water equivalent of the cm-thick sapropel layers accumulated offshore in the deeper southern Adriatic basin, is of key importance in following the signature of the sapropel in a facies-tract ideally from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...142...53M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...142...53M"><span>Marine response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the last five millennia in the central Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Margaritelli, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Di Rita, F.; Capotondi, L.; Bellucci, L. G.; Insinga, D. D.; Petrosino, P.; Bonomo, S.; Cacho, I.; Cascella, A.; Ferraro, L.; Florindo, F.; Lubritto, C.; Lurcock, P. C.; Magri, D.; Pelosi, N.; Rettori, R.; Lirer, F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a high-resolution paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last five millennia from a shallow water marine sedimentary record from the central Tyrrhenian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Gulf of Gaeta) using planktonic foraminifera, pollen, oxygen stable isotope, tephrostratigrapy and magnetostratigrapy. This multiproxy approach allows to evidence and characterize nine time intervals associated with archaeological/cultural periods: Eneolithic (base of the core-ca. 2410 BCE), Early Bronze Age (ca. 2410 BCE-ca. 1900 BCE), Middle Bronze Age-Iron Age (ca. 1900 BCE-ca. 500 BCE), Roman Period (ca. 500 BCE-ca. 550 CE), Dark Age (ca. 550 CE-ca. 860 CE), Medieval <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Anomaly (ca. 860 CE-ca. 1250 CE), Little Ice Age (ca. 1250 CE-ca. 1850 CE), Industrial Period (ca. 1850 CE-ca. 1950 CE), Modern Warm Period (ca. 1950 CE-present day). The reconstructed <span class="hlt">climatic</span> evolution in the investigated sedimentary succession is coherent with the short-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability documented at the Mediterranean scale. By integrating the planktonic foraminiferal turnover from carnivorous to herbivorous-opportunistic species, the oxygen isotope record and the pollen distribution, we document important modification from the onset of the Roman Period to the present-day. From ca. 500 CE upwards the documentation of the cooling trend punctuated by <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability at secular scale evidenced by the short-term δ18O is very detailed. We hypothesise that the present day warm conditions started from the end of cold Maunder event. Additionally, we provide that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) directly affected the central Mediterranean region during the investigated time interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1360587"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, body size evolution, and Cope's Rule in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ostracodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hunt, Gene; Roy, Kaustuv</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Causes of macroevolutionary trends in body size, such as Cope's Rule, the tendency of body size to increase over time, remain poorly understood. We used size measurements from Cenozoic populations of the ostracode genus Poseidonamicus, in conjunction with phylogeny and paleotemperature estimates, to show that <span class="hlt">climatic</span> cooling leads to significant increases in body size, both overall and within individual lineages. The magnitude of size increase due to Cenozoic cooling is consistent with temperature-size relationships in geographically separated modern populations (Bergmann's Rule). Thus population-level phenotypic evolution in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> can be an important determinant of macroevolutionary trends in body size. PMID:16432187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18717366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18717366"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf <span class="hlt">seas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In a warmer Arctic, endemic marine mammal species will face extreme levels of habitat <span class="hlt">change</span>, most notably a dramatic reduction in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Additionally, the physical environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span>, including less ice and increased water (and air) temperatures will result in alterations to the forage base of arctic marine mammals, including density and distributional shifts in their prey, as well as potential losses of some of their traditionally favoured fat-rich prey species. In addition they are likely to face increased competition from invasive temperate species, increased predation from species formerly unable to access them in areas of extensive <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice or simply because the water temperature was restrictive, increased disease risk and perhaps also increased risks from contaminants. Over the coming decades it is also likely that arctic marine mammals will face increased impacts from human traffic and development in previously inaccessible, ice-covered areas. Impacts on ice-associated cetaceans are difficult to predict because the reasons for their affiliation with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are not clearly understood. But, it is certain that ice-breeding seals will have marked, or total, breeding-habitat loss in their traditional breeding areas and will certainly undergo distributional <span class="hlt">changes</span> and in all probability abundance reductions. If species are fixed in traditional spatial and temporal cycles, and are unable to shift them within decadal time scales, some populations will go extinct. In somewhat longer time frames, species extinctions can also be envisaged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25929883"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> overruns resilience conferred by temperature-dependent sex determination in <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles and threatens their survival.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Genovart, Meritxell; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Oro, Daniel</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is the predominant form of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles, but the adaptive significance of TSD in this group remains unclear. Additionally, the viability of species with TSD may be compromised as <span class="hlt">climate</span> gets warmer. We simulated population responses in a turtle with TSD to increasing nest temperatures and compared the results to those of a virtual population with genotypic sex determination (GSD) and fixed sex ratios. Then, we assessed the effectiveness of TSD as a mechanism to maintain populations under <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. TSD populations were more resilient to increased nest temperatures and mitigated the negative effects of high temperatures by increasing production of female offspring and therefore, future fecundity. That buffered the negative effect of temperature on the population growth. TSD provides an evolutionary advantage to <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles. However, this mechanism was only effective over a range of temperatures and will become inefficient as temperatures rise to levels projected by current <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> models. Projected global warming threatens survival of <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles, and the IPCC high gas concentration scenario may result in extirpation of the studied population in 50 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020654"><span>Analyzing the Effects of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature in Monitoring Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys Using <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Jason; Burbank, Renane; Billiot, Amanda; Schultz, Logan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This presentation discusses use of 4 kilometer satellite-based <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) data to monitor and assess coral reef areas of the Florida Keys. There are growing concerns about the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on coral reef systems throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing technology is being used for monitoring coral reef areas with the goal of understanding the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and oceanic <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can lead to coral bleaching events. Elevated SST is a well-documented cause of coral bleaching events. Some coral monitoring studies have used 50 km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to study the relationships of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature anomalies to bleaching events. In partnership with NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the University of South Florida's Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, this project utilized higher resolution SST data from the Terra's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR. SST data for 2000-2010 was employed to compute <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature anomalies within the study area. The 4 km SST anomaly products enabled visualization of SST levels for known coral bleaching events from 2000-2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86S...3S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86S...3S"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and inuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>The Inuit Circumpolar Conference will seek a declaration from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights that emissions of greenhouse gases, which the conference says, are destroying the Inuit way of life, are a violation of human rights, conference chair Sheila Watt-Cloutier announced on 15 December.Her announcement comes shortly after the mid-November release of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Impact Assessment, a scientific study by an international team of 300 scientists. That assessment noted, “The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on Earth. Over the next 100 years, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic <span class="hlt">changes</span>, many of which have already begun. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Arctic <span class="hlt">climate</span> will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels.”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4551A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4551A"><span>Abrupt <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin during the last glacial period (10-60 kyr)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arz, H. W.; Lamy, F.; Kwiecien, O.; Nowaczyk, N.; Plessen, B.; Röhl, U.; Ganopolski, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>As the most distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean, the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> demonstrates an unparalleled feature: it oscillates between lacustrine and marine stages following, respectively, glacial-interglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Today, the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is the world's largest anoxic basin. Coring efforts during the last years rather suggested an extensive glacial sediment cover on most of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> slope areas not reachable with conventional gravity and piston coring devices. Here we present new sediment cores retrieved from the tectonically formed Archangelsky Ridge in the southeastern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the 2007 RV Meteor cruise M72/5, which provide a first view into a complete and undisturbed section of the last glacial period. Different independent stratigraphic approaches (radiocarbon dating, tephrochronology, paleomagnetics, tuning to Greenland ice cores) lead to a consistent age-depth model for the last glacial period. Various proxies from cores 24/25-GC1 suggest strong and immediate responses of the glacial Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> freshwater lake to the abrupt D-O <span class="hlt">climate</span> oscillations of the last glacial period. Each abrupt warming initiated, like during Termination I, inorganic carbonate precipitation in the lake system. Subsequent stadials are marked by increasing IRD input suggesting more abundant coastal ice formation likely reflecting colder winter temperatures. Ostracod stable oxygen isotopes record the precipitation/runoff signal of the drainage basin but show a strongly smoothed signal characteristic to an 1-2 kyr mixing-time in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin with striking similarities to the Antarctic temperature and global ice volume records (Arz et al. 2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP31E..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP31E..03H"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span>, environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> and taphonomic processes in the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South-West Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoyle, T. M. V.; Leroy, S.; Lopez-Merino, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is the largest endorheic lake in the world and is highly sensitive to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. During the Pliocene, a thick series of sediments was deposited in the South Caspian Basin that now contains important oil and gas reserves. A reliable, well-dated <span class="hlt">climate</span> and palaeoenvironment proxy record was created for the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene of the South Caspian Basin in Azerbaijan. We assessed <span class="hlt">climate</span> cyclicity at the Milankovitch level to test whether a link could be demonstrated between <span class="hlt">climate</span> and sedimentation patterns in Azerbaijan's primary hydrocarbon producing formations (Productive Series) as well as in the top seal (Akchagyl Formation). Magnetostratigraphy and radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar on volcanic ashes) of the quasi-marine Akchagyl Formation assigned this section to the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. Palaeoenvironments were reconstructed using palynology (pollen and dinocysts) and supported by particle size analysis and XRF/stable isotopes. Pollen is used to interpret terrestrial vegetation successions (as a proxy for catchment <span class="hlt">climate</span>) and dinocysts for conditions within the water body itself (linked to degree of fresh water input, base level variation and inter-basin connectivity). The Akchagyl pollen record shows cyclic vegetation patterns related to obliquity-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcing. Dinocysts and geochemical proxies also respond to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> influence, but their behaviour is more strongly influenced by connectivity between the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and adjacent basins. New methods were explored to constrain problems of reworking in deltaic facies deposited during the Pliocene. In particular, quality of the environmental signal was assessed using fluorescence microscopy, as delta assemblages can be dominated by older reworked palynomorphs, obscuring the contemporary environmental signal. Serious issues relating to depositional environments and taphonomy within the Productive Series were highlighted. This must be understood before the local</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SedG..305...35F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SedG..305...35F"><span>Impact of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the architecture and lithofacies of the Holocene Rhone subaqueous delta (Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Berné, Serge; Jouet, Gwénaël; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Dennielou, Bernard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Tondut, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> results from condensation/erosion, which appears as an important process even within supply-dominated deltaic systems, due to avulsion of distributaries. The age of the MFS varies along-strike between ca. 7.8 and 5.6 kyr cal. BP in relation to the position of depocentres and <span class="hlt">climatically</span>-controlled sediment supply. The last rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of the Holocene, the Little Ice Age (1250-1850 AD), had a distinct stratigraphic influence on the architecture and lithofacies of the Rhone subaqueous delta through the progradation of two deltaic lobes. In response to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sediment supply linked to rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> (and to anthropic factors), the Rhone delta evolved from wave-dominated to fluvial dominated, and then wave dominated again.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..152...49U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..152...49U"><span>Final Laurentide ice-sheet deglaciation and Holocene <span class="hlt">climate-sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Clark, Peter U.; Cuzzone, Joshua; Milne, Glenn A.; Winsor, Kelsey; Caffee, Marc</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Despite elevated summer insolation forcing during the early Holocene, global ice sheets retained nearly half of their volume from the Last Glacial Maximum, as indicated by deglacial records of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (GMSL). Partitioning the GMSL rise among potential sources requires accurate dating of ice-sheet extent to estimate ice-sheet volume. Here, we date the final retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet with 10Be surface exposure ages for the Labrador Dome, the largest of the remnant Laurentide ice domes during the Holocene. We show that the Labrador Dome deposited moraines during North Atlantic cold events at ∼10.3 ka, 9.3 ka and 8.2 ka, suggesting that these regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> events helped stabilize the retreating Labrador Dome in the early Holocene. After Hudson Bay became seasonally ice free at ∼8.2 ka, the majority of Laurentide ice-sheet melted abruptly within a few centuries. We demonstrate through high-resolution regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model simulations that the thermal properties of a seasonally ice-free Hudson Bay would have increased Laurentide ice-sheet ablation and thus contributed to the subsequent rapid Labrador Dome retreat. Finally, our new 10Be chronology indicates full Laurentide ice-sheet had completely deglaciated by 6.7 ± 0.4 ka, which re quires that Antarctic ice sheets contributed 3.6-6.5 m to GMSL rise since 6.3-7.1 ka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/climatechange/climate-change-basic-information','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/climatechange/climate-change-basic-information"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: Basic Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: Basic Information On This Page <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAfES.134..493D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAfES.134..493D"><span>Vulnerability of the Nigerian coast: An insight into <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise owing to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and anthropogenic activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danladi, Iliya Bauchi; Kore, Basiru Mohammed; Gül, Murat</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Coastal areas are important regions in the world as they host huge population, diverse ecosystems and natural resources. However, owing to their settings, elevations and proximities to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (global warming) and human activities are threatening issues. Herein, we report the coastline <span class="hlt">changes</span> and possible future threats related to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise owing to global warming and human activities in the coastal region of Nigeria. Google earth images, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and geological maps were used. Using google earth images, coastal <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the past 43 years, 3 years prior to and after the construction of breakwaters along Goshen Beach Estate (Lekki) were examined. Additionally, coastline <span class="hlt">changes</span> along Lekki Phase I from 2013 to 2016 were evaluated. The DEM map was used to delineate 0-2 m, 2-5 m and 5-10 m asl which correspond to undifferentiated sands and gravels to clays on the geological map. The results of the google earth images revealed remarkable erosion along both Lekki and Lekki Phase I, with the destruction of a lagoon in Lekki Phase I. Based on the result of the DEM map and geology, elevations of 0-2 m, 2-5 m and 5-10 m asl were interpreted as highly risky, moderately risky and risky respectively. Considering factors threatening coastal regions, the erosion and destruction of the lagoon along the Nigerian coast may be ascribed to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise as a result of global warming and intense human activities respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43A1300P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43A1300P"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise: A Challenge to Science and Society</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plag, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Society is challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often subsiding and densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Faced with a trade-off between imposing the very high costs of coastal protection and adaptation upon today's national economies and leaving the costs of potential major disasters to future generations, governments and decision makers are in need of scientific support for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies for the coastal zone. Low-frequency to secular <span class="hlt">changes</span> in LSL are the result of many interacting Earth system processes. The complexity of the Earth system makes it difficult to predict Global <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level (GSL) rise and, even more so, LSL <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the next 100 to 200 years. Humans have re-engineered the planet and <span class="hlt">changed</span> major features of the Earth surface and the atmosphere, thus ruling out extrapolation of past and current <span class="hlt">changes</span> into the future as a reasonable approach. The risk of rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean circulation and ice sheet mass balance introduces the possibility of unexpected <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Therefore, science is challenged with understanding and constraining the full range of plausible future LSL trajectories and with providing useful support for informed decisions. In the face of largely unpredictable future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>, monitoring of the relevant processes and development of a forecasting service on realistic time scales is crucial as decision support. Forecasting and "early warning" for LSL rise would have to aim at decadal time scales, giving coastal managers sufficient time to react if the onset of rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> would require an immediate response. The social, environmental, and economic risks associated with potentially large and rapid LSL <span class="hlt">changes</span> are enormous. Therefore, in the light of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...135..137L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...135..137L"><span>The impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and environmental management policies on the trophic regimes in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Scenario analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazzari, P.; Mattia, G.; Solidoro, C.; Salon, S.; Crise, A.; Zavatarelli, M.; Oddo, P.; Vichi, M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and environmental management policies on the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> were analyzed in multi-annual simulations of carbon cycling in a planktonic ecosystem model. The modeling system is based on a high-resolution coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model that is off-line and forced by medium-resolution global <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations and by estimates of continental and river inputs of freshwater and nutrients. The simulations span the periods 1990-2000 and 2090-2100, assuming the IPCC SRES A1B scenario of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the end of the century. The effects of three different options on land use, mediated through rivers, are also considered. All scenarios indicate that the increase in temperature fuels an increase in metabolic rates. The gross primary production increases approximately 5% over the present-day figures, but the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in productivity rates are compensated by augmented community respiration rates, so the net community production is stable with respect to present-day figures. The 21st century simulations are characterized by a reduction in the system biomass and by an enhanced accumulation of semi-labile dissolved organic matter. The largest <span class="hlt">changes</span> in organic carbon production occur close to rivers, where the influence of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in future nutrient is higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058847"><span>Mind the gap in <span class="hlt">SEA</span>: An institutional perspective on why assessment of synergies amongst <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> mitigation, adaptation and other policy areas are missing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vammen Larsen, Sanne; Kornov, Lone; Wejs, Anja</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> into Strategic Environmental Assessment (<span class="hlt">SEA</span>): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated assessment and policy response. First, the article makes a review of how positive and negative synergies between a) <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> mitigation and adaptation and b) <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and other environmental concerns are integrated into Danish <span class="hlt">SEA</span> practice. Then, the article discusses the implications of not addressing synergies. Finally, the article explores institutional explanations as to why synergies are not addressed in <span class="hlt">SEA</span> practice. A document analysis of 149 Danish <span class="hlt">SEA</span> reports shows that only one report comprises the assessment of synergies between mitigation and adaptation, whilst 9,4% of the reports assess the synergies between <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and other environmental concerns. The consequences of separation are both the risk of trade-offs and missed opportunities for enhancing positive synergies. In order to propose explanations for the lacking integration, the institutional background is analysed and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation of legislation and of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">SEA</span> are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural-cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence gathered and presented in the article points to a need for developing the <span class="hlt">SEA</span> process and methodology in Denmark with the aim to include <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the assessments in a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0517B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0517B"><span>Stratigraphic signature of sub-orbital <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berne, S. P.; Bassetti, M. A.; Baumann, J.; Dennielou, B.; Jouet, G.; Mauffrey, M.; Sierro, F. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Promess boreholes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) provide precise chrono-stratigraphic constraints of the last ca 500 ky, that were nicely preserved at the shelf edge due to high accommodation and important sediment supply from the Rhone River. The major stratigraphic elements in this physiographic domain are Falling Stage Systems Tracts (in the sense of SEPM) linked to 100-ky eustatic cycles. They form wedges pinching out on the middle shelf, and thickening seaward on the outer shelf/upper slope (about 30-40m thick on the outer shelf). Within the uppermost sequence, linked to the last Glacial-Interglacial cycle, internal discontinuities were long described, but they were assigned to autogenic processes such as lobe avulsion or bedform migration. However, careful interpretation of a dense grid of very high resolution seismic data, together with precise chronostratigraphic constraints from borehole data and long piston cores, reveal that distinct parasequences, correlable at the regional scale, correspond to relatively minor <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> linked (a) to Bond Cycles during the end of the Last Glacial, and (b) to an early Melt Water Pulse at the onset of Deglacial <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. These regressive and transgressive (respectively) parasequences are particularly well preserved in canyon heads, due to better accommodation. We propose that such features are important building blocks of the stratigraphic record, that might be recognized elsewhere on modern continental margins, as well as in the rock record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6066V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6066V"><span>Sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta: impacts of planned hydropower development, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Manh, Nguyen; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities endangering the livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the combined effects of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes, sedimentation patterns and erosion in the Mekong Delta. In order to estimate the individual and combined impacts of the different drivers sensitivity-based scenario simulations were performed. The hydraulic processes and the sediment transport and deposition in the Mekong delta including the Tonle Sap Lake was simulated with a quasi-2D hydrodynamic for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver a plausible range of future states was determined based on existing literature and studies. The ranges were discretized into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations of driver combinations. The results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. The results indicate that hydropower development dominates the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> compared to other subsystems of the delta. The median <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the suspended sediment load to the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum <span class="hlt">changes</span> in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation, and a 95% reduction of the suspended sediment reaching the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. These findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta, and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these <span class="hlt">changes</span>. This, in turn, provides a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...127...22M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...127...22M"><span>Future sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta floodplains: Impacts of hydropower development, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manh, Nguyen Van; Dung, Nguyen Viet; Hung, Nguyen Nghia; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Mekong Delta is under threat due to human activities that are endangering livelihood of millions of people. Hydropower development, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the combined effects of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and deltaic subsidence are the main drivers impacting future flow regimes and sedimentation patterns in the Mekong Delta. We develop a sensitivity-based approach to assess the response of the floodplain hydrology and sediment dynamics in the delta to these drivers. A quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of suspended sediment dynamics is used to simulate the sediment transport and sediment deposition in the delta, including Tonle Sap Lake, for a baseline (2000-2010) and a future (2050-2060) period. For each driver we derive a plausible range of future states and discretize it into different levels, resulting in 216 combinations. Our results thus cover all plausible future pathways of sediment dynamics in the delta based on current knowledge. Our results indicate that hydropower development dominates the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise has the smallest effect. The floodplains of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are much more sensitive to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> compared to the other subsystems of the delta. The median <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the three drivers combined indicate that the inundation extent would increase slightly, but the overall floodplain sedimentation would decrease by approximately 40%, and the sediment load to the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> would diminish to half of the current rates. The maximum <span class="hlt">changes</span> in all drivers would mean a nearly 90% reduction of delta sedimentation and a 95% reduction of the sediment reaching the <span class="hlt">sea</span>. Our findings provide new and valuable information on the possible future development of floodplain hydraulics and sedimentation in the Mekong Delta and identify the areas that are most vulnerable to these <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17.1075E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NHESS..17.1075E"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in beach shoreline due to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and waves under <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios: application to the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enríquez, Alejandra R.; Marcos, Marta; Álvarez-Ellacuría, Amaya; Orfila, Alejandro; Gomis, Damià</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>This work assesses the impacts in reshaping coastlines as a result of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wave <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The methodology proposed combines the SWAN and SWASH wave models to resolve the wave processes from deep waters up to the swash zone in two micro-tidal sandy beaches in Mallorca island, western Mediterranean. In a first step, the modelling approach has been validated with observations from wave gauges and from the shoreline inferred from video monitoring stations, showing a good agreement between them. Afterwards, the modelling set-up has been applied to the 21st century <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and wave projections under two different <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios, representative concentration pathways RCP45 and RCP85. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level projections have been retrieved from state-of-the-art regional estimates, while wave projections were obtained from regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> models. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the shoreline position have been explored under mean and extreme wave conditions. Our results indicate that the studied beaches would suffer a coastal retreat between 7 and up to 50 m, equivalent to half of the present-day aerial beach surface, under the <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2391G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2391G"><span>Relative impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, wave <span class="hlt">climate</span> and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the Pacific Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, <span class="hlt">climatic</span> factors such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different <span class="hlt">change</span> rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations, using the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447661"><span>Relationship between historical <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature variability and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>-induced coral mortality in the western Indian Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ateweberhan, M; McClanahan, Tim R</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Many of the world's coral reefs suffered high coral mortality during the 1998 ENSO, with the highest mortality in the western Indian Ocean (WIO). A meta-analysis of field data on <span class="hlt">change</span> in coral cover across the 1998 ENSO event was conducted for 36 major reef areas in the WIO, and relationship of the <span class="hlt">change</span> with the historical <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature (SST) variability investigated. WIO reefs were categorized into three major SST groups of differing coral cover <span class="hlt">change</span>. Cover <span class="hlt">change</span> was negatively associated with standard deviation (SD) SST until about SD 2.3, with increasing flatness of the SST frequency distributions. It increased with further increase in SD as the SST distributions became strongly bimodal in the Arabian/Persian Gulf area. The study indicates that environmental resistance/tolerance to extreme anomalous events could be predicted and management priorities directed accordingly for a warmer and more variable future <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24601775"><span>Dramatic declines in Euphausia pacifica abundance in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: response to recent regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zhao-Li; Zhang, Dong</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>As with other marine ecosystems around the world, water temperature has been anomalously warm in recent years in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We analyzed historical data to explore the effects of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the abundance and distribution variation of Euphausia pacifica in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (the Changjiang River estuary and adjacent areas). In 1959, the highest abundance occurred in the spring and autumn, and this krill species was still abundant in May 1974; however, its abundance was significantly reduced in 2002, markedly in spring. Euphausia pacifica was the numerically dominant euphausiid in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in 1959. Its mean abundance was up to 1.91 ind m(-3) and 1.64 ind/m(3) in 1959 and 1974, respectively; however, this figure decreased to 0.36 ind m(-3) in 2002. Since 2003, the abundances have been near zero in the most years. Both inter-annual (between November 1959 and 2002) and inter-monthly (between May and June 1959) comparisons suggest that E. pacifica has had a temperature-driven northward movement in response to rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, especially the positive anomalies since 1997. However, E. pacifica did not come back to the previous habitat when temperature became relative cold. Hence additional factors affecting the E. pacifica distribution and abundance need to be investigated in the future study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ocean&pg=6&id=EJ920579','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ocean&pg=6&id=EJ920579"><span>Flooded! An Investigation of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise in a <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Explore how melting ice sheets affect global <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level rise (SLR) is a rise in the water level of the Earth's oceans. There are two major kinds of ice in the polar regions: <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and land ice. Land ice contributes to SLR and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice does not. This article explores the characteristics of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and land ice and provides some hands-on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=land&pg=3&id=EJ920579','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=land&pg=3&id=EJ920579"><span>Flooded! An Investigation of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise in a <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Explore how melting ice sheets affect global <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level rise (SLR) is a rise in the water level of the Earth's oceans. There are two major kinds of ice in the polar regions: <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and land ice. Land ice contributes to SLR and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice does not. This article explores the characteristics of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and land ice and provides some hands-on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179581','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179581"><span>Final Laurentide ice-sheet deglaciation and Holocene <span class="hlt">climate-sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ullman, David J.; Carlson, Anders E.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Clark, Peter U.; Cuzzone, Joshua; Milne, Glenn A.; Winsor, Kelsey; Caffee, Marc A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Despite elevated summer insolation forcing during the early Holocene, global ice sheets retained nearly half of their volume from the Last Glacial Maximum, as indicated by deglacial records of global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (GMSL). Partitioning the GMSL rise among potential sources requires accurate dating of ice-sheet extent to estimate ice-sheet volume. Here, we date the final retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet with 10Be surface exposure ages for the Labrador Dome, the largest of the remnant Laurentide ice domes during the Holocene. We show that the Labrador Dome deposited moraines during North Atlantic cold events at ∼10.3 ka, 9.3 ka and 8.2 ka, suggesting that these regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> events helped stabilize the retreating Labrador Dome in the early Holocene. After Hudson Bay became seasonally ice free at ∼8.2 ka, the majority of Laurentide ice-sheet melted abruptly within a few centuries. We demonstrate through high-resolution regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model simulations that the thermal properties of a seasonally ice-free Hudson Bay would have increased Laurentide ice-sheet ablation and thus contributed to the subsequent rapid Labrador Dome retreat. Finally, our new 10Be chronology indicates full Laurentide ice-sheet had completely deglaciated by 6.7 ± 0.4 ka, which re quires that Antarctic ice sheets contributed 3.6–6.5 m to GMSL rise since 6.3–7.1 ka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376921"><span>Assessment of the impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on coastal groundwater discharge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masciopinto, Costantino; Liso, Isabella Serena</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>An assessment of <span class="hlt">sea</span> intrusion into coastal aquifers as a consequence of local <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise (LSLR) due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was carried out at Murgia and Salento in southern Italy. The interpolation of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level measurements at three tide-gauge stations was performed during the period of 2000 to 2014. The best fit of measurements shows an increasing rate of LSLR ranging from 4.4mm/y to 8.8mm/y, which will result in a maximum LSLR of approximately 2m during the 22nd century. The local rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise matches recent 21st and 22nd century projections of mean global <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise determined by other researchers, which include increased melting rates of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, the effect of ocean thermal expansion, the melting of glaciers and ice caps, and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the quantity of stored land water. Subsequently, Ghyben-Herzberg's equation for the freshwater/saltwater interface was rewritten in order to determine the decrease in groundwater discharge due to the maximum LSLR. Groundwater flow simulations and ArcGIS elaborations of digital elevation models of the coast provided input data for the Ghyben-Herzberg calculation under the assumption of head-controlled systems. The progression of seawater intrusion due to LSLR suggests an impressive depletion of available groundwater discharge during the 22nd century, perhaps as much as 16.1% of current groundwater pumping for potable water in Salento. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3834108','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3834108"><span>A Vulnerability Assessment of 300 Species in Florida: Threats from <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise, Land Use, and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reece, Joshua Steven; Noss, Reed F.; Oetting, Jon; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Species face many threats, including accelerated <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, and conversion and degradation of habitat from human land uses. Vulnerability assessments and prioritization protocols have been proposed to assess these threats, often in combination with information such as species rarity; ecological, evolutionary or economic value; and likelihood of success. Nevertheless, few vulnerability assessments or prioritization protocols simultaneously account for multiple threats or conservation values. We applied a novel vulnerability assessment tool, the Standardized Index of Vulnerability and Value, to assess the conservation priority of 300 species of plants and animals in Florida given projections of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, human land-use patterns, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise by the year 2100. We account for multiple sources of uncertainty and prioritize species under five different systems of value, ranging from a primary emphasis on vulnerability to threats to an emphasis on metrics of conservation value such as phylogenetic distinctiveness. Our results reveal remarkable consistency in the prioritization of species across different conservation value systems. Species of high priority include the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri), Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii), Florida duskywing butterfly (Ephyriades brunnea floridensis), and Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium). We also identify sources of uncertainty and the types of life history information consistently missing across taxonomic groups. This study characterizes the vulnerabilities to major threats of a broad swath of Florida’s biodiversity and provides a system for prioritizing conservation efforts that is quantitative, flexible, and free from hidden value judgments. PMID:24260447</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260447"><span>A vulnerability assessment of 300 species in Florida: threats from <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, land use, and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reece, Joshua Steven; Noss, Reed F; Oetting, Jon; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Species face many threats, including accelerated <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, and conversion and degradation of habitat from human land uses. Vulnerability assessments and prioritization protocols have been proposed to assess these threats, often in combination with information such as species rarity; ecological, evolutionary or economic value; and likelihood of success. Nevertheless, few vulnerability assessments or prioritization protocols simultaneously account for multiple threats or conservation values. We applied a novel vulnerability assessment tool, the Standardized Index of Vulnerability and Value, to assess the conservation priority of 300 species of plants and animals in Florida given projections of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, human land-use patterns, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise by the year 2100. We account for multiple sources of uncertainty and prioritize species under five different systems of value, ranging from a primary emphasis on vulnerability to threats to an emphasis on metrics of conservation value such as phylogenetic distinctiveness. Our results reveal remarkable consistency in the prioritization of species across different conservation value systems. Species of high priority include the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri), Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii), Florida duskywing butterfly (Ephyriades brunnea floridensis), and Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium). We also identify sources of uncertainty and the types of life history information consistently missing across taxonomic groups. This study characterizes the vulnerabilities to major threats of a broad swath of Florida's biodiversity and provides a system for prioritizing conservation efforts that is quantitative, flexible, and free from hidden value judgments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036356','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036356"><span>Impacts of past <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> on Everglades wetlands: placing a century of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">change</span> into a late-Holocene context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We synthesize existing evidence on the ecological history of the Florida Everglades since its inception ~7 ka (calibrated kiloannum) and evaluate the relative impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability, and human alteration of Everglades hydrology on wetland plant communities. Initial freshwater peat accumulation began between 6 and 7 ka on the platform underlying modern Florida Bay when <span class="hlt">sea</span> level was ~6.2 m below its current position. By 5 ka, sawgrass and waterlily peats covered the area bounded by Lake Okeechobee to the north and the Florida Keys to the south. Slower rates of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise ~3 ka stabilized the south Florida coastline and initiated transitions from freshwater to mangrove peats near the coast. Hydrologic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in freshwater marshes also are indicated ~3 ka. During the last ~2 ka, the Everglades wetland was affected by a series of hydrologic fluctuations related to regional to global-scale fluctuations in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Pollen evidence indicates that regional-scale droughts lasting two to four centuries occurred ~1 ka and ~0.4 ka, altering wetland community composition and triggering development of characteristic Everglades habitats such as sawgrass ridges and tree islands. Intercalation of mangrove peats with estuarine muds ~1 ka indicates a temporary slowing or stillstand of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Although sustained droughts and Holocene <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise played large roles in structuring the greater Everglades ecosystem, twentieth century reductions in freshwater flow, compartmentalization of the wetland, and accelerated rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise had unprecedented impacts on oxidation and subsidence of organic soils, <span class="hlt">changes</span>/loss of key Everglades habitats, and altered distribution of coastal vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC31B0997Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC31B0997Z"><span>Using GRACE and Landsat imagery to assess water balance <span class="hlt">change</span> due to anthropogenic modification and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region: 2002-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zmijewski, K. A.; Becker, R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> watershed located in central Asia has seen significant anthropogenic modification since the mid 20th century, leading to the desiccation of the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a closed basin with a watershed area of almost 2 million square kilometers including the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. A network of canals and channels has diverted a significant amount of flow from both rivers into various agricultural areas and reservoirs. Monitoring water resources within the region is of utmost importance to understanding how the region will be impacted by ongoing and future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Using GRACE (Gravity and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Experiment) data from 2002-2012 water storage trends within the basin were determined using a linear model. The data was normalized and fit with an annual function to determine inter-annual variability. Anthropogenic modification has lead to increased water storage in the central region of both watersheds, most notably within the Aydar-Arnasay lakes after the Shadara irrigation dam was built in the 1960s. Gravity data within this region shows a positive trend of increased storage: 0.30 to 0.40 mm (equivalent water thickness) per year. However, the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin proper showed a negative trend of almost 1 mm (equivalent water thickness) per year. The entire watershed and basin showed an overall negative trend in water storage. To determine the possible cause of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on these <span class="hlt">changes</span>, 206 weather stations within the basin were analyzed for <span class="hlt">climate</span> trends (precipitation and temperature). No significant trends were observed in basin-wide precipitation and average annual temperatures increased 1-2 degrees C over a century. Precipitation in close proximity to the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> showed a significant decrease after 1970. The effects of anthropogenic modification and <span class="hlt">climate</span> trends on water surface area were determined using MODIS land use classifications (MCD12Q1) from 2001-2010, supplemented with Landsat imagery. Water surface area totals within</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP51A1606L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP51A1606L"><span>Plio-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in Asian: Evidence from terrestrial lipids at ODP Site 1143 in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, L.; Wang, H.; Wang, P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A homologous series of n-alkanes (C24-C35) were detected at the ODP site 1143 (9°21.72'N, 113°17.11'E) in southern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and were used to reconstruct the paleoclimate <span class="hlt">change</span> in the eastern Asian over the past 5Ma. Strong odd-carbon number predominance with a maximum at C29 or C31 in these n-alkanes indicated their origins of terrestrial higher plant waxes, which are transported to the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> mainly by rivers. In general, the profile of ΣAlkanes (sum of C24-C35) can be subdivided into two time intervals: Before 2.7 Ma, the ΣAlkanes fluctuated between 100 and 500 ng/g, averaging at 250 ng/g, which was lower than that in late Pleistocene but higher than that in early Pleistocene. Highland <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during this period might have caused the deposition of the ΣAlkanes, which reflected the riverine discharge and rainfall intensity . After 2.7Ma, ΣAlkanes varied between 80-750 ng/g, with big fluctuations in the late Pleistocene. Alkane abundances depict a robust positive relationship with δ18OG. ruber but inverse relationship with temperature with maximum concentrations corresponding to heavier δ18OG. rube and lower temperature during glacial periods. This related to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in flux of the materials transported by the river, which, in turn, would have been influenced by <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and/or precipitation. During glacial low stands of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-levels, especially in the late Pleistocene, the emergence of the huge continental platforms in the south of the SCS led to the development of numerous drainage systems that significantly increased the input of terrestrial material and thus n-alkanes contents. Besides ΣAlkanes, the alkane indices, i.e. the ratio of n-C31 /n-C27 and average carbon chain lengths (ACLs) of odd carbon-number, also recorded the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Although studies show that plants tend to synthesize longer chain length n-alkanes in response to elevated temperature and/or aridity, the higher n-C31 /n-C27 and ACLs in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH53A3867H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH53A3867H"><span>Analysis of a Storm-induced Surge Anomaly Under <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> with Focus on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR) on hurricane storm surge and wind-waves is a non-linear process (Bilskie et al., 2014). Using a high-resolution physics-based numerical model, we examine shelf wave dynamics in general and a shelf anomaly in particular under global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios, which include SLR and potential hurricane intensification. To begin it is noted that Hurricane Dennis (2005) produced local storm surge in Apalachee Bay of six to ten feet, but the National Hurricane Center advisory for the region forecast only four to six feet of storm surge. This forecast was based on the relatively weak wind forcing along the west Florida shelf, but the additional storm-induced surge was caused by a remotely forced shelf wave that propagated along the Florida shelf as a topographic Rossby wave (Morey et al.,2006).These mesoscale processed are studied under <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios using a state-of-the-art wind-waved hurricane storm surge model (SWAN+ADCIRC) of the northern Gulf of Mexico that encompasses the off-shore regions including the western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and Gulf of Mexico. The finitie element model penetrates the shoreline along Florida's "Big Bend" region, the Florida panhandle, Alabama, and the Mississippi coast with high resolution that is sufficient to describe the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, for example. The large domain and fine mesh resolution included in the model permits the description, and non-linear interaction, of the physics associated with wind-generated waves and hurricane storm surge that produce storm-induced anomalies such as the Rossby wave generated during Hurricane Dennis. Examination of various wave statistics such as significant wave height, mean wave period and direction, and wave radiation stress gradients provide insight into future behavior of storm-induced shelf wave dynamics under global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. This study may impact future statistics and probability distributions for analysis of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850017731&hterms=carbon+dioxide+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bdioxide%2B%252B%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850017731&hterms=carbon+dioxide+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcarbon%2Bdioxide%2B%252B%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Fram Strait</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hunkins, K.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo <span class="hlt">change</span> effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter <span class="hlt">climate</span>. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which <span class="hlt">climate</span> might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between <span class="hlt">sea</span>, air and ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452221','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452221"><span>Shading and Watering as a Tool to Mitigate the Impacts of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Turtle Nests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hill, Jacob E.; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Increasing sand temperatures resulting from <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may negatively impact <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle nests by altering sex ratios and decreasing reproductive output. We analyzed the effect of nest shading and watering on sand temperatures as <span class="hlt">climate</span> mitigation strategies in a beach hatchery at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. We set up plots and placed thermocouples at depths of 45cm and 75cm. Half of the plots were shaded and half were exposed to the sun. Within these exposure treatments, we applied three watering treatments over one month, replicating local <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions experienced in this area. We also examined gravimetric water content of sand by collecting sand samples the day before watering began, the day after watering was complete, and one month after completion. Shading had the largest impact on sand temperature, followed by watering and depth. All watering treatments lowered sand temperature, but the effect varied with depth. Temperatures in plots that received water returned to control levels within 10 days after watering stopped. Water content increased at both depths in the two highest water treatments, and 30 days after the end of water application remained higher than plots with low water. While the impacts of watering on sand temperature dissipate rapidly after the end of application, the impacts on water content are much more lasting. Although less effective at lowering sand temperatures than shading, watering may benefit <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle clutches by offsetting negative impacts of low levels of rain in particularly dry areas. Prior to implementing such strategies, the natural conditions at the location of interest (e.g. clutch depth, environmental conditions, and beach characteristics) and natural hatchling sex ratios should be taken into consideration. These results provide insight into the effectiveness of nest shading and watering as <span class="hlt">climate</span> mitigation techniques and illustrate important points of consideration in the crafting of such strategies. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030883"><span>Shading and watering as a tool to mitigate the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle nests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hill, Jacob E; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Increasing sand temperatures resulting from <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may negatively impact <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle nests by altering sex ratios and decreasing reproductive output. We analyzed the effect of nest shading and watering on sand temperatures as <span class="hlt">climate</span> mitigation strategies in a beach hatchery at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. We set up plots and placed thermocouples at depths of 45 cm and 75 cm. Half of the plots were shaded and half were exposed to the sun. Within these exposure treatments, we applied three watering treatments over one month, replicating local <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions experienced in this area. We also examined gravimetric water content of sand by collecting sand samples the day before watering began, the day after watering was complete, and one month after completion. Shading had the largest impact on sand temperature, followed by watering and depth. All watering treatments lowered sand temperature, but the effect varied with depth. Temperatures in plots that received water returned to control levels within 10 days after watering stopped. Water content increased at both depths in the two highest water treatments, and 30 days after the end of water application remained higher than plots with low water. While the impacts of watering on sand temperature dissipate rapidly after the end of application, the impacts on water content are much more lasting. Although less effective at lowering sand temperatures than shading, watering may benefit <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle clutches by offsetting negative impacts of low levels of rain in particularly dry areas. Prior to implementing such strategies, the natural conditions at the location of interest (e.g. clutch depth, environmental conditions, and beach characteristics) and natural hatchling sex ratios should be taken into consideration. These results provide insight into the effectiveness of nest shading and watering as <span class="hlt">climate</span> mitigation techniques and illustrate important points of consideration in the crafting of such strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9196R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9196R"><span>A stable, unbiased, long-term satellite based data record of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature from ESA's <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayner, Nick; Good, Simon; Merchant, Chris</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> demands long-term, stable observational records of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST). ESA's <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Initiative was set up to unlock the potential of satellite data records for this purpose. As part of this initiative, 13 projects were established to develop the data records for different essential <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables - aerosol, cloud, fire, greenhouse gases, glaciers, ice sheets, land cover, ocean colour, ozone, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, soil moisture and SST. In this presentation we describe the development work that has taken place in the SST project and present new prototype data products that are available now for users to trial. The SST project began in 2010 and has now produced two prototype products. The first is a long-term product (covering mid-1991 - 2010 currently, but with a view to update this in the future), which prioritises length of data record and stability over other considerations. It is based on data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series of satellite instruments. The product aims to combine the favourable stability and bias characteristics of ATSR data with the geographical coverage achieved with the AVHRR series. Following an algorithm selection process, an optimal estimation approach to retrieving SST from the satellite measurements from both sensors was adopted. The retrievals do not depend on in situ data and so this data record represents an independent assessment of SST <span class="hlt">change</span>. In situ data are, however, being used to validate the resulting data. The second data product demonstrates the coverage that can be achieved using the modern satellite observing system including, for example, geostationary satellite data. Six months worth of data have been processed for this demonstration product. The prototype SST products will be released in April to users to trial in their work. The long term product will be available as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U51A0001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U51A0001G"><span>Human Impacts On The Bengal Delta's Response To Rapid <span class="hlt">Climate</span> And <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level <span class="hlt">Changes</span>: Who Threatens Whom? (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goodbred, S. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The densely populated country of Bangladesh is often cited as being severely threatened by predicted <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and accelerated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. Justification for this grave assessment is founded in part on the low-lying nation's frequent inundation by river floods and storm surges, which affect millions of people annually. Indeed, nearly 50% of the delta system lies <3 m above <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and the 2001 IPCC report suggested that a 1.5 m rise could inundate 22,000 km2 of coastal lowland and displace 17 million people. However, these signs of pending trouble contrast in many ways with patterns of delta behavior observed in the geological record. Sedimentary deposits from the early Holocene demonstrate that the Bengal delta remained largely stable in the face of very rapid <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, owing to a strengthened Asian monsoon, enhanced fluvial sediment fluxes, and an effective dispersal system. So how can we assess this system's likely response to environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> based on such seemingly contradictory patterns from the modern and Holocene delta? A first step would be to acknowledge that flooding and land loss are very different processes, and often negatively correlated. For the Bengal delta in particular, coastal and upland flooding is the very process that maintains the system's stability in the facing of rising <span class="hlt">seas</span>. While such flooding is a strain on humans, for the natural environment it speaks more to a healthful future than decline. Here I present field-based observations of sediment dispersal in the modern Bengal delta, which demonstrate how the system may remain relatively stable over the next century. However, this potentially acceptable outcome becomes increasingly unlikely if human interferences are considered. For example, short-term strategies to mitigate flooding would likely involve artificial leveeing of the river and the diking of coastal lowlands, both of which would limit sedimentation and diminish relative elevation of the delta surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28333743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28333743"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Mental Health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23690593"><span>Surviving rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> during the Paleogene hyperthermals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Laura C; Schmidt, Daniela N; Thomas, Ellen; Arndt, Sandra; Ridgwell, Andy</p> <p>2013-06-04</p> <p>Predicting the impact of ongoing anthropogenic CO2 emissions on calcifying marine organisms is complex, owing to the synergy between direct <span class="hlt">changes</span> (acidification) and indirect <span class="hlt">changes</span> through <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (e.g., warming, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean circulation, and deoxygenation). Laboratory experiments, particularly on longer-lived organisms, tend to be too short to reveal the potential of organisms to acclimatize, adapt, or evolve and usually do not incorporate multiple stressors. We studied two examples of rapid carbon release in the geological record, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (∼53.2 Ma) and the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼55.5 Ma), the best analogs over the last 65 Ma for future ocean acidification related to high atmospheric CO2 levels. We use benthic foraminifers, which suffered severe extinction during the PETM, as a model group. Using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy, we reconstruct the calcification response of survivor species and find, contrary to expectations, that calcification significantly increased during the PETM. In contrast, there was no significant response to the smaller Eocene Thermal Maximum 2, which was associated with a minor <span class="hlt">change</span> in diversity only. These observations suggest that there is a response threshold for extinction and calcification response, while highlighting the utility of the geological record in helping constrain the sensitivity of biotic response to environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19608915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19608915"><span>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature and ice volume <span class="hlt">changes</span> across the Pliocene-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> transitions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sosdian, Sindia; Rosenthal, Yair</p> <p>2009-07-17</p> <p>Earth has undergone profound <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the late Pliocene, which led to the development [approximately 2.7 million years ago (Ma)] and intensification (approximately 0.9 Ma) of large-scale Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, recorded as transitions in the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (delta18Ob) record. Here we present an orbitally resolved record of deep ocean temperature derived from benthic foraminiferal magnesium/calcium ratios from the North Atlantic, which shows that temperature variations are a substantial portion of the global delta18Ob signal. The record shows two distinct cooling events associated with the late Pliocene (LPT, 2.5 to 3 Ma) and mid-Pleistocene (MPT, 1.2 to 0.85 Ma) <span class="hlt">climate</span> transitions. Whereas the LPT increase in ice volume is attributed directly to global cooling, the shift to 100,000-year cycles at the MPT is more likely to be a response to an additional <span class="hlt">change</span> in ice-sheet dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..625F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..625F"><span>Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoceanographic and paleo-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Gulf of Gemlik, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara, Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filikci, Betül; Kadir Eriş, K.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun; Yalamaz, Burak</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Gulf of Gemlik is an east-west oriented marine inlet with a maximum depth of 113 m in the south-eastern part of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara. It is located on the middle branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. While the Gulf of Gemlik is separated from the SoM by a bedrock sill at -50 m, there were presumably several disconnections during the Late Pleistocene to Holocene, but the timing of the youngest connection around the onset of the Holocene is still controversial. Here, we attempt to elucidate the paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the late glacial-Holocene using the multi-proxy analysis of a core extending back to 13 ka BP. The multi-proxy data include physical and geochemical properties together with AMS 14C ages. The core sediments covering the time period of the last 13 ka BP consists of two main lithostratigraphic units. The lower Unit L2 represents the lacustrine phase of the gulf prior to 10.6 ka BP, while the upper Unit L1 is an overlying transgressive mud drape deposited during the main part of the Holocene. Unit L2 deposited prior 10.6 ka BP represents Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">climatic</span> periods, when prograding shelf edge sediments were deposited in the form of well sorted medium sands with brackish water bivalve shells (Dreissenapolymorpha). At the beginning of the Holocene, the rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara breached the -50 m sill at 10.6 ka BP, and therefore the Gulf of Gemlik was converted into a marine realm. Soon after, the water stratifications allowed to the formation of the previously studied two sapropels in the gulf, as shown by increased TOC contents. μ-XRF Ca/Ti and Sr/Ca profiles of Unit L1 provide evidence of rapid <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> at 8.2 ka BP and 4.2 ka BP, representing cold and dry short <span class="hlt">climatic</span> periods which are well correlated with previous marine and lake studies in İznik Lake south of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara. Keywords: Gemlik Gulf, core, paleoclimate, Late Pleistocene to Holocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..557O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.468..557O"><span>Paleoceanographic conditions in the western Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as a response to global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> and remote <span class="hlt">climatic</span> signals during the last 180 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ovsepyan, E. A.; Ivanova, E. V.; Gulev, S. K.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present results from the sediment core SO201-2-85KL retrieved from the western Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> that recovered the past 180 000 years. For the first time, the intense dissolution of calcareous microfossils has been established when the Bering Strait was open during the glacioeustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. Possible mechanisms of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> teleconnections between remote regions are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5409S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5409S"><span>Projecting future wave <span class="hlt">climates</span> and corresponding shoreline <span class="hlt">changes</span> along the differently exposed coastal sections of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suursaar, Ülo; Tõnisson, Hannes</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The aim of the study is to analyze the recently observed and projected future coastal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in differently exposed Estonian coastal sections as a result of <span class="hlt">changing</span> wind and wave <span class="hlt">climates</span>. Along the shoreline of the practically tideless Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, the increase in storminess has already impacted the coastal environment over the last 50 years. However, the number of storms, as well as their pathways, has been fluctuating considerably over the last decades. Furthermore, forecasting future hydrodynamic conditions and corresponding coastal <span class="hlt">changes</span> is a rather mixed, yet crucial task. A number of Estonian study sites have been regularly examined by coastal scientists since the 1960s. Six coastal sections have been chosen for this study: Harilaid Peninsula (exposed to SW), Letipea-Sillamäe (N), Kõiguste-Nasva (SE), Kihnu-Pärnu (S), and two sides of the Osmussaar Island (W, N). Since the 2000s, use of GPS instruments and GIS software has enabled year-to-year <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the shoreline to be tracked and the calculation of the corresponding areas or volumes due to accumulation and erosion. Recently digitized aerial photographs, as well as orthophotos and old topographic maps, enable the calculation of <span class="hlt">changes</span> over longer sub-periods. Based on recorded and hindcasted <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wind-driven hydrodynamic conditions, we found relationships between forcing conditions and the rates at which shorelines were <span class="hlt">changing</span>. For future <span class="hlt">changes</span>, wave <span class="hlt">climates</span> were projected for the selected coastal sections of special geomorphic interest, where also a series of hydrodynamic surveys (waves, currents, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level) were carried out using ADCP-s in 2006-2014. Wave parameters were consecutively hindcasted using a site-dependently calibrated fetch-based wave model. As the full calculation period (1966-2013) might suffer from inhomogeneity of wind input data, a confidently homogeneous time cut (2004-2013; 10 full years with hourly resolution) was chosen as a baseline (or control) period. An</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25974138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25974138"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, and health in an Inuit community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice means freedom for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to <span class="hlt">changing</span> environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on Indigenous environmental health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..54..671I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..54..671I"><span>How to Preserve Coastal Wetlands, Threatened by <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>-Driven Rises in <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivajnšič, Danijel; Kaligarič, Mitja</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A habitat transition model, based on the correlation between individual habitats and micro-elevation intervals, showed substantial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the future spatial distributions of coastal habitats. The research was performed within two protected areas in Slovenia: Sečovlje Salina Nature Park and Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve. Shifts between habitats will occur, but a general decline of 42 % for all Natura 2000 habitats is projected by 2060, according to local or global (IPCC AR4) <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise predictions. Three different countermeasures for the long-term conservation of targeted habitat types were proposed. The most "natural" is displacement of coastal habitats using buffer zones (1) were available. Another solution is construction of artificial islets, made of locally dredged material (2); a feasible solution in both protected areas. Twenty-two islets and a dried salt pan zone at the desired elevations suitable for those habitats that have been projected to decease in area would offer an additional 10 ha in the Sečovlje Salina. Twenty-one islets and two peninsulas at two different micro-altitudes would ensure the survival of 13 ha of three different habitats. In the area of Sečovlje Salina, abandoned salt pans could be terrestrialized by using permanent, artificial <span class="hlt">sea</span> barriers, in a manner close to poldering (3). By using this countermeasure, another 32 ha of targeted habitat could be preserved. It can be concluded that, for each coastal area, where wetland habitats will shrink, strategic plans involving any of the three solutions should be prepared well in advance. The specific examples provided might facilitate adaptive management of coastal wetlands in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488086"><span>How to preserve coastal wetlands, threatened by <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>-driven rises in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivajnšič, Danijel; Kaligarič, Mitja</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A habitat transition model, based on the correlation between individual habitats and micro-elevation intervals, showed substantial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the future spatial distributions of coastal habitats. The research was performed within two protected areas in Slovenia: Sečovlje Salina Nature Park and Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve. Shifts between habitats will occur, but a general decline of 42 % for all Natura 2000 habitats is projected by 2060, according to local or global (IPCC AR4) <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise predictions. Three different countermeasures for the long-term conservation of targeted habitat types were proposed. The most "natural" is displacement of coastal habitats using buffer zones (1) were available. Another solution is construction of artificial islets, made of locally dredged material (2); a feasible solution in both protected areas. Twenty-two islets and a dried salt pan zone at the desired elevations suitable for those habitats that have been projected to decease in area would offer an additional 10 ha in the Sečovlje Salina. Twenty-one islets and two peninsulas at two different micro-altitudes would ensure the survival of 13 ha of three different habitats. In the area of Sečovlje Salina, abandoned salt pans could be terrestrialized by using permanent, artificial <span class="hlt">sea</span> barriers, in a manner close to poldering (3). By using this countermeasure, another 32 ha of targeted habitat could be preserved. It can be concluded that, for each coastal area, where wetland habitats will shrink, strategic plans involving any of the three solutions should be prepared well in advance. The specific examples provided might facilitate adaptive management of coastal wetlands in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6341K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6341K"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> due to the hydrochemical regime of the oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kapochkin, Borys; Mikhaylov, Valery; Kucherenko, Nataliya; Kapochkina, Anastasiya</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of <span class="hlt">changing</span> the acidity of ocean waters and dissolution of carbonate sediments. We consider the problem of the fall <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during dissolution of carbonate sediments. Increased acidity of ocean waters occurs due to two processes. The first process is the dissolution in the surface waters of the ocean carbon dioxide due to the man-made and volcanic origin. The second process is the flow from the lithosphere to the bottom layers of the ocean acids and carbon dioxide. It is shown that the growth of level by increasing the volume of liquid water during melting of ice at the present stage can be compensated by increasing the volume of ocean basins, the dissolution of carbonate sediments. The effect of reducing pH on coral reefs. It is shown that coral reefs grow at the expense of the fluids from the lithosphere that have low pH and render nutrients. Corals are being degraded by the shortage and an excess of acidic fluids of the lithosphere. We consider the problem of <span class="hlt">changes</span> the concentrations of phosphate in the waters of the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3731J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3731J"><span>Mid-Cenomanian Event I (MCE I, 96 Ma): elemental and osmium isotope evidence for <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and palaeocirculation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the NW European epicontinental <span class="hlt">sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarvis, Ian; Roest-Ellis, Sascha; Selby, David</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Cenomanian times (100.5-93.9 Ma) represent perhaps the best documented episode of eustatic rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in Earth history and the beginning of the Late Mesozoic thermal maximum, driving global expansion of epicontinental <span class="hlt">seas</span> and the onset of widespread pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk) deposition. Significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred in global stable-isotope records, including two prominent perturbations of the carbon cycle -Mid-Cenomanian Event I (MCEI; 96.5-96.2 Ma) and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; 94.5-93.8 Ma). OAE2 was marked by the widespread deposition of black shales in the deep ocean and epicontinental <span class="hlt">seas</span>, and a global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion of 2.0 - 2.5‰ δ13C in marine carbonates. Osmium isotopes and other geochemical data indicate that OAE2 was associated with a major pulse of LIP-associated volcanism, with coincident <span class="hlt">changes</span> in eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, rising atmospheric pCO2 and warming <span class="hlt">climate</span>, but including a transient phase of global cooling - the Plenus Cold Event. MCEI, by contrast, shows a <1‰ δ13Ccarb excursion, and has no associated black shales in most areas, yet it also displays evidence of two episodes of cooling, comparable to the Plenus Cold Event. MCEI marks a major breakpoint on long-term carbon-isotope profiles, from relatively constant to very slowly rising δ13C values through the Lower Cenomanian, to a trend of generally increasing δ13C values through the Middle and Upper Cenomanian. This represents a significant long-term <span class="hlt">change</span> in the global carbon cycle starting with MCEI. Here, we present new high-resolution major- (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace-element (Ba, Cr, Re, Os, Sr, Zr) data and 187Os/188Os isotope results for MCEI from an English Chalk reference section at Folkestone. Our results are compared to published δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb, δ13Corg stable isotope and neodymium isotope ɛNd(t) data from the same section. Elemental proxies (Mn, Ti/Al, Zr/Al, Si/Al) define key sequence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31D1898L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP31D1898L"><span>Penguin population dynamics over the past 1500 years in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region, East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X.; Nie, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Several ornithogenic sediment profiles were collected from lakes and catchments near penguin colonies in the ice-free areas of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. According to the analysis on elemental and isotopic geochemistry, As, Cd, Cu, P, S, Se and Zn were identified as bio-elements for the input of penguin droppings into the sediments. The 210Pb-137Cs and AMS14C dating results showed the chronology of these determined sediment profiles covered the different time spans from 1500 to 200 cal yr BP. Factor analysis on these bio-elements can be used to reconstruct historical <span class="hlt">change</span> of penguin population, and the result showed that the penguin population, which was reconstructed from the shorter profiles (younger than 500 years) at Cape Crozier and Beaufort Island of Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region, displayed clear peaks in the recent decades of years. This finding is in accordance with global warming and modern observation data. The penguin population reconstructed from the longer sediment profiles excavated from Cape Bird showed more fluctuations. Two sediment profiles, collected from the lower terrain of mid Cape Bird, recorded higher penguin density between 1000 and 600 cal. yr BP and then decreased sharply. However, one sediment profile on higher terrain in mid Cape Bird recorded a sudden increase in penguin population from around 600 yr BP. We believed the population peaks recorded in the different sediments profiles was indicative of a migration within the penguin colonies of Cape Bird, from lower terrain to higher terrain. This migration was likely driven by the severe <span class="hlt">climate</span> fluctuation during the Little Ice Age in the study region. Our results clearly showed the <span class="hlt">change</span> of penguin ecology can sensitively indicate <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the East Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9....1E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPD...9....1E"><span>Holocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent predominantly controlled by insolation and ENSO variability <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J. H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global <span class="hlt">climate</span> over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, we derived new Holocene records of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions and upper water column temperatures, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and TEXL86 for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages). The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~ 7000-3000 yr BP), local <span class="hlt">climate</span> evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~ 3000 yr) was characterized by more variable temperatures and increased <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The stepwise increase in annual <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation despite an increasing summer insolation. We postulate that in addition to precessional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in insolation, seasonal variability, via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 4000 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.1431E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9.1431E"><span>Holocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent predominantly controlled by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in insolation and ENSO variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Etourneau, J.; Collins, L. G.; Willmott, V.; Kim, J.-H.; Barbara, L.; Leventer, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Bianchini, A.; Klein, V.; Crosta, X.; Massé, G.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The West Antarctic ice sheet is particularly sensitive to global warming and its evolution and impact on global <span class="hlt">climate</span> over the next few decades remains difficult to predict. In this context, investigating past <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions around Antarctica is of primary importance. Here, we document <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice presence, upper water column temperatures (0-200 m) and primary productivity over the last 9000 yr BP (before present) in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) margin from a sedimentary core collected in the Palmer Deep Basin. Employing a multi-proxy approach, based on the combination of two biomarkers proxies (highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkenes for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and TEX86L for temperature) and micropaleontological data (diatom assemblages), we derived new Holocene records of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice conditions and upper water column temperatures. The early Holocene (9000-7000 yr BP) was characterized by a cooling phase with a short <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice season. During the mid-Holocene (~7000-3800 yr BP), local <span class="hlt">climate</span> evolved towards slightly colder conditions and a prominent extension of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice season occurred, promoting a favorable environment for intensive diatom growth. The late Holocene (the last ~2100 yr) was characterized by warmer temperatures and increased <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice presence, accompanied by reduced local primary productivity, likely in response to a shorter growing season compared to the early or mid-Holocene. The gradual increase in annual <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice duration over the last 7000 yr might have been influenced by decreasing mean annual and spring insolation, despite increasing summer insolation. We postulate that, in addition to precessional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in insolation, seasonal variability, via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the strength of the circumpolar Westerlies and upwelling activity, was further amplified by the increasing frequency/amplitude of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, between 3800 and 2100 yr BP, the lack of correlation between ENSO and <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability in the WAP</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13B0627R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13B0627R"><span>A Pluridisciplinary Study of the Impact of Future Ice Sheets Instability on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span>, Migrations and Energy Supply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramstein, G.; Defrance, D.; Dumas, C.; Charbit, S.; Gemenne, F.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Bouneau, S.; David, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>From paleoclimate data and GCM models simulations, we learnt that, when ice sheets are unstable, they produce large surges of icebergs that cover North Atlantic and produce global <span class="hlt">climate</span> instability through atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Indeed, these instabilities are associated with a cold (glacial) context. In a warming world, it appears that the two remaining ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) are becoming unstable. The probability of abrupt ice sheet <span class="hlt">changes</span> is therefore to be investigated. In comparison with predicted AR5 <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR) (28 to 82 cm), such a fast melting could add a contribution of 2 to 5 meters, which corresponds to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise estimate of glacial instability (Heinrich events). The aim of this presentation is to describe consistent <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations. We define 3 scenarios, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is produced by the melting of about third of the Greenland, or the disappearance of West Antarctica, or finally a mixture of both ice sheets melting. We first analyze, using IPSL OAGCM, the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> impact. Indeed, superimposed to direct <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> has drastic consequences in North Atlantic (Europe and east of North America) due to the thermohaline circulation breakdown. Moreover, when freshwater is injected into North Atlantic, far field effects on the location and amplitude of Asian Monsoon have been shown with its drastic decrease. The second step of this multidisciplinary study is to quantify the impact of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on populations migration, with a focus on Southern Asia with a prospective migration of several hundreds of people. In a third step, we intend to simulate the reorganization of power supply to adapt to the expected new distribution of population, using a quantitative energy model (COSIME). Here, we show the <span class="hlt">climate</span> response to the 3 investigated <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios and the response in terms of migration, which is huge due to the very large part of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025756','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025756"><span>Development of small carbonate banks on the south Florida platform margin: Response to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mallinson, David J.; Hine, Albert C.; Hallock, Pamela; Locker, Stanley D.; Shinn, Eugene; Naar, David; Donahue, Brian; Weaver, Douglas C.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Geophysical and coring data from the Dry Tortugas, Tortugas Bank, and Riley’s Hump on the southwest Florida margin reveal the stratigraphic framework and growth history of these carbonate banks. The Holocene reefs of the Dry Tortugas and Tortugas Bank are approximately 14 and 10 m thick, respectively, and are situated upon Pleistocene reefal edifices. Tortugas Bank consists of the oldest Holocene corals in the Florida Keys with earliest coral recruitment occurring at ∼9.6 cal ka. Growth curves for the Tortugas Bank reveal slow growth (<1 mm/yr) until 6.2 cal ka, then a rapid increase to 3.4 mm/yr, until shallow reef demise at ∼4.2 cal ka. Coral reef development at the Dry Tortugas began at ∼6.4 cal ka. Aggradation at the Dry Tortugas was linear, and rapid (∼3.7 mm/yr) and kept pace with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span>. The increase in aggradation rate of Tortugas Bank at 6.2 cal ka is attributed to the growth of the Dry Tortugas reefs, which formed a barrier to inimical shelf water. Termination of shallow (<15 m below <span class="hlt">sea</span> level) reef growth at Tortugas Bank at ∼4.2 cal ka is attributed to paleoclimate <span class="hlt">change</span> in the North American interior that increased precipitation and fluvial discharge. Reef growth rates and characteristics are related to the rate of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise relative to the position of the reef on the shelf margin, and are additionally modified by hydrographic conditions related to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9261J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9261J"><span>Catchment-scale contaminant transport under <span class="hlt">changing</span> hydro-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions in the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Drainage Basin, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarsjö, Jerker; Törnqvist, Rebecka; Su, Ye</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Dependable projections of future water availability and quality are essential in the management of water resources. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in land use, water use and <span class="hlt">climate</span> can have large impacts on water and contaminant flows across extensive catchments that may contain different administrative regions where shared water resources must be managed. We consider the extensive Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Drainage Basin (ASDB) and the Amu Darya River Delta in Central Asia, which are currently under severe water stress due to large-scale irrigation expansion. We interpret data on hydro-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions, main contaminants of surface water and shallow groundwater systems, location of rivers and canal networks, and groundwater flow directions. The data are used together with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> projections from general circulation models (GCMs) as input to hydrological and (advective) transport modelling. The main goal is to assess how regional transport pathways and travel times have <span class="hlt">changed</span>, and are likely to <span class="hlt">change</span> further, in response to past and projected future hydro-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. More specifically, the hydrological modelling was based on temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> (ΔT and ΔP) results from 65 GCM projections of 21st century conditions (specifically considering time periods around 2025, 2050, and 2100), relative to reference conditions around 1975 (taken from the reference period 1961-1990). Whereas ΔT is robustly projected to increase with time, the projected magnitude of ΔP differs more among projections for the distant future (2100) than for the near future (2025), with uncertainty remaining even about the direction of <span class="hlt">change</span> (i.e., positive or negative ΔP). However, mainly due to the projected temperature-driven increases in evapotranspiration, ensemble average results show that the Amu Darya river discharge Q in the downstream ASDB is likely to show a decreasing trend throughout the 21st century. Notably, projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the upstream, mountainous regions have a relatively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcSci..10..397O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcSci..10..397O"><span>The effects of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the cycling and processes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Driscoll, K.; Mayer, B.; Su, J.; Mathis, M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The fate and cycling of two selected legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), PCB 153 and γ-HCH, in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the 21st century have been modelled with combined hydrodynamic and fate and transport ocean models (HAMSOM and FANTOM, respectively). To investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability on POPs in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the 21st century, future scenario model runs for three 10-year periods to the year 2100 using plausible levels of both in situ concentrations and atmospheric, river and open boundary inputs are performed. This slice mode under a moderate scenario (A1B) is sufficient to provide a basis for further analysis. For the HAMSOM and atmospheric forcing, results of the IPCC A1B (SRES) 21st century scenario are utilized, where surface forcing is provided by the REMO downscaling of the ECHAM5 global atmospheric model, and open boundary conditions are provided by the MPIOM global ocean model. Dry gas deposition and volatilization of γ-HCH increase in the future relative to the present by up to 20% (in the spring and summer months for deposition and in summer for volatilization). In the water column, total mass of γ-HCH and PCB 153 remain fairly steady in all three runs. In sediment, γ-HCH increases in the future runs, relative to the present, while PCB 153 in sediment decreases exponentially in all three runs, but even faster in the future, due to the increased number of storms, increased duration of gale wind conditions and increased water and air temperatures, all of which are the result of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Annual net sinks exceed sources at the ends of all periods. Overall, the model results indicate that the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios considered here generally have a negligible influence on the simulated fate and transport of the two POPs in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, although the increased number and magnitude of storms in the 21st century will result in POP resuspension and ensuing revolatilization events. Trends in emissions from primary and secondary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880596"><span>Modelling the influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the chemical concentrations in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region with the POPCYCLING-Baltic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Deguo; MacLeod, Matthew; Cousins, Ian T</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The effect of projected future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in temperature, wind speed, precipitation and particulate organic carbon on concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> regional environment is evaluated using the POPCYCLING-Baltic multimedia chemical fate model. Steady-state concentrations of hypothetical perfectly persistent chemicals with property combinations that encompass the entire plausible range for non-ionizing organic substances are modelled under two alternative <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios (IPCC A2 and B2) and compared to a baseline <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario. The contributions of individual <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters are deduced in model experiments in which only one of the four parameters is <span class="hlt">changed</span> from the baseline scenario. Of the four selected <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters, temperature is the most influential, and wind speed is least. Chemical concentrations in the Baltic region are projected to <span class="hlt">change</span> by factors of up to 3.0 compared to the baseline <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario. For chemicals with property combinations similar to legacy persistent organic pollutants listed by the Stockholm Convention, modelled concentration ratios between two <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios and the baseline scenario range from factors of 0.5 to 2.0. This study is a first step toward quantitatively assessing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the environmental concentrations of persistent organic chemicals in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21C2259Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21C2259Z"><span>Downslope strengthening millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> signals deduced from high-resolution clay mineralogy during the last glaciation in the northern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, S.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X.; Xie, X.; Shi, J.; Christophe, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Clay mineralogy provides a powerful tool to reconstruct glacial-cyclic paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. However, whether the clay mineralogy could also reserve millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is still poorly understood, because clay minerals usually produced through the long-term chemical weathering are not sensitive to the fast environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. This study presents the high-resolution clay mineralogy of three high-quality sediment cores, which were retrieved from a transect on the continental slope of the northern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the cruise of MD190 (2012). Our results show that time series <span class="hlt">changes</span> of clay mineral assemblages display a clear occurrence of millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> events, such as Younger Dryas, Bolling-Allerod, and Heinrich events 1-6. The reconstructed relative contributions of clay minerals from their source areas of Taiwan and Luzon are closely related to the millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, while the clay mineral contribution from the source area of the Pearl River presents a relationship to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span>. Following the transect with increasing water depths, the Pearl River contribution decreases, whereas the Taiwan and Luzon contributions present more complex <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and the millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> signals are also gradually strengthened. The Luzon/Taiwan contribution ratio is used for the proxy of the millennial-scale paleoclimate evolution. The lower ratio presents colder events, while the high ratio indicates warmer periods. The distinct downslope strengthening millennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> indicates that deepwater sediments in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> could well reserve fast <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> events that usually occurred in high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED33B0774D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED33B0774D"><span>Current <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Variability & <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine <span class="hlt">changes</span> in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current <span class="hlt">change</span> in temperatures: loss of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice; rise of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 <span class="hlt">climate</span>-literacy concepts and all seven <span class="hlt">climate</span>-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of <span class="hlt">climate</span> data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability and trends truly are 'current.'</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5808621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5808621"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span>-induced variations in lake levels: A mechanism for short-term <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> during non-glacial times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobs, D. ); Sahagian, D. . Dept of Geological Sciences)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Variations in insolation due to periodic orbital parameters can cause <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and associated variations in the intensity of monsoonal circulation. This can lead to significant variations in the levels of internally draining lakes on timescales of 10,000 to 100,000 years in regions affected by the monsoon (20,000 years for orbital precession). These variations may be responsible for small scale (few meters) eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in an ice-free Earth, and may contribute to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the presence of ice as well. The authors have estimated the volume of empty present lake basins in the regions of Asia and North Africa influenced by the monsoon. The surface water volume alone of these basins is equivalent to a two meter difference in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, but is considerably augmented by groundwater associated with an increase in lake level. The lake variation mechanism for <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> has its basis in the Quaternary record of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and associated explanatory models. However, the argument also applies to earlier, non-glacial periods of geologic time. Clear evidence for the presence of ice in the Triassic is lacking. However, there is evidence for short-term periodic fluctuations of lake levels as well as <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during that time. These <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>, as well as those in the Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, may be driven by periodic fluctuation in lacustrine and groundwater storage resulting from orbitally forced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in monsoon intensity, even in the absence of significant glacial ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.2161F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.2161F"><span>Sedimentary archives of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Holocene in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Fontanier, Christophe; Tudryn, Alina; Berné, Serge</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A 7.38 m long sediment core was collected from the eastern section of the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean) at 67 m water depth. A multi-proxy study (including sedimentary facies, benthic foraminifera, ostracods, and clay mineralogy) provides a multi-decadal to century-scale record of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Holocene. The early Holocene is marked by alternative silt and clay layers interpreted as distal tempestites deposited in a context of rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. This interval contains shallow infra-littoral benthic meiofauna (e.g., Pontocythere elongata, Elphidium spp., Quinqueloculina lata) and formed between ca. 20 and 50 m water depth. The middle Holocene (ca. 8.3 to 4.5 ka cal. BP) is characterized, at the core site, by a period of sediment starvation (accumulation rate of ca. 0.01 cm yr-1) resulting from the maximum landward shift of the shoreline and the Rhône outlet(s). From a sequence stratigraphic point of view, this condensed section, about 35 cm thick, can be identified on seismic profiles as a maximum flooding surface that marks the transition between delta retrogradation and delta progradation. The transition between the early Holocene deposits and the middle Holocene condensed section is marked by a gradual <span class="hlt">change</span> in all proxy records. Following the stabilization of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level at a global scale, the late Holocene is marked by the establishment of prodeltaic conditions at the core site, as shown by the lithofacies and by the presence of benthic meiofauna typical of the modern Rhône prodelta (e.g., Valvulineria bradyana, Cassidulina carinata, Bulimina marginata). Several periods of increased fluvial discharge are also emphasized by the presence of species commonly found in brackish and shallow-water environments (e.g., Leptocythere spp.). Some of these periods correspond to the multi-decadal to centennial late Holocene humid periods recognized in Europe (i.e., the 2.8 ka event and the Little Ice Age). Two other periods of increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70154745','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70154745"><span>Coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay watershed: Applying palynology to understand impacts of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and land use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Willard, Debra A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Newell, Wayne</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The mid-Atlantic region and Chesapeake Bay watershed have been influenced by fluctuations in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level since the Cretaceous, and human alteration of the landscape began ~12,000 years ago, with greatest impacts since colonial times. Efforts to devise sustainable management strategies that maximize ecosystem services are integrating data from a range of scientific disciplines to understand how ecosystems and habitats respond to different <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and environmental stressors. Palynology has played an important role in improving understanding of the impact of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and land use on local and regional vegetation. Additionally, palynological analyses have provided biostratigraphic control for surficial mapping efforts and documented agricultural activities of both Native American populations and European colonists. This field trip focuses on sites where palynological analyses have supported efforts to understand the impacts of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and land use on the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9076A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9076A"><span>On assessment of the relationship between <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent and <span class="hlt">climate</span> in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alekseev, Genrikh; Glok, Natalia; Smirnov, Alexander</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An increase of surface air temperature (SAT) in the marine Arctic (a part of the Arctic covered with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in winter) shows a good relationship with reduction of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent (SIE) in summer. For instance, a strong correlation (a coefficient equal to -0.93) was found between the summer SAT in the marine Arctic and satellite-derived 1980-2014 September <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice index (the average of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent in the Arctic since 1978, in millions of sq. km). Based on this finding anomalies of Arctic September SIE were reconstructed from the beginning of twentieth century using linear regression relationship. This reconstructed SIE shows a substantial decrease in the 1930-40s with a minimum occurring in 1936, which, however, is only a half of the decline in 2012. An impact of the inflow of warm and salty Atlantic water on winter SIE was evaluated as an example for the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This evaluation reveals a coherent spatial pattern of the Atlantic water spreading, presented by surface salinity distribution, and the position of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice edge, and significant correlation between the inflow of the Atlantic water and maximal SIE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24501050"><span>Future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> driven <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise: secondary consequences from human displacement for island biodiversity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wetzel, Florian T; Kissling, W Daniel; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level rise (SLR) due to global warming will result in the loss of many coastal areas. The direct or primary effects due to inundation and erosion from SLR are currently being assessed; however, the indirect or secondary ecological effects, such as <span class="hlt">changes</span> caused by the displacement of human populations, have not been previously evaluated. We examined the potential ecological consequences of future SLR on >1,200 islands in the Southeast Asian and the Pacific region. Using three SLR scenarios (1, 3, and 6 m elevation, where 1 m approximates most predictions by the end of this century), we assessed the consequences of primary and secondary SLR effects from human displacement on habitat availability and distributions of selected mammal species. We estimate that between 3-32% of the coastal zone of these islands could be lost from primary effects, and consequently 8-52 million people would become SLR refugees. Assuming that inundated urban and intensive agricultural areas will be relocated with an equal area of habitat loss in the hinterland, we project that secondary SLR effects can lead to an equal or even higher percent range loss than primary effects for at least 10-18% of the sample mammals in a moderate range loss scenario and for 22-46% in a maximum range loss scenario. In addition, we found some species to be more vulnerable to secondary than primary effects. Finally, we found high spatial variation in vulnerability: species on islands in Oceania are more vulnerable to primary SLR effects, whereas species on islands in Indo-Malaysia, with potentially 7-48 million SLR refugees, are more vulnerable to secondary effects. Our findings show that primary and secondary SLR effects can have enormous consequences for human inhabitants and island biodiversity, and that both need to be incorporated into ecological risk assessment, conservation, and regional planning. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nps.gov/ever/learn/nature/upload/FINALShiftingRanges4Web.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nps.gov/ever/learn/nature/upload/FINALShiftingRanges4Web.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, shifting ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Romanach, Stephanie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Even a fleeting mention of the Everglades conjures colorful images of alligators, panthers, flamingos, and manatees. Over the centuries, this familiar cast of characters has become synonymous with life in south Florida. But the workings of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> have the potential to significantly alter the menagerie of animals that call this area home. Global projections suggest south Florida wildlife will need to contend with higher temperatures, drier conditions, and rising <span class="hlt">seas</span> in the years ahead. Recent modeling efforts shed new light on the potential outcomes these <span class="hlt">changes</span> may have for threatened and endangered species in the area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/agriculture/agriculture-climate-change','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/agriculture/agriculture-climate-change"><span>Agriculture: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions. Temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span> can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may hinder farming practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/471053"><span><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice mean thickness in the Arctic Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nagurny, A.P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>During the last decade, regular monitoring of the Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice elastic-gravity waves has been carried out with the use of seismometers and inclination meters. According to the linear theory, the lengths and periods of self-exited and resonance waves propagating in ice depend exclusively on ice thickness and its cylindrical elastic module when <span class="hlt">sea</span> depths are more than 500m. The waves propagate inside the ice at great distances (up to thousands kilometers) with a weak damping and are widespread in the Arctic. Mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean reveals a decrease of 12--14 cm in 1970--1992 which is equivalent to approximately 0.5 cm per year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21078102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21078102"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and oceanic barriers: genetic differentiation in Pomatomus saltatrix (Pisces: Pomatomidae) in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pardiñas, A F; Campo, D; Pola, I G; Miralles, L; Juanes, F; Garcia-Vazquez, E</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Nucleotide variation of partial cytochrome b sequences was analysed in the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix to investigate the population-structuring roles of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and oceanic barriers. Western and eastern North Atlantic Ocean populations appeared to be totally isolated, with the latter connected to the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> within which further structuring occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022661','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022661"><span><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> by cloudiness linked to the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An active role in modifying the earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> is suggested for low cloudiness over the circumarctic oceans. Such cloudiness, linked to the spatial differences in ocean surface temperatures, was studied. The temporal variations from year to year of ocean temperature patterns can be pronounced and therefore, the low cloudiness over this region should also show strong temporal variations, affecting the albedo of the earth and therefore the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Photographs are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007QSRv...26.3216B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007QSRv...26.3216B"><span>Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin: imprints of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busschers, F. S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R. T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F. P. M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record and a large set of Optical Stimulated Luminescence dates, 14C dates and biostratigraphical data, allowed to establish detailed relationships between <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level oscillation, glaciation history and the sedimentary development of the Rhine fluvial system during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5e-2, Eemian-Weichselian). A well-preserved Eemian sediment record was encountered as the infill of a Late Saalian (MIS6) subglacial basin. Part of this record reflects groundwater rise controlled (fine-grained) sedimentation as a result of postglacial (early) Eemian <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. It shows strong analogy to developments known from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Outside of the glacial depressions near coastal deposits are only fragmentarily preserved. The Early Glacial Rhine sediment record is dominated by organic debris and peat layers, marking landscape stability and low fluvial activity. Part of this record may have been formed under near coastal conditions. Significant amounts of reworked marine biomarkers in the lag-deposits of Early Pleniglacial (MIS4) fluvial systems indicate that this period is characterized by extensive reworking of older (MIS5) near-coastal sediments. Despite the marked Early Pleniglacial <span class="hlt">climatic</span> cooling, input of new sediment from the drainage basin was relatively low, a feature that is related to the presence of regolith protective relic soil complexes in the basin. During the early Middle Pleniglacial, a major Rhine avulsion indicates the system was in an aggrading mode and that sediment supply into the lower reaches of the Rhine had strongly increased. This increase in sediment supply coincided with the timing of major</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...742405M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...742405M"><span>Mediterranean versus Red <span class="hlt">sea</span> corals facing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, a transcriptome analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maor-Landaw, Keren; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Karako-Lampert, Sarit; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Goffredo, Stefano; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The anthropogenic increase in atmospheric CO2 that drives global warming and ocean acidification raises serious concerns regarding the future of corals, the main carbonate biomineralizers. Here we used transcriptome analysis to study the effect of long-term gradual temperature increase (annual rate), combined with lowered pH values, on a sub-tropical Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coral, Stylophora pistillata, and on a temperate Mediterranean symbiotic coral Balanophyllia europaea. The gene expression profiles revealed a strong effect of both temperature increase and pH decrease implying for synergism response. The temperate coral, exposed to a twice as high range of seasonal temperature fluctuations than the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> species, faced stress more effectively. The compensatory strategy for coping apparently involves deviating cellular resources into a massive up-regulation of genes in general, and specifically of genes involved in the generation of metabolic energy. Our results imply that sub-lethal, prolonged exposure to stress can stimulate evolutionary increase in stress resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28181588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28181588"><span>Mediterranean versus Red <span class="hlt">sea</span> corals facing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, a transcriptome analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maor-Landaw, Keren; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Karako-Lampert, Sarit; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Goffredo, Stefano; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren</p> <p>2017-02-09</p> <p>The anthropogenic increase in atmospheric CO2 that drives global warming and ocean acidification raises serious concerns regarding the future of corals, the main carbonate biomineralizers. Here we used transcriptome analysis to study the effect of long-term gradual temperature increase (annual rate), combined with lowered pH values, on a sub-tropical Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coral, Stylophora pistillata, and on a temperate Mediterranean symbiotic coral Balanophyllia europaea. The gene expression profiles revealed a strong effect of both temperature increase and pH decrease implying for synergism response. The temperate coral, exposed to a twice as high range of seasonal temperature fluctuations than the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> species, faced stress more effectively. The compensatory strategy for coping apparently involves deviating cellular resources into a massive up-regulation of genes in general, and specifically of genes involved in the generation of metabolic energy. Our results imply that sub-lethal, prolonged exposure to stress can stimulate evolutionary increase in stress resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2703L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2703L"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> on plankton biodiversity and bigeochemical cycles of the Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lo, Wen-tseng; Hsu, Pei-Kai; Hunag, Jia-Jang; Wang, Yu-Huai</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, the so called "Pearl Crown of South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>", is a well-developed atoll with a total area of 80000 hectares. It possesses various ecosystems and has very high biodiversity, but it is very sensitive to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and physical processes. According to our investigation within the shallow semi-enclosed atoll in April, July, and October, 2011 (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn, respectively), we found that plankton assemblages and hydrographical conditions exhibited clear seasonal and spatial variations. Colder and higher salinity water was observed in April, while warmer water in July and lower salinity water in October, respectively. Nutrient concentration within the atoll was similar to that of the oligotrophic South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> waters and seemed to be in nitrogen-limit situation, while the distribution pattern of DOC and POC was mainly attributed to Chla and imported detritus matters. Carbon deposition flux also showed significant seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but POC/PN value was near Redfield ratio, implying mostly due to biogenic factors; however it could still be classified as a typical coral ecosystem, since CaCO3 sinking flux generally was 30 times higher than that of organic matter. Plankton biodiversity was quite high in the atoll, and preformed apparent seasonal succession; in total, 82 phytoplankton species and 67 copepod species were recorded; furthermore, crab zoea (17.3% of the total zooplankton by number), fish eggs (12.5%), and shrimp larvae (4.2%), were relatively abundant in zooplankton community, revealed that atoll might be a good hatching ground. We deduced that the seasonal patterns of chemical and biological variables were mainly influenced by monsoons and precipitation, while small scales of temporal and spatial variations could be ascribed to internal wave and tide in this study area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5033185','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5033185"><span>Challenges of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Husaini, Amjad M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kashmir valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as “Karewas”), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (amsl), under temperate <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a ‘niche crop’ and is a recognized “geographical indication,” growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues. PMID:25072266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036847"><span>I-C-<span class="hlt">SEA</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: A participatory tool for rapid assessment of vulnerability of tropical coastal communities to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Licuanan, Wilfredo Y; Samson, Maricar S; Mamauag, Samuel S; David, Laura T; Borja-Del Rosario, Roselle; Quibilan, Miledel Christine C; Siringan, Fernando P; Sta Maria, Ma Yvainne Y; España, Norievill B; Villanoy, Cesar L; Geronimo, Rollan C; Cabrera, Olivia C; Martinez, Renmar Jun S; Aliño, Porfirio M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a synoptic, participatory vulnerability assessment tool to help identify the likely impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and human activity in coastal areas and begin discussions among stakeholders on the coping and adaptation measures necessary to minimize these impacts. Vulnerability assessment tools are most needed in the tropical Indo-Pacific, where burgeoning populations and inequitable economic growth place even greater burdens on natural resources and support ecosystems. The Integrated Coastal Sensitivity, Exposure, and Adaptive Capacity for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (I-C-<span class="hlt">SEA</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>) tool is built around a series of scoring rubrics to guide non-specialists in assigning scores to the sensitivity and adaptive capacity components of vulnerability, particularly for coral reef, seagrass, and mangrove habitats, along with fisheries and coastal integrity. These scores are then weighed against threat or exposure to <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related impacts such as marine flooding and erosion. The tool provides opportunities for learning by engaging more stakeholders in participatory planning and group decision-making. It also allows for information to be collated and processed during a "town-hall" meeting, facilitating further discussion, data validation, and even interactive scenario building.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47...83H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OSJ....47...83H"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fish assemblages in waters near the Ieodo ocean research station (East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) in relation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> from 1984 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Kangseok; Jung, Sukgeun</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We compiled and analyzed past time-series data to evaluate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in oceanographic conditions and marine ecosystems near the Ieodo ocean research station (IORS) in the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (N 31°15'-33°45', E 124°15'-127°45') in relation to longterm <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and global warming. The environment data we used was a depth-specific time-series of temperature and salinity for the water columns at 175 fixed stations along 22 oceanographic lines in Korean waters, based on bimonthly measurements since 1961 taken by the National Fisheries Research & Development Institute. As an indicator for the ecosystem status of the waters off Ieodo, we analyzed species composition in biomass of fishes caught by Korean fishing vessels in the waters near the IORS (1984-2010) and summarized the data in relation to the environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). To detect step <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the time-series of environmental factors, we applied a sequential t-test analysis of regime shift. Correspondence analysis detected a major shift in fish assemblage structure between 1990 and 1993: the dominant species was filefish during 1981-1992, but chub mackerel during 1992-2007. This shift in fish assemblage structure seemed to be related to the well-established 1989 regime shift in the North Pacific, which was confirmed again with respect to temperature in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Korea Strait (but not in the waters off the IORS). In overall from 1984 to 2010, salinity was more important than water temperature in CCA, implying that the fluctuation of the Tsushima warm current is a most important force driving the long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fish assemblage structure in the waters off the IORS. Further multidisciplinary researches are required to identify oceanographic and biological processes that link <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven physical <span class="hlt">changes</span> to fish recruitment and habitat range fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043314"><span><span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level alter Hg mobility at Lake Tulane, Florida, U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobson, G L; Norton, S A; Grimm, E C; Edgar, T</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Between 45,000 cal years BP and the beginning of the Holocene, the accumulation rate for Hg in sediments of Lake Tulane, Florida ranged from ≈2 to 10 μg m(-2) yr(-1), compared with 53 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) in the 1985-1990 period of anthropogenic input. The locality experienced regional draw-down of the water table during the Wisconsinan glaciation, which lowered global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level by nearly 130 m. Natural atmospheric deposition of Hg to the surrounding area resulted in long-term (ca. 100,000 years) sequestration of this atmospheric flux of Hg, primarily by adsorption in the oxic Al- and Fe-hydroxide-rich sandy subsoil. Global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise during deglaciation led to a rising regional water table, flooding the oxidized soils surrounding Tulane. Iron and adsorbed Hg were mobilized by reductive dissolution and transported by groundwater flow to Lake Tulane and ultimately to the accumulating sediment. The accumulation rate of Hg (and Fe) increased rapidly about 16,000 cal years BP, peaked at nearly 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) ca. 13,000-14,000 cal years BP, declined sharply during the Younger Dryas, and then increased sharply to a second 60 μg Hg m(-2) yr(-1) peak about 5000 cal years BP. Thereafter, it declined nearly to background by 900 cal years BP. In similar geologic situations, rapid modern <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise will initiate this process globally, and may mobilize large accumulations of Hg and lesser amounts of As, and other redox sensitive metals to groundwater and surface water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540559','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA540559"><span>Patterns of Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level <span class="hlt">Change</span> in a Warming <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>is filed in this office. WW t <-*7^ U> ^W/tA/v^MSru^ M ^ Division, Code Author, Code t/*//’ HQ-NRL5511/6(Rev 12-98) (e) THIS FORM CANCELS AND...reserved NATURE GEOSCIENCE DOIIOIO38/NGEO9OI LETTERS 1 Bombay 10 Tide gauge 5 M E 0 -5 < —1 u-1 -10 -11 72 8° E. 18 9° N 1980 2000...178 (2009). 3. Unnikrishnan , A. S. & Shankar, D. Arc <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise trends along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean consistent with global estimates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497201"><span>Breeding periodicity for male <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles, operational sex ratios, and implications in the face of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hays, Graeme C; Fossette, Sabrina; Katselidis, Kostas A; Schofield, Gail; Gravenor, Mike B</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Species that have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) often produce highly skewed offspring sex ratios contrary to long-standing theoretical predictions. This ecological enigma has provoked concern that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may induce the production of single-sex generations and hence lead to population extirpation. All species of <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles exhibit TSD, many are already endangered, and most already produce sex ratios skewed to the sex produced at warmer temperatures (females). We tracked male loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Zakynthos, Greece, throughout the entire interval between successive breeding seasons and identified individuals on their breeding grounds, using photoidentification, to determine breeding periodicity and operational sex ratios. Males returned to breed at least twice as frequently as females. We estimated that the hatchling sex ratio of 70:30 female to male for this rookery will translate into an overall operational sex ratio (OSR) (i.e., ratio of total number of males vs females breeding each year) of close to 50:50 female to male. We followed three male turtles for between 10 and 12 months during which time they all traveled back to the breeding grounds. Flipper tagging revealed the proportion of females returning to nest after intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 0.21, 0.38, 0.29, and 0.12, respectively (mean interval 2.3 years). A further nine male turtles were tracked for short periods to determine their departure date from the breeding grounds. These departure dates were combined with a photoidentification data set of 165 individuals identified on in-water transect surveys at the start of the breeding season to develop a statistical model of the population dynamics. This model produced a maximum likelihood estimate that males visit the breeding site 2.6 times more often than females (95%CI 2.1, 3.1), which was consistent with the data from satellite tracking and flipper tagging. Increased frequency of male breeding will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ911887','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ911887"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools Project...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKinzey, Krista</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article features the award-winning <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ911887','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ911887"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools Project...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKinzey, Krista</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article features the award-winning <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Schools…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5299404','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5299404"><span>Mediterranean versus Red <span class="hlt">sea</span> corals facing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, a transcriptome analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maor-Landaw, Keren; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Karako-Lampert, Sarit; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Prada, Fiorella; Caroselli, Erik; Goffredo, Stefano; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The anthropogenic increase in atmospheric CO2 that drives global warming and ocean acidification raises serious concerns regarding the future of corals, the main carbonate biomineralizers. Here we used transcriptome analysis to study the effect of long-term gradual temperature increase (annual rate), combined with lowered pH values, on a sub-tropical Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coral, Stylophora pistillata, and on a temperate Mediterranean symbiotic coral Balanophyllia europaea. The gene expression profiles revealed a strong effect of both temperature increase and pH decrease implying for synergism response. The temperate coral, exposed to a twice as high range of seasonal temperature fluctuations than the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> species, faced stress more effectively. The compensatory strategy for coping apparently involves deviating cellular resources into a massive up-regulation of genes in general, and specifically of genes involved in the generation of metabolic energy. Our results imply that sub-lethal, prolonged exposure to stress can stimulate evolutionary increase in stress resilience. PMID:28181588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125385"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Collective Violence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W; Patz, Jonathan A</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is causing increases in temperature, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation and extreme weather events, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> leads to collective violence. Public health professionals can help prevent collective violence due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (a) by supporting mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (b) by promoting adaptation measures to address the consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and to improve community resilience, and (c) by addressing underlying risk factors for collective violence, such as poverty and socioeconomic disparities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13A1875B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP13A1875B"><span>Depositional History of a Saline Blue Hole on Eleuthera Island, Bahamas: Implications for <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level History and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brady, K.; Bernard, M.; Bender, S.; Roy, Z.; Boush, L. E.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Physical, chemical and biological properties of Duck Pond Blue Hole (DPBH), located on the southern portion of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, were examined to analyze its depositional history and the record of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the island. DPBH is a small (.001 km2), circular inland blue hole with average salinity ranging from 20-28 ppt and a maximum depth of ~8 m. Sediment cores were recovered using standard piston coring techniques along a transect consisting of three sites yielding cores of varying lengths--170, 155 and 151 cm, respectively. Radiocarbon dating, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size analysis, loss on ignition (LOI), smear slide and mollusk processing and identification were performed on the cores. The sediment recovered is dominated by brown, tan and white carbonate sand with varying amounts of organic matter. Sedimentation rates vary between 0.1-0.5 mm/year. Mollusks are found throughout the cores but gastropods dominate in the upper portions, which date from 2000 years BP to present day. Bivalves are abundant in intervals dating between 5000 and 2500 years BP. The most common bivalve species were Polymesoda maritima, Anomalocardis auberiana and Ervilia concentrica. The most common gastropods were Cerithidea costata and Cerithium lutosum. Drill holes made by predaceous gastropods occur on some of the gastropods, but on most of the bivalves. Drilling frequency is highest between 5000 and 2500 years BP even though gastropods are rarely preserved in that interval. Through smear slide analysis, diatoms, forams and ostracodes were also found to occur throughout the core record. Peaks in Fe and Sr from XRF scans at 0.5 cm intervals may represent records of high atmospheric dust concentrations and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level fluctuations, respectively. Plotting mollusk bed depths versus calibrated age reveals a <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise over the last 6000 years that includes a rapid rise and subsequent fall at ~2500 year BP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385668"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and dead zones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Estuaries and coastal <span class="hlt">seas</span> provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables including temperature, ocean acidification, <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which <span class="hlt">climate</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span>, we posit that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5045109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5045109"><span>Glaciers, ice sheets, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level: effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-09-01</p> <p>The workshop examined the basic questions of how much water has been exchanged between land ice and ocean during the last century, what is happening now, and, given existing <span class="hlt">climate</span>-modeling prediction, how much exchange can be expected in the next century. In addition, the evidence for exchange was examined and gaps in that evidence were identified. The report includes the 23 presentations made at the workshop, summarizes the workshop discussion, and presents the Committee's findings and recommendations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 23 presentations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616548M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616548M"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">sea</span>-levels, coastal risks and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>: lost in translation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marone, Eduardo; Castro Carneiro, Juliane; Cintra, Márcio; Ribeiro, Andréa; Cardoso, Denis; Stellfeld, Carol</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Occurring commonly in Brazilian coastal (and continental) areas, floods are probably the most devastating natural hazards our local society faces nowadays. With the expected <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and tropical storms becoming stronger and more frequents, the scenarios of local impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and storm surges; causing loss of lives, environmental damages and socio-economic stress; need to be addressed and properly communicated. We present results related to the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level setups accordingly to IPCC's scenarios and the expected coastal floods in the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The outcomes are displayed in scientific language accompanied by "translations" with the objective of showing the need of a different language approach to communicate with the players affected by coastal hazards. To create the "translation" of the "scientific" text we used the Up-Goer Five Text Editor, which allows writing texts using only the ten hundred most used English words. We allowed ourselves to use a maximum of five other words per box not present at this dictionary, not considering geographical names or units in the count, provided there were simple. That was necessary because words as <span class="hlt">sea</span>, beach, sand, storm, etc., are not among the one thousand present at the Up-Goer, and they are simple enough anyhow. On the other hand, the not scientific public we targeted speaks Portuguese, not English, and we do not have an Up-Goer tool for that language. Anyhow, each Box was also produced in Portuguese, as much simple as possible, to disseminate our results to the local community. To illustrate the need of "translation", it is worthy to mention a real case of a troublesome misunderstanding caused by us, scientists, in our coastal society. Some years ago, one of our colleagues at the university, a much-respected scientist, informed through a press release that, on a given day, "we will experience the highest astronomical tide of the century". That statement (scientifically true and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857392"><span>[<span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> caused by man].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaas, Eigil</p> <p>2009-10-26</p> <p>This article provides a brief overview over some of the main findings in the most recent IPCC WG I report and in articles published after the report. It is argued that the conclusions in the report on observed <span class="hlt">climate</span> variations and trends during the last 100 years have been largely confirmed or even reinforced by the most recent studies. Concerning future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, new analyses of possible <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level, which take melting land ice into account, indicate that the global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level may rise as much as one meter within the present century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28621028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28621028"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and temperature-linked hatchling mortality at a globally important <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle nesting site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laloë, Jacques-Olivier; Cozens, Jacquie; Renom, Berta; Taxonera, Albert; Hays, Graeme C</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The study of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in vertebrates has attracted major scientific interest. Recently, concerns for species with TSD in a warming world have increased because imbalanced sex ratios could potentially threaten population viability. In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to the direct effects of increased temperatures on successful embryonic development. Using 6603 days of sand temperature data recorded across 6 years at a globally important loggerhead <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtle rookery-the Cape Verde Islands-we show the effects of warming incubation temperatures on the survival of hatchlings in nests. Incorporating published data (n = 110 data points for three species across 12 sites globally), we show the generality of relationships between hatchling mortality and incubation temperature and hence the broad applicability of our findings to <span class="hlt">sea</span> turtles in general. We use a mechanistic approach supplemented by empirical data to consider the linked effects of warming temperatures on hatchling output and on sex ratios for these species that exhibit TSD. Our results show that higher temperatures increase the natural growth rate of the population as more females are produced. As a result, we project that numbers of nests at this globally important site will increase by approximately 30% by the year 2100. However, as incubation temperatures near lethal levels, the natural growth rate of the population decreases and the long-term survival of this turtle population is threatened. Our results highlight concerns for species with TSD in a warming world and underline the need for research to extend from a focus on temperature-dependent sex determination to a focus on temperature-linked hatchling mortalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19768168"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and human health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> science points to an increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> for future generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2744549','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2744549"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Human Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> science points to an increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> for future generations. PMID:19768168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712168P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712168P"><span>CLIMLINK: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> forcing factors for marine environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> during the mid- and late Holocene - a link between the NE Atlantic and the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; Bąk, Małgorzata; Binczewska, Anna; Borówka, Ryszard; Dobosz, Sławomir; Jansen, Eystein; Kaniak, Aleksandra; Moros, Matthias; Perner, Kerstin; Sławinska, Joanna</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> has a strong amplifying effect on the environment of marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> such as the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Owing to the connection of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with the Atlantic (and the resultant pathway of water exchange via the narrow Danish Straits), <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Baltic region are suggested to be driven by external oceanic and atmospheric forcing originating in the Atlantic, particularly in the eastern Nordic <span class="hlt">seas</span>, the Skagerrak, and the Kattegat. CLIMLINK aims to reconstruct mid- to late Holocene ecosystem <span class="hlt">changes</span> in these regions and identify linkages, common forcing factors and effects for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on a millennial to decadal time scale. High-resolution sediment records from selected key sites in the Norwegian Trench, and central Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are studied by using a multi-proxy approach. Micropalaeontological studies of diatoms and foraminifera are combined with geochemical proxies, such as stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, TOC, TIC, C/N, XRF and magnetic susceptibility in order to achieve a more comprehensive view on environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the last 6000 to 8000 years. The chronology of the sediment cores is secured by using multiple dating tools: Hg-pollution records, 137Cs, 210Pb, 14C and tephra layers. Herein we present the initial results of the project.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OSJ....51..563J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OSJ....51..563J"><span><span class="hlt">Climate-change</span> driven range shifts of anchovy biomass projected by bio-physical coupling individual based model in the marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> of East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Sukgeun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Lee, Joon-ho; Lee, Kyunghwan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies in the western North Pacific reported a declining standing stock biomass of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and a <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven southward shift of anchovy catch in Korean waters. We investigated the effects of a warming ocean on the latitudinal shift of anchovy catch by developing and applying individual-based models (IBMs) based on a regional ocean circulation model and an IPCC <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenario. Despite the greater uncertainty, our two IBMs projected that, by the 2030s, the strengthened Tsushima warm current in the Korea Strait and the East <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, driven by global warming, and the subsequent confinement of the relatively cold water masses within the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> will decrease larval anchovy biomass in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, but will increase it in the Korea Strait and the East <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The decreasing trend of anchovy biomass in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was reproduced by our models, but further validation and enhancement of the models is required together with extended ichthyoplankton surveys to understand and reliably project range shifts of anchovy and the impacts such range shifts will have on the marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP41E..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP41E..05H"><span>Benthic Biotic Response to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> over the Last 700,000 Years, the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan: Ostracode Assemblages from Site U1427, IODP Expedition 346</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, H. H. M.; Yasuhara, M.; Iwatani, H.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Bassetti, M. A.; Sagawa, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan is a marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span>, semi-enclosed by the Eurasian Continent, Korean Peninsula, Japanese Islands, and shallow straits (water depth < 130 m). Marginal <span class="hlt">seas</span> are ideal natural laboratories to study biotic responses to large-scale paleoclimate-ocean mechanisms as they are typically sensitive to glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial cycles. The modern oceanographic setting in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan is characterized by the influx of the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) from the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and this setting was formed 1.7 My ago by tectonic subsidence of the Tsushima Strait. The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan, therefore, is an interesting research subject for studying the biotic response to orbital-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and benthic faunal development under the influence of TWC. Here we present 700,000-year record of benthic biotic response to the paleoceanographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the southern <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan based on ostracode assemblage reconstruction at IODP Site U1427. Five local extinction events were caused by extreme bottom conditions (mainly oxygen depletion) during the Ice Age Terminations I, II, IV, V, and VII. Primary and secondary ostracode assemblages were revealed by Q-mode k-means clustering, CABFAC factor analysis, and non-metric multidimensional scaling. The primary ostracode components, characterized by Krithe sawanensis and Cytheropteron hyalinosa, broadly reflect glacial/interglacial and high-latitude insolation cycles. In contrast, a faunal shift determined by the secondary faunal components was driven by the TWC enhancement at 300 ka.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22809188"><span>Causes for contemporary regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of <span class="hlt">climate</span> modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing <span class="hlt">changes</span> in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> appear to be caused primarily by natural <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level-whether due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level patterns will be a superposition of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static <span class="hlt">sea</span> level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> require an expanded and sustained <span class="hlt">climate</span> observing system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12285901"><span>Preparing for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holdgate, M</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>There is a distinct probability that humankind is <span class="hlt">changing</span> the <span class="hlt">climate</span> and at the same time raising the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger <span class="hlt">change</span> in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer <span class="hlt">seas</span>. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20121837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20121837"><span>Understanding recent <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serreze, Mark C</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The Earth's atmosphere has a natural greenhouse effect, without which the global mean surface temperature would be about 33 degrees C lower and life would not be possible. Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases in trace amounts. This has enhanced the greenhouse effect, resulting in surface warming. Were it not for the partly offsetting effects of increased aerosol concentrations, the increase in global mean surface temperature over the past 100 years would be larger than observed. Continued surface warming through the 21st century is inevitable and will likely have widespread ecological impacts. The magnitude and rate of warming for the global average will be largely dictated by the strength and direction of <span class="hlt">climate</span> feedbacks, thermal inertia of the oceans, the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, and aerosol concentrations. Because of regional expressions of <span class="hlt">climate</span> feedbacks, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation, and a suite of other factors, the magnitude and rate of warming and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in other key <span class="hlt">climate</span> elements, such as precipitation, will not be uniform across the planet. For example, due to loss of its floating <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover, the Arctic will warm the most.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS...96...81C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS...96...81C"><span>Mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>: Implications for wetland health and resistance to rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Comeaux, Rebecca S.; Allison, Mead A.; Bianchi, Thomas S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Black mangroves ( Avicennia spp.) are hypothesized to expand their latitudinal range with global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the 21st century, induced by a reduction in the frequency and severity of coastal freezes, which are known to limit mangrove colony extent and individual tree size. The Gulf of Mexico is a prime candidate for population expansion to occur because it is located at the northward limit of black mangrove habitat. This may come at the expense of existing coastal saline wetlands that are dominantly Spartina spp. marsh grasses. The present study was conducted to focus on the implications of a marsh to mangrove transition in Gulf wetlands, specifically: (1) wetland resistance to accelerating eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (ESLR) rates; (2) resistance to wave attack in large storms (increased cyclonic storm frequency/intensity is predicted with future <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming); and (3) organic carbon sequestration and wetland soil geochemistry. Field sites of adjacent and inter-grown Avicennia germinans mangrove and Spartina marsh populations in similar geomorphological setting were selected in back-barrier areas near Port Aransas and Galveston, TX. Elevation surveys in the more mature Port Aransas site indicate mangrove vegetated areas are 4 cm higher in elevation than surrounding marsh on an average regional scale, and 1-2 cm higher at the individual mangrove scale. 210Pb and 137Cs accumulation rates and loss on ignition data indicate that mineral trapping is 4.1 times higher and sediment organics are 1.7 times lower in mangroves at Port Aransas. This additional mineral trapping does not differ in grain size character from marsh accumulation. Elevation <span class="hlt">change</span> may also be effected by soil displacement of higher root volumes in mangrove cores. Port Aransas porosities are lower in mangrove rooted horizons, with a corresponding increase in sediment strength, suggesting mangrove intervals are more resistant to wave-induced erosion during storm events. Port Aransas mangroves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20030506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20030506"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cullen, H.M.; Menocal, P.B. de; Hemming, S.; Hemming, G.; Brown, F.H.; Guilderson, T.; Sirocko, F.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4,170 {+-} 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but <span class="hlt">changes</span> in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. The authors document Holocene <span class="hlt">changes</span> in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates to 4,025 {+-} 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for {approximately} 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43.2093B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43.2093B"><span>Sources of uncertainty in projections of twenty-first century westerly wind <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, West Antarctica, in CMIP5 <span class="hlt">climate</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in winds over the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has been shown to be a potentially key mechanism in explaining rapid loss of ice from major glaciers in West Antarctica, which is having a significant impact on global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Here, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) <span class="hlt">climate</span> model data are used to assess twenty-first century projections in westerly winds over the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ( U AS ). The importance of model uncertainty and internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario projections are quantified and potential sources of model uncertainty are considered. For the decade 2090-2099 the CMIP5 models show an ensemble mean twenty-first century response in annual mean U AS of 0.3 and 0.7 m s-1 following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. However, as a consequence of large internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability over the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, it takes until around 2030 (2065) for the RCP8.5 response to exceed one (two) standard deviation(s) of decadal internal variability. In all scenarios and seasons the model uncertainty is large. However the present-day climatological zonal wind bias over the whole South Pacific, which is important for tropical teleconnections, is strongly related to inter-model differences in projected <span class="hlt">change</span> in U AS (more skilful models show larger U AS increases). This relationship is significant in winter (r = -0.56) and spring (r = -0.65), when the influence of the tropics on the Amundsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region is known to be important. Horizontal grid spacing and present day <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent are not significant sources of inter-model spread.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A52A..08Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A52A..08Y"><span><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Southeast Asian <span class="hlt">Climate</span>: Response to and Feedback onto Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study is focused on the long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the <span class="hlt">climate</span> over Southeast Asia (<span class="hlt">SEA</span>) and its adjacent regions. The <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">SEA</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> are closely related to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in global <span class="hlt">climate</span>, especially via the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ENSO and the large-scale Asian monsoon circulation. In the past decades, both ENSO and the monsoon have experienced remarkable long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span>, leading to significant <span class="hlt">climate</span> signals over Southeast Asia and its adjacent regions. This study attributes these <span class="hlt">climate</span> signals to different factors, emphasizing the contributions from water vapor feedback to surface <span class="hlt">climate</span> signals, and from cloud and atmospheric feedbacks to the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the troposphere. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">SEA</span> and its adjacent regions also exert significant influences on the <span class="hlt">climate</span> outside the regions. Various experiments with NCAR CESM and other earth system models are applied to investigate the impacts of the regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the <span class="hlt">climate</span> over Africa, Asian-Pacific-American regions, and the southern hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..998K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..998K"><span>Late Quaternary chronology of paleo-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region based on Lower Volga sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Murray, Andrew; Svitoch, Alexander; Tkach, Nikolai</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Lower Volga is a unique region for understanding the history of the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the Pleistocene, its correlation of paleogeographic events with glacial-interglacial rhythms of the East European Plain and the global and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The reason is representativeness of Quaternary sections, their completeness, presence of both marine and subaerial sediments, paleontological richness of the materials and available for study. The purpose of this work is to reconstruct the paleogeographic events in the Late Pleistocene of the Lower Volga region on the basis of summarizing the study results for the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section. Located near city of Volgograd, at Khvaynian plain natural outcrop of Srednyaya Akhtuba section, reveals in a series of exposures a unique to the region series of marine Caspian continental deposits with four levels of buried soil horizons and loess. The results were obtained during 2015 and 2016 complex field research with application of lithological, paleopedological, paleontological, paleocryological, OSL-dating, paleomagnetic methods, that allowed more fundamental approach to the chronological assessment of individual horizons. The structure of the Srednyaya Akhtuba reference section reflects a number of paleogeographic stages of development of the study area. The oldest phase (layers 22-19) is not characterized by OSL dating or faunal material. Based on the sequence of dated layers, we assume its Middle Pleistocene age (MIS-6 stage), corresponding to Moscow stage of the Dnieper glaciation of the East European Plain and the final stage of Early Khazarian transgressive era of Caspian <span class="hlt">sea</span>. The next stage (layers 18-14), represented by three horizons of paleosols, refers to the first half of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 5). Epoch of soil formation, based on the results the OSL-dating, can be referred to the warm sub-stages (MIS 5c and 5a), with unstable <span class="hlt">climatically</span> transitional phase from Mikulino (Eemian) interglacial to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1063714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1063714"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and National Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malone, Elizabeth L.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider <span class="hlt">climate</span> as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, <span class="hlt">changes</span> such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building <span class="hlt">climate</span> resilience as part of building stability. For the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The increasing emphasis in <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51C1891K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH51C1891K"><span>Adaptation Planning to Minimize Damage to Road Infrastructure from Rising Groundwater Associated with <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise in Coastal New Hampshire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knott, J. F.; Jacobs, J. M.; Daniel, J.; Kirshen, P. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Coastal communities with high population density and infrastructure close to the shoreline are vulnerable to the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR). In the northeast, annual precipitation has increased by more than 10-percent in the last 100 years and is projected to increase further in the future. In addition, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level in coastal New Hampshire is projected to rise 1.2 to 2.0 meters by the year 2100 (New Hampshire Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission). <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> vulnerability and adaptation studies have primarily focused on surface water flooding from SLR; however, little attention has been given to rising waters from beneath the ground surface. Groundwater in many coastal communities will rise with rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level which will likely have important consequences for water quality, the structural integrity of foundations and infrastructure, and the health of natural ecosystems in the coastal zone. In this study, we have constructed a regional groundwater flow model of coastal New Hampshire to investigate the effect of various <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and SLR scenarios on groundwater levels, focusing on impacts to road infrastructure. Using LiDAR datasets and downscaled global <span class="hlt">climate</span> predictions, we determined that the interaction of several hydrogeological factors resulted in distinct spatial patterns of groundwater rise that were not evident from simple models linking SLR and terrain. Furthermore, by loosely coupling the groundwater model to a hydraulic model for pavement systems, we were able to identify sections of roadways that will have compromised pavement performance due to rising groundwater intersecting the sublayers of these roadways. Our findings broadly suggest that adaptation strategies designed to counter the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and SLR in coastal communities must consider potential damage from rising groundwater in addition to surface water impacts not only immediately along the coast but also at significant distances inland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs266/en/"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and health Fact sheet Updated July 2017 Key ... in improved health, particularly through reduced air pollution. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> Over the last 50 years, human activities – particularly ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5603696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5603696"><span>Geomorphic responses to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bull, W.B.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. During the past 40 ky the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a <span class="hlt">sea</span> level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to 14 ky later the global temperature had reversed itself and the <span class="hlt">climate</span> was the warmest of the past 120 ky. These dramatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> imposed significant controls on fluvial systems and impacted land forms and whole landscapes worldwide. Chapter 1, Conceptual Models for <span class="hlt">Changing</span> landscapes, presents numerous concepts related to erosional and depositional processes controlling landscape development. Each of the next four chapters of the book, 2, 3, 4, and 5, examine different aspects of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on fluvial systems. The conceptual models are used to analyze landscape response in four different <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and geologic settings. In each setting the present and past <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions, the <span class="hlt">climatically</span> induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vegetation and soil development, and geochronology are considered in assessing the influence of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on geomorphic processes. Chapter 2, investigates the influence of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the geomorphic processes operating in desert watersheds in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. The study sites for Chapter 3, are small desert drainage basins in the southwestern US and near the Sinai Peninsula in the Middle East. Chapter 4, investigates fill terraces in several drainage basins of the San Gabrial Mountains of the central Transverse Ranges of coastal southern California. The study site for Chapter 5 is the Charwell River watershed in the Seaward Kaikoura Range of New Zealand. Chapter 6, Difference Responses of Arid and Humid Fluvial Systems, compares the effects of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climates</span> in basins that range from extremely arid to humid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412999A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412999A"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>An integrated analysis of recent <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, including atmosphere, <span class="hlt">sea</span> and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (<span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow <span class="hlt">changes</span>). These last mentioned <span class="hlt">changes</span>, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with <span class="hlt">changes</span> of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899206','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899206"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">Climate-Change</span>-Driven <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise on Intertidal Rocky Reef Habitats Will Be Variable and Site Specific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. We modelled habitat loss associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and <span class="hlt">changes</span> were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">changes</span> to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. PMID:24465915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24465915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24465915"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">climate-change</span>-driven <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise on intertidal rocky reef habitats will be variable and site specific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. We modelled habitat loss associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and <span class="hlt">changes</span> were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that <span class="hlt">changes</span> to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+temperature&pg=6&id=EJ398240','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+temperature&pg=6&id=EJ398240"><span>The <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schneider, Stephen H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the global <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Presents the trend of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> with graphs. Describes mathematical <span class="hlt">climate</span> models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the <span class="hlt">change</span>. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+climate+AND+models&pg=7&id=EJ398240','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+climate+AND+models&pg=7&id=EJ398240"><span>The <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schneider, Stephen H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the global <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Presents the trend of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> with graphs. Describes mathematical <span class="hlt">climate</span> models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the <span class="hlt">change</span>. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047735&hterms=Climate+Change+impacts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%2Bimpacts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880047735&hterms=Climate+Change+impacts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%2Bimpacts"><span>A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/<span class="hlt">sea</span> for <span class="hlt">climate</span> models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital <span class="hlt">change</span> experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged <span class="hlt">climate</span> model. It is found that, in response to a <span class="hlt">change</span> between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital <span class="hlt">change</span> dominates over the opposite summer <span class="hlt">change</span> for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to dominate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5846A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5846A"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mollusc invasion on eutrophication and algae blooms in the lagoon ecosystems of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aleksandrov, Sergei; Gorbunova, Julia; Rudinskaya, Lilia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Coastal lagoons are most vulnerable to impacts of natural environmental and anthropogenic factors. The Curonian Lagoon and Vistula Lagoon are the largest coastal lagoons of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, relating to the most highly productive water bodies of Europe. The Curonian Lagoon is choke mostly freshwater lagoon, while the Vistula Lagoon is restricted brackish water lagoon. In the last decades the nutrients loading <span class="hlt">changes</span>, warming trend and biological invasions are observed. The researches (chlorophyll, primary production, nutrients, phytoplankton, benthos, etc) were carried out monthly since 1991 to 2014. The database includes 1600 stations in the Curonian Lagoon, 1650 stations in the Vistula Lagoon. Eutrophication and algae blooms are most important problems. Multiple reductions of nutrients loading from the watershed area in 1990s did not result in considerable improvement of the ecological situation in the lagoons. The Curonian Lagoon may be characterized as hypertrophic water body with "poor" water quality. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in 1990s-2000s combined with other factors (freshwater, slow-flow exchange, high nutrients concentrations) creates conditions for Cyanobacteria "hyperblooms". Hyperbloom of Cyanophyta (average for the growing season Chl > 100 μg/l) were observed during 4 years in 1990s and 7 years in 2000s. The summer water temperature is the key environmental factor determining the seasonal and long-term variability of the primary production and algae blooms. Mean annual primary production in 2010-2014 (600 gC·m-2·year-1) is considerable higher, than in the middle of 1970s (300 gC·m-2·year-1). The local <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming in the Baltic region caused ongoing eutrophication and harmful algae blooms in the Curonian Lagoon despite of significant reduction of nutrients loading in 1990s-2000s. Harmful algal blooms in July-October (chlorophyll to 700-3400 μg/l) result in deterioration of the water chemical parameters, death of fish in the coastal zone and pollution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......366M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......366M"><span>Understanding <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level: A Case Study of Middle School Student Comprehension and An Evaluation of Tide Gauges off the Panama Canal in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millan-Otoya, Juan C.</p> <p></p> <p>The present study had two main objectives. The first was to determine the degree of understanding of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise among middle school students. Combining open-ended questions with likert-scaled questions, we identified student conceptions on these topics in 86 students from 7th and 8th grades during 2012 and 2013 before and after implementing a Curriculum Unit (CU). Additional information was obtained by adding drawings to the open-ended questions during the second year to gauge how student conceptions varied from a verbal and a visual perspective. Misconceptions were identified both pre- and post-CU among all the topics taught. Students commonly used <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> as synonyms, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level was often defined as water depth, and several students failed to understand the complexities that determine <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level due to wind, tides, and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature. In general, 8th grade students demonstrated a better understanding of these topics, as reflected in fewer apparent misconceptions after the CU. No previous study had reported such improvement. This showed the value of implementing short lessons. Using Piaget's theories on cognitive development, the differences between 7th and 8th grade students reflect a transition to a more mature level which allowed students to comprehend more complex concepts that included multiple variables. The second objective was to determine if the frequency of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level maxima not associated with tides over the last 100 years increased in two tide gauges located on the two extremes of the Panama canal, i.e. Balboa in the Pacific Ocean and Cristobal in the Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. These records were compared to time series of regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to determine if these played a role as physical drivers of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level at either location. Neither record showed an increase in the frequency of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP51C0940H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP51C0940H"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Controlled <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Deep Ocean Flow: Examples From the Riiser Larsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Antarctica) and the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hass, H.; Hegner, E.; Fuetterer, D. K.; Schmitt, W. M.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Sediment cores from the northeastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and the western Riiser Larsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Antarctica) were investigated to reconstruct <span class="hlt">climate</span> forced fluctuations of bottom currents. In terms of global water-mass circulation, the Arct ic Ocean plays a rather passive role with only very limited deep-water exchange through the Fram Strait. The cores investigated here are primarily influenced by the Yermak Slope Current (YSC), a water mass that is mainly composed of NSDW. Since NSDW is fo rmed in the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as a result of deep-water production, it is suggested that fluctuations in the speed of the YSC are linked to fluctuations in thermohaline overturn which in turn is strongly related to <span class="hlt">climate</span> development. It turns out that cold events s uch as the Younger Dryas (12.7-11.5 kaBP) were periods of lower bottom-current speed whereas warmer periods suggest increased bottom-current activity. Holocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> phases such as the cold "8,200 year Event" left clear traces in the record. In the Ri iser Larsen <span class="hlt">Sea</span> that forms the easternmost part of the Weddell Gyre, deep-current controls are different. A large system of channels on the continental slope suggests that the channels are active pathways of either dense shelf waters or turbidity current s. Long sediment cores recovered from levees that flank the channels reveal carbonate-rich sediments with few IRD during the interglacials and carbonate-depleted sediments during the glacials in the sand f raction. High resolution granulometric data suggest that the channels were more active during interglacials than during glacials. In glacial <span class="hlt">climates</span> surface-water bio-production in the RLS was low. Presumably a quasi-permanent ice cover prevailed that al so prevented the deposition of IRD. During interglacials conditions were like those of today with a very large <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover in winter and open water conditions in the austral summer. It can be assumed that dense water formation on the upper continental slope is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002QSRv...21.1643B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002QSRv...21.1643B"><span>Modelling Late Cenozoic isostatic elevation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and their implications for oceanic and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> regimes: preliminary results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butt, Faisal A.; Drange, Helge; Elverhøi, Anders; Otterå, Odd Helge; Solheim, Anders</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Late Cenozoic isostatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the elevation of the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are simulated using a numerical model. Isopach maps of the deposits off present-day Bear Island and Storfjorden troughs made earlier are used to calculate the thickness of sediment cover removed from the respective drainages basins at various time intervals during the last 2.3 Ma. Results indicate that Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was subaerially exposed at 2.3 Ma and major parts of it became submarine after 1 Ma. Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> today receives around 40% of the warm and saline North Atlantic waters flowing into the Scotland-Greenland Ridge and about half of the Atlantic water entering the Arctic Ocean. It thus has an important role to play in the present-day ocean circulation pattern in the Polar North Atlantic region and water-mass transformations that take place in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Arctic Ocean. The effects of an uplifted Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on the oceanic regime and the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover under the present-day forcings fields are studied using the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model. Preliminary results indicate that a subaerial Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> causes an increased input of warm Atlantic waters into the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait which results in warming of the Atlantic water masses in the Arctic Ocean, followed by a reduction in the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover. The obtained findings can be used to explain the apparent discrepancy in the late Cenozoic record of the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions whereby Fennoscandia, Iceland and Greenland are envisaged to have been covered by major ice sheets during late Pliocene whereas high Arctic areas such as Svalbard and NE Greenland were apparently free of any major ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.1003L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PalOc..21.1003L"><span><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the northern Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during the last 22,000 years as recorded by calcareous nannofossils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legge, Heiko Lars; Mutterlose, JöRg; Arz, Helge W.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We present a high-resolution record of calcareous nannofossils from the northern Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> for the last 22 kyr. Extreme conditions with enhanced salinities during the Last Glacial Maximum are characterized by high values of Gephyrocapsa ericsonii. The dominance of Emiliania huxleyi in Heinrich event 1 indicates a <span class="hlt">climatic</span> cooling favoring the bloom of opportunistic species. The calcareous nannofossils record a two-step onset of the postglacial humid <span class="hlt">climate</span>, punctuated by the Younger Dryas. Both steps show an early oligotrophic phase dominated by Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus and a subsequent fertile phase characterized by E. huxleyi. The Younger Dryas is described by high values of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, indicating an increased mixing of the water column. In the late Holocene, repetitive increases in abundance of F. profunda and G. flabellatus reflect restricted oligotrophic conditions, caused by the high aridity following the Holocene humid period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7213G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7213G"><span>Has anthropogenic land-cover <span class="hlt">change</span> been a significant <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcing in the past? - An assessment for the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> catchment area based on a literature review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kleinen, Thomas; Brigitte Nielsen, Anne; Poska, Anneli; Samuelsson, Patrick; Strandberg, Gustav; Trondman, Anna-Kari</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-<span class="hlt">climate</span> interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover <span class="hlt">change</span> (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover <span class="hlt">change</span> (ALCC) is one of the few <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcings for which the net direction of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce <span class="hlt">changes</span> in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1°, the sign of the <span class="hlt">change</span> depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0830P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0830P"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> on Estuarine Habitats in the UK: Critical Evaluation of the Saltmarshes and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise Model (SLAMM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pylarinou, A.; French, J.; Burningham, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Estuarine wetland environments are at risk of significant transformation and loss due to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and there is an increasing need to model such impacts. In a UK context, the relatively small size and morphological complexity of many estuaries necessitates a high spatial resolution but models must also be capable of efficient application over time scales of decades to centuries that correspond to widely used IPCC <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. Little previous work of this kind has been carried out to date in the UK. An exception is the EU-funded BRANCH project, which simulated the drowning of intertidal topography, due to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise, and potential mudflat and saltmarsh responses to a <span class="hlt">change</span> in inundation regime. However, this approach neglects the interplay of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and sedimentation. Accordingly, this study investigates the potential of a more dynamic spatial landscape model to represent meso-scale impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on UK estuary environments. It takes as a starting point the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which has been widely used in the USA. This is built around the US National Wetlands Inventory classification and adapting it to suit the tidal sedimentary environments and habitats typical of the UK requires <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the source code. This paper presents results obtained from the application of an appropriately modified SLAMM code to contrasting estuarine environments in eastern England. The aim is to evaluate the ability of SLAMM to produce plausible projections of intertidal habitat <span class="hlt">change</span>. The estuaries studied are covered by high-resolution altimetry data, and an extensive literature on their physical process regime allows the parameterisation of the various sub-models in SLAMM. A Matlab-based shell is used to perform an initial sensitivity analysis to better understand the nature of the modelled <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise effects. This shell also provides a framework for Monte Carlo simulations forced by a set of UKCP09 <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518228','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA518228"><span>Pyroconvection and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pyroconvection and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> M. Fromm,1 S. Miller,2 J. Turk,2 and T. Lee2 1Remote Sensing Division 2Marine Meteorology Division Introduction: In March 1998, the...important contribution pyroCbs make to hemispheric weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span> patterns. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> projections that show global warming place the largest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818220B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818220B"><span>A Simple Model Framework to Explore the Deeply Uncertain, Local <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Response to <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>. A Case Study on New Orleans, Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakker, Alexander; Louchard, Domitille; Keller, Klaus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level rise threatens many coastal areas around the world. The integrated assessment of potential adaptation and mitigation strategies requires a sound understanding of the upper tails and the major drivers of the uncertainties. Global warming causes <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level to rise, primarily due to thermal expansion of the oceans and mass loss of the major ice sheets, smaller ice caps and glaciers. These components show distinctly different responses to temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span> with respect to response time, threshold behavior, and local fingerprints. Projections of these different components are deeply uncertain. Projected uncertainty ranges strongly depend on (necessary) pragmatic choices and assumptions; e.g. on the applied <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios, which processes to include and how to parameterize them, and on error structure of the observations. Competing assumptions are very hard to objectively weigh. Hence, uncertainties of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level response are hard to grasp in a single distribution function. The deep uncertainty can be better understood by making clear the key assumptions. Here we demonstrate this approach using a relatively simple model framework. We present a mechanistically motivated, but simple model framework that is intended to efficiently explore the deeply uncertain <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level response to anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The model consists of 'building blocks' that represent the major components of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level response and its uncertainties, including threshold behavior. The framework's simplicity enables the simulation of large ensembles allowing for an efficient exploration of parameter uncertainty and for the simulation of multiple combined adaptation and mitigation strategies. The model framework can skilfully reproduce earlier major <span class="hlt">sea</span> level assessments, but due to the modular setup it can also be easily utilized to explore high-end scenarios and the effect of competing assumptions and parameterizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32754','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/32754"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Linda A. Joyce</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The science associated with <span class="hlt">climate</span> and its effects on ecosystems, economies, and social systems is developing rapidly. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> assessments can serve as an important synthesis of this science and provide the information and context for management and policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation. This topic paper describes the variety of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH31A1880R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH31A1880R"><span>Future Flood Inundation and Damages from Storm Surge in the Coast of Virginia and Maryland with Projected <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezaie, A. M.; Ferreira, C.; Walls, M. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The recurrent flood risks on coastal areas in the United States (US) due to hurricane wind and storm surge are likely to rise with warmer <span class="hlt">climate</span>, frequent storms, and increasing coastal population. Recent studies suggested that the global financial losses from hurricanes will be doubled by 2100 due to combined impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (SLR) and intensified hurricanes. While the predicted average SLR for the Mid-Atlantic region of the US is 2.2 meter, some coastal areas in Virginia (VA) and Maryland (MD) are expected to experience a 0.7 to 1.6m and 0.6 to 1.7m SLR respectively. Nearly 80 percent of the total $5.3 billion property damage by Hurricane Isabel in 2003 was within VA and MD. In order to provide a quantitative assessment of the future flooding and associated damages for projected <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and SLR scenarios, this study integrated state-of-the-art coastal numerical model ADCIRC with a careful economic valuation exercise of flood damages. The study area covers the entire coastal zone of VA and MD focusing on regions that are in the vicinity of the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean with high susceptibility to storm surge and flooding. Multiple <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> land cover scenarios generated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a series of the IPCC's Emissions Scenarios are incorporated in the modeling approach to integrate <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> whereas local SLR projections are included to provide the regional aspects of future risks. Preliminary results for hurricane Isabel (2003) shows that a 2.3m rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level can cause storm surges rising up to 3-4m in the coastal areas. While a 0.5m SLR makes the range 1-2.5m in the affected areas. It is also seen that higher increase in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level not only causes higher range of inundation but a greater extent of flood as well. The projected inland flooding extents are highest for the SRES A2 Scenario. Alongside an estimate of future loss and damage will be prepared to assist in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009871"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Intertidal Wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will be global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. If relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any <span class="hlt">changes</span> to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, will have flow on effects to biota, while <span class="hlt">changes</span> to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. PMID:24832670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24832670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24832670"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and intertidal wetlands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul</p> <p>2013-03-19</p> <p>Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will be global <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. If relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any <span class="hlt">changes</span> to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, will have flow on effects to biota, while <span class="hlt">changes</span> to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.117B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.117B"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a nearly closed <span class="hlt">sea</span> with limited interaction with the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this paper, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span> reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is highly correlated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> level and SST <span class="hlt">changes</span> between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Finally, the temporal correlation between <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31E1776E"><span>Integrating Research on Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Human Use of the Oceans: a Geospatial Method for Daily Monitoring of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and Ship Traffic in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eucker, W.; McGillivary, P. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>One apparent consequence of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> has been a decrease in the extent and thickness of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice more rapidly than models have predicted, while Arctic ship traffic has likewise increased beyond economic predictions. To ensure representative observations of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions and human use of the Arctic Ocean, we concluded a method of tracking daily <span class="hlt">changes</span> in both <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and shipping in the Arctic Ocean was needed. Such a process improves the availability of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice data for navigational safety and allows future developments to be monitored for understanding of ice and shipping in relation to policy decisions appropriate to optimize sustainable use of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> Arctic Ocean. The impetus for this work was the 2009 Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (AMSA) which provided baseline data on Arctic ship traffic. AMSA was based on responses from circumpolar countries, was manpower intensive, and took years to compile. A more timely method of monitoring human use of the Arctic Ocean was needed. To address this, a method of monitoring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice on a scale relevant to ship-navigation (<10km) was developed and implemented in conjunction with arctic ship tracking using S-AIS (Satellite Automatic Identification Systems). S-AIS is internationally required on ships over a certain size, which includes most commercial vessels in the Arctic Ocean. Daily AIS and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice observations were chosen for this study. Results of this method of geospatial analysis of the entire arctic are presented for a year long period from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011. This confirmed the dominance of European Arctic ship traffic. Arctic shipping is maximal during August and diminishes in September with a minimum in winter, although some shipping continues year-round in perennially ice-free areas. Data are analyzed for the four principal arctic quadrants around the North Pole by season for number and nationality of vessels. The goal of this study was not merely to monitor ship</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43A2292M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPP43A2292M"><span>Hydrographic Response of the East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Lead by the Glacial/ Interglacial <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Cycle Inferred from Radiolarian Data (IODP Exp. 346 Site U1429)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuzaki, K. M. R.; Itaki, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (ECS) is a marginal <span class="hlt">sea</span>. In this area warm water of the Kuroshio Current (KC) and discharges of fresh water from the Yangtze River during summer influence the regional hydrography under the control of the East Asian Monsoon. Most parts of this <span class="hlt">sea</span> lies above a continental shelf. Indeed, 70 % of this <span class="hlt">sea</span> has a water column shallower than 200 m. Since the end of the Mid Pleistocene Transition spanning from 1200 to 800 kyr, Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> is characterized by 100 kyr interglacial/glacial <span class="hlt">climatic</span> cycles. To these cycles are associated high amplitude <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the world wide <span class="hlt">sea</span> level caused by the increases/decreases in the volume of the polar ice sheets located in both hemispheres. At its maximum a Δ <span class="hlt">sea</span> level exceeding 100 m is recognized during the glacial Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 2. In this context, because 70% of the ECS show a water depth shallower than 200 m, in this study we are interested in monitoring the response of the ECS hydrography to these high amplitude <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In summer-autumn 2013, the IODP Expedition 346 could retrieve sediments cores in the northern East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from Site U1428 and U1429. Based on the shipboard preliminary results, these sites likely cover the past 400 kyr continuously. The shipboard preliminarily data also reported that siliceous microfossils such as radiolarians were abundant and well preserved in sediment cores collected from these sites. Radiolarian are widely distributed in the world ocean and they are famous for living from shallow to deep water masses. Therefore, their uses enable to monitor paleoecological <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the shallow to the deep water layers. In this study based on radiolarian species, which ecology are well-known, we discuss <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the ECS hydrography throughout the past 400 kyr. We have analyzed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in radiolarian assemblages over 110 samples collected from Site U1429. As a preliminary result, we identified that during the MIS 2, 6 and 10 because of a globally low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714486M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714486M"><span>Examining the reproducibility of stable isotope ratios in the marine bivalve, Astarte borealis, from populations in the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Russia: implications for biological consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McNabb, Justin; Surge, Donna</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Shells of the marine bivalve, Astarte, are uniquely suited to investigate links between environmental/<span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and biological consequences because of their <span class="hlt">change</span> in size and biogeographic distribution through time. For example, are there corresponding <span class="hlt">changes</span> in lifespan and biogeographic distribution depending on warm vs. cold <span class="hlt">climate</span> states? Does warm vs. cold <span class="hlt">climate</span> state result in longer or shorter lifespans? Early studies of Astarte have documented a decrease in shell size through geologic time. Modern specimens are much smaller than those from the mid Pliocene at similar latitudes. Astarte had a wide latitudinal and cosmopolitan distribution in the western North Atlantic during the Oligocene to Pliocene. During the early Pleistocene, most of the warm-water species became extinct, and today, their biogeographic distribution is mostly restricted to the northern Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. To answer questions linking biological consequences and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, we must first decipher ontogenetic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in shell growth of modern specimens. Preliminary data using isotope sclerochronology identified slowed shell growth from late summer to winter in modern specimens from the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Russia, possibly triggered by increasing freshwater input and decreasing temperatures. Here, we present new data examining the reproducibility of isotopic time series and season of slowed growth among modern individuals collected at the same time from the same population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...148....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...148....1M"><span>Potential impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the Intra-Americas <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Part 2. Implications for Atlantic bluefin tuna and skipjack tuna adult and larval habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muhling, Barbara A.; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki; Lamkin, John T.; Roffer, Mitchell A.; Muller-Karger, Frank; Walter, John F., III</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Increasing water temperatures due to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will likely have significant impacts on distributions and life histories of Atlantic tunas. In this study, we combined predictive habitat models with a downscaled <span class="hlt">climate</span> model to examine potential impacts on adults and larvae of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in the Intra-Americas <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (IAS). An additional downscaled model covering the 20th century was used to compare habitat fluctuations from natural variability to predicted future <span class="hlt">changes</span> under two <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium-low) and RCP 8.5 (high). Results showed marked temperature-induced habitat losses for both adult and larval bluefin tuna on their northern Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. In contrast, habitat suitability for skipjack tuna increased as temperatures warmed. Model error was highest for the two skipjack tuna models, particularly at higher temperatures. This work suggests that influences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on highly migratory Atlantic tuna species are likely to be substantial, but strongly species-specific. While impacts on fish populations remain uncertain, these <span class="hlt">changes</span> in habitat suitability will likely alter the spatial and temporal availability of species to fishing fleets, and challenge equilibrium assumptions of environmental stability, upon which fisheries management benchmarks are based.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.3993G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GMD.....9.3993G"><span>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) contribution to CMIP6: investigation of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and ocean <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to CO2 forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; Saenko, Oleg A.; Stammer, Detlef; Winton, Michael</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and ocean <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> due to ocean density and circulation <span class="hlt">change</span>. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span>, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...128..639J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...128..639J"><span>Evidence of the observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in the atmosphere-ocean interactions over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during summer in a regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Hye-Yeong; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Baek-Min</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> plays a key role to <span class="hlt">change</span> the precipitation variability in East Asia by influencing the northward moisture transport. Previous study found that there exist <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmosphere-ocean interactions over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) before and after the late 1990s during boreal summer (June-July-August) in the observations. This study further supports such <span class="hlt">changes</span> using two simulations of the atmospheric regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model (RCM) forced by historical <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST). The control run is forced by historical SSTs, which are prescribed in the entire domain in the RCM. In addition to the control run, an additional idealized experiment is conducted, i.e., the historical SSTs are prescribed in the SCS only and the climatological SST is prescribed outside the SCS to examine the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the atmosphere-ocean interactions in the SCS. It is found that the simultaneous correlation coefficient between SST and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> significantly over the SCS before and after the late 1990s. This result supports the notion that there are significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmosphere-ocean interactions over the SCS before and after the late 1990, which affects the ability of the RCM to simulate precipitation variability accurately relative to observation. This result implies that the simulations of atmospheric circulation model results forced by observed SST before the late 1990 should be cautiously interpreted because the observed SST anomalies are forced by the atmosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1858S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1858S"><span>Hindcasting and forecasting macrofauna species distribution for the Jade Bay tidal basin (North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Germany) in response to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singer, Anja; Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Bleich, Oliver; Brumsack, Hans-J.; Freund, Holger; Geimecke, Christina; Lettmann, Karsten; Millat, Gerald; Staneva, Joanna; Vanselow, Anna; Westphal, Heiko; Wolff, Jörg-O.; Wurpts, Andreas; Kröncke, Ingrid</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>During the last decades severe <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> have been monitored for the Jade Bay (German Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span>), causing pronounced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the abundance and spatial distribution of characteristic benthic species. Due to their relatively sessile habit, benthic species are ideal organisms for small-scale species distribution modelling (SDM) and important indicators for environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> and disturbances. In a first step, the present distribution (representing 2009) was modelled for 10 characteristic macrofauna (> 0.5 mm) species, built on statistical relations between species presences and 11 high-resolution environmental grids. Here, five different presence-absence modelling algorithms were merged (GLM, GBM, RF, MARS, ANN) within the ensemble forecasting platform 'biomod2'. In a second step, the past distribution scenario was reconstructed for the 1970s in order to evaluate the hindcast model results with independent macrofauna data from the 1970s. In a third step, the future macrofauna distribution (representing 2050) was forecasted under potential future habitat conditions, i.e. ongoing <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and <span class="hlt">changing</span> biogenic structures (seagrass and mussel beds). Submergence time and sediment characteristics correlated most significantly with the modelled macrofauna distribution at the study site, followed by nutrient supply and topography. The historical macrofauna data evaluated the past distribution scenario model results. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> induced <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and its local implications on the Jade Bay (increased sediment load, rise in the tidal height) explained the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the macrofauna distribution patterns since the last four decades. The forecast scenario revealed clear species distribution shifts, range size <span class="hlt">changes</span> and niche overlap <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512861"><span>Financing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of <span class="hlt">climate</span> risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. '<span class="hlt">Climate</span>-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider <span class="hlt">climate</span> and weather risks could improve their sustainability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616869M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616869M"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the hydrology of the southern coast of Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Alexandria - Matrouh Governorates, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mabrouk, Badr; Ludwig, Ralf</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Nile Delta is one of the most complex, fragile and densely populated landscapes. It has suffered from abrupt environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> including <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, <span class="hlt">sea</span> water intrusion, and dramatic drawdown in groundwater levels due to severe pumping. The western part of Nile Delta's coast, from Alexandria to Marsa Matruh Governorates, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions in Nile Delta. Environmentally complicated risks on water and soil coincide with suffering from strategic management problems. The general lack of studies linking <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise with socioeconomic impact cause large uncertainties. Such impacts became very critical recently, as subsidence and successive step sliding in the northern coast cause catastrophic disasters in areas with high population and socio-economic importance. Western Coast of Nile Delta is characterized by a succession of limestone and oolitic limestone which is extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation in addition to dissolution by saline water. This study deals with studying the effect of global warming, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and severe pumping on the studied area. Examples will be given for soil degradation, subsidence, surface sliding, creeps successive step sliding, and sinkholes due to dissolving and fracturing of the limestone plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=melting+AND+ice&id=EJ762717','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=melting+AND+ice&id=EJ762717"><span>Our <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Newhouse, Kay Berglund</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local <span class="hlt">climate</span>. They extend this idea to contrast the local <span class="hlt">climate</span> with others,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+united+AND+states&id=EJ762717','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=global+AND+warming+AND+united+AND+states&id=EJ762717"><span>Our <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Newhouse, Kay Berglund</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local <span class="hlt">climate</span>. They extend this idea to contrast the local <span class="hlt">climate</span> with others,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7199055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7199055"><span>Calcrete and coal in late Carboniferous cyclothems of Nova Scotia, Canada. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> linked</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tandon, S.K. ); Gibling, M.R. )</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Modern tropical peats require continuity of precipitation for accumulation, whereas calcretes and calcic vertisols require strongly seasonal conditions. The 20-30-m-thick cyclothems of the Sydney basin, Nova Scotia, Canada, show a systematic alternation of coals and other hydromorphic paleosols with calcretes and calcic vertisols. This implies strong variation in seasonality during the duration of a cyclothem, estimated at 200 ka. In at least one cyclothem, calcic paleosols formed on an interfluve adjacent to a paleovalley cut through marine strata, suggesting that a more seasonal and probably drier <span class="hlt">climate</span> prevailed during <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level lowstand. The calcic paleosols are estimated to have formed during periods of 10[sup 4] yr, possibly indicative of partial control by obliquity and precessional cycles. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926879"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ecological quality indicators and biogeochemical fluxes in the Baltic <span class="hlt">sea</span>: a multi-model ensemble study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meier, H E Markus; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Andersson, Helén C; Dieterich, Christian; Eilola, Kari; Gustafsson, Bo G; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Neumann, Thomas; Ranjbar, Zohreh; Savchuk, Oleg P; Schimanke, Semjon</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Multi-model ensemble simulations using three coupled physical-biogeochemical models were performed to calculate the combined impact of projected future <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and plausible nutrient load <span class="hlt">changes</span> on biogeochemical cycles in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> projections for 1961-2099 were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Helsinki Commission's (HELCOM) Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Action Plan (BSAP). The model results suggest that in a future <span class="hlt">climate</span>, water quality, characterized by ecological quality indicators like winter nutrient, summer bottom oxygen, and annual mean phytoplankton concentrations as well as annual mean Secchi depth (water transparency), will be deteriorated compared to present conditions. In case of nutrient load reductions required by the BSAP, water quality is only slightly improved. Based on the analysis of biogeochemical fluxes, we find that in warmer and more anoxic waters, internal feedbacks could be reinforced. Increased phosphorus fluxes out of the sediments, reduced denitrification efficiency and increased nitrogen fixation may partly counteract nutrient load abatement strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/prato_fagre.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/prato_fagre.html"><span>Coping with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> is not the only factor in the deterioration of natural systems.We are making big <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the landscape, altering land use and land cover in major ways. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> combined present a challenge to environmental management. Adaptive management is a scientific approach to managing the adverse impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and landscape <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19604275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19604275"><span>Bunyaviruses and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, R M</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>It is generally accepted that the planet is undergoing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and '<span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>' has become the scapegoat for many catastrophes, including infectious disease outbreaks, as acknowledged by Randolph and Ergonul, who state '<span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is the current ubiquitous explanation for increased incidence of infections of many sorts' (Future Virology 2008; 3: 303-306). However, as these authors argue, this is a highly simplistic view and, indeed, there is a complex network of factors that are responsible for disease emergence and re-emergence. In this short review, the role that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> could play in the emergence of bunyavirus disease is considered, using a few selected examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED11D..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED11D..02S"><span>Communicating Urban <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with <span class="hlt">climate</span> scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its impacts on urban audiences. The <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused <span class="hlt">climate</span> education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about <span class="hlt">climate</span> science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23F..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23F..03K"><span>Probabilistic Projections of Future <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Their Implications for Flood Risk Management: Insights from the American <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Prospectus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopp, R. E., III; Delgado, M.; Horton, R. M.; Houser, T.; Little, C. M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Oppenheimer, M.; Rasmussen, D. M., Jr.; Strauss, B.; Tebaldi, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Global mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (GMSL) rise projections are insufficient for adaptation planning; local decisions require local projections that characterize risk over a range of timeframes and tolerances. We present a global set of local <span class="hlt">sea</span> level (LSL) projections to inform decisions on timescales ranging from the coming decades through the 22nd century. We present complete probability distributions, informed by a combination of expert community assessment, expert elicitation, and process modeling [1]. We illustrate the application of this framework by estimating the joint distribution of future <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> and coastal flooding, and associated economic costs [1,2]. In much of the world in the current century, differences in median LSL projections are due primarily to varying levels of non-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> uplift or subsidence. In the 22nd century and in the high-end tails, larger ice sheet contributions, particularly from the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS), contribute significantly to site-to-site differences. Uncertainty in GMSL and most LSL projections is dominated by the uncertain AIS component. <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-level rise dramatically reshapes flood risk. For example, at the New York City (Battery) tide gauge, our projections indicate a likely (67% probability) 21st century LSL rise under RCP 8.5 of 65--129 cm (1-in-20 chance of exceeding 154 cm). Convolving the distribution of projected <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise with the extreme value distribution of flood return periods indicates that this rise will cause the current 1.80 m `1-in-100 year' flood event to occur an expected nine times over the 21st century -- equivalent to the expected number of `1-in-11 year' floods in the absence of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span>. Projected <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise for 2100 under RCP 8.5 would likely place 80-160 billion of current property in New York below the high tide line, with a 1-in-20 chance of losses >190 billion. Even without accounting for potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> in storms themselves, it would likely increase average annual storm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ccp..book.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ccp..book.....B"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Prehistory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burroughs, William James</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>How did humankind deal with the extreme challenges of the last Ice Age? How have the relatively benign post-Ice Age conditions affected the evolution and spread of humanity across the globe? By setting our genetic history in the context of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during prehistory, the origin of many features of our modern world are identified and presented in this illuminating book. It reviews the aspects of our physiology and intellectual development that have been influenced by <span class="hlt">climatic</span> factors, and how features of our lives - diet, language and the domestication of animals - are also the product of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> in which we evolved. In short: <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in prehistory has in many ways made us what we are today. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Prehistory weaves together studies of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> with anthropological, archaeological and historical studies, and will fascinate all those interested in the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on human development and history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003QSRv...22..289N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003QSRv...22..289N"><span>Rerewhakaaitu Tephra, a land <span class="hlt">sea</span> marker for the Last Termination in New Zealand, with implications for global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newnham, Rewi M.; Eden, Dennis N.; Lowe, David J.; Hendy, Chris H.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>The Rerewhakaaiutu Tephra erupted from Okataina Volcanic Centre, North Island, New Zealand, at 14,700±95 14C yr BP (ca 17,600 cal yr BP) at a time of rapid re-organisation of Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> system at the end of the Last Glacial (Termination I). It provides a distinctive isochron in a range of different environments in North Island and in adjacent South Pacific Ocean sediments. Terrestrial evidence, based on fluvial aggradation and downcutting relationships, loess accumulation rates, palaeovegetation patterns, and buried soil development and mineralogy, shows that marked amelioration of <span class="hlt">climate</span> occurred shortly before the Rerewhakaaitu Tephra was deposited. Similarly, marine evidence from around this time shows major <span class="hlt">changes</span> in accumulation rates of sediment and aeolian quartz and in the abundance of various marine organisms, while foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope records indicate that the arrival of the glacial meltwater signal occurred close to or just after the deposition of the Rerewhakaaitu Tephra. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> are discussed in relation to controls on <span class="hlt">climate</span> by oceanic and atmospheric mechanisms. The re-organisation of <span class="hlt">climate</span> commencing at ca 15,000-14,500 14C yr BP (ca 18,000-17,400 cal yr BP) is detected elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere and evidently was linked to orbitally forced warming which is thought to have initiated ice retreat in both hemispheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9585V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9585V"><span>New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, <span class="hlt">climate</span> and relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Tatur, Andrej</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, <span class="hlt">climate</span> and relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica) Verkulich S. R. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Pushina Z.V. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Tatur A. (Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland) During the 2008-2009 austral summer, co-operative Russian - Polish paleogeographical investigations allowed to refine the understanding of the past environmental events at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island. Old marine deposits (ca. 30000 yrs BP) with shells, whale bones and marine algae in situ were found in the western coastal and northern inland territories at the altitudes of 20-40 m a.s.l. that evidences the covering of considerable part of the peninsula by relatively warm <span class="hlt">sea</span> waters before the Last Glacial Maximum. Quite good preservation of these deposits supposes relatively small thickness and weak erosional potential of ice masses overlying the area during the LGM. The early Holocene phase of the peninsula deglaciation was caused by both <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming and marine transgression, which left the deposits with fossil flora and fauna at heights up to 15 m a.s.l. (maximum rise of the relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level 7000-8000 yrs BP). During the middle Holocene, glacier contraction in the area continued (on the whole) due to mainly favorable <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions. The presence of marine and terrestrial deposit blocks (with shells, algae, mosses) in moraine ridges on the surface of Collins Ice Cap signifies that this glacier could vanish from the peninsula during <span class="hlt">climate</span> optimum (ca. 4000-3000 yrs BP). The processes of new formation and growth of the ice cap started probably ca. 2000 yrs BP; within the last 1000 years the limited advance of the glacier occurred (likely corresponding to the Little Ice Age), and was replaced then by modern process of its decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DSRII..54.2885C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DSRII..54.2885C"><span>Potential effects of temperature on the benthic infaunal community on the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf: Possible impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coyle, K. O.; Konar, B.; Blanchard, A.; Highsmith, R. C.; Carroll, J.; Carroll, M.; Denisenko, S. G.; Sirenko, B. I.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>In the late 1950s, Soviet researchers collected benthic infaunal samples from the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf. Approximately 17 years later, researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks also sampled the region to assess infaunal biomass and abundance. Here, the two data sets were examined to document patterns and reveal any consistent differences in infaunal biomass among major feeding groups between the two time periods. No significant differences in the geometric mean biomass of all taxa pooled were indicated between the two study periods (1958-1959=49.1 g m -2; 1975-1976=60.8 g m -2; P=0.14); however, significant differences were observed for specific functional groups, namely carnivores, omnivores and surface detritivores. Of the 64 families identified from both data sets from all functional groups, 21 showed statistically significant ( P⩽0.05) differences in mean biomass. Of the 21 families showing significant differences, 19 (91%) of the families had higher mean biomass in the 1975-1976 data set. The above differences suggest a trend toward higher overall infaunal biomass for specific functional groups during mid 1970s compared with the late 1950s. Temperature measurements and literature data indicate that the mid-1970s was an unusually cold period relative to the period before and after, suggesting a mechanistic link between temperature <span class="hlt">changes</span> and infaunal biomass. Food-web relationships and ecosystem dynamics in the southeastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> indicate that during cold periods, infaunal biomass will be elevated relative to warm periods due to elevated carbon flux to the benthos and exclusion of benthic predators on infaunal invertebrates by the cold bottom water on the shelf. As long-term observations of temperature and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover indicate a secular warming trend on the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf, the potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> in food-web relationships could markedly alter trophic structure and energy flow to apex consumers, potentially impacting the commercial, tourist</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017235','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017235"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> 2007 - mitigation of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873680"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Planet Earth has experienced repeated <span class="hlt">changes</span> of its <span class="hlt">climate</span> throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span>, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session "<span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Mitigation" the speakers offered four different views on coal and CO2: the basis for life, but also a major hazard with impact on Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>. A common denominator in the presentations was that more than ever science and technology is required. We need not only understand the mechanisms for <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability, we also need to identify means to remedy the anthropogenic influence on Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..65...46W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..65...46W"><span>Future <span class="hlt">climate</span> of the Bering and Chukchi <span class="hlt">Seas</span> projected by global <span class="hlt">climate</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.; Stabeno, Phyllis</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) are a major tool used by scientists to study the complex interaction of processes that control <span class="hlt">climate</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Projections from these models for the 21st century are the basis for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC). Here, we use simulations from this set of <span class="hlt">climate</span> models developed for the IPCC AR4 to provide a regional assessment of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST), and surface air temperature (SAT) critical to future marine ecosystems in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. To reduce uncertainties associated with the model projections, a two-step model culling technique is applied based on comparison to 20th century observations. For the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, data and model projections show major September <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent reduction compared to the 20th century beginning now, with nearly <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice free conditions before mid-century. Earlier <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss continues throughout fall with major loss in December before the end of the 21st century. By 2050, for the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, spring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent (average of March to May) would be 58% of its recent values (1980-1999 mean). December will become increasingly <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice free over the next 40 years. The Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> will continue to show major interannual variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent and SST. The majority of models had no systematic bias in their 20th century simulated regional SAT, an indication that the models may provide considerable credibility for the Bering and the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem projections. Largest air temperature increases are in fall (November to December) for both the Chukchi and the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, with increases by 2050 of 3 °C for the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and increases in excess of 5 °C for the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22732501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22732501C"><span>Ocean Observations of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chambers, Don</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ocean influences <span class="hlt">climate</span> by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use <span class="hlt">change</span>.Here I summarize the observational evidence of <span class="hlt">change</span> in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> relevant to <span class="hlt">climate</span>. These include: <span class="hlt">changes</span> in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean salinity and their link to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and <span class="hlt">change</span> of ocean current patterns relevant to <span class="hlt">climate</span>, observations of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">change</span> and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the ocean, including ocean acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558688"><span>Comment on "Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature and ice volume <span class="hlt">changes</span> across the Pliocene-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> transitions".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jimin; Broecker, Wally S</p> <p>2010-06-18</p> <p>Sosdian and Rosenthal (Reports, 17 July 2009, p. 306) used magnesium/calcium ratios in benthic foraminifera from the North Atlantic to reconstruct past bottom-water temperatures. They suggested that both ice volume <span class="hlt">change</span> and ice-sheet dynamics played important roles during the late Pliocene and mid-Pleistocene <span class="hlt">climate</span> transitions. We present evidence that their record of deep ocean temperature is not reliable, thus raising doubts about their conclusions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160013874&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160013874&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange"><span>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level and Ocean <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Response to CO2 Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20160013874'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160013874_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160013874_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160013874_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20160013874_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and ocean <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> due to ocean density and circulation <span class="hlt">change</span>. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span>, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160013874&hterms=Climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160013874&hterms=Climate+change&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange"><span>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level and Ocean <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Response to CO2 Forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; Saenko, Oleg A.; Stammer, Detlef; Winton, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and ocean <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> due to ocean density and circulation <span class="hlt">change</span>. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span>, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRF..122.1060V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRF..122.1060V"><span>Can beaches survive <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is driving <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline <span class="hlt">change</span>, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70187976','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70187976"><span>Can beaches survive <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Limber, Patrick W.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is driving <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise, leading to numerous impacts on the coastal zone, such as increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, cliff failure, saltwater intrusion in aquifers, and groundwater inundation. Many beaches around the world are currently experiencing chronic erosion as a result of gradual, present-day rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (about 3 mm/year) and human-driven restrictions in sand supply (e.g., harbor dredging and river damming). Accelerated <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise threatens to worsen coastal erosion and challenge the very existence of natural beaches throughout the world. Understanding and predicting the rates of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise and coastal erosion depends on integrating data on natural systems with computer simulations. Although many computer modeling approaches are available to simulate shoreline <span class="hlt">change</span>, few are capable of making reliable long-term predictions needed for full adaption or to enhance resilience. Recent advancements have allowed convincing decadal to centennial-scale predictions of shoreline evolution. For example, along 500 km of the Southern California coast, a new model featuring data assimilation predicts that up to 67% of beaches may completely erode by 2100 without large-scale human interventions. In spite of recent advancements, coastal evolution models must continue to improve in their theoretical framework, quantification of accuracy and uncertainty, computational efficiency, predictive capability, and integration with observed data, in order to meet the scientific and engineering challenges produced by a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169937"><span>Role of Low Frequency <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature Modes with a <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> in Modulating Atlantic Hurricane Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LaRow, Timothy</p> <p>2014-08-03</p> <p>The SSTs used in our study come from the Community <span class="hlt">Climate</span> System Model version 4 (CCSM4) (Gent et al 2011) and from the Canadian Centre for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Modeling and Analysis (CanESM2) (Chylek et al20ll) <span class="hlt">climate</span> models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) (Taylor et al2012). We've examined the tropical cyclones using both the historical simulation that employs volcanic and aerosol forcing as well as the representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). In addition, we've compared the present day North Atlantic tropical cyclone metrics from a previous study (LaRow, 2013) to these <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> experiments. The experimental setup is shown in Table 1. We considered the CMIP5 experiment number '3.2 historical' (Taylor et al,201l), which provides simulations of the recent past (1850-2005). The second set of CMIP5 SSTs is the RCp4.5 experiment where the radiative forcing stabilizes at 45W m-2 after 2100 (experiment number 4.1 in Taylor etal2}ll).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611685G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611685G"><span>An integrated multi-parameter monitoring approach for the quantification and mitigation of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impact on the coasts of Eastern Crete, S. Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Project AKTAIA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghionis, George; Alexandrakis, George; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Sifnioti, Dafni; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Andreadis, Olympos; Petrakis, Stelios; Poulos, Serafim; Velegrakis, Adonis; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Lipakis, Michalis</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The AKTAIA project aims at the production of new knowledge regarding the forms of manifestation of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its influence on the stability and evolution of the coastal landforms along the shoreline of eastern Crete (approximate length: 757 km), taking into account the various aspects of human intervention. Aerial photographs, satellite images and orthophotomaps have been used to produce a detailed coastline map and to study the morphological characteristics of the coastal zone of Eastern Crete. More than 100 beach zones have been visited during three field campaigns, which included geomorphological and human intervention mapping, topographic, meteorological and oceanographic measurements and sedimentological sampling and observations. In addition, two pilot sites (one in the north and one in the south part of Crete) are being monitored, via the installation of coastal video monitoring systems, shore-based meteorological stations and wave-tide recorders installed in the nearshore zone. Detailed seafloor mapping with the use of side scan sonar and scuba diving and bathymetric surveys were conducted in the two pilot sites. Meteorological and oceanographic data from all existing land-based meteorological stations, oceanographic buoys and the ERA-interim dataset are used to determine the wind and wave <span class="hlt">climate</span> of each beach. The collected <span class="hlt">climatic</span>, sedimentological and coastal environmental data are being integrated in a GIS database that will be used to forecast the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> trends in the area of Crete for the next decades and to model the impact of the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the future evolution of the coastal zone. New methodologies for the continuous monitoring of land-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interaction and for the quantification of the loss of sensitive coastal zones due to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and a modified Coastal Vulnerability Index for a comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of the coasts are being developed. Numerical modelling of the nearshore hydrodynamics and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46955','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/46955"><span>Synopsis of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Angela Jardine; Jonathan Long</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> can interact with other stressors to transform ecosystems and alter the services those ecosystems provide. This synopsis presents themes that run through the synthesis report regarding the impacts of a <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the forests and waters of the synthesis area as well as long-term, broad-scale, science-based strategies to promote system...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..767D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CliPa...9..767D"><span>Deglacial and Holocene vegetation and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the southern Central Mediterranean from a direct land-<span class="hlt">sea</span> correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desprat, S.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Essallami, L.; Sicre, M. A.; Dormoy, I.; Peyron, O.; Siani, G.; Bout Roumazeilles, V.; Turon, J. L.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Despite a large number of studies, the long-term and millennial to centennial-scale <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variability in the Mediterranean region during the last deglaciation and the Holocene is still debated, including in the southern Central Mediterranean. In this paper, we present a new marine pollen sequence (core MD04-2797CQ) from the Siculo-Tunisian Strait documenting the regional vegetation and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the southern Central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The MD04-2797CQ marine pollen sequence shows that semi-desert plants dominated the vegetal cover in the southern Central Mediterranean between 18.2 and 12.3 ka cal BP, indicating prevailing dry conditions during the deglaciation, even during the Greenland Interstadial (GI)-1. Across the transition Greenland Stadial (GS)-1 - Holocene, Asteraceae-Poaceae steppe became dominant till 10.1 ka cal BP. This record underlines with no chronological ambiguity that even though temperatures increased, deficiency in moisture availability persisted into the early Holocene. Temperate trees and shrubs with heath underbrush or maquis expanded between 10.1 and 6.6 ka, corresponding to Sapropel 1 (S1) interval, while Mediterranean plants only developed from 6.6 ka onwards. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vegetal cover show that the regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> in southern Central Mediterranean was wetter during S1 and became drier during the mid- to late Holocene. Wetter conditions during S1 were likely due to increased winter precipitation while summers remained dry. We suggest, in agreement with published modeling experiments, that the early Holocene increased melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in conjunction with weak winter insolation played a major role in the development of winter precipitation maxima in the Mediterranean region in controlling the strength and position of the North Atlantic storm track. Finally, our data provide evidence for centennial-scale vegetation and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the southern Central</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC42C..04Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC42C..04Y"><span>The Sand <span class="hlt">Seas</span> of northern China: Important sinks and sources of global sediment fluxes and their <span class="hlt">changing</span> roles during different <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions of Late Quaternary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although the occurrence of aeolian sands in sedimentary sequences has been widely used as indicators of desert formation or proxies of desert <span class="hlt">climate</span>, one should be aware that accumulation of aeolian sands does occur along river channels, in lake shores not necessarily associated with arid environment. Our ongoing geomorphological and paleoenvironmental studies in the deserts of northern China reconfirm that formation of sand <span class="hlt">seas</span> is dependent on not only erodibility (arising from bare surface due to aridity) and wind power but more importantly sand availability related to sediment cycles under interactions between fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian processes. Here we present our ongoing geomorphological and paleoclimatic research on the Late Quaternary landscape and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Taklamkan Desert of northwestern China, the largest sand <span class="hlt">sea</span> of China in arid zone, and in the Hunshandake Sandy Land at the east part of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt under semiarid <span class="hlt">climate</span>. We find out that the occurrence of tall sand dunes in the over 300,000 km2 large Taklamakan Sand <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is closely related to the sites of intensive fluvial sedimentation and convergence zone of surface winds. In the case of Hunshandake, the dunes (although much smaller) mainly occur along the shorelines of the former lake basins, and sediment sources are generally limited because of open hydrological systems in the south and east portions of this desert. The sedimentological and geomorphological records suggest that the <span class="hlt">climate</span> has <span class="hlt">changed</span> between arid and less-arid conditions in both of these deserts during Late Quaternary. Under wetter conditions the Taklamakan acts as an important sink of sediments brought by rivers with headwaters in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan, while under more arid conditions it acts as an important global sediment source whose dust is transported not only to East Asia and Pacific but also to Greenland ice via westerlies. The Hunshandake has the same pattern of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010297','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010297"><span>Responding to the Consequences of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hildebrand, Peter H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the <span class="hlt">changing</span> water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice; <span class="hlt">changes</span> in runoff; rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> in human behavior that affect the <span class="hlt">climate</span> and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on <span class="hlt">climate</span>, the many options for mitigation of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5998198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5998198"><span>Milankovitch <span class="hlt">climate</span> cyclicity and its effect on relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level <span class="hlt">changes</span> and organic carbon storage, Late Cretaceous black shales of Colombia and Venezuela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Villamil, T.; Kauffman, E.G. )</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The Late Cretaceous Villeta Group and La Luna Formation shows remarkable depositional cyclicity attributable to Milankovitch <span class="hlt">climate</span> cycles. Each 30-60 cm thick hemicycle is composed of a basal gray shale, a medial black, organic-rich shale, and an upper gray shale with a dense argillaceous limestone cap. Fourier time-series analysis revealed peak frequencies of 500, 100, and 31 ka (blending 21 and 42 ka data). ThiS cyclicity reflects possibly wet cooler (shale) to dry, possibly warm (limestone) <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and their influence on relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, sedimentation rates/patterns, productivity, water chemistry and stratification. Wet/cool hemicycles may produce slight lowering of sealevel, increased rates of clay sedimentation, diminished carbonate production, water stratification, increased productivity among noncalcareous marine plankton, and increased Corg production and storage. Dry/warm hemicycles may produce a slight rise in sealevel, and return to normal marine conditions with low Corg storage. Source rock quality may depend upon the predominance of wet over dry <span class="hlt">climatic</span> phases. Differences between <span class="hlt">climate</span>-forced cyclicity and random facies repetition, are shown by contrasting observed lithological patterns and geochemical signals with litho- and chemostratigraphy generated from random models. Accomodation space plots (Fischer plots) for cyclically interbedded black shale-pelagic limestone sequences, allowed prediction of facies behavior, shoreline architecture, and quantitative analysis of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. The synchroneity of Milankovitch cycles and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hemicycle stacking patterns, were tested against a new high-resolution event-chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework for NW South America. Geochemical spikes and hemicycle stacking patterns occur consistently throughout the sections measured, supporting the correlation potential of cyclostratigraphy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6764226"><span>The Atlantic <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The Atlantic <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Global <span class="hlt">Change</span> Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJEaS.102..493B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJEaS.102..493B"><span>Relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and sequence boundaries: insights from the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian platform carbonates of Mount Salève (E France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, André</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The present study analyses the stratal architecture of the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) to Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) sedimentary succession of Mount Salève (E France), and four Berriasian stratigraphic intervals containing four sequence-boundary zones reflecting lowering trends of the relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level evolution. Massive Kimmeridgian limestones characterized by the presence of colonial corals appear to be stacked in an aggrading pattern. These non-bedded thick deposits, which are interpreted to have formed in balance between relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and carbonate accumulation, suggest a keep-up transgressive system. Above, well-bedded Tithonian-to-Berriasian peritidal carbonates reflect a general loss of accommodation. These strata are interpreted as a highstand normal-regressive unit. During the early phase of this major normal regression, the vertical repetition of upper intertidal/lower supratidal lithofacies indicates an aggrading depositional system. This is in agreement with an early stage of a highstand phase of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. The Berriasian sequence-boundary zones investigated (up to 4 m thick) developed under different <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions and correspond to higher-frequency, forced- and normal-regressive stages of relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. According to the classical sequence-stratigraphic principles, these sequence-boundary zones comprise more than one candidate surface for a sequence boundary. Three sequence-boundary zones studied in Early Berriasian rocks lack coarse siliciclastic grains, contain a calcrete crust, as well as marly levels with higher abundances of illite with respect to kaolinite, and exhibit fossilized algal-microbial laminites with desiccation polygons. These sedimentary features are consistent with more arid conditions. A sequence-boundary zone interpreted for the Late Berriasian corresponds to a coal horizon. The strata above and below this coal contain abundant quartz and marly intervals with a higher kaolinite content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41E0119D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41E0119D"><span>Benthic Food Webs of the Chukchi and Beaufort <span class="hlt">Seas</span>: Relative Importance of Ultimate Carbon Sources in a <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunton, K. H.; Schonberg, S. V.; Mctigue, N.; Bucolo, P. A.; Connelly, T. L.; McClelland, J. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover, coastal erosion, and freshwater run-off have the potential to greatly influence carbon assimilation pathways and affect trophic structure in benthic communities across the western Arctic. In the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, variations in the duration and timing of ice cover affect the delivery of ice algae to a relatively shallow (40-50 m) shelf benthos. Although ice algae are known as an important spring carbon subsidy for marine benthic fauna, ice algal contributions may also help initiate productivity of an active microphytobenthos. Recent studies provide clear evidence that the microphytobenthos are photosynthetically active, and have sufficient light and nutrients for in situ growth. The assimilation of benthic diatoms from both sources may explain the 13C enrichment observed in benthic primary consumers throughout the northern Chukchi. On the eastern Beaufort <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast, shallow (2-4 m) estuarine lagoon systems receive massive subsidies of terrestrial carbon that is assimilated by a benthic fauna of significant importance to upper trophic level species, but again, distinct 13C enrichment in benthic primary consumers suggests the existence of an uncharacterized food source. Since ice algae are absent, we believe the 13C enrichment in benthic fauna is caused by the assimilation of benthic microalgae, as reflected in seasonally high benthic chlorophyll in spring under replete light and nutrient conditions. Our observations suggest that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ice cover, on both temporal and spatial scales, are likely to have significant effects on the magnitude and timing of organic matter delivery to both shelf and nearshore systems, and that locally produced organic matter may become an increasingly important carbon subsidy that affects trophic assimilation and secondary ecosystem productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Cosmo..12...29T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Cosmo..12...29T"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Fish Availability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely</p> <p></p> <p>Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at <span class="hlt">sea</span> modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climatic</span> systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29..423K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29..423K"><span>Holocene tropical western Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures in covariation with <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Indonesian region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Meggers, Helge; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Pätzold, Jürgen</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Indian Ocean is a major component of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> teleconnections. While the Holocene SST history is documented for regions affected by the Indian and Arabian monsoons, data from the near-equatorial western Indian Ocean are sparse. Reconstructing past zonal and meridional SST gradients requires additional information on past temperatures from the western boundary current region. We present a unique record of Holocene SST and thermocline depth variations in the tropical western Indian Ocean as documented in foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios and δ18O from a sediment core off northern Tanzania. For Mg/Ca and thermocline δ18O, most variance is concentrated in the centennial to bicentennial periodicity band. On the millennial time scale, an early to mid-Holocene ( 7.8-5.6 ka) warm phase is followed by a temperature drop by up to 2°C, leading to a mid-Holocene cool interval (5.6-4.2 ka). The shift is accompanied by an initial reduction in the difference between surface and thermocline foraminiferal δ18O, consistent with the thickening of the mixed layer and suggestions of a strengthened Walker circulation. However, we cannot confirm the expected enhanced zonal SST gradient, as the cooling of similar magnitude had previously been found in SSTs from the upwelling region off Sumatra and in Flores air temperatures. The SST pattern probably reflects the tropical Indian Ocean expression of a large-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> anomaly rather than a positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like mean state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13B1522H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP13B1522H"><span>Fluvio-estuarine sedimentation and estuarine evolution during the Late-Holocene in the Taw Estuary, England: response to relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havelock, G. M.; Brown, T. G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Present models of Holocene estuary evolution are driven largely by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level (RSL) with little reference to long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fluvial regime and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Centennial-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> has been shown to have a major control on Holocene river behaviour, with fluvial records showing evidence for a high sensitivity of flood occurrence to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>. It follows that the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in river discharge associated with these <span class="hlt">climatic</span> fluctuations should have an important bearing on inner estuarine hydrology and sedimentology. Indeed, recent US studies have shown that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in freshwater inflow can be inferred by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in estuarine paleosalinity and that the timing of these events reflect <span class="hlt">changes</span> in regional precipitation. Deposition in the transitional inner estuarine environment can therefore be seen to be controlled by both marine and fluvial influences. The fluvio-estuarine late-Holocene sedimentary record was investigated in the macro-tidal Taw Estuary, south-west England in order to ascertain the relative importance of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in RSL and precipitation driven river discharge on estuarine sedimentation and centennial-scale geomorphic evolution. The inner estuarine record was compared with a local RSL reconstruction for the Taw Estuary and with a reconstructed Holocene flood record and geomorphic fluvial history for the lower Taw valley. The diatom record of numerous sediment cores enabled paleosalinity to be evaluated. The fluvio-estuarine valley fill was split into a series of stratigraphic units, with a chronological framework derived using radiocarbon and OSL dating methods. Geomorphic <span class="hlt">change</span> in the inner estuarine zone is shown to be mainly influenced by phases of increased river discharge and catchment precipitation, with fluvial instability translating down river into the inner estuarine system. This results in periods of enhanced tidal channel migration, marsh-floodplain formation and estuarine channel-bed aggradation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21C1357T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP21C1357T"><span>Late Pleistocene and early Holocene <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: a new <span class="hlt">climate</span> record from the Patriot Hills, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turney, C. S.; Fogwill, C. J.; Rubino, M.; Etheridge, D. M.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Curran, M. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene (30 000-5000 years ago) was a period of considerable <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability, which has been associated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in deep water formation and the intensity of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Although numerous records exist across the North Atlantic region, few Antarctic ice core records have been obtained from the south. Here we exploit the potential of upwelling ancient ice - so-called blue ice areas (BIAs) - from the Patriot Hills in the Ellsworth Mountains to derive the first deuterium isotope record (dD) from continental Antarctica south of the Weddell <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Gas analysis and glaciological considerations provide a first relative chronology and provide new constraints on ice sheet dynamics in the region. Inferred temperature trends from the Patriot Hills BIA and snow pit suggest <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> influences during the transition between the last glacial period and Holocene. Our results demonstrate the considerable potential of the Patriot Hills site for reconstructing past <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the south Atlantic region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rain&pg=7&id=EJ912335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rain&pg=7&id=EJ912335"><span>What Is <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beswick, Adele</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can <span class="hlt">change</span> day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The <span class="hlt">climate</span> varies over different parts of the world. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rain&pg=7&id=EJ912335','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rain&pg=7&id=EJ912335"><span>What Is <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beswick, Adele</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can <span class="hlt">change</span> day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The <span class="hlt">climate</span> varies over different parts of the world. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20824060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20824060"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and global <span class="hlt">climate</span> is therefore sensitive to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Amazon. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global <span class="hlt">climate</span> and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Variability, Predicted <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18235058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18235058"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>: the public health response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>There is scientific consensus that the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span>, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels, and increasing <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2253589','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2253589"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: The Public Health Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There is scientific consensus that the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span>, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels, and increasing <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23407083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23407083"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and skin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">climate</span> appears to be <span class="hlt">changing</span> at an unprecedented rate. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and global rise in extreme <span class="hlt">climatic</span> events. The magnitude and cause of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this <span class="hlt">change</span> on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to <span class="hlt">climate</span>. For example, global warming, deforestation and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by <span class="hlt">changing</span> their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA623610','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA623610"><span>National Security Implications of <span class="hlt">Climate</span>-related Risks and a <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-07-23</p> <p>2015 7 DoD installations’ vulnerability to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> , water and environmental requirements, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. The Military...risks associated with <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> , again as a stressor on vulnerable populations. USAFRICOM and USPACOM both identify how technological...infrastructure, skills, and information constraints heighten vulnerability to <span class="hlt">climate</span> stresses. GCCs highlight the impact that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may have on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ777799','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+chemistry&pg=2&id=EJ777799"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Made Simple</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple <span class="hlt">climate</span> modelling.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+temperature+AND+water&pg=3&id=EJ518816','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+temperature+AND+water&pg=3&id=EJ518816"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: An Activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewis, Garry</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44494','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44494"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and wildfires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>William J. De Groot; Michael D. Flannigan; Brian J. Stocks</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Wildland fire regimes are primarily driven by <span class="hlt">climate</span>/weather, fuels and people. All of these factors are dynamic and their variable interactions create a mosaic of fire regimes around the world. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> will have a substantial impact on future fire regimes in many global regions. Current research suggests a general increase in area burned and fire occurrence...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+layers&pg=2&id=EJ777799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+layers&pg=2&id=EJ777799"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Made Simple</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple <span class="hlt">climate</span> modelling.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+temperature&pg=7&id=EJ518816','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+temperature&pg=7&id=EJ518816"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>: An Activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewis, Garry</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARG40001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARG40001G"><span><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice, <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and multiscale composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golden, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice pack. While global <span class="hlt">climate</span> models generally predict <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice processes and advance how <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is represented in <span class="hlt">climate</span> models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...11I"><span>Transitional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microfossil assemblages in the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene related to global <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and local tectonic events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Itaki, Takuya</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many micropaleontological studies based on data from on-land sections, oil wells, and deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> drilling cores have provided important information about environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> that are related to the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the local tectonics of the Japanese Islands. Here, major <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the microfossil assemblages during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene are reviewed. Late Pliocene (3.5-2.7 Ma) surface-water assemblages were characterized mainly by cold-temperate planktonic flora and fauna (nannofossils, diatoms, radiolarians, and planktonic foraminifera), suggesting that nutrient-rich North Pacific surface waters entered the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> via northern straits. The common occurrence of Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians during this period also suggests that deep water from the North Pacific entered the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> via the northern straits, indicating a sill depth >500 m. A weak warm-water influence is recognized along the Japanese coast, suggesting a small inflow of warm water via a southern strait. Nannofossil and sublittoral ostracod assemblages record an abrupt cooling event at 2.75 Ma that correlates with the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Subsequently, cold intermediate- and deep-water assemblages of ostracods and radiolarians increased in abundance, suggesting active ventilation and the formation of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Proper Water, associated with a strengthened winter monsoon. Pacific-type deep-water radiolarians also disappeared around 2.75 Ma, which is attributed to the intermittent occurrence of deep anoxic environments and limited migration from the North Pacific, resulting from the near-closure or shallowing of the northern strait by a eustatic fall in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and tectonic uplift of northeastern Japan. A notable reduction in primary productivity from 2.3 to 1.3 Ma also suggests that the nutrient supply from the North Pacific was restricted by the near-closure of the northern strait. An increase in the abundance of subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED31C..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED31C..03N"><span>Creationism & <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newton, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Although creationists focus on the biological sciences, recently creationists have also expanded their attacks to include the earth sciences, especially on the topic of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. The creationist effort to deny <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, in addition to evolution and radiometric dating, is part of a broader denial of the methodology and validity of science itself. Creationist misinformation can pose a serious problem for science educators, who are further hindered by the poor treatment of the earth sciences and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in state science standards. Recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> to Texas’ science standards, for example, require that students learn “different views on the existence of global warming.” Because of Texas’ large influence on the national textbook market, textbooks presenting non-scientific “different views” about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change—or simply omitting the subject entirely because of the alleged “controversy”—could become part of K-12 classrooms across the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=methane&pg=3&id=EJ392699','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=methane&pg=3&id=EJ392699"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to <span class="hlt">change</span> the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000pcc..book.....O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000pcc..book.....O"><span>Population and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Population and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Methane&pg=2&id=EJ392699','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Methane&pg=2&id=EJ392699"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to <span class="hlt">change</span> the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/arc-x/climate-change-adaptation-training','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/arc-x/climate-change-adaptation-training"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Adaptation Training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A list of on-line training modules to help local government officials and those interested in water management issues better understand how the <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> affects the services and resources they care about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=global+climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bclimate%2Bchange"><span>Global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Present processes of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=Climate+Change+greenhouse+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%252C%2Bgreenhouse%2Beffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055555&hterms=Climate+Change+greenhouse+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2BChange%252C%2Bgreenhouse%2Beffect"><span>Global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Present processes of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..737W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..737W"><span>Criminality and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>White, Rob</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> imply a reconceptualization of environment-related criminality. Criminology can offer insight into the definitions and dynamics of this behaviour, and outline potential areas of redress.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/435764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/435764"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morantine, M.C.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Interactions between insolation <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a <span class="hlt">climate</span> model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system during periods of documented rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current <span class="hlt">climate</span>. 53 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...116...76G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...116...76G"><span>The response of the Okhotsk <span class="hlt">Sea</span> environment to the orbital-millennium global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Last Glacial Maximum, deglaciation and Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbarenko, Sergey A.; Artemova, Antonina V.; Goldberg, Evgeniy L.; Vasilenko, Yuriy P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Reconstruction of regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the Okhotsk <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (OS) environment for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), deglaciation and Holocene was performed on the basis of high-resolution records of ice rafted debris (IRD), СаСО3, opal, total organic carbon (TOС), biogenic Ba (Ba_bio) and redox sensitive element (Mn, Mo) content, and diatom and pollen results of four cores that form a north-southern transect. Age models of the studied cores were earlier established by AMS 14C data, oxygen-isotope chronostratigraphy and tephrochronology. According to received results, since 25 ka the regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> and OS environmental conditions have <span class="hlt">changed</span> synchronously with LGM condition, cold Heinrich event 1, Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and Pre-Boreal (PB) warming recorded in the Greenland ice core, North Atlantic sediment, and China cave stalagmites. Calculation of IRD MAR in sediment of north-south transect cores indicates an increase of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice formation several times in the glacial OS as compared to the Late Holocene. Accompanying ice formation, increased brine rejection and the larger potential density of surface water at the north shelf due to a drop of glacial East Asia summer monsoon precipitation and Amur River run off, led to strong enhancement of the role of the OS in glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) formation. The remarkable increase in OS productivity during BA and PB warming was probably related with significant reorganisation of the North Pacific deep water ventilation and nutrient input into the NPIW and OS Intermediate Water (OSIW). Seven Holocene OS millennial cold events based on the elevated values of the detrended IRD stack record over the IRD broad trend in the sediments of the studied cores have occurred synchronously with cold events recorded in the North Atlantic, Greenland ice cores and China cave stalagmites after 9 ka. Diatom production in the OS was mostly controlled by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover <span class="hlt">changes</span> and surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6927838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6927838"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span>, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, and depositional systems on the fossil record of the Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian metazoan radiation, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mount, J.F.; McDonald, C. )</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>On the Australian continent the fossil record of the initial appearance and radiation of higher metazoans is strongly influenced by the distribution of facies suitable for fossil preservation. The limited stratigraphic range of the [open quotes]Ediacaran[close quotes] fauna, the seemingly abrupt appearance and radiation of Cambrian-aspect traces, and the apparently late appearance of skeletogenous organisms are all functions of the spatial and temporal distributions of key habitats. The principal controls on the formation of these habitats appear to have been <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and siliciclastic sediment supply coupled with cyclic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. Aspects of the artifactual bias documented in Australia are recognized (but rarely documented) in Precambrian-Cambrian boundary sections worldwide. This bias may ultimately form a major stumbling block to detailed reconstruction of early metazoan evolution. 43 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38993','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38993"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and forest diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will <span class="hlt">change</span>. We review knowledge of relationships between <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how <span class="hlt">climate</span>, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18819661"><span>The origin of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delecluse, P</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Investigation on <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the related impacts of the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present <span class="hlt">climate</span> situation. The observations show a clear increase in the temperature of the Earth's surface and the oceans, a reduction in the land snow cover, and melting of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and glaciers. Numerical modelling combined with statistical analysis has shown that this warming trend is very likely the signature of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases linked with human activities. Given the continuing social and economic development around the world, the IPCC emission scenarios forecast an increasing greenhouse effect, at least until 2050 according to the most optimistic models. The model ensemble predicts a rising temperature that will reach dangerous levels for the biosphere and ecosystems within this century. Hydrological systems and the potential significant impacts of these systems on the environment are also discussed. Facing this challenging future, societies must take measures to reduce emissions and work on adapting to an inexorably <span class="hlt">changing</span> environment. Present knowledge is sufficientto start taking action, but a stronger foundation is needed to ensure that pertinent long-term choices are made that will meet the demands of an interactive and rapidly evolving world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..145..152H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..145..152H"><span>Eastern tropical Pacific vegetation response to rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise: A new pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hendy, I. L.; Minckley, T. A.; Whitlock, C.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A 30,000-year-long pollen record from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico shows the varying influence of air temperature, precipitation and eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal and upland vegetation patterns. During the late-glacial period, pine-juniper forests grew in the Sierra Madre del Sur along the Pacific Slope with broadleaf forests present at low elevations. Coastal wetland and riparian vegetation were limited in distribution. Significant cooling associated with Heinrich 1 (17,000-15,000 cal yr BP) resulted in an expansion of pine-juniper woodland. By the time of Bølling-Allerød warming (14,700-13,000 cal yr BP), extensive mangrove forest development was assisted by <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and reduced precipitation associated with a more southerly position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) than at present. Concurrently, the expansion of oak into pine woodlands was promoted by warmer conditions than before. Increased summer precipitation in the early Holocene and stabilizing <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels limited mangrove forests along the coast and allowed mixed conifer and hardwood forest to become more widespread inland. The onset of a more seasonal <span class="hlt">climate</span>, driven by a weakening of the Mexican monsoon and a southerly shift in ITCZ position led to the establishment of modern open forests of pine and oak after 4300 cal yr BP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5911181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5911181"><span>Global <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected <span class="hlt">changes</span> from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected <span class="hlt">changes</span> can be found in the <span class="hlt">climate</span> record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and <span class="hlt">climate</span> is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52246','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/52246"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity underestimates <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> exposure in mountainous regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Sean A. Parks</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of <span class="hlt">climate</span> displacement used for assessing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that <span class="hlt">climate</span> trajectory length is proportional to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2822162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2822162"><span>India's National Action Plan on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pandve, Harshal T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts will range from affecting agriculture – further endangering food security – to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations. PMID:20165607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20165607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20165607"><span>India's National Action Plan on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pandve, Harshal T</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts will range from affecting agriculture - further endangering food security - to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910940"><span>Western water and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p> and agricultural demands. Finally, California's Bay-Delta system is a remarkably localized and severe weakness at the heart of the region's trillion-dollar economy. It is threatened by the full range of potential <span class="hlt">climate-change</span> impacts expected across the West, along with major vulnerabilities to increased flooding and rising <span class="hlt">sea</span> levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3521T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3521T"><span>Observed <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> hotspots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We quantify <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> against the background <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24832510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24832510"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>, <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujii, Toyonobu</p> <p>2012-11-05</p> <p>In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and associated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise will have potential to cause <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4009809"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>, <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fujii, Toyonobu</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and associated <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise will have potential to cause <span class="hlt">changes</span> in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4980047"><span>Managing <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Refugia for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Adaptation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for <span class="hlt">climate</span> adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. Managing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. PMID:27509088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509088"><span>Managing <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Refugia for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Adaptation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for <span class="hlt">climate</span> adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. Managing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185017','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185017"><span>Managing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia for <span class="hlt">climate</span> adaptation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morelli, Toni L.; Jackson, Stephen T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for <span class="hlt">climate</span> adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia. Managing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41..880T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41..880T"><span>Can regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering save the summer Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Rapid declines in summer Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent are projected under high-forcing future <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios. Regional Arctic <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss is reduced. However, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador <span class="hlt">Sea</span> deep convection are possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMGC53A..11P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMGC53A..11P"><span>A 7000 C-14 Year Record of Environmental <span class="hlt">Change</span> From North Central Cuba: Implications for Regional <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peros, M. C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Paleoenvironmental records from the Caribbean are rare. To fill in this gap, a study of Laguna de la Leche, a 67 square kilometer coastal lake located in north central Cuba, was undertaken. Sediment cores were extracted from this lake and its vicinity in order to study to the Holocene <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and <span class="hlt">climate</span> history of the area. The cores were studied using pollen, benthic foraminifera, and stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon. A chronology was established by radiocarbon dating. The results show that from approximately 7000 C-14 years to 5000 C-14 years B.P., Laguna de la Leche was a marsh dominated by cattail (Typha domingensis). From 5000 C-14 years to the present, water level rose, turning the marsh in to a shallow, saline lake. Beginning around 1700 C-14 years B.P., mangroves expanded across the area, and are presently prograding into Laguna de la Leche. It is anticipated that over the next several hundred years, Laguna de la Leche may be completely infilled by mangroves. The cause of the rise in lake level appears to have been driven mostly by relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. Pollen records from Florida and southern Alabama show an abrupt transition from oak-grassland to pine dominated systems at roughly 5000 C-14 years B.P. This shift from dryer to wetter conditions has been interpreted as representing an increase in the water table due to regional <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise (Watts and Hansen, 1994), and is coincident with the marsh-lake transition at Laguna de la Leche. The possibility that an increase in precipitation occurred at 5000 C-14 years B.P. is still being studied, but an oxygen isotope record from Haiti (Hodell et al., 1991) provides no evidence for such a <span class="hlt">climatic</span> shift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PrOce..91....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PrOce..91....1R"><span>Societal need for improved understanding of <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruhl, Henry A.; André, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; Çağatay, M. Namik; Colaço, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Dañobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Géli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jürgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Society’s needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around European <span class="hlt">Seas</span> that will operate over multiple decades. Some systems are already collecting high-resolution data from surface, water column, seafloor, and sub-seafloor sensors linked to shore by satellite or cable connection in real or near-real time, along with samples and other data collected in a delayed mode. We expect that such observatories will contribute to answering major ocean science questions including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, pore fluid chemistry and pressure, and gas hydrate stability improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? What aspects of physical oceanography, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystems will be most sensitive to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">change</span>? What are natural versus anthropogenic <span class="hlt">changes</span>? Most fundamentally, how are marine processes that occur at differing scales related? The development of ocean observatories provides a substantial opportunity for ocean science to evolve in Europe. Here we also describe some basic attributes of network design. Observatory networks provide the means to coordinate and integrate the collection of standardised data capable of bridging measurement scales across a dispersed area in European <span class="hlt">Seas</span> adding needed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11511005D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11511005D"><span><span class="hlt">Climate</span> impacts of parameterized Nordic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> overflows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p> Atlantic. In the uncoupled simulation with the OFP, the warm bias of the control simulation in the deep North Atlantic is substantially reduced along with salinity bias reductions in the northern North Atlantic. There are similar but more modest bias reductions in the deep temperature and salinity distributions especially in the northern North Atlantic in the coupled OFP case. In coupled simulations, there are noticeable impacts of the OFP on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperatures (SSTs) are warmer by more than 5°C off the North American coast and by more than 1°C in the Nordic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with the OFP. The surface heat fluxes mostly act to diminish these SST <span class="hlt">changes</span>. There are related <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> level pressure, leading to about 15% weaker westerly wind stress in the northern North Atlantic. In response to the warmer Nordic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> SSTs, there are reductions in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, improving comparisons with observations. Although the OFP cases improve many aspects of the simulations compared to observations, some significant biases remain, more in coupled than in uncoupled simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175000','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175000"><span>Western water and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than <span class="hlt">climate-change</span>-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how <span class="hlt">climate-change</span>-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits du